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engineering life cycle

wall cancelefflorescence

corrosionmoulds

921

2.1
Waterproof Technical Association WTA
[1] 90%

[2]

5%[1]

2.2

5%

10
2%[12]

2.3

87
2,000

2.4

1[3] 2[3]

2.5

2.6

20 30

2.7

2.8
PU
PU


PE

2.9
12

10 [1]

body waterproof outside waterproof


filament waterproof[46]

3.1
ACI 515.1R-79[7]
waterproofing barrier systems
dampproofing barrier systems

protective barrier systemsdecorative paint barrier
systems

water head
waterproofing dampproofing

(1)
hydrostatic pressure

(2)

3.2

(1)

a.

workability durability
water tightness
creep
[8]

water
absorptionwater permeability
oven

W V
Pw = w Pv = w (1)
Wc Vc
Pw
B B WwWc
B B B B

PvVwVc
B B B B B B

Darcys
Law
Q
k= (2)
iAt
k Q i hydraulic gradient A
t

C
hc = (3)
eD10
hcC0.10.5eD10
B B B B

(1)(3)

b.

permeability reducer
water repellentslatex

crystallization

1993 JASS 8


4[8]

(2)
joint waterproof
construction jointexpansion joint

joint fillers
waterstopsjoint sealants gasket
5
sealingcaulking

(3)

tensile
flexibility

6[9] 7[9] 8[9]

4.1

[10]

(1)

1 2

12 %
10
[11]

(2)

4.2


9[12] 10[12] 4[12]

(1)
saturated waterrelative humidity
dew point 11
condensation phenomenon[13]

(2)
RC
2CaO
SiO2C2S3CaOSiO2C3SH2O
B B B B B B B B B B

Ca(OH)2CH B B

CaOSiO2mH2OCSH
B
B B B

CH
CO2 B B

CaCO3
B B

C 2 S + XH 2 O C 2 S XH 2 O CaO SiO2 mH 2 O + Ca (OH )2 (4)

C 3 S + YH 2 O C 2 S XH 2 O + Ca (OH )2 CaO SiO2 mH 2 O + 2Ca (OH )2 (5)

hydrochloric acidsoda water


carbonate
neutralization RC

black spots

5.1

CNS 3763 A2047


CNS 3764
A3060 [14]


5
[349]

(1)

(2)

JASS 81993[15] 1cm

activity

(3)

EVA

waterproofing by
crystallization
spread

12[12](a)
(b)(c)
(d) 26

5.2


bentonite

6 7
[349] 8
National Roofing Contractors AssociationNRCA1989[16]

(1)

asphalt roofing
24

blown asphalt
asphalt compund


12


PVC
EVAPE
HDPE LDPE ECBcoal tar
neoprenesEPDMethyiene
propyiene diene monomeiEPT

(2)
PU

FRPfiber reinforced plastics


PU
36mm
1 2

PU PU
PU
PU

1
PU

JASS 81993

FRP
PET 2

(3)

5.3

9 10
silicon

2
1
SBR

1
2

PU

1 ALC PU

6.1

[9]

(1)

1m

(2)

(3)

laitance

(4)

(5)

3050mm 30
50mm 510mm

11[9]

(6)

(7)

30cm

10cm
10cm

(8)

V U

2.53.0cm 1.5cm

PU

6.2

(1)(2)(3)
(4)
(5)
5C (6)

[1] No.2
623 1999
[2] 36
6568 1999
[3]
9131 1994
[4]
115 1999
[5] 15 7892 1996
[6] 7 121132
1996
[7] ACI 515.1R-79, A Guide to the Use of Waterproofing, Dampproofing, Protective, and
Decorative Barrier Systems for Concrete, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice Part 5-2000,
pp.515.1R-1515.1R-44 (2000).
[8] 1140 1999
[9] 1250 1998
[10] 8 129
144 1997
[11]
http://www.wta.org.tw/g.htm2000
[12] XYPEXXYPEX
2000
[13] 36 6469 1984
[14]
7882 2000
[15] JASS 8
1993
[16] NRCA, NRCA Roofing and Waterproofing Manual (1989).
1

(1)







(2)


CNS
(3)







(4)



(5)
(1)
(2)

(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)

(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

(1)
(2)

(3)
(4)
2





































4 [12]
( m)
Rock pockets or honeycomb
Entrapped Voids 1,00010,000 Effects leakage and durability
Waterproofing admixtures not effective for very large defects
Structural, thermal, drying and plastic shrinkage, and craze
cracking
Waterproofing admixtures effectiveness will depend on:
Macro Cracks 1003,000
crack width
amount of dynamic movement
ability for admixture to self heal
Entrained intentionally for freeze-thaw resistance
Bubbles not interconnected
Entrained Air 70400
Studies show that air entrained concrete is usually less
permeable
Naturally occur from restraint shrinkage forces around
aggregate
Micro Cracks <0.1100 Increases with increasing load
Influence leakage and durability
Admixtures effective in blocking
Weak porous zone around aggregate particles
Transition Zone 1050 Large, oriented Ca(OH)2 crystals
Together with micro cracks can form connected pathway
Essentially a residue of the originally water filled spaces in the
fresh concrete
Capillary Pores 0.011 Primary path by which water and other aggressive ions
penetrate into the concrete matrix, resulting in such durability
problems as reinforcing steel corrosion
5
















EVA




















EVA



5C

(



)





















PVC
EVA
PE
ECB










7



11.51

( PU 2

PU


PU










()














MDI


2





2

FRP
PET 2



8 NRCA [16]

Hot asphalt or coal tar membranes
Modified bitumen membranes
Butyl or EPDM membranes
PVC membranes

Fluid-applied elastomeric materials
Slab-On-Grade Hot rubberized asphalt materials
Bentonite waterproofing
Metallic waterproofing
Cementitious waterproofing
Crystalline waterproofing
Hot asphalt or coal tar membranes
Modified bitumen membranes
Butyl or EPDM membranes
PVC membranes
Fluid-applied elastomeric materials
Metallic waterproofing

Cementitious waterproofing
Crystalline waterproofing
(Walls Below-Grade) Hot rubberized asphalt materials
Asphalt emulsion and chopped glass
materials when accompanied by a
perimeter hydrostic pressure relief system
Bentonite waterproofing
Metallic waterproofing
Cementitious waterproofing
Crystalline waterproofing
Hot asphalt or coal tar membranes
Modified bitumen membranes
Butyl or EPDM membranes
PVC membranes
(Suspended Decks) Fluid-applied elastomeric materials
Hot rubberized asphalt materials
Vehicle traffic deck coatings
Pedestrain traffic deck coatings
9
(

)
( C)

P P





AA -40120 AA AA








AB -3090 AB AB





B -2080 AB B





AB -2090 AB AB







B -2070 BC AB





10
(

)
(C)



A -40120 AA AB







AA -40120 AA AA






AB -3090 AB AB




B -2080 AB B




B -2070 B B


B -2080 B B





C -2050 BC C
SBR

0C
P P




C -2050 C C


D -40100 AB C


D -2040 C D


11 [9]


50mm

20mm
30mm
50mm 50mm
20mm

30mm
()

510mm

1 [3]

2 [3]

EVAEVACSBR

2

1.5~3.0mm

4 [9]



PVC
EPDM

5


2~4





1~2







1~2






6 [9]



1.0~2.0mm
1



1.5~2.5mm
1




PVC
1.3~2.0mm PVC




EVC
1.0mm EVC








1.0mm
1







1.3~2.0mm

7 [9]

1
2 PU
3.0~6.0mm






3.0~6.0mm

2


2.0~3.0mm



1
1
2
1.5~3.0mm

1.0mm


3.0~6.0mm


FRP






2

1.0mm

8 [9]
VAPOUR COMBINED WATER MOISTURE
ZONE ZONE ZONE PROFILE

DOWNSTREAM UPSTREAM

9 [12]

Entrapped 1000m to m

Crac 100m to 3000m

Entrained 70 m to 400m

Microcrac <.1 m to100m

Transition 10 m to 50m

Capillary .01 m to 1m

10 [12]





(a) (b)

11

(a) (b)

(c) (d)26

12 [12]