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Lura, Louis P.

Advanced Abnormal Psychology


MS Psychology I

TRAUMA and STRESSOR RELATED DISORDER


Reactive Attachment Disinhibited Social Posttraumatic Stress Acute Stress Adjustment
Disorder Engagement Disorder Disorder Disorder Disorder
Characterized by absent A pattern of behavior that It is the development Development of An abnormal
or underdeveloped involves inappropriate of characteristic characteristic and excessive
attachment between the and overly familiar symptoms following symptoms reaction to an
child and caregivers behavior with unfamiliar exposure to one or lasting from 3 identifiable life
adults or relative more traumatic days to 1 month stressor
strangers events. following It is also
*PTSD for Children and exposure to one known as
Younger or more Situational
traumatic Depression
events.
Must have the cognitive capacity of at least a 9-month-old Symptoms last more Must persists for a Must arise within
than 1 month minimum of 3 days 3 months of the
and last no more onset of the
than 3 months after stressor and last
the trauma no longer than 6
Characteristi months after the
cs or stressor has
Symptoms ended
Associated with cognitive and language delays and other Associated with
signs of severe neglect, including malnutrition and poor high risk of
hygiene suicide and
suicidal behavior,
substance abuse,
and prolongation
of other medical
disorders or
interference with
their treatment;
May progress to
Lura, Louis P. Advanced Abnormal Psychology
MS Psychology I

become a more
severe mental
disorder, such as
depression
Withdrawal, fear, Reduced or absent reticence Symptoms associated Intrusion Depressed
sadness or irritability in approaching and with reliving the Symptoms mood
that is not readily interacting with unfamiliar traumatic event Negative Mood Impaired
explained adults Bad dreams about Dissociative occupational/
Sad and listless Overly familiar verbal or the event or Symptoms social
appearance physical behavior something similar Avoidance functioning
Not seeking comfort or Diminished or absent Flashbacks Symptoms Agitation
showing no response checking back with adult A lot of emotional Arousal Trembling or
when comfort is given caregiver after venturing feelings and physical Symptoms twitching
Failure to smile away, even in unfamiliar sensations when Physical
Watching others closely setting reminded of the Guilt not being complaint
but not engaging in Willingness to go off with an event able to prevent Palpitations
social interaction unfamiliar adult with minimal the trauma Conduct
Failing to ask support or no hesitation Symptoms related to Panic attacks in disturbances
or assistance At least 1 symptom avoidance of reminders the month Withdrawal
Failure to reach out Social neglect or deprivation of the traumatic event: following a Anxiety, worry,
when picked up in the form of persistent lack Avoiding thoughts, trauma stress, and
No interest in playing of having basic emotional conversation or tension
needs for comfort, feelings about the
stimulation, and affection event
met by caregiver Avoiding people,
Repeated changes of activities, or places
primary caregivers that limit associated with the
opportunities to form stable event
attachments Having difficulty
Rearing in unusual setting remembering an
that severely limit important part of the
Lura, Louis P. Advanced Abnormal Psychology
MS Psychology I

opportunities to form original trauma


selective attachments Emotional numbing
or feelings as though
you dont care about
anything
Feelings of
detachment
Lack of interest in
normal activities
Flat affect
Sense of having no
future/ fatalistic

Arousal Symptoms
Biological and Genetic Factors
Abnormal activity of the hormone Cortisol
and the neurotransmitter/ hormone
Norepinephrine
Abnormal activity of the in one circuit
which includes: Hippocampus and
Amygdala
Personality
Research Suggest that people with certain
personalities, attitudes, and coping styles
are particularly likely to develop PTSDs
Children who had been highly anxious
before the storm were more likely than
Causal other children to develop severe stress
Factors reactions (Hardin et al., 2002)
People who generally view lifes negative
events as beyond their control tend to
develop more severe symptoms after
Lura, Louis P. Advanced Abnormal Psychology
MS Psychology I

sexual or other kinds of criminal assaults


than people who feel greater control over
their lives (Taylor, 2006; Bremmer, 2002).

Childhood Experiences Childhood Experiences Childhood Experiences Experiences


Their basic emotional and Inconsistent care from People whose childhoods have been In Adults
physical needs was not one primary adult marked by poverty appear more likely to Marital Discord
met by the parents or the caregiver at a young age develop these disorders in the face of later Financial
caregiver Lack of affection or social trauma; also people whose family Difficulty
stimulation with adult members suffered from psychological Work Life
caregiver disorders; experienced assault, abuse, or Stressor
Frequent changes in catastrophe at an early age; when their In Adolescents
primary caregivers parents separated or divorced (Yehuda et School
al., 2010; Koopman et al., 2004) Problems
Family or
Parents
Marital
Problems
Issues
regarding
sexuality
Others
Bereavement
Life changes
Unexpected
catastrophes
Medical
conditions
such as cancer
and
Lura, Louis P. Advanced Abnormal Psychology
MS Psychology I

subsequent
treatments

Social Support Social Support


Living situation where the People whose social and family support systems are weak are
child to caregiver ratio is also more likely to develop these disorders after horrifying
higher than normal event (Uchino & Birmingham, 2011; Ozer, 2005)
(Orphanage) Poor social support contributes to the development of these
disorders in some combat veterans (Charuvastra & Cloitre,
2008)
Severity of Trauma
Some events can override even a nurturing
childhood, positive attitudes, and social
support (Tramontin & Halpern, 2007)
The more severe the trauma and the more
direct ones exposure to it, the greater the
likelihood of developing a stress disorder
(Burijon, 2007)
Mutilation and severe physical injury in
particular seem to increase the risk of
stress reactions, as does witnessing the
injury or death of other people (Koren et
al., 2005; Ursano et al., 2003)
Lura, Louis P. Advanced Abnormal Psychology
MS Psychology I

There is no standard There is no standard Pharmacotherapy Pharmacotherapy Pharmacotherapy


treatment for RAD however it treatment for RAD however it Selective Serotonin Selective Selective
often includes: often includes: Reuptake Inhibitor Serotonin Serotonin
Individual Counseling Individual Counseling (SSRI) Reuptake Reuptake
Education of parents and Education of parents and Inhibitor (SSRI) Inhibitor (SSRI)
caregivers about the caregivers about the Cognitive Behavior Benzodiazepin
condition condition Therapy Cognitive Behavior e
Parenting skills classes Parenting skills classes Exposure Therapy: Therapy Selective
Family Therapy Family Therapy flooding Exposure Norepinephrin
Special education services Special education services Cognitive Processing Therapy: e Inhibitor
Residential or inpatient Residential or inpatient Therapy flooding (SNRI)
treatment for children treatment for children Imaginal Exposure Cognitive
with more serious with more serious Virtual Reality Processing Cognitive -
problems or who put problems or who put Therapy Behavior Therapy
themselves or others at themselves or others at Eye Movement Imaginal
Intervention risk or harm risk or harm Desensitization and Exposure Family or
s There are some controversial There are some controversial Reprocessing (EMDR): Virtual Reality Group
treatment practices that treatment practices that an exposure treatment Therapies
should be noted as they can should be noted as they can in which clients move Eye Movement Crisis
be psychologically and be psychologically and their eyes in a rhythmic Desensitization and Intervention
physically damaging and physically damaging and manner from side to Reprocessing Individual
have led to accidental deaths have led to accidental deaths side while flooding their (EMDR) Counseling
Re-parenting/ Re-birthing/ Re-parenting/ Re-birthing/ minds with images of Interpersonal
Holding Therapy Holding Therapy objects and situations Couple, Family, Psychotherapy
Tightly Wrapping Tightly Wrapping they ordinarily avoid or Group Relaxation
Binding or holding Binding or holding Therapy Techniques
children children Couple, Family, or Rap Groups
Withholding food or water Withholding food or water Group Therapy
Forcing child to eat or Forcing child to eat or Rap Groups Psychological
drink drink Debriefing or
Yelling Yelling
Psychological Critical Incident
Tickling or pulling limbs Tickling or pulling limbs
Debriefing or Critical Stress
Lura, Louis P. Advanced Abnormal Psychology
MS Psychology I

Example of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

A 11-year-old boy standing in a devastated area in a community wherein natural calamity or an earthquake which has a magnitude level. Since Japan
is in the ring of fire wherein the country is facing a lot of earthquakes or natural calamities people from the rural cities are scared of a high scale
magnitude of an earthquake thus, facing the area would give him a sense of panic since it would trigger or relive the situation and nightmares. This
boy is still having these symptoms for the last 4 months.