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# Contents

OBJECTIVE..............................................................................................................1

THEORY....................................................................................................................1

APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT.....................................................................................4

PROCEDURE............................................................................................................4

## RESULTS & DISCUSSION......................................................................................6

CONCLUSION..........................................................................................................9

REFERENCE...........................................................................................................10
FM7: Series & Parallel Pump

OBJECTIVE
1. To investigate the result on discharge and total head of operating pumps in series.
2. To investigate the result on discharge and total head of operating pumps in
parallel.

THEORY
Series Pump

## A single pump may be insufficient to produce the performance required. Combining

two pumps increases the pumping capacity of the system. Two pumps may be
connected in series, so that water passes first through one pump and then through the
second. When two pumps operate in series, the flow rate is the same as for a single
pump but the total head is increased. The combined pump head-capacity curve is
found by adding the heads of the single pump curves at the same capacity.

Parallel Pump

## A single pump may be insufficient to produce the performance required. Combining

two pumps increases the pumping capacity of the system. Two pumps may be
connected in parallel, so that half the flow passes through one of the pumps and the
other half through the second pump. When two pumps operate in parallel the total

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head increase remains unchanged but the flow rate is increased. The head-capacity
curve is found by adding the capacities of the single pump curves at the same head.

Pump Characteristics

By operating the pump at constant speed with various outlet flow rates, a different set
of operating curves can be obtained. These curves allow engineers to see the
maximum efficiency for a range of operating speeds. This can help with the selection
of a pump for particular pressure-flow conditions.

Suction

The performance of the pump is also affected by the level of suction on the inlet. If
the pressure in the fluid becomes too low at this point, some of the fluid may
vaporize. This is known as cavitation, and can cause noise and vibration leading to a
loss in performance, and even mechanical damage to the impeller.

Operating Curves

The operating curves of the pump can be shown by plotting the pressure head, power
and efficiency against the flow rate. Conditions are optimum when the required flow
rate and pressure conditions correspond with the maximum efficiency. Engineers can
use these curves to select an appropriate pump based on the required duty (flow).

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Scaling

## From measurements of the pump characteristics at one operating point, it is possible

to predict them at another operating point. Using dimensional analysis to reduce the
number of variables involved, solutions can be found which describe how the
pressure, power or discharge of the pump will change when the speed is altered.

Energy Transfer

Inside the pump, energy is transferred to the fluid in the form of kinetic, potential and
pressure energy. By applying the first law of thermodynamics to the system, we can

v 22v 21 P2P1
H= + +(z 2z 1) (1)
2g g

## This quantity is representative of the work done on the fluid.

Efficiency

The mechanical power input to the pump can be calculated from the motor torque, t
and rotation speed, n:

Pm=2 nt (2)

The hydraulic power gained by the fluid can be calculated from the total head, H t and
the flow rate, Q:

Ph=H t Q g (3)

## The efficiency of the pump can then be calculated as:

Ph
E=100 (4)
Pm

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APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT
The apparatus and equipment consist of:

## 1. Series and Parallel Pumps Apparatus

2. IFD7 Armfield Interface Device
3. Compatible PC with Armfield FM51 software installed

4.

4
5.
Water tank
Pump Motor 2 Flow Control Valves
Water Inlet Valve
Pump Motor 1

6.

5
7.

## 8. Armfield FM51 Software on PC

Figure
9. 1: Layout of Free & Forced Vortices Apparatus
10.

11. PROCEDURE
1. Both pumps were used at the same setting in this experiment to ensure identical
performance. As the speed of Pump 2 was fixed at its design operational point,
Pump 1 was set to match select 80% for a 50Hz electrical supply, or 100% for
60 Hz.
2. The water was allowed to circulate until all air had been flushed from the system.
3. When results were already available for a single pump across its full flow range,
those results were loaded into the software and the exercise using two pumps was
then proceeded.
4. A new results sheet was created using the icon for series pump performance. The
new results sheet was renamed to Series.
5. In the software, on the mimic diagram, the Mode was set to Series by selecting
6. Pump 2 outlet valve was opened and Pump 1 outlet valve was closed. Results
were recorded after allowing any air to circulate out of the system.

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7. The GO icon was clicked to record the sensor readings and pump settings on the
results table of the software. Then, the gate valve was closed to reduce the flow by
a small increment. The GO icon was clicked again.
8. The gate valve was closed consecutively to give incremental changes in flow rate
and correspondingly the sensor data was recorded each time.
9. After taking the final set of data, the gate valve was fully opened again.
10. Parallel pump experiment was performed immediately after this experiment
without closing the software. The previous results were saved and they were
ensured to be available for parallel pump experiment when required. (It was also
advisable to save the results from this exercise before starting parallel pump
experiment even if continuing straight on, to ensure that the data was not lost in
the event of a computer failure. The results sheet might be overwritten with the
combined results once parallel pump experiment had been completed).
11. The parallel pump performance was continued. The current (blank) results sheet
was renamed to Parallel. The GO icon was selected to record the sensor readings
and pump settings on the results table of the software.
12. The gate valve was closed to reduce the flow by a small increment. Then, the GO
icon was clicked again. The gate valve was closed consecutively to give
incremental changes in flow rate and correspondingly the sensor data was
recorded each time.
13. After taking the final set of data, the gate valve was fully opened again. Pump 1
was set to 0% and both pumps were switched off.

12.

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13. RESULTS & DISCUSSION
14. Table 1: Result of Series Pump Experiment

17. P
23. T
u
o
m
t
p
a
l
S
21. Volu
p 19. Volu
me H
e me
Flow e
15. Pump e Flow
16. Test Rate a
Setting d Rate
,Q d
, ,Q
22. (m3/s ,
20. (l/s)
)
n
H
18. (
t
R
24. (
P
m
M
)
)
25. Single 30. 6
27. 1
Pump .
8 28. 1.58 29. 0.00
26. 1 5
0 4 158
4
0
8
36. 6
33. 1
.
8 34. 1.56 35. 0.00
32. 2 5
0 4 156
6
0
8
38. 3 39. 1 40. 1.50 41. 0.00 42. 6
8 8 151 .
0 6
0 9
7

6
48. 8
45. 1
.
8 46. 1.17 47. 0.00
44. 4 0
0 0 117
1
0
0
54. 8
51. 1
.
8 52. 1.03 53. 0.00
50. 5 2
0 7 104
6
0
2
57. 1 60. 6
8 58. 1.62 59. 0.00 .
56. 1
0 1 160 8
0 6
63. 1 66. 7
8 64. 1.58 65. 0.00 .
62. 2
0 4 153 6
0 9
69. 1 72. 9
8 70. 1.54 71. 0.00 .
55. Dual 68. 3
0 7 132 9
Pumps 0 2
78. 1
75. 1
0
8 76. 1.39 77. 0.00
74. 4 .
0 6 121
6
0
2
84. 1
81. 1
1
8 82. 1.30 83. 0.00
80. 5 .
0 1 106
2
0
2
85.

## 86. Table 2: Result of Parallel Pump Experiment

87. Pump 88. Test 89. P 91. Volu 93. Volu 95. T
Setting u me me o
m Flow Flow t
p Rate Rate a
,Q ,Q l
S 92. (l/s) 94. (m3/s

7
p
H
e
e
e
a
d
d
,
,
)
n
H
90. (
t
R
96. (
P
m
M
)
)
99. 1
102.
8 100. 101.
98. 1 6.3
0 1.678 0.00168
2
0
104. 105. 108.
106. 107.
180 6.8
2 1.564 0.00156
0 6
97. Single 111. 114.
110. 112. 113.
Pump 180 7.4
3 1.434 0.00143
0 8
116. 117. 120.
118. 119.
180 7.5
4 1.396 0.00140
0 4
122. 123. 126.
124. 125.
180 7.7
5 1.340 0.00134
0 9
127. D 128. 129.
130. 131. 132.
180
ual 1 2.094 0.00209 5.9
0
Pumps 135.
134. 136. 137. 138.
180
2 2.037 0.00204 6.0
0
140. 141.
142. 143. 144.
180
3 1.961 0.00196 6.2
0
146. 147. 148. 149. 150.
180 1.734 0.00173 6.8
4

8
0
152. 153.
154. 155. 156.
180
5 1.244 0.00124 7.8
0
157.

## 158. For Series Pump configuration,

159.

Graph of Total Head, H(m) against Discharge, Qt(m3/s) in Series Pump Configuration
12.00

11.00
Single Pump Polynomial (Single Pump) Dual Pump
10.00

9.00
8.00

## Polynomial (Dual 7.00

Pump)

6.00
0.00100 0.00120 0.00140 0.00160 0.00180

Discharge, Qt(m3/s)

## 160. For Parallel Pump configuration,

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161.

Graph of Total Head, H(m) against Discharge, Qt(m3/s) in Parallel Pump Configuration
10.00
8.00
6.00
2.00
0.00
0.001000.001500.002000.002500.003000.003500.00400

Discharge, Qt(m3/s)

## Single Pump Polynomial (Single Pump)

Dual Pump Polynomial (Dual Pump)

162. From the series configuration graph, we can observe that the
total head gain for dual pumps is much higher than the head gain for single
pump, provided that the flow rate is almost similar with little deviation. This
is similar to the trend in theoretical graph of series configuration shown in
Theory section previously. When two pumps operate in series, the flow rate is
the same as for a single pump but the total head is increased. The combined
curves at the same capacity.

## 163. From the parallel configuration graph, it can be deduced that

the total head increase remains unchanged but the flow rate is increased. This
has shown that parallel pump configuration has increased the pumping

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capacity as compared to series pump configuration. The head-capacity curve
is found by adding the capacities of the single pump curves at the same head.

## 1. Unsteady Flow inside the Piping System

165. The unstable flow inside the piping system is caused by the presence
of air bubbles. The formation of air bubbles is inevitable especially during the
time while closing the gate valve gradually. The more we closed the gate valve,
the greater the formation of air bubbles in the flow. Unsteady flow has caused the
sensor of FM51 to read the head gain and flow rate inaccurately, which resulted in
little deviation. This can be observed on the experimental graphs plotted. For
instance, from the series pump configuration graph, the x-intercepts of both lines
are not exactly the same, which means that their flow rates are slightly different.

166. Way to overcome: The gate valve should be closed gradually to reduce
the formation of air bubbles. Meanwhile, more time should be allocated to allow
all the air bubbles to circulate out of the piping system.

## 2. Energy Loss in the System

167. As we all know, there is no so called perfect machine existing in real
world with 100% efficiency. Similarly, the pumping motors 1 and 2 are also not
with 100% efficiency, which means some energy is lost as heat and sound during
their operation. This has reduced the pumping capacity as expected theoretically.
For example, we can see that the total head gain for dual pumps is indeed greater
than but not twice the head gain for single pump. This is due to the energy loss in
the system. Besides imperfect motor, energy loss is also caused by friction in the
pipes, especially when it flows through the joints.

168. Way to overcome: Repeat the experiment more and get the more
accurate mean to increase the accuracy of experimental result, though minor
deviation is inevitable. Use motors with higher efficiency to pump the water as to
reduce the energy loss.

169.

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170. CONCLUSION
1. Total head gain for the two pumps in series match the theoretical prediction of
twice the head gain for a single pump (assuming the two pumps used gave
identical performance). This is true only under the assumption of two pumps
giving identical performance and there is no energy loss. In real practice in the
experiment, the total head gain for the two pumps in series does not match exactly
the theoretical prediction of twice the head gain for a single pump, like what we
have discussed in previous section. However, the theoretical prediction is still
proven as we obtain a similar trend on the graphs.
2. Pumps are connected in series when we want to reduce costs by using a
combination of smaller pumps rather than a single larger pump to accomplish a
certain pumping task. This may reduce installation costs as well as operating
costs. Series pumping using two or more smaller pumps to handle the total
pumping requirement will also provide a high degree of standby capacity. Series
pump systems lend themselves to be used where high heads are needed. In order
to avoid cavitation, a smaller pump could be used in series, discharging into the
suction nozzle of the larger one.
3. In comparison between the graphs for pumps in series and parallel, we deduce a
similarity between them, which is that the head gain will decrease with the
increase in flow rate, unaffected by either single pump or dual pumps. For series
pump, the flow rate is the same but the total head is increased. Conversely for
parallel pump, the total head increase remains unchanged but the flow rate is
increased.
4. Parallel pumping is applied when either one of the two pumps is capable of
handling full design flow. If either pump fails, the other one can quickly be
brought up to speed to handle full flow. The parallel pumps are selected so that
each one can provide something less than full design flow, resulting in lower
initial cost compared to the full redundancy alternative. Systems designed with
several smaller pumps in parallel can use manual or automatic pump staging.
Staging means varying the number of pumps in operation to meet changing load
requirements. Done properly, staging can save energy and reduce operating costs,
assuming that the pump staging is done wisely. Parallel pumping can provide a

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very high percentage (70% to 90% in most cases) of full flow at low cost
compared to the full redundancy alternative.
171. To deduce and contrast the applications of series pumping and parallel
pumping, we can say that series pumping can combine a number of smaller
pumps to function like a single large pump, so as to reduce cost since smaller
pumps is much more cost-saving than a large pump. However, if one of the small
pump fails, the performance of the entire system will also drop. This is different
in parallel pumping whereby the performance of the entire system remains
unchanged when one of the pump fails, as either one of the pump is capable of
handling full flow. The disadvantage of parallel pumping is that the installation
cost is higher than the series pumping. Therefore, if we want to save installation
cost and meanwhile the space is insufficient for installing many smaller pumps,
we can select a single pump of higher performance.

172. REFERENCE
173. Bruce R.Munson, T. H. (2013). Fluid Mechanics 7th Edition. Singpore:
John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte.Ltd.

174.
175.

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