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STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC STANDARD
FOR
BASIC CIVIL ENGINEERING
DESIGN DATA

DOC. NO. KOC-C-001(Rev.2)

STANDARDS TEAM
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 1 of 48 REV. 2

STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC STANDARD
FOR
BASIC CIVIL ENGINEERING
DESIGN DATA

DOC. NO. KOC-C-001

STANDARDS TEAM
DOC. NO. KOC-C-OOI Page 2 of 48 REV. 2
II

KOC STAN DARD

FOR

BASIC CIVIL ENGINEERING

DESIGN DATA

DOC. NO. KOC-C-001


( FORMERLY 01S-MH-1 001 )

ISSUING AUTHORITY:

STANDARDS TEAM

2 18/06/2014 Issued as KOC Task Force Team


Standard ( TF-C/2O)

1 22/07/1998 Issued as Standard S.Kumar S. Kumar ~Ii H. Baba

Rev. Date Description Prepared by Sm. Engr. Stds. Team Leader Stds.
Tel. No_ 61469 Tel. No. 61469 Tel. No. 61896
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 3 of 48 REV. 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
FOREWARD 6

1.0 SCOPE 8

2.0 APPLICATION 8

3.0 TERMINOLOGY 8
3.1 Definitions 8
3.2 Abbreviations 9

4.0 REFERENCE CODES AND STANDARDS 10


4.1 Conflicts 10
4.2 List of Standards and Codes 10
5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 14
6.0 HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT 14
7.0 BASIC ENGINEERING INFORMATION 14
7.1 Topography 14
7.2 Climatic Conditions 15
7.3 Soil Parameters 15
7.4 Earthworks and Site Drainage 15
8.0 DESIGN LOADS 16
8.1 Dead Loads 16
8.2 Live Loads 17
8.3 Impact Loads 17
8.4 Wind Loads 18
8.5 Dynamic Loads 19
8.6 Pipeway Loads 21
8.7 Friction Loads 22
8.8 Bundle Pull-out Loads (For Heat Exchangers) 22
8.9 Thermal Loads 23
8.10 Vehicular (Moving) Loads 23
8.11 Fire Loads 24
8.12 Unusual Loads 24
8.13 Seismic Load 24
8.14 Earth / Hydrostatic Load 25
8.15 Differential Settlement 25
8.16 Blast Load 25
9.0 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 25
9.1 Load Combinations 25
9.2 Stability Ratios Against Overturning, Sliding & Uplift 27
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 4 of 48 REV. 2

9.3 Contact Pressure Under Base Plates 28


9.4 Deflection Limits 28
9.5 Vibration Limits 30
9.6 Noise Limits 31
9.7 Corrosion Limits 31
9.8 Module Sea Transportation 33
9.9 Fire Rating 33
10.0 MATERIALS 34
10.1 Structural Concrete 34
10.2 Reinforcement 35
10.3 Anchor Bolts 36
10.4 Structural Steel 36
10.5 Structural Bolts 37
10.6 Aluminium 37
10.7 Timber 38
10.8 Handrail 38
10.9 Welding 38
10.10 Grating 38
10.11 Floor Plate 38
10.12 Embedded Items 39

11.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE 39


12.0 DOCUMENTATION 39
12.1 General 39
13.0 APPENDIX-1 (SOIL PARAMETERS) 40
Table - 1: Presumed Soil Parameters 40
Table - 2: Relative Density & Consistency of Soils 41
14.0 APPENDIX- 2 (DEAD LOADS FOR MATERIALS & BUILDING COMPONENTS) 42
Table - 1: Minimum Design Dead Loads for Materials 42
Table - 2: Minimum Design Dead Loads for Building Components 44
15.0 APPENDIX-3 (LIVE LOADS ON FLOOR & ROOF) 45
Table - 1: Minimum Live Loads on Floor 45
Table - 2: Minimum Live Loads on Roof 46

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 47
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 5 of 48 REV. 2

Major Changes in this Revision (Rev.2)


Sl. Clause
No Changes
No.
.
1 Foreword Foreword updated.
2 1.0 & 2.0 Clauses 1.0 & 2.0 are updated.
Sub-Clauses 3.11 to 3.1.3 & 3.2 are updated. New Clauses 3.1.8 to
3 3.0 3.1.10 are added
4 4.0 & 6.0 Sub-Clauses 4.1 & 4.2 are updated. Clause 6.0 is updated.
Sub-Clauses 7.1.2, 7.1.3 & 7.1.4 are updated. Original old Clauses 7.3
5 7.0 & 7.4 are deleted and Clause 7.5 is renumbered as 7.3. New Sub-
Clauses 7.3.5 to 7.3.8 are added. New Clause 7.4 is added.

Sub-Clauses 8.1.1, 8.1.2b, 8.1.2c, 8.2.4 & 8.3.1 are updated. Sub-
Clause 8.3.3 is added. Original clause 8.4 is completely revised. Sub-
Clause 8.5.1 is updated and New sub-Clauses 8.5.3 to 8.5.7 are
6 8.0 added. Sub-Clauses 8.7.1, 8.7.2, 8.9.1 and 8.10.1 are updated and
New sub-Clauses 8.9.4 to 8.9.6 are added. Original sub-Clause 8.11.2
& original Table-III are deleted. New Clauses 8.13 to 8.16 are added.
Original clause 9.1 is completely revised.& new Table-5 is added. Sub-
Clause 9.2.1 (Table-6 at Sl No.1 & 2), 9.2.3 are updated and New sub-
Clauses 9.2.4 to 9.2.6 are added. Sub-Clauses 9.4.2 (Table-7 at Sl.
7 9.0 Nos. 8 & 9) are added. Sub-Clause 9.5.2 (Table-9 at Sl No.1) is
updated & Sub-Clause 9.5.3 is added. Original Sub-clauses 9.7.3 &
9.9.1 (Table-XI) are completely revised. Original Table-XI renamed as
Table-13. Claue 9.6.1 is updated
Original Sub-clause 10.2.1 (Table-XIII) is completely revised. Original
Table-XIII renamed as Table-15. Sub-Clauses 10.3.1, 10.3.2, 10.4.1,
8 10.0 10.4.2, 10.5.1 to 10.5.4, 10.6.1 10.6.2 are updated. New Clauses
10.3.3, 10.4.3, 10.5.5 & 10.5.6 are added. Clause 10.7 is updated &
New Clauses 10.8 to 10.12 are added.

9 11.0 Clause 11.0 is updated.


10 12.0 Sub-clause 12.1.4 is updated.
Clause 15.0 (Appendix-3, Table-1 at Sl. Nos.2f,2g,2h,2i & 4h, 4i) are
11 15.0 added
12 16.0 Original clause 16.0, Appendix-IV (Table-I to Table-VII) are deleted.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 6 of 48 REV. 2

FOREWORD I 2 I

This document KOC Standard for Basic Civil Engineering Design Data (Rev.2) is
intended to describe the minimum requirements for the design of permanent and
temporary Civil / Structural works at the new and existing KOC facilities in Kuwait. The
earlier document KOC-C-001 Rev.1, issued in July 1998 has been revised for
conformance with the latest revisions of relevant International / National Standards.

This Standard has been approved by the Standards Team in consultation with the
Standards Technical Committee (STC) for use throughout the Corporate Engineering
and Operational functions of Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C).

This Standard sets out to achieve the following objectives:-

a) To provide series of useful technical information in the form of Civil / Structural


design data for the design of buildings and structures including equipment
foundations.

b) To establish design criteria pertaining to allowable limits of various design aspects


(stability, deflection, vibration, noise, corrosion, fire resistance etc.) of building
components, structures and equipment.

c) To assist the Designers by giving an access to the documented engineering


information with a view to optimizing their design efforts and productivity.

d) To provide general technical guidance for developing project specifications in order


to achieve quality, reliability, safety and efficiency in economical manner.

e) To set out clear requirements to monitor compliance with a contract.

Feedback as well as any comments or suggestions derived from the application of this
Standard at any stage of design, construction, installation, maintenance and field
experiences are encouraged and should be directed to:

Team Leader Standards


(Chairman, Standards Technical Committee)
Project Support Services Group, K.O.C.
P.O.Box-9758, Ahmadi - 61008
State of Kuwait
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 7 of 48 REV. 2

Task Force Responsible for the Revision of this Standard I 2 I

The revision of this Standard was entrusted by the Standards Technical Committee to
the Task Force (TF-C/20) comprising of the following members:-

Mr. Narayan Roy Standards Team TF Leader Tel. 61469


Mr. Gopal Murti OTS(WK) Team Member Tel. 20343
Mr. M.Javaid Masood Project Mgt.(NK) Team Member Tel. 23931
Mr. Nataraj Ramaswami Technical Expertise Team Member Tel. 61381
Mr. Mukesh Kumar Mittal Fire Team Member Tel. 66048
Mr. Anil Kumar Fire Team Member Tel. 67527
Mr. Javed Ahmad General Projects Team Member Tel. 71430
Dr. Waleed Hindi PMC - Flour Member Tel. 61852
Mr. Farahbakhsh Behnam PMC - Amec Member Tel. 63574
Mr. Omar Warrich PMC - Worley Parsons Member Tel. 63158
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 8 of 48 REV. 2

1.0 SCOPE I 2 I

1.1 This Standard specifies the basic requirements for the design of permanent and
temporary Civil / Structural works at the new and existing KOC facilities in Kuwait.

1.2 This Standard is intended to cover the basic data and technical information
required for the design of Civil / Structural Works.

2.0 APPLICATION I 2 I

2.1 The basic Civil / Structural data and design parameters applicable for design of
any Civil / Structural works (onshore) shall conform to the requirements of this
Standard and the reference standards / codes mentioned herein.

2.2 Any exceptions or deviations from this Standard, along with their merits and
justifications, shall be brought to the attention of KOCs Controlling Team for their
review, consideration and amendment by Standards Team (if required).

2.3 Compliance with this KOC Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal or
statutory obligations.

3.0 TERMINOLOGY

3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of this Standard, the following definitions apply.


3.1.1 Designer I 2 I
Person or persons from KOC or from Consultant / Contractor approved by KOC,
who undertakes design responsibility of the Civil / Structural works in KOC.

3.1.2 Contractor I 2 I
The person or persons, firm or Company contracted by KOC to undertake the
execution of the Work defined by the Contract.

3.1.3 Dead Load I 2 I


Dead load is defined as the weight of all permanent load bearing and non-load
bearing elements including walls, foundations, floors, roofs, ceilings, fixed
partitions, finishes, stairways, fixed services equipment and all other permanent
construction. For heavy industrial work, dead load include equipment, vessels
including internals, pipes, valves, and accessories, electrical and lighting conduits,
switchgear, instrumentation, fireproofing, insulation, ladders, platforms and other
similar items. The gravity weight of soil overburden shall be considered as dead
load.
3.1.4 Live Load

The load assumed to be produced by the intended occupancy or use, including the
weight of movable partitions, distributed, concentrated, impact, inertia loads, but
excluding environmental loads such as wind load, rain load, seismic load, or dead
load.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 9 of 48 REV. 2

3.1.5 Wind Load

The load due to the effect of wind pressure or suction on building, structure and
equipment.

3.1.6 Basic Wind Speed

The basic wind speed (Vb) is the 3-second gust speed estimated to be exceeded
on the average once in 50 years mean recurrence interval with an annual
probability of 0.02 and at 10 metre (33 feet) height above ground in an open, flat
terrain (with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 10 m) and
grasslands.

3.1.7 Seismic Load

The load generated by the horizontal / vertical mass movement of building, tall
structure and heavy equipment due to the effect of seismic induced ground
motion.

3.1.8 Fire Load I 2 I

The total energy content of combustible materials in a building, space, or area


including furnishing and contents and combustible building elements expressed in
MJ.

3.1.9 Temporary Works I 2 I

Parts of the works that allow or enable construction of, protect, support or provide
access to, the permanent works and which might or might not remain in place at
the completion of the works

3.1.10 Permanent Works I 2 I

Permanent works means permanent works to be executed / constructed and


completed in accordance with the Contract.

3.2 Abbreviations I 2 I

AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation


Officials
ACI American Concrete Institute
API American Petroleum Institute
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
AWS American Welding Society
BSI British Standards Institution
FGL Finished Grade Level
GRP Glass-Reinforced Plastic
HSE Health, Safety and Environment
HVAC Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
ISO International Organization for Standardization
KOC Kuwait Oil Company ( K.S.C.)
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 10 of 48 REV. 2

KSI Kilo pounds per Square Inch


LRFD Load and Resistance Factor Design
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NPS Nominal Pipe Size
N-value Number of blows / 300 mm penetration
UDL Uniformly Distributed Load

4.0 REFERENCE CODES AND STANDARDS I 2 I

4.1 Conflicts

In the event of conflict between this Standard and the latest edition of Standards
/ Codes referred herein, or other purchase or contractual requirements, the most
stringent requirement shall apply. If further clarifications are required, the subject
shall be brought to the attention of KOC Controlling Team.

4.2 List of Standards and Codes I 2 I

The latest edition of the following standards, codes and specifications (including
amendment if any) shall apply:
International / National Standards and Codes
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASTHO)
AASTHO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
ACI 224.1R Causes, Evaluation, and Repair of Cracks in
Concrete Structures
ACI 224.3R Joints in Concrete Construction
ACI 318M Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete
ACI 350M Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering
Concrete Structures and Commentary
American Petroleum Institute (API)
API STD 620 Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-
pressure Storage Tanks
API STD 650 Welded Tanks for Oil Storage
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM A6/A6M Standard Specification for General Requirements for
Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes, and
Sheet Piling
ASTM A36/A36M Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A53/A53M Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-
Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 11 of 48 REV. 2

ASTM A123/A123M Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized)


Coatings on Iron and Steel Products
ASTM A153/A153M Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on
Iron and Steel Hardware
ASTM A242/A242M Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy
Structural Steel
ASTM A307 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts, Studs,
and Threaded Rod 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength
ASTM A325M Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel,
Heat Treated 830 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength
(Metric)
ASTM A490M Standard Specification for High-Strength Steel Bolts,
Classes 10.9 and 10.9.3, for Structural Steel Joints
(Metric)
ASTM A500/A500M Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and
Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds
and Shapes
ASTM A501 Standard Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and
Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing
ASTM A529/A529M Standard Specification for High-Strength Carbon-
Manganese Steel of Structural Quality
ASTM A563M Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel
Nuts (Metric)
ASTM A572/A572M Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy
Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel
ASTM A588/A588M Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy
Structural Steel, up to 50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum
Yield Point, with Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
ASTM A615/A615M Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain
Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A786/A786M Standard Specification for Hot-Rolled Carbon, Low-
Alloy, High-Strength Low-Alloy, and Alloy Steel Floor
Plates
ASTM A1011/A1011M Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet and Strip,
Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, High- Strength Low-
Alloy, High-Strength Low-Alloy with Improved
Formability, and Ultra-High Strength
ASTM A1064/A1064M Standard Specification for Carbon-Steel Wire and
Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain and Deformed, for
Concrete
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 12 of 48 REV. 2

ASTM F436 Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Washers


ASTM F1136/F1136M Standard Specification for Zinc/Aluminum Corrosion
Protective Coatings for Fasteners
ASTM F1554 Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55,
and 105-ksi Yield Strength
ASTM F2833 Standard Specification for Corrosion Protective Fastener
Coatings with Zinc Rich Base Coat and Aluminum
Organic/Inorganic Type
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures
ASCE Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of
Petrochemical Facilities
ASCE Wind Loads and Anchor Bolt Design for
Petrochemical Facilities
American Welding Society (AWS)

AWS D1.1/D1.1M Structural Welding Code- Steel

British Standards Institution (BSI)


BS 4-1 Structural Steel Sections - Part 1: Specification for
Hot-Rolled Sections
BS 3692 ISO Metric Precision Hexagon Bolts, Screws and
Nuts - Specification
BS 4190 ISO Metric Black Hexagon Bolts, Screws and Nuts -
Specification
BS 4592 Industrial Type Flooring and Stair Treads
BS 5930 Code of Practice for Site Investigations
BS EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of Timber Structures
BS EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of Aluminium Structures
BS EN 10025 Hot Rolled Products of Structural Steels
BS EN 10056-1 Structural Steel Equal and Unequal Leg Angles -
Part 1: Dimensions
BS EN 10210-2 Hot Finished Structural Hollow Sections of Non-Alloy
and Fine Grain Steels - Part 2: Tolerances,
Dimensions and Sectional Properties
BS EN 14399 High-Strength Structural Bolting Assemblies for
Preloading (Part 1 to 10)
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 13 of 48 REV. 2

BS CP 2012 (Part 1) Code of Practice for Foundations for Machinery -


Part 1: Foundations for Reciprocating Machines
BS EN ISO 1461 Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings on Fabricated Iron and
Steel Articles - Specifications and Test Methods
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
NFPA 557 Standard for Determination of Fire Loads for Use in
Structural Fire Protection Design
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO 898(Part 1 & 2) Mechanical Properties of Fasteners Made of Carbon
Steel and Alloy Steel
ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems - Requirements -
Fourth Edition
ISO 9004 Managing for the Sustained Success of an
Organization - A Quality Management Approach -
Third Edition
KOC Standards
KOC-C-002 KOC Recommended Practice for Engineering Design
Basis of Civil and Structural Work
KOC-C-003 KOC Standard for Geotechnical Investigation
(Onshore)
KOC-C-006 KOC Standard for Concrete Work- Materials and
Construction
KOC-C-007 KOC Standard for Structural Steelwork- Materials,
Fabrication and Erection
KOC-C-025 KOC Recommended Practice for Drainage Systems -
Design, Materials and Construction
KOC-C-027 KOC Standard for Fire Proofing of Structural Steel
Work.
KOC-C-030 KOC Recommended Practice for Blast Resistant
Design of Buildings
KOC-G-007 KOC Standard for Basic Design Data
KOC-L-030 KOC Standard for Plant and Equipment Noise Control
KOC-Q-014 KOC Standard for Project QA/QC Requirements
KOC Standard Drawings

55-02-58 Standard Handrail Details


55-02-62 Steel Anchor Bolts
KOC Health, Safety & Environment Management System (HSEMS) I 2 I
KOC HSE Policy
KOC HSEMS Guide
Any relevant KOC HSEMS Procedures(Latest), as applicable as third reference.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 14 of 48 REV. 2

4.3 In addition, all permanent work shall conform to the requirements of National /
Local regulations of Kuwait.

5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

For environmental conditions in Kuwait, refer to KOC Standard for Basic Design
Data (KOC-G-007), which provides the detailed design information regarding the
environmental, site and utility supply conditions prevailing throughout the KOC
facilities.

6.0 HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT I 2 I

6.1 The design shall conform to the necessary HSEMS procedures to protect
personnel and surrounding environment within KOC facilities for any Civil /
Structural works.

6.2 All relevant HSE requirements of the KOC HSE Policy, HSEMS Guide and
relevant / applicable HSEMS procedures shall be adhered to while carrying out the
Civil / Structural design works / services in KOC facilities.

7.0 BASIC ENGINEERING INFORMATION

7.1 Topography I 2 I

7.1.1 The topography of a Site shall be assessed from the area contour maps on the
basis of a recently conducted topographical survey of the Site and its adjoining
areas.

7.1.2 For ease of reference, the Site formation level shall generally be considered as
Site Finished grade level equal to EL.100.00 m. The relationship of this level with
the Mina Ahmadi Construction Datum (MACD) shall be established by the
Designer / Contractor.

7.1.3 The Site co-ordinates (Northing & Easting ) shall be established with reference to
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 38N, World Geodatic System
(WGS-84) at the time of topographical survey and shall be verified further for each
unit area(s) or zone(s) by the Contractor prior to commencement of any work. Not
less than four (4) Permanent Site Monuments shall be established for each site.
Both UTM co-ordinate and site co-ordinate shall be established for each
Permanent Site Monuments.

Elevation for each Permanent Site Monuments shall be determined from facility
datum i.e. Kuwait Mina Al-Ahmadi Datum, Power Station Datum (Doha, Sabiya
and Azzour) and local site datum. Also, where required, plant and / or facility
elevation shall be established for each monuments and elevation conversion
equations shall be developed.

7.1.4 Finished levels of buildings, structures and equipment shall conform to the
requirements described in KOC Standard KOC Recommended Practice for
Engineering Design Basis of Civil and Structural Work (KOC-C-002).

However as a general guideline, the finished floor level shall be minimum 300mm
above finished grade level for general buildings and 450mm for the normal
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 15 of 48 REV. 2

Sub-station, General Control Room. Top of concrete for base plates of steel
column and underside of equipment shall be kept 450mm above finished grade
level in unpaved areas and 150mm above the highest point pavement level in
paved areas.

7.2 Climatic Conditions

For climatic conditions of the Site, reference shall be made to the relevant clauses
of KOC Standard for Basic Design Data ( KOC-G-007 ).

7.3 Soil Parameters I 2 I

7.3.1 The design of any structure shall be made on the basis of the recommended soil
parameters and allowable bearing pressures from the final Geo-technical Report of
the Site.

7.3.2 However, based on any preliminary geo-technical investigation or prior knowledge


of the soil conditions of the area, the presumed soil parameters shall be used for
initial planning / design of any work with the Designers judgement as given in
Appendix-1 (Table-1).

7.3.3 The relative density of sandy soils in terms of the standard penetration tests and /
or the consistency of silty / clayey soils by undrained shear strength shall be
assessed as given in Appendix-1 (Table-2) in accordance with BS 5930.

7.3.4 Notwithstanding the above requirements, allowable net soil bearing pressures for
pad / isolated foundations in dry condition may be taken for preliminary design
subject to verification at Site as follows:-

a) 50 kN / m2 at a depth of 450 mm below the natural ground level.

b) 150 kN / m2 at a depth of 1000 mm below the natural ground level.

7.3.5 Soil bearing capacity may be increased by 25% due to wind and seismic loads or
as dictated by the Design Code/Standard used.

7.3.6 The maximum soil pressure due to static and dynamic load combinations for
vibrating equipment shall be limited to 50% of the net allowable bearing capacity of
the soil.

7.3.7 Slope between bottom edges of adjacent footings shall not be less than an angle
of 60o with the vertical line.

7.3.8 Where protective polyethylene sheet / membrane is provided between the


underside of a foundation and the blinding concrete slab, the coefficient of friction
shall be as per the Recommendation of Geo-technical Report.

7.4 Earthworks and Site Drainage I 2 I

7.4.1 Site grading of new facilities shall be shown on site grading plan drawings.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 16 of 48 REV. 2

7.4.2 Areas adjacent to building and structure, unpaved areas adjacent to buildings and
structures shall be sloped in accordance with KOC Standard (KOC-C-002).
Concrete paved area and bituminous paved areas shall be sloped in accordance
with KOC Standard (KOC-C-025).

7.4.3 Portions of the site not occupied by equipment, buildings, structures or pavement
shall be sloped in accordance with KOC Standard (KOC-C-002).

8.0 DESIGN LOADS


8.1 Dead Loads I 2 I
8.1.1 General
Dead loads shall be estimated for purposes of design using the actual weights of
material of construction and finishes on the basis of unit weights given in
Appendix-2 (Tables-1 & 2) in accordance with ASCE 7.

Weights of all other material, and fixed service equipment such as plumbing
stacks, electrical feeders and HVAC systems shall be included whenever such
equipment is supported by structural members.
8.1.2 Plant Equipment Loads I 2 I
The dead load for plant equipment with all its appurtenances shall be considered
under different service conditions as follows:-

a) The empty load includes the weight of equipment with all dead load
attachments, such as platforms, internals, insulation, and pipelines in place
but empty.

b) The operating load shall be defined as the forces (Empty load plus the
weight of liquid at maximum operating level) exerted by any liquid, solid, or
viscous materials in vessels, tanks, equipment, or piping during operation.
Unusual loading that occurs during regeneration or upset conditions shall
also be considered.

c) The test load shall be defined as empty load plus the gravity load imposed
by any method necessary to test vessels, tanks, equipment, or piping.

When more than one vessel is supported by one structure, the structure need only
be designed on the basis that one vessel will be tested at any one time, and that
the others will either be empty or still in operation, unless otherwise specified in the
project Document.

8.1.3 Service Loads


The dead load for other services like pipeways and electrical raceways shall be
considered as follows:-

a) For pipeways, the actual load including the contents plus 25% extra for
future extension but not less than an UDL of 1.70 kN/m2 over the entire
span.
b) For electrical raceways, an UDL of 0.75 kN / m2 per conduit level on the
raceway area.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 17 of 48 REV. 2

8.2 Live Loads

8.2.1 Minimum Floor Loads


The live loads on floors shall be the maximum loads likely to be produced by the
intended use or occupancy of buildings and other structures but shall in no case
be less than the minimum uniformly distributed static loads (UDL) per square
metre of plan area specified in Appendix-3 (Table-1). Wherever concentrated
loads are specified, they shall be considered to produce the worst effect.

8.2.2 Partition Load


The additional load for partitions where their positions are unknown and not
indicated on the plans, on beams and floors shall be equal to a UDL of not less
than one third of the weight per metre run of the finished partitions, but not less
than 1.0 kN / m2.

8.2.3 Ceiling Load


The additional load on ceilings for the design of frames and coverings of access
hatches (other than glazing ), the supports of ceilings and similar structures
shall be as follows:-

a) Without access: No additional load.

b) With access: A UDL of 0.25 kN / m2 over the whole area or the area
supported and a concentrated load of 0.9 kN so placed as to produce
maximum stresses in the affected members.
8.2.4 Handrails and Parapets I 2 I

For handrails (both exterior and interior) and parapets, a vertical and lateral load of
1.0 kN / m acting simultaneously at level of railing or coping.

8.2.5 Minimum Roof Loads


The live loads on flat and sloping roof (accessible & non-accessible) shall be, in no
case less than the minimum uniformly distributed (UDL) static loads measured per
square metre of plan area or the point load wherever specified, as given in
Appendix-3 (Table-2).

8.3 Impact Loads I 2 I

8.3.1 Elevators and Machinery


The following impact factors shall be used in accordance with ASCE-7 for the
design of supporting structures with impact allowance, the weight of the machinery
including moving loads shall be increased as follows:-

a) Elevators and elevator machinery - 100 %

b) Reciprocating machinery or power driven units - 50 %

c) Light machinery (shaft or motor driven) - 20 %


8.3.2 Cranes, Monorails and Hoists

For purposes of design of runway beams or gantry girders for single crane
operation, monorails and hoists, the impact allowances shall be used to cover all
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 18 of 48 REV. 2

forces set up by vibration, shock from slipping of slings, kinetic action of


acceleration and retardation and impact of wheel loads given in Table-1 as
follows :
Table-1: Minimum Impact Loads

Sl. No. Minimum Design Forces Electrically Hand


(See Note 1) Operated Operated
Vertical Loads - Increase maximum static wheel load
1 25 % 10 %
by
Lateral Force tranverse to rails taken as percentage
of the combined weight of crab and the lifted load
2 20 % 10 %
only, applied one-half at the top of each rail in either
direction. (Note 2)
Longitudinal Force along the rails taken as the
percentage of the maximum static wheel loads of the
3 10 % 10 %
crane applied one-half at the top of the rail in either
direction. (Note 2)
Note 1: Special design criteria should be recommended for very heavy cranes, high-speed operation or
multiple cranes on a single gantry and the crane manufacturer shall be consulted for forces and
force combinations.
Note 2: The horizontal forces in Sl. No. 2 & 3 above will not act together at the same time.

8.3.3 Crane stops shall be designed in accordance with the crane Manufacturers /
Suppliers requirements or, if loading is not specified, the following load shall be
considered :

F = (W V2 ) / (2gTn)
Where:
F= Design force on crane stop, kN
W= 50 % of bridge weight + 90 % of trolley weight, excluding the lifted
load, kN
V= Rated crane speed, m/sec
g= Acceleration of gravity, 9.8 m/sec2
T= Length of travel of spring or plunger required to stop crane, from crane
Manufacturer / Supplier, typically 0.05 m
n= Bumper efficiency factor (0.5 for helical springs. Consult crane
Manufacturer / Supplier for hydraulic plunger)

8.4 Wind Loads I 2 I

8.4.1 All Plant / Non-Plant structures and equipment shall be designed for wind loads
in accordance with ASCE 07-2005 (No later revision shall be used for wind
loading) based on following data:
a) Basic Wind Speed (Vb) corresponding to a 3-sec gust speed at 10m
above grade for all KOC plants - 45m/s or 162km/hr.
b) Topographic factor Kzt = 1.0
c) Minimum Exposure Category = C

However, an alternative design procedure for wind loads may be considered with
prior approval from KOC.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 19 of 48 REV. 2

8.4.2 The following increase factors (Table-2) may be used to modify the projected
areas of cylindrical vessels (Horizontal and Vertical) including insulation if any, to
allow for attachments such as manholes, nozzles, piping, ladders, and platforms
for the calculation of wind loads.
Table-2: Increase Factor of Vessels for Wind Loads

Vessel Diameter(m) Increase Factor


0.5 1.0 1.6
1.0 1.5 1.37
1.5 2.0 1.28
2.0 2.5 1.20
2.5 and above 1.18
Spherical (any dia.) 1.10

8.4.3 Wind loads shall be separately computed for all supported equipment, ladders,
and stairs except for the cylindrical vessels (Horizontal and Vertical) where
projected area increase factors have already accounted for these items.

8.4.4 Wind loads on open frame structures, pressure vessels, and pipe racks shall be
computed and applied in accordance with ASCE 7-2005, and the recommended
guidelines for ASCE's Wind Loads and Anchor Bolt Design for Petrochemical
Facilities, unless otherwise specified.
8.4.5 Wind and seismic loads shall not be assumed to act concurrently.

8.5 Dynamic Loads I 2 I

8.5.1 Dynamic loads generated by reciprocating and rotary machines having low to high
frequency ranges shall be furnished by the approved machine supplier /
Manufacturer to design a safe foundation or structural support for the equipment.
In the case of a tall and slender structure, the dynamic effects due to wind gusts
shall be considered in design.

8.5.2 The Designer shall obtain from the Manufacturer for all the vibratory machines, the
necessary technical information, a loading diagram illustrating component masses
and detailed drawings of the machine showing details of its bases as follows:-

a) Type of machine.
b) Operating speed or speed range of machine.
c) Operating weight of machine and ancillary equipment (gearbox etc.).
d) Weight of motor and rotor components.
e) Position of center of gravity of masses in the three major planes.
f) Magnitude and direction of out-of-balance forces and couples at primary
and secondary speeds.
g) Points of application of out-of-balance forces in the three major planes.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 20 of 48 REV. 2

h) Mass moment of inertia of driving and driven masses in the three major
planes.
i) Loads due to dynamic short circuit conditions.
j) Loads due to hydraulic, thermal or surge effects from pumps or
compressors.
k) Loads due to an abnormal sudden stoppage.
l) Recommended maximum amplitude limits.

8.5.3 Foundations for centrifugal machinery less than 375 kW or reciprocating machinery
less than 150 kW do not require a dynamic analysis. However, the foundation to
machinery assembly weight ratio shall not be less than 3 to 1 for centrifugal
machinery and 5 to 1 for reciprocating machinery. Foundations for machinery more
than the above rating shall require a detailed three-dimensional dynamic analysis.
All foundations subjected to unbalanced dynamic forces shall be kept independent
of building floors and other equipment foundations.

8.5.4 The maximum allowable eccentricity between the centre of gravity of the combined
weight of the foundation and machinery and the bearing surface shall be 5% of the
respective foundation dimension in each direction.

8.5.5 A three-dimensional vibration analysis for rotating equipment foundations shall be


made and shall show that the dynamic amplitudes will not exceed the lower of the
following values;

a) The maximum allowable values stated by the Manufacturer / Supplier of


the equipment

b) The amplitude (single amplitude) which causes the effective velocity of


vibration to exceed:
i) 2 mm/s at the location of the machine-bearing housings
ii) 2.5 mm/s at any location of the structure
c) In the absence of Manufacturer / Supplier recommended value of
amplitude, the design shall conform to allowable amplitude limit given in
Table-9.
Note: The effective velocity is defined as the square root of the average of the square of
the velocity, velocity being a function of time. In the case of a pure sinusoidal
function, the effective velocity is 0.71 times the peak value of the velocity.
8.5.6 The static deformation for rotating equipment foundations shall be calculated and
shown to be within the limits stated by the Manufacturer of the equipment. The
calculations shall include, but not be limited to, the following causes of
deformation.
a) Shrinkage and creep of concrete.
b) Temperature effects caused by radiation and convection of heat or cold
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 21 of 48 REV. 2

generated by machinery, piping, and ducting.


c) Elastic deformation caused by changing vapor pressure in condensers.
d) Elastic deformation caused by soil settlement.

8.5.7 For the dynamic analysis, the exciting forces shall be taken as the maximum values
given by the Manufacturer that will occur during the lifetime of the equipment.
When the exciting force is not given by the Manufacturer, it shall be determined as
follows:

Q(kN) = [Rotor Speed (rpm)/6000] x Rotor Weight (kN)

8.6 Pipeway Loads

8.6.1 Pipeway loads for pipes upto 300 mm (12 in) diameter (NPS) on grade and
elevated levels shall be estimated as follows :-

a) Vertical Test load on foundation / structure supporting pipes :

i) Dead load plus weight of water in full pipes for pipes 4 Nos.

ii) Dead load plus half (1/2) weight of water in full pipes for pipes
4Nos., when applied to produce maximum stresses, unless
operating load is greater.

b) Horizontal Friction load parallel to the pipes acting as UDL over the whole
span of main & intermediate beams shall be the greater of :

i) 10% of the sum of all operating pipe loads acting longitudinally for
pipes 4 Nos. or

ii) 30% of the sum of the operating pipe loads of any number of lines
acting together in the same direction 4 Nos.

c) Horizontal load in longitudinal direction on the main beams of anchor bays


shall be the greatest of the following:

i) Anchor force from the pipe stress analysis, or

ii) 10% of piping vertical loads from four (4) bays length, or

iii) 40 kN (to be applied at the mid-span of beam)

Note: Anchor force shall be considered in addition to the horizontal friction load on the
main beams.

8.6.2 Pipeway loads on elevated pipe racks, in addition to the above requirements in
para 8.6.1, shall satisfy the following for the design of pipe racks at each tier level:-

a) Minimum vertical load as UDL = 1.7 kN / m2 on plan area.

b) Vertical load on longitudinal tie beams as point load =15 kN at mid-span.


DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 22 of 48 REV. 2

c) Thrust on longitudinal tie beams as compression load = 15% of load on


the adjacent column.

d) Transverse anchor force on main beams in anchor bays shall be equal to


the greatest of

i) Anchor force from the pipe stress analysis, or

ii) 50% of the anchor force in longitudinal direction as above in c(ii) or


c (iii) of clause 8.6.1.

8.6.3 For pipes larger than 300 mm (12 in) diameter (NPS), individual design conditions
shall be investigated separately by the Designer / Contractor.

8.7 Friction Loads I 2 I

8.7.1 Friction loads due to expansion / contraction shall be estimated as the co-efficient
of friction multiplied by the operating weight.

8.7.2 The co-efficient of friction () between two contact surfaces shall be considered as
given in Table-3:-
Table-3: Co-efficient of Friction

Sl. No. Contact Surfaces Friction Co-efficient ( )


1 Lubricated Steel to Concrete 0.45
2 Steel to Steel (Not corroded) 0.40
3 Stainless steel to Stainless Steel 0.15
4 Lubrite to Steel 0.15
5 PTFE to Stainless Steel 0.15
Proprietary Sliding Surfaces or Coatings According to Manufacturers
6
(e.g., "Teflon") Instructions. (Note-1)
(Mating surfaces of stainless steel shall be mirror polished. Contact pressure shall be
betw een 10 - 25 N / mm 2).

Note-1: Provision of Teflon will lead to damage after some years and cannot be replaced
and hence shall be avoided as much as possible; while it can be provided under smaller
size pipes that can be lifted and Teflon replaced. Whenever Teflon is used, co-efficient of
friction of aged-teflon shall be obtained from the Manufacturer and the values used in the
design.

8.8 Bundle Pull-Out Loads (For Heat Exchangers)

8.8.1 For removal or replacement of tube bundles from heat exchangers, the horizontal
force shall be taken equal to the greatest of:-

a) The weight of the bundle if loosening devices are supplied and used.

b) 150% of the weight of the bundle if no loosening devices are provided.

c) 10 kN as a minimum load.

Note: Bundle pull shall be considered for design of equipment supports only.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 23 of 48 REV. 2

8.9 Thermal Loads I 2 I


8.9.1 Thermal loads shall be estimated due to variation of temperature resulting
additional stresses, when the structure or any part thereof is not free to expand or
contract or when any equipment expands causing deflections to the supports. The
primary source of thermal load in an industrial plant is the expansion or
contraction of vessels and piping. Another source of thermal load in a redundant
structure is the expansion or contraction of the entire structure or individual
structural components. Provisions shall be made for thermal forces arising from
assumed differential settlements of foundations and from restrained dimensional
changes due to temperature changes.

8.9.2 Maximum temperature variation shall be assumed by 30C for metal structures
and by 20C for plain and reinforced concrete structures. When any part of
structures are subject to unequal variations of temperature, allowance shall be
made for a difference of 15C. Refer KOC-G-007 for maximum sunlight and
shaded temperature.

8.9.3 Wherever applicable, a temperature variation of 30C shall be taken for


calculating pipe and vessel expansions unless otherwise specified.

8.9.4 Expansion joints for slabs on grade / pavement shall be provided at eighteen
(18) metres centre to centre (maximum).

8.9.5 Contraction and construction joints for slabs on grade / pavement, wall
construction and other structures shall be provided at six (6) metres centre to
centre (maximum).

8.9.6 Expansion joints for Buildings and concrete structures (retaining walls, pipe racks
etc.) shall be limited to 30m and steel pipe racks, steel structures shall be limited
to 40m. Expansion joints on any underground liquid retaining structure more than
30m length shall be decided with prior approval from KOC.

8.10 Vehicular (Moving) Loads I 2 I

8.10.1 Bridge Slabs, suspended and / or removal concrete paving / cover slabs for
trenches, underground installations, culverts and pipe crossings etc., accessible
to the vehicular loading shall be designed to withstand HS20-44 load as defined
by AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.

In cases where movement of exceptionally heavy vehicles like sulphur trucks,


heavy transport equipment and heavy construction equipment etc. are identified
during design phase and prior to any construction activities, the maximum
expected loads, as applicable, shall be considered in the design.

8.10.2 In other paved areas which are not accessible to the vehicles, the design loads
shall be as follows:-

a) For suspended concrete paving, a 10 kN point load on an area of 300 mm


square placed at a point to produce maximum effect and a UDL of
5 kN / m2 .
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 24 of 48 REV. 2

b) For removable cover slabs for trenches, a 10 kN point load on an area of


300 mm square placed at a point to produce maximum effect.

8.10.3 In offsite and unpaved areas with no vehicular access, the design load for cover
slab shall be a UDL of 5 kN / m2 over the slab area.

8.11 Fire Loads I 2 I

In case of a real fire, fire loads for different use of buildings may be assessed in
terms of the maximum heat that can be generated by the combustible items of
contents and structure. For further details, refer NFPA 557 (Standard for
Determination of Fire Loads for Use in Structural Fire Protection Design).

8.12 Unusual Loads

Unusual loads (lift, transportation) and special loads during start-up, regeneration
or upset conditions, which may be encountered but are not covered by this
Standard, shall be determined and analyzed by accepted engineering principles,
subject to KOC Approval.

8.13 Seismic Load I 2 I


a) All Plant / Non-Plant structures and equipment shall be designed for
earthquake loads in accordance with latest ASCE 07. Seismic design for
storage tanks at grade shall be in accordance with API STD 650, Welded
Tanks for Oil Storage and API STD 620, Design and Construction of
Large, Welded, Low-pressure Storage Tanks. As a general reference for
seismic design, ASCE Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of
Petrochemical Facilities may also be used.
b) The design shall also take into account the effects of the following where
applicable.
i) Earthquake-induced liquefaction of the strata.
ii) Hazard from tsunami in coastal regions.
The seismic parameters as mentioned in Table-4 below shall be followed in-case
Project / Site-specific seismic hazard analysis and ground motion study has not
been carried out or Site-specific seismic parameters are not defined in the
project documents.
Table-4: Seismic Parameters

Parameter Value / Reference


Site Class D or As per Site Geo-technical
Investigation Report
Mapped spectral acceleration for 0.598g
short periods ( Ss )
Mapped spectral acceleration for 0.239g
a 1 second period ( S1 )
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 25 of 48 REV. 2

8.14 Earth / Hydrostatic Load I 2 I

8.14.1 Earth and hydrostatic water pressures on foundations / retaining walls and
underground structures shall be determined. Outward pressures on liquid-retaining
structures shall also be considered. The buoyancy load is equal to the weight
of the volume of displaced water.

8.14.2 Soil loads shall consist of lateral earth pressures. Active and passive co-efficients
for lateral pressures shall be obtained from the project soil report. Effect of ground
water table shall be consider as per Geo-technical report. Earth pressure shall be
considered as dead loads.

8.14.3 Hydrostatic water pressures on foundations / retaining walls and underground


structures shall be considered up to the maximum possible level of retention.
Water pressure is to be considered as live load.

8.14.4 Concrete bund walls shall be designed for accidental load condition when the bund
is completely filled with water to the crest. Only the hydrostatic fluid acting in the
outward direction and gravity loading needs be considered. The factor of safety
against overturning shall not be less than 1.3 for this loading condition.

8.14.5 Lateral earth pressure due to live load surcharge pressure of minimum 10kN/m2,
in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, shall be
applied where vehicular load is expected to act on the surface of the backfill within
a distance equal to one-half the wall height behind the back face of the wall of an
underground structure (i.e. sump, pit, retaining wall etc.). For more onerous
exceptional vehicular loading, i.e. non-standard / abnormal AASHTO HS20-44
loading, an associated / equivalent surcharge pressure shall be used in the design.

8.15 Differential Settlement I 2 I

Provisions shall be made for forces arising from differential settlements of


foundations and from restrained dimensional changes due to temperature
changes, moisture expansion, shrinkage, creep, and similar effects. These loads
are considered in load combinations as dead load.

8.16 Blast Load I 2 I

For Blast Load refer KOC Standard KOC-C-030 KOC Recommended Practice
for Blast Resistant Design of Buildings.

9.0 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

9.1 Load Combinations I 2 I

9.1.1 Loads and load factors shall be combined in accordance with ASCE 7-2005 (No
later revision shall be used for load combinations and factors).
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 26 of 48 REV. 2

9.1.2 Basic Load Combinations A through G shall be investigated considering possible


variations of the participating Primary Load Cases and their corresponding load
factors.
Table-5: Load Combinations
Primary Loads Load Combination ( See Note-9)
Operation Test Erection Seismic Maintenance Blast

Without wind Withwind


A B C D E F G
Dead Load X X X X X X X
Dead Load (Empty) X X1) X X X X X
Test Load X
Live Load X X X X X
Crane / Impact Load X X X X
Operating Load X X1) X
Vehicle (Moving) Load X X X X
Wind Load X X3),4) X4) X6)
Seismic Load X X X6)
Dynamic Load X X X2) X
Thermal Load X X X
Erection Load X
Maintenance Load X7)
Differential Settlement X X X X X
Earth/Hydrostatic Load X X X X X X
Blast Load X5)
Notes:
1) The most unfavorable load combination shall be taken into account.
2) Only if the structure supports rotating equipment that will be in operation while a vessel is being
tested with water.
3) Only 50% wind load shall be taken into account for Test Load combination.
4) The effect of wind and seismic forces acting on temporary scaffolding erected during
construction, or later for maintenance, which will be transferred to the vessel or column shall be
considered. When considering wind effects, the actual projected area of the scaffold members
together with the correct shape factor and drag coefficient should be used. As an initial
approximation, the overall width of the scaffolding itself can be taken as 1.5m on each side of
the vessel or column with 50% closed surface and shape factor 1.0.
5) Blast condition shall be taken into account for the blast resistant design of buildings where
applicable.
6) Wind and earthquake are not considered to act simultaneously.
7) Bundle pull shall not be combined with wind or earthquake.
8) The above load combinations are general and applicable to all types of structures. These
load combinations are in line with the basic load combination stated in ASCE 7-2005.
9) Load combinations shall be made by combining the primary loads from top to bottom direction
of the Table-5 considering only applicable loads acting on the structure being designed.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 27 of 48 REV. 2

9.2 Stability Ratios Against Overturning, Sliding & Uplift I 2 I

9.2.1 The minimum stability ratios for any structure and any part thereof including
foundations under different service conditions shall be as follows :-

Table-6: Minimum Stability Ratios against Overturning

Sl No. Service Condition Minimum Stability Ratio Against Overturning


1 Erection 1.50
2 Hydrostatic Test 1.50
3 Operating 1.75
4 Shut Dow n 1.75

9.2.2 Where local regulations defines higher values, those values shall be used.

9.2.3 Allow ance shall be made for any buoyant effects of a high ground w ater table.
The uplift factor of safety, based on service loads, shall not be less than 1. 50
at empty condition.

9.2.4 The stability ratio (SR), based on service loads determined as follows:

SR = D(P) / 2M = D / 2e
Where:
D= Diameter or width of footing
P= Minimum gravity load at bottom of footing (exclude product and live loads,
include buoyancy)
M= Maximum overturning moment at bottom of footing
e= Eccentricity = M / P

9.2.5 The stability ratio (SR), based on service loads, for buildings, process structures,
and other framed structures shall be determined as follows:

SR = Resisting Moment / Overturning Moment


Where

Resisting Moment = Moment due to dead load of foundation and structure (include
buoyancy).

Overturning Moment = Moment due to lateral loads

The overturning and resisting moments shall be computed about the most critical
axis of rotation of the foundation block at the soil-concrete interface. There may be
more than one axis of rotation.

9.2.6 For all service load conditions, the sliding resistance of foundations and retaining
walls developed by friction between the footing and membrane at bottom shall at
least equal to 1.5 times the applied lateral loads. Stability calculations shall include
two cases namely (i) with soil overburden and (ii) without soil overburden; and the
most adverse case shall be considered, along with the effect of buoyancy if
applicable.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 28 of 48 REV. 2

In case sliding resistance of foundation is developed by a combination of friction


between the footing and membrane at bottom and passive resistance from soils
are considered in design, the following conditions are to be satisfied.

a) Foundations

The sliding resistance of foundations shall be developed by either friction


between the footing and membrane at bottom or by a combination of friction
between the footing and membrane and passive resistance from soils. In
cases where sliding resistance is developed by a combination of friction and
passive resistance then a minimum factor of safety of 2.0 shall be provided.
The friction at bottom surface (not on sides) and passive resistance upto
the bottom level of Footing concrete only shall be considered for resistance

b) Retaining Walls

The sliding resistance of Retaining Walls shall be developed by either


friction between the footing and membrane at bottom or by a combination
of friction between the footing and membrane and passive resistance on
keys(upto bottom level of concrete) extending below the bottom of the
footing of walls. In cases where sliding resistance is developed by a
combination of friction and passive resistance then a minimum factor of
safety of 2.0 shall be provided. The friction at bottom surface (not on sides)
and passive resistance upto the bottom level of Footing concrete only shall
be considered for resistance.

c) Pipeline Anchor Blocks


Pipeline anchor blocks shall be designed for the anchor forces obtained
from pipeline stress analysis. The horizontal forces shall be resisted by net
earth pressure, friction between the anchor block and bottom membrane.
Soil parameters shall be as per Geo-technical report. A minimum factor of
safety of 2.0 shall be provided for sliding.

9.3 Contact Pressure Under Base Plates

The maximum concrete stress beneath base plates shall be limited to 8 N/mm2 for
sand / cement grout and 12 N / mm2 for proprietary high strength grout.

9.4 Deflection Limits I 2 I

9.4.1 The deflection of a structure or part thereof under serviceability load conditions
shall be limited to the extent so that it will neither reduce the design strength of the
structure or its components nor cause damages to the finishes or discomforts to
the users or look to be unsightly.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 29 of 48 REV. 2

9.4.2 The recommended deflection limits for certain structural members shall be
followed as specified in Table-7 below :-

Table-7: Maximum Deflection Limits of Structures & Building Components

Sl. Structural Members Deflection Limits Remarks


No. ()
1 Structural Members: Vert. Deflection (v)

a) Cantilever Beams v = L/ 400 * * L= Length of


b) Beams ( General ) v = L/ 300 Beam or tw ice
c) Beams Supporting Equipment v = L/ 450 the length of the
d) Purlins and Side Girts v = L/ 200 cantilever

2 Structural Frames: Horizontal Deflection


(h)
* H= Height of
a) Frames ( General ) h = H / 150 * frame.
b) Frames Carrying Equipment h = H / 200
c) Frames Carrying Cranes h = H / 200
3 Crane Girders v = L / 750
h = H / 1000
4 Vertical Cantilever (Stacks, Masts etc.) h = H / 200
5 Building Components:
Immediate
a) Flat Roofs not supporting or attached to v= L/180 deflection due to
non-structural elements likely to be Live Load. No
damaged by large deflections. ponding effect.

b) Floors not supporting or attached to non-


structural elements likely to be damaged v = L / 360 - Same -
by large deflections.
6 Building Components:

a) Roof or Floor construction supporting or v= L/480 Total


attached to non-structural elements deflection
likely to be damaged by large
deflections.

b) Roof or Floor construction supporting or v = L/240 - Same -


attached to non-structural elements not
likely to be damaged by large
deflections.

(Contd. in Page 30)


DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 30 of 48 REV. 2

Table-7: Maximum Deflection Limits of Structures & Building Components (Contd.)

Sl Structural Members Deflection Limits Remarks


No ()
7 Effect on Non-structural Elements :

a) Walls
i) Masonry & Plaster v= L/600 or 7.6mm Addl. defl. after
ii) Metal & Temporary Partitions v= L/240 or 25 mm the w alls are
connstructed.

b) Lateral Sw ay of Building frames h= H / 500 or Sustained Wind


4 mm / storey Load.

c) Ceiling
i) Plaster v = L / 360 Addl. defl. after
ii) Acoustic Tiles v = L / 180 ceiling is built.

8 Monorail Beams v = L / 400 * *L=Length of


Beam
9 Grating v = L / 250 * *L = Span of
grating,
Maximum span =
1.6 meter

9.5 Vibration Limits I 2 I

9.5.1 The vibration limits due to dynamic loads of reciprocating and rotary machines
shall be in compliance with the Manufacturers recommendations.

9.5.2 In the absence of Manufacturers recommendations, to avoid resonance condition


with the operating frequency of the vibrating machine especially compressors, the
design shall conform to the recommended values limiting natural frequency and
amplitudes of the foundation system including soil as given in Tables-8 & 9:-

Table-8: Allowable Frequency Limits

Sl. Description Frequency Limits Remarks


No.
1 Reciprocating Machine :
a) The Low est Natural 0.5 x Frequency of Undertuned foundation
Frequency ( f n ) Exciting Force

b) The Highest Natural 2.0 x Frequency of Overtuned foundation


Frequency ( f n ) Exciting Force
2 Rotary Machine :

a) The Low est Natural 0.8 x Frequency of Undertuned foundation


Frequency ( f n ) Exciting Force
b) The Highest Natural 1.2 x Frequency of Overtuned foundation
Frequency ( f n ) Exciting Force
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 31 of 48 REV. 2

Table-9: Allowable Amplitude Limits (Maximum at bearing level of foundation) I 2 I

Sl. No. Description Vertical Amplitude Horizontal


( in microns ) Amplitude
(in microns)

1 Reciprocating Machine 50 m -------


2 Rotary Machine :
a) For Low Frequency 40 - 60 m ------
( speed range 1500 rpm )

b) For Medium Frequency 40 - 60 m 70 - 90 m


( 1500 speed range
3000 rpm )

c) For High Frequency 20 - 30 m 40 - 50 m


( speed range 3000 rpm )

9.5.3 Structures and foundations that support vibrating equipment shall have a natural
frequency that is outside the range of 0.8 to 1.2 times the exciting frequency.

9.6 Noise Limits I 2 I

Noise levels from all sources (external and internal) should not exceed the
recommended values in plants and buildings as given in Table-10:-

Table-10: Maximum Noise Levels

Maxm.
Sl. No. Type of Use Limits
(dBA)
1 Plants & Industrial Buildings 70
2 General Offices & Plant Offices( w here meetings are held) 50
3 Private offices 45
4 Offices & Conference Rooms w here a high standard is required 35
5 Recreation Rooms 50
6 Wash Rooms & Toilets 60
Note: For more details on noise control limits refer KOC Standard for Plant and
Equipment Noise Control (KOC-L-030).

9.7 Corrosion Limits I 2 I

9.7.1 Metallic corrosion of steel can occur due to various factors such as contact
between dissimilar metals, presence of sulphate reducing bacteria in soils and
waters especially in marine conditions, which are not found so far very significant
affecting design conditions. Corrosion due to presence of hydrocarbons and
corrosive chemicals shall be examined separately and specified according to the
international / national and or local requirements.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 32 of 48 REV. 2

9.7.2 However, the corrosion rate of steel due to atmospheric (marine / industrial)
conditions and fluctuation of water shall be limited to the following values in
Table-11:-
Table-11: Allowable Corrosion Rates

Sl. Type of Nature Corrosion Rate ( mm / year)


No.

1 Seawater :

a) Below seabed 0.01 - 0.02 on total thickness

b) Fully immersed zone 0.08 / each face exposed to seawater

c) Splash zone 0.15 / each face exposed to seawater

d) Atmospheric zone 0.05 - 0.10 / each face exposed

2 Freshwater :

a) Below bed level Negligible

b) Fully immersed zone 0.05 - 0.10 per exposed side

3 Atmosphere 0.05 - 0.10 / each face exposed

4 Undisturbed Natural Soil (excluding Negligible


contaminated, disturbed and landfill soils )

9.7.3 Crack Control I 2 I

a) All reinforced concrete shall be provided with proper distribution of


reinforcement to control flexural cracking. Crack widths shall be controlled
by the expeditious use of combinations of reinforcement sizes,
reinforcement spacing and cover.

b) Crack widths shall be calculated using the applicable formula in ACI 224.1R.

c) To achieve proper distribution of flexural reinforcement and to encourage


good detailing practices, all structural calculations shall check the spacing
(centre to centre distance of flexural reinforcements) requirement in
accordance with ACI 350M/350RM and ACI 318M.

d) Crack width limitations shall be as follows:


Internal Environment : w < 0.30 mm
Concrete, regardless of any coatings, not exposed to weather and located
within a temperature and humidity controlled building / sealed building.
External Environment : w < 0.15 mm
Above grade concrete, regardless of any coatings, exposed to weather and
below grade, all burried or submerged concrete.
Liquid Retaining Structures : w < 0.10 mm
Concrete structures, regardless of any coatings, primarily designed to retain
liquids during operation for more than 7 consecutive days.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 33 of 48 REV. 2

9.8 Module Sea Transportation

The design criteria for module sea transportation shall be in conformity with the
following Table-12:-

Table-12: Design Criteria for Module Sea Transportation

Sl. No. Description Magnitude of Forces ( Note 1)


1 Structure Orientation Vertical
2 Roll Acceleration ( Transverse ) 0.5g at base, increasing 0.015g for each
metre above the base.
3 Pitch Acceleration ( Longitudinal ) 0.3g at base, increasing 0.01g for each
metre above the base.
4 Heave Acceleration ( Vertical ) 1.3g maximum; 0.6g minimum.
5 Allowable Stresses Basic for still water condition.
Basic x 1.25 for barge motions.
Note-1: The simultaneous effects of Roll & Heave and Pitch & Heave shall be
considered. Roll & Pitch shall not be combined together.

9.9 Fire Rating I 2 I

Industrial and service buildings shall be designed / constructed with the materials
having the following fire ratings (minimum) as given in Table-13 :-

Table-13: Minimum Fire Ratings of Building Components

Sl. Building Components Fire Remarks


No. Rating
(Hours)
A Buildings in Fire Hazardous Areas(FHA) (See Note-1)
1 Walls :

a) External Walls 2 Hrs.

b) Internal Walls of control room, switch room, battery 2 Hrs.


room, test room / laboratory room, areas of
potential higher fire risks and walls between Fire
Zones

c) Other Internal Walls and Partitions 1/2 Hrs Offices, mess rooms,
toilets and locker
rooms etc.
2 Roof & Floor Slabs 2 Hrs.
3 Doors/ Windows :
a) All External Doors / Windows assemblies (Frame, 1 Hrs.
Glazing, fixings / Hardwares, Sealants etc.)

b) Internal Doors / Windows assemblies (Frame,


Glazing, fixings / Hardwares, Sealants etc.):

i) All doors / Windows in item 1(b) above 2 Hrs.

ii) All other doors / Windows in item 1(c) above. --- No Specific
Requirement
(Contd. in Page 34)
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 34 of 48 REV. 2

Table-13 : Minimum Fire Ratings of Building Components(Contd.)

Sl. Building Components Fire Remarks


No. Rating
(Hours)
B. Buildings in Non Fire Hazardous Areas(FHA) (See Note-1)
1 Walls :

a) External Walls 2 Hrs.

b) Internal Walls of control room, switch room, battery 2 Hrs.


room, test room / laboratory room, areas of
potential higher fire risks and walls between Fire
Zones

c) Other Internal Walls and Partitions 1/2 Hrs. Offices, mess


rooms, toilets and
locker rooms.

2 Roof & Floor Slabs 2 Hrs.


3 Doors/ Windows :

a) All External Doors / Windows assemblies (Frame, 1 Hr.


Glazing, fixings / Hardwares, Sealants etc.)

b) Internal Doors / Windows assemblies (Frame,


Glazing, fixings / Hardwares, Sealants etc.)

i) All doors/Windows in item 1(b) above 1 Hr.

ii) All other doors / Windows in item 1(c) above. -- No Specific


Requirement

1. For more detail on Fire Hazardous Area (FHA) refer KOC Standard (KOC-C-027).

2. The above Fire Ratings may be Increased, Decreased, or Wavered subject to Contractor
submitting a Detailed Fire Protection Philosophy approved by KOC substantiating the
change from the above Table. The submitted Fire Protection Philosophy shall be based on
applicable International Standards/Codes.

10.0 MATERIALS

10.1 Structural Concrete

10.1.1 The characteristic cube strengths of normal concrete (made with natural
aggregates and having a density of 23 kN / m3 or more) at 28 days which are
generally specified for reinforced concrete are given in Table-14, together with
their related cube strengths at other ages.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 35 of 48 REV. 2

10.1.2 The static modulus of elasticity (Ec) of normal concrete to be used for elastic
analysis shall be appropriate to the cube strength of the concrete at the age
considered in conformity with the Table-14 :-
Table-14: Strength of Concrete

Sl. Grade Characteristic Cube Strength at an age of Elastic Equivalent


No. (Note 1) Strength at ( N / mm2 ) Modulus Grade as
28 days (fcu (Ec,28 in per KOC-
in N / mm2 ) 7 2 3 6 1 kN/mm2) C-006
days months months months year
1 20 (K200) 20 13.5 22 23 24 -- 25 25
2 25 (K250) 25 16.5 27.5 29 30 -- 31 26
Grade A,
3 30 (K300) 30 20 33 35 36 37 28 B,C,D1 &
D2
4 40 (K400) 40 28 44 45.5 47.5 50 31 --
Note 1: Values of concrete grades under parenthesis are designated as per Kuwait
Ministry of Public Works ( MPW ).

10.1.3 The static modulus of elasticity of lightweight concrete having an air dry density
between 14 to 23 kN / m3 shall be modified by multiplying the values in the above
Table-14 by (Dc/23)2 where Dc is the density of the lightweight concrete in kN / m3.
10.1.4 The other elastic properties and thermal expansion of normal concrete shall be
considered as follows:-

a) Poissons Ratio = 0.20


b) Shear Modulus (G) = 0.42 Ec
c) Co-efficient of Linear Thermal Expansion ( c) =12 x 10 E-6 / C
10.2 Reinforcement I 2 I
10.2.1 The characteristic yield strength of reinforcements (fy) shall be followed as given in
Table-15 which is in accordance with ASTM standards :-
Table-15: Strength of Reinforcement

Nominal Minimum Yield


Sl.
Description Sizes Strength Designation
No.
(mm) (fy in N / mm2 )
(Grade 40) - ASTM
1 Mild Steel Round Bars (Note-1) All Sizes 280
A615/A615M
High Yield Deformed Bars (Grade 60) - ASTM
2 All Sizes 420
(Note-1) A615/A615M
ASTM A1064/
3 Steel Plain Wire (Note-1) All Sizes 485
A1064M
ASTM A1064/
4 Steel Deformed Wire (Note-1) All Sizes 515
A1064M
MW 40, MW
Welded wire Reinforcement ASTM A1064/
5 55, MW 80 450
from Plain Wire (Note-1) A1064M
& MW 120
MD 40, MD
Welded wire Reinforcement ASTM A1064/
6 55, MD 80 & 485
from Deformed Wire (Note-1) A1064M
MD 120
Note-1: Epoxy Coating shall not be used.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 36 of 48 REV. 2

10.2.2The modulus of elasticity and thermal expansion of reinforcements shall be


generally as follows:-

a) Modulus of Elasticity ( Es ) = 200 kN / mm2

b) Co-efficient of Linear Thermal Expansion ( s ) =10 x 10 E-6 / C

10.3 Anchor Bolts I 2 I

10.3.1 All anchor bolts shall conform to ASTM A307 Grade A or ASTM F1554 Grade 36
or BS 4190 Grade 4.6 or BS EN ISO 898-1, Property Class 4.6. Anchor bolts for
equipment shall be specified by equipment Manufacturers for the allowable tensile
stress conforming to the relevant ASTM specification. As a minimum, use 20mm
bolts for structural columns and typical equipment and 16mm bolts may be used
for small pumps and guardrails. Anchor bolt projections shall not protrude more
than one bolt diameter above top of nut. Nuts shall conform to ASTM A563
Grade A or ISO 898-2, Class 5 and washers shall conform to ASTM F436, Type-1.

10.3.2 All anchor bolts including nuts and washer shall be hot-dip galvanized in
accordance to ASTM A153/A153M or BS EN ISO 1461 with mean coating
thickness of 50 Micron (Minimum).

10.3.3 All anchor bolts shall comply with the KOC Standard drawing no. 55-02-62 Steel
Anchor Bolts.

10.4 Structural Steel I 2 I

10.4.1 Structural steel shape and plate tolerances shall conform to ASTM A6/A6M or
BS 4-1 or BS EN 10210-2. Structural steel have minimum yield stress of
250 N / mm2 (36 ksi ).The allowable stresses shall be followed in accordance
with latest AISC Manual of Steel Construction or equivalent BS Standards.
Table-16: Structural Steel Materials
Structural Steel materials shall conform to the following:

ASTM A36/A36M or BS EN 10025,


Structural Steel
Grade S275 JR
Structural Pipe
ASTM A53/A53M Type E or S, Grade B
(hollow round shapes with
or BS EN 10210-2 or API 5L, Steel
relatively thicker wall thickness
Grade B
than round tubing)
Structural Tubing (hollow
ASTM A500/A500M, Grade B or ASTM
sections in round, square and
A501, Grade B or BS EN 10210-2
rectangular shapes)

10.4.2 Structural steels with minimum 345 N / mm2 (50 ksi) yield stress which are widely
used for economy replacing ASTM A36/A36M in many applications shall comply
with ASTM designations as follows:-
a) ASTM A572/A572M high strength low-alloy Columbium-Vanadium
Structural steel for most applications.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 37 of 48 REV. 2

b) ASTM A529/A529M high strength carbon manganese structural steel for


thin plate members.
c) ASTM A242/A242M and A588/A588M high strength low alloy structural
steel for atmospheric corrosion resistance.

10.4.3 Structural steel shall be designed, fabricated and erected in accordance with the
requirements of KOC Standard for Structural Steelwork Materials, Fabrication
and Erection (KOC-C-007).

10.5 Structural Bolts I 2 I

10.5.1 Ordinary bolts shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A307 Grade A or
ASTM F1554 Grade 36 or ISO 898-1, Property class 4.6. Nuts shall be
ASTM A563, Grade A or ISO 898-2, Class 5. Washers shall conform to
ASTM F436, Type-1.

10.5.2 High tensile bolts shall comply with the requirements of ISO 898-1, Property class
8.8 or ASTM A325M, Type 1 or ASTM A490M, Type-1. Nuts shall be
ASTM A563M, Grade 10S or ISO 898-2, Class 8. Washers shall conform to
ASTM F436M.

10.5.3 High Strength bolts (ISO 898-1, Property class 8.8 & ASTM A325M, Type-1), nuts
and washers shall be hot dipped in accordance with ASTM A153/A153M or
mechanically galvanized in accordance to Class 55 of ASTM B695 with mean
Coating thickness of 50 Micron (Minimum).

10.5.4 High Strength bolts (ASTM A490M, Type-1), nuts and washers shall be coated in
accordance with ASTM F1136/F1136M, Grade 3 or ASTM F2833, Grade 1.

10.5.5 All ordinary bolts, nuts and washers shall be hot-dip galvanized in accordance to
ASTM A153/A153M or BS EN ISO 1461 with mean Coating thickness of 50 Micron
(Minimum).

10.5.6 Unless noted otherwise on the drawings, steel connection bolt size shall be as
follows:
a) For main members and connections: M20 high strength bolts
b) For railings, ladders and secondary connections: M16 ordinary bolts
c) For ladder cages: M12 ordinary bolts
d) For stair treads: M10 ordinary bolts

A minimum of two bolts shall be used for all steel connections.

10.6 Aluminium I 2 I

10.6.1 The limiting stresses of aluminium alloy members formed out of extrusions, plates,
sheets, tubes or combination of these shall be considered in accordance with
BS EN 1999-1.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 38 of 48 REV. 2

10.6.2 The other physical properties of aluminium members of standard alloys shall be
taken as follows:-

a) Density = 27 kN / m3
b) Modulus of Elasticity ( EAL ) = 70 kN / mm2
c) Shear Modulus ( GAL ) = 27 kN / mm2
d) Co-efficient of Linear Thermal Expansion ( AL ) = 23 x 10 E-6 / C
e) Poissons ratio () = 0.3

10.7 Timber I 2 I

The Design of timber shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 1995.

10.8 Handrail I 2 I

Handrail structural members shall conform to ASTM A36/A36M or BS EN 10056-1


and hollow pipes shall conform to ASTM A53/A53M, Grade B or BS EN 10210-2.
All handrails shall be hot-dip galvanized in accordance to ASTM A123/A123M or
BS EN ISO 1461 with mean coating thickness of 85 Micron (Minimum). For details
refer to KOC Standard Drawing No. 55-02-58.

10.9 Welding I 2 I

Welding and welding electrodes filler metal requirements shall conform to


AWS D1.1/D1.1M. For structural steel applications, the minimum electrode tensile
strength shall be 480 MPa.

10.10 Grating I 2 I

10.10.1Grating shall conform to ASTM A1011/A1011M, SS grade 40 or BS 4592,Part-1.


The grating size and method of attachment shall be indicated in the project
specifications. Grating and fixing material (clips) shall be hot-dip galvanized in
accordance to ASTM A123/A123M or BS EN ISO 1461 with mean coating
thickness of 85 Micron (Minimum).

10.10.2 Use of Stainless, Aluminimum, GRP grating shall be used in specialized condition
with prior approval from KOC.

10.11 Floor Plate I 2 I

10.11.1Chequered floor plate shall be four-way, raised pattern steel plate in accordance
with ASTM A786/A786M with a minimum thickness of 6mm, exclusive of the raised
pattern height. Plate material shall conform to ASTM A36/A36M. Chequered floor
plate shall be hot-dip galvanized in accordance to ASTM A123/A123M or
BS EN ISO 1461 with mean coating thickness of 85 Micron (Minimum).

10.11.2The use of Chequered Floor Plates shall be discouraged, except for some
applications where the use of grating is not practical. Chequered Floor Plate may
only be used with KOC prior specific approval
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 39 of 48 REV. 2

10.12 Embedded Items I 2 I

All embedded items shall conform to ASTM A36/A36M and shall be hot-dip
galvanized in accordance with ASTM A123/A123M or BS EN ISO 1461 having
mean coating thickness of 85 Micron (Minimum). The Contractor has to effectively
seals the junction of embedded items and concrete with materials approved by
KOC.

11.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE I 2 I

11.1 The Consultant / Contractor / Manufacturer shall operate a quality system


preferably based on ISO 9000 series of standards to satisfy the requirements of
this Standard. The Consultant / Contractor / Manufacturer shall demonstrate
compliance by providing a copy of the accredited certificate or the Consultants /
Contractors / Manufacturers quality manual.

11.2 Verification of the Consultants / Contractors / Manufacturers quality system is


normally part of the Pre-qualification procedure, and therefore not detailed in the
core text of this Standard.

12.0 DOCUMENTATION I 2 I

12.1 General

12.1.1 All correspondence, instructions, drawings, data sheets, design calculations or any
other written information shall be in the English language. In the case of dual
languages, one language shall be English.

12.1.2 All dimensions, units of measurement, physical constants etc. shall be in SI units,
unless otherwise specified in the project document.

12.1.3 All design calculations should clearly mention the applicable codes and standards
referenced for the design requirements including any assumptions made which are
not covered in this Standard.

12.1.4 In addition to the hard copies, all documents (texts, specifications, data sheets,
drawings etc.) shall be provided with electronic files in the approved softwares
(MsWord, Excel, Auto Cad etc.). Design calculations shall be submitted in the
approved and widely used softwares, agreed by KOC. The submission of
calculations and drawings by the Contractor to KOC shall include the editable
native electronic format of the calculation input / output, for the ease of review by
KOC.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 40 of 48 REV. 2

13.0 APPENDIX1 (SOIL PARAMETERS)

Table-1: Presumed Soil Parameters

Sl. Descriptions Presumed Remarks


no Values
A. Static Properties Of Soils
1 Allowable Gross Soil Bearing Pressure for Width of foundation
non-cohesive sandy soils ( Ps in kN/ m 2 ): not less than 1.0m.
Groundwater level
a) Loose sand (4 N 10) Ps 100 assumed at a depth
b) Loose sand with gravel (10 N 20) 100 Ps 150 not less than below
c) Medium dense sand (15 N 30) 150 Ps 200 the base of the
d) Medium dense sand (20 N 30) 200 Ps 300 foundation.
with gravel
e) Dense compact sand (30 N 50) Ps 300
(Note 1 )
2 Bulk density of sandy soil ( in kN / m3) = 17
3 Angle of internal friction of sandy soil () = 33
4 Cohesion of sandy soil (C in kN / m 2) C = 0
5 Co-efficient of active earth pressure (Ka) Ka = 0.295
6 Co-efficient of passive earth pressure (Kp) Kp = 3.386
7 Co-efficient of permeability (K in m / s) :

a) Gravel K 10E-2
b) Clean sand 10E-2 K10E-5
c) Silt 10E-5 K10E-8
B. Dynamic Properties of Soils
1 Dynamic Shear Modulus (G in kN / m 2): Applicable for low
strain amplitude.
a) Medium dense sand (Note-3) G = 725 - 2175
b) Dense sand (Note-3) G = 1450-2900
c) Stiff Clay G = 1450-2900
d) Medium dense gravel (Note-3) G = 2175-3625
2 Poisson Ratios () :
a) Medium dense sand or gravel = 0.3 - 0.4
b) Dense sand or gravel = 0.4 - 0.5
c) Silt = 0.3 - 0.4
d) Clay (Partially saturated / saturated) = 0.35 - 0.5
3 Co-efficient of Elastic Uniform Compression
(Cu in N / mm3) : (Note-2)

a) Loose sand ( Ps 100 kN/m 2 ) Cu = 0.02 C = 2 Cu


b) Medium dense sand ( Ps= 200 kN/m 2 ) Cu = 0.04 C = 0.5 Cu
c) Dense compact sand ( Ps= 300 kN/m 2 ) Cu = 0.05 C = 0.75 Cu
d) Very dense sand ( Ps 300 kN/m2 ) Cu = 0.06

Note 1: N denotes Nos. of blows to effect last 300mm penetration of split spoon sampler in
SPT tests.
Note 2 : Co-efficient of Elastic Non-uniform Compression : C
Co-efficient of Elastic Uniform Shear : C
Co-efficient of Elastic Non-uniform Shear : C
Note-3: For shallow depths
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 41 of 48 REV. 2

13.0 APPENDIX---1 (SOIL PARAMETERS)(Contd.)

Table-2: Relative Density & Consistency of Soils

Sl. Description Values Remarks


No.
1 Relative Density of Sands & SPT N-values (Blows / last
Gravels : 300 mm penetration )

a) Very Loose 0 - 4

b) Loose 4 - 10

c) Medium Dense 10 - 30

d) Dense 30 - 50

e) Very Dense 50
2 Consistency of Cohesive Undrained Shear ( Immediate Test )
Soils : Strength ( kN/sqm ) :

a) Very Soft 20 a) Exudes between the fingers


when squeezed in the fist.
b) Soft 20 - 40 b) Easily moulded in the fingers.

c) Firm 40 - 75 c) Can be moulded by strong


pressure.
d) Stiff 75 - 150 d) Can not be moulded in the
fingers.
e) Very Stiff or Hard 150 e) Brittle or very tough.

3 Plasticity of Silt & Clay: (*) Range of Liquid (*) Classification of silt and clay
Limit (in %) both alone or in mixtures with
coarser material.
a) Low Plasticity 25

b) Moderate Plasticity 25 35

c) Medium Plasticity 35 50

d) High Plasticity 50 70

e) Very High Plasticity 70 90

f) Extremely High 90
Plasticity
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 42 of 48 REV. 2

14.0 APPENDIX2 (DEAD LOADS FOR MATERIALS & BUILDING COMPONENTS)

Table-1: Minimum Design Dead Loads for Materials

Sl. Type of Materials Unit Wt. Sl. Type of Materials Unit Wt.
No. kN / m3 No. kN / m3

1 Aluminium 27.20 14 Lime, Hydrated 7.16


2 Bituminous Products: 15 Masonry, Ashlar :

a) Asphaltum 12.70 a) Granite, Limestone 26.26


b) Pitch 11.00 b) Marble 27.55
c) Tar 11.94 c) Sandstone 22.92
3 Cast-stone Masonry 22.92 16 Masonry Brick :
(cement,stone,sand ) a) Common Brick 19.10
b) Pressed Brick 22.30
c) Soft Brick 15.92
4 Cement, Portland 14.32 17 Mortar Cement, hardened 20.70
5 Ceramic Tile 23.88 18 Mortar Lime, hardened 17.50
6 Concrete, Plain : 19 Particle Board 7.17

a) Stone (including 23.00


gravel)
b) Other light aggregate 11.14 -
load bearing 16.71
7 Concrete, Plain : 20 Petroleum :

a) Vermiculite & Perlite 4.00 - a) Petroleum, crude 8.75


aggregate, non-load 8.00 b) Petroleum, refined 7.96
bearing c) Petroleum, benzene 7.32
8 Concrete, Reinforced : 24.00 21 Plaster Cement 19.10
Stone (including gravel)
9 Cork, Compressed 2.30 22 Plywood 5.73
10 Earth (Not submerged): 23 Seasoned Wood:

a) Clay, dry 10.00 a) Fir, Douglas 5.42


b) Silt, wet 15.30 b) Greenheart 11.0 (av)
c) Sand, dry 15.82 c) Pine, southern yellow 5.90
d) Sand & gravel mix, 17.50 d) Redwood 4.45
dry
11 Gravel, Dry 16.55 24 Steel, Cold drawn 77.84
12 Gypsum Wallboard 7.96 25 Timber:

a) Softwood 7.91
b) Hardwood 9.89
13 Iron : 26 -- --

a) Cast 71.63
b) Wrought 76.40
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 43 of 48 REV. 2

14.0 APPENDIX2 (DEAD LOADS FOR MATERIALS & BUILDING COMPONENTS)


(Contd.)

Table-2: Minimum Design Dead Loads for Building Components

Sl. Type of Components Unit Wt Sl. Type of Components Unit Wt.


No. N/m2 No. N/m2
1 Ceilings : 10 Floors & Floor Finishes :

a) Acoustical Fiber Tile 48.5 a) Cement Finish (25 mm) on 1553.0


b) Gypsum Board (3 mm) 26.7 Stone Concrete Fill
c) Mechanical Duct 194.0 b) Ceramic or Quarry Tile ( 20 1116.0
allowance mm) on 25mm thick mortar
d) Suspended Channel 97.0 bed
System c) Marble & Mortar on 1600.0
e) Suspended Metal Lath 485.3 Stone Concrete Fill
& Gypsum Plaster d) Hardwood Flooring 174.7
(20 mm)
2 Coverings, Roof & Wall : 11 Finishes, Terrazzo:

a) Cement Tile 776.5 a) Terrazzo (38 mm) 922.0


b) 3-Ply Ready Roofing 48.5 directly on Slab
c) 4-Ply Felt & Gravel 266.9 b) Terrazzo (25 mm) on 1553.0
d) 5-Ply Felt & Gravel 291.1 Stone Concrete Fill
3 Deck Metal : 12 Clay Tiles :

a) 20 Gage 121.3 a) 100 mm 873.5


b) 18 Gage 145.6 b) 150 mm 1164.7
4 Fiber Board (12 mm) 36.4 13 Glass Block (100 mm) 873.5
5 Insulation, Roof Boards : 14 Frame Partitions :
(per 10 mm thickness) 194.1
a) Movable Steel Partitions 388.2
a) Fibrous Glass 21.0 b) Wood/Steel Studs, 12mm
b) Fiber Board 28.6 Gypsum Board each side.
c) Polystyrene Foam 3.8 c) Wood Studs, 2x4, 194.1
d) Urethane Foam with 9.5 unplastered.
skin
6 Insulation, Rigid(12 mm) 36.4 d) Wood Studs, 2x4, 582.3
plastered one side.
7 Skylight Metal Frame with 388.2 15 Doors (Industrial Type, 382.0
10 mm Wire Glass Wooden)
8 Waterproofing Membrane: 16 Exterior Studs Walls :

a) Bituminous Gravel 266.9 a) 2x4 @400mm, 16mm 534.0


Covered gypsum, Insulated,10mm
b) Bituminous Smooth 72.8 siding
Surface b) With Brick Veneer 2329.4
c) Liquid Applied 48.5 c) Windows, glass, frame and 388.2
d) Single-Ply Sheet 34.0 sash
9 Floor Fill (per mm) : 17 Masonry Partitions :

a) Lightweight Concrete 15.3 a) Concrete Block, Heavy


b) Sand 15.3 Aggregate
c) Stone Concrete 22.9 - 100 mm 1456.0
- 200 mm 2669.0
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 44 of 48 REV. 2

Table-2: Minimum Design Dead Loads for Building Components (Contd.)

Sl. Type of Components Unit Wt Sl. Type of Components Unit Wt.


No. N/m2 No. N/m2
18 a) Concrete Block, Light 23 Roof Trusses
Aggregate (Wt.on plan area of roof) :

- 100 mm 970.6 a) Spacing of Trusses


- 200 mm 1844.0 3 m with Spans as -
19 Masonry Walls :
- 9.0 m 120.0
a) Concrete Brick, Heavy - 12.0 m 132.0
aggregate - 15.0 m 144.0
- 18.0 m 203.0
- 100 mm 2232.0
- 200 mm 4314.0 b) Spacing of Trusses
- 317.5 mm 6308.7 4.5m with Spans as -

b) Concrete Brick, Light - 9.0 m 72.0


aggregate - 12.0 m 84.0
- 15.0 m 108.0
- 100 mm 1601.0 - 18.0 m 144.0
- 200 mm 3300.0
- 317.5 mm 4755.8
20 Sand Lime (and similar ) 24 Metal Sheeting, Galvanized
Bricks, Load bearing : Plain & Corrugated:

- 100mm 1980.0 - 16 gauge (1.6 mm) 131.0


- 200mm 3960.0 - 20 gauge (1.0 mm) 84.0
- 345mm 6831.0 - 22 gauge (0.8 mm) 69.0
- 24 gauge (0.63 mm) 56.0

21 Structural Glass (25 mm) 728.0 25 Steel Stairs, Industrial Type 820.0
(1.0 m wide ) N/m
22 Glass Sheets :

- 4 mm 98.0
- 6 mm 147.0
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 45 of 48 REV. 2

15.0 APPENDIX---3 (LIVE LOADS ON FLOOR & ROOF)

Table-1: Minimum Live Loads on Floor I 2 I

Sl. Occupancy or Use Uniformly Distributed Point Load (P)


No. Load(UDL) kN/m2 kN(Note-2)
(Note-1)
1. Residential
a) Bedrooms, Dormitories 2.00
b) Dining rooms, Lounges, Toilets 2.00
c) Kitchen, Laundries 3.00
d) Balconies 3.00 1.5kN/m at the
edge
e) Exit facilities (Stairs, Landings, and Corridors etc.) 5.00
2. Public Places:
a) Assembly areas with fixed seating, Gymnasia, 4.00
Grandstand
b) Assembly areas without fixed seating 5.00
c) Library reading rooms without book storage 3.00
d) Library reading rooms with book storage 4.00
e) Stack Rooms with shelving units 7.50
f) Auditorium 5.00
g) Conference & meeting rooms 4.00
h) Training centres 5.00
i) Classrooms 3.00
3. Offices:
a) Offices for general use 2.50
b) Offices with fixed computers or similar equipment 5.00
c) File rooms, Filing and storage spaces 7.50
4. Industrial (Workshops, Factories):
a) Factories, Workshops and similar buildings 5.00(*) (*) Refer Note-3
b) Maintenance Floors, Boiler rooms, Motor rooms, 7.50(*) for Maintenance
Fan Rooms including the machinery Vehicles
c) Workrooms, light without storage 2.50
d) Operating floors/ Platforms, Walkways, Stairs, 5.00
Landings
e) Access Platforms( Without Equipment) 2.50
f) Laboratories Including equipment 3.00
g) Transformer Rooms 10.00
h) Substation Switchgear Room, Electrical Equipment Entire floor slabs shall be
Room designed for minimum of
10kN/m load or As per
the value provided by the
Manufacturer of
Switchgear / Equipment,
whichever is higher.

i) Battery Room 20.00


DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 46 of 48 REV. 2

15.0 APPENDIX3 (LIVE LOADS ON FLOORS & ROOF)(Contd.)

Table-1: Minimum Live Loads on Floor (Contd.) I 2 I

Uniformly Distributed
Point Load (P)
Sl. No. Occupancy or Use Load (UDL) kN/m2
kN(Note-2)
(Note-1)
5 Storage Warehouses:
a) Light 6.00 Refer Note-3 for
Maintenance
b) Heavy 12.50 Vehicles
6 Misc. Utilities:
a) Telephone Exchange 7.50
b) Air-Conditioning(Machine Space) 10.00
c) Elevator Machine Room 7.50
7 Ramps:
a) Vehicular Driveways 12.50(*) (*) or AASHTO
b) Side Walkways 5.00 Vehicle Load
Note-1: Live load reductions are not permitted.
Note-2: Point load shall be considered acting over a minimum area of 300mm x 300mm.
Note-3: For maintenance vehicles, forklift etc. actual wheel loads as per Manufacturers
catalogues shall be considered wherever applicable.

Table-2: Minimum Live Loads on Roof I 2 I

Sl. Uniformly Distributed Load Point Load


Description
No. (UDL) ( Note 1) (P)
1 Flat and Sloping Roof
( 10 ) :

a) Accessible 1.5 kN / m2 on plan area 1.8 kN

b) Non-accessible 0.75 kN / m2 on plan area 0.9 kN


2 Sloping Roof ( 10 30 ):

a) Non-accessible 0.75 kN / m2 on plan area 0.9 kN


3
Sloping Roof ( 75 ): Zero Load -
4 Linear
Linear interpolation between Sl. interpolation
Roof slopes ( 30 75 ):
Nos. 2 & 3. bet. Sl. Nos.2
& 3.
Note 1: Roof live load reductions are not permitted.
Note 2: An additional Wind blown sand load of 0.75KN/m2 due to accumulation on flat
roof to be considered as live load.
Note 3: Load due to rain water accumulation shall also be taken into account.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 47 of 48 REV. 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I 2 I

This KOC Standard (Rev.2) has been approved by the Standards Technical
committee (STC) consisting of the following members:-

Mr. Hamzah Ahmad Standards Team Chairman


Mr. Mohd. Emam Insp. & Corr. (S&EK) Team Deputy Chairman
Mr. A. Unnikrishnan Standards Team Secretary / Member
Mr. Mohd. Aslam Imadi Tech. Exp. Team Member
Mr. G. Unnikrishnan Tech. Exp. Team Member
Mr. Amer Jaragh Insp. & Corr. (N&WK) Team Member
Mr. Gopal Murti Opns. Tech. Svcs. (WK) Team Member
Mr. Nandkumar Aravind HSE Systems Team Member
Mr. Mohammad Al-Ajmi Tech. Systems Team Member
Mr. Haitam Aboughaith Gen. Projects Team Member
Mr. Abdulla Al-Yousef Project Mgmt. (NK) Team Member

The revision of this Standard (Rev.2) had been circulated to the KOC User Teams
for review and the responses were received from the following Teams:
GAS OPERATIONS GROUP AHMADI PROJECTS GROUP

Team Leader Consumer Networks Team Leader Corporate Project-I

OPERATIONS SUPPORT (GAS) HSE GROUP


GROUP

Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs.- Team Leader Safety


Gas Team Leader HSE Systems

SUPPORT SERVICES GROUP SUPPORT SERVICES GROUP


(NK) (S&EK)

Team Leader HSE-NK Team Leader General Projects


Team Leader Proj. Mgmt.-NK
EXPORT OPERATIONS GROUP OPERATIONS SUPPORT GROUP
(S&EK)
Team Leader Export Tech.
Services. Team Leader Maint. Support &
Team Leader HSE-Exp. Opns. & Reliability-S&EK
mar. Opns. Team Leader HSE-S&EK

TECHNICAL SUPPORT GROUP SUPPORT SERVICES GROUP


(WK)
Team Leader Drilling & W/Over
Tech. Svcs.-I Team Leader HSE-WK
Team Leader Proj. Mgmt.-WK
DOC. NO. KOC-C-001 Page 48 of 48 REV. 2

PROJECT SUPPORT SERVICES OPERATIONS GROUP (WK)


GROUP

Team Leader Quality & HSE Team Leader Maint.-WK


Team Leader PMC Management
(Amec / Flour / Worley Parsons)

Task Force Responsible for the Revision of this Standard I 2 I

The revision of this Standard (Rev.2) was entrusted by the Standards Technical
Committee (STC) to the Task Force (TF-C/20) comprising of the following
members:

Mr. Narayan Roy Standards Team TF Leader Tel. 61469


Mr. Gopal Murti OTS(WK) Team Member Tel. 20343
Mr. M.Javaid Masood Project Mgt.(NK) Team Member Tel. 23931
Mr. Nataraj Ramaswami Technical Expertise Team Member Tel. 61381
Mr. Mukesh Kumar Mittal Fire Team Member Tel. 66048
Mr. Anil Kumar Fire Team Member Tel. 67527
Mr. Javed Ahmad General Projects Team Member Tel. 71430
Dr. Waleed Hindi PMC - Flour Member Tel. 61852
Mr. Farahbakhsh Behnam PMC - Amec Member Tel. 63574
Mr. Omar Warrich PMC - Worley Parsons Member Tel. 63158