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CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ************ ******ATTY.

**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!

CONSTITUTIONAL
LAW II
Finals Reviewer
BECAUSE SHARING IS LOVING

A new command I give you: Love one another.


As I have loved you, so you must love one another
By this everyone will know that you are my disciples,
if you love one another.
John 13: 34-35

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Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
ARTICLE(III:(BILL(OF(RIGHTS( law)be)narrowly)focused)and)a)compelling)interest)justifies)such)intrusions.)
( Intrusions) into) the) right) must) be) accompanied) by) proper) safeguards) and)
Three(powers(of(government( wellMdefined) standards) to) prevent) unconstitutional) invasions.) We) reiterate)
1. Eminent)Domain) that) any) law) or) order) that) invades) individual) privacy) will) be) subjected) by)
2. Police)Power) this)Court)to)strict)scrutiny.)
3. Taxation) (
) III.(Right(to(liberty(
Function(of(the(Bill(of(Rights( deemed)to)embrace)the)right)of)man)to)enjoy)the)faculties)to)which)he)has)been)
Guarantees) that) there) are) certain) areas) of) a) persons) life,) liberty) and) property) which) endowed) by) his) Creator,) subject) only) to) such) restraints) as) are) necessary) for) the)
governmental)power)may)not)touch.)All)the)powers)of)government)are)limited)by)the)Bill)of) common)welfare.2)
Rights.) (
) IV.(Right(to(Property(
Includes) all) kinds) of) property) defined) in) the) Civil) Code.) Also) includes) vested) rights)
( (e.g.)perfected)mining)claim,)final)judgment).(
SECTION(1.( Right(to(practice(ones(profession(
No( person( shall( be( deprived( of( life,( liberty( or( property( without( due( process( of( law,( nor( o Right)to)property)also)includes)the)right)to)work)and)earn)a)living.(
shall(any(person(be(denied(the(equal(protection(of(laws.( o A)profession,)trade)or)calling)is)a)property)right)within)the)meaning)of)our)
( constitutional) guarantees.) However,) no) right) is) absolute) and) the) proper)
I.(Person(refers(to:( regulation) of) such) profession) has) always) been) held) as) a) legitimate) subject)
1. Natural)persons) of)a)valid)exercise)of)the)police)power)of)the)state.3)
2. Juridical)persons) Licenses) are) mere) privileges) and) not) property) rights) (with) exceptions)) (Mijares( v.(
3. Political)subdivisions) Ranada)(
( o A) license) is) merely) a) permit) or) privilege) to) do) what) otherwise) would) be)
II.(Right(to(life( unlawful...it) is) neither) a) property) or) a) property) right,) nor) does) it) create) a)
Right(to(a(secure(life) vested)right)(Tan(v.(Dir.(Of(Forestry))
Not)just)a)protection)of)the)right)to)be)alive)or)to)the)security)of)ones)limb)against) (
physical)harm.)Its)also)the)right)to)a)good)life.1) V.(Hierarchy(of(Rights(
Right(to(privacy) Those)that)are)mentioned)earlier)in)the)enumeration)are)preferred)but)all)the)rights)
Right) to) life) also) includes) the) right) to) privacy) whose) essence) is) the) right) to) be) are) important) nonetheless.) To) protect) property) is) to) protect) life.) 4) !) Philippines(
alone)Ople(v.(Torres( Blooming(Mills(Employees(Organization(v.(Philippine(Blooming(Mills(Co.,(Inc.)
o The) right) to) privacy) does) not) bar) all) incursions) into) individual) privacy.) The) (
right)is)not)intended)to)stifle)scientific)and)technological)advancements)that)
enhance) public) service) and) the) common) good.) It) merely) requires) that) the) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2!Rubi!v.!Provincial!Board!of!Mindoro,!G.R.!No.!L814078,!March!7,!1919!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3!JMM!Promotion!and!Management,!Inc.!v.!Court!of!Appeals,!G.R.!No.120095,!August!5,!1996!
1 !JOAQUIN!G.!BERNAS,!S.J.,!The!1987!Philippine!Constitution:!A!Comprehensive!Reviewer!25!(2011!ed.)! 4!JOAQUIN!G.!BERNAS,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!112!(2009!ed.)!!

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Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
VI.(Two(Aspects(of(Due(Process(
1. Procedural) !) law) which) hears) before) it) condemns1;) proper) procedure) must) be)
allowed) before) a) person) is) deprived) of) life,) liberty) and) property;) procedural)
fairness.)
2. Substantive( ! ( talks) about) the) substance) of) the) law;) guarantee) against)
arbitrariness)(Tupas(v.(CA))
(
Section(1)of)the)Bill(of(Rights((Article(3))states)no)person)shall)be)deprived)of)life,)liberty,)or)
property)without)due)process)of)law.)
! 2)conditions)to)fall)within)protection)of)the)provision:)
1. There)is)a)deprivation)
2. Deprivation)is)done)without)proper)observance)of)due)process.)
! Procedural)due)process)v.)Substantial)due)process.)
)
Procedural(Due(Process( Substantial(Due(Process(
Method)or)manner)by)which)law)is) The)law)itself)(not)merely)the)procedures)by)
enforced.) which)the)law)would)be)enforced))is)fair,)
reasonable,)and)just.)
)

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Daniel!Webster!as!quoted!in!Lopez!v.!Director!of!Lands!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
EQUAL&PROTECTION&OF&LAWS& &
CASE&LAW&
&
1.&Alienage&
I.&STANDARDS&TO&CONFORM&TO&EPL&(SGCE)&(1)&People&v.&Cayat&
Alienage' is' a' reasonable' classification' in' the' exercise' of' police' power.' There' is'
1. Rest'on'substantial'distinctions'
substantial'distinction'between'aliens'and'nonOaliens.'(2)&Ichong&v.&Hernandez'
2. Be'germane'to'the'purpose'of'law'
A'substantial'distinction'should'be'made'among'aliens'who'are'engaged'in'different'
3. Not'be'limited'to'existing'conditions'
occupations'and'therefore'are'not'on'equal'footing'(3)&Villegas&v.&Hiu&Chong'
4. Apply'equally'to'all'members'of'the'same'class'
'
'
2.&Election&
II.&General&Points&&
There' is' substantial' distinction' between' a' retiree' and' young' blood' in' terms' of'
Constitutional'guarantee'of'the'Equality&of&the&Person&
government'work'(4)&Dumlao&v.&COMELEC'
Equality'guarantees:'legal&equality'or'equality&of&all&persons&under&the&law&
COMELEC' has' the' constitutionally' granted' power' to' enforce' and' administer' all' laws'
Here,'each'individual'is'dealt'with'as'an'equal'person'in'the'law,'which'does'not'treat'
and'regulations'relative'to'the'conduct'of'an'election;'it'cannot'be'restricted'by'mere'
the'person'differently'because'of'who'he'is'or'what'he'is'or'what'he'possesses.&
procedural'rules'(19)&Nolasco&v.&COMELEC'
&
Considering' incumbent' officials' resigned' from' their' office' upon' filing' a' COC' for'
III.&FIRST&REQUISITE:&SUBSTANTIAL&DISTINCTIONS''
another'position'is'not'a'violation'of'the'EPC'because'it'is'germane'to'the'purpose'of'
EPC&is&not&absolute'!'the'state'is'given'the'power'to'classify&
the'law'(29)&Aguinaldo&v.&COMELEC'
o It' does' not' deny' the' state' the' power' to' recognize' and' act' upon' factual'
COMELEC' may' assign' election' officers' to' other' stations' after' 4' years' to' avoid'
difference'between'individuals'and'classes.&
corruption'that'might'take'place'(32)&De&Guzman&Jr.&v.&COMELEC'
No'valid'classification'can'be'made'without'the'presence'of'a'substantial'distinction.'
Appointive' officials' must' be' removed' from' their' position' if' they' choose' to' run' for'
(16)&Regala&v.&Sandiganbayan;&Dimaporo&v.&HRET;&Biraogo&v.&PTC;&NPC&v.&Pinatubo&
elections'since'they'are'prohibited'by'law'to'engage'in'partisan'political'activities'(38)&
&
Farias&v.&Executive&Secretary'
IV.&SECOND&REQUISITE:&GERMANE&TO&THE&PURPOSE&OF&THE&LAW&
There'is'substantial'difference'between'appointive'and'elective'officials'as'the'former'
The'proviso'of'the'said'law'violates'the'EPC'because'there'is'no'substantial'distinction'
hold' their' office' by' virtue' of' their' designation' thereto' by' an' appointing' authority'
present' and' such' classification' is' not' germane' to' the' purpose' of' the' law' GSIS& v.&
while' the' latter' occupy' their' office' by' virtue' of' the' mandate' of' the' electorate' (54)&
Montesclaros'
Quinto&v.&COMELEC'
'
&
V.&THIRD&REQUISITE:&NOT&LIMITED&TO&EXISTING&CONDITIONS&
3.&Sexual&Discrimination&
Laws'(in'this'case'an'ordinance)'should'not'target'a'single'and'exclusive'company'in'a'
Sexual'discrimination'may'be'made'if'the'purpose'is'in'the'nature'of'the'exercise'of'
way'that'subsequent'companies'of'the'same'nature'shall'not'be'affected'by'the'law'
police'power'(in'this'case,'protection'of'women)'(5)&Goesart&v.&Cleary'
(6)&Ormoc&Sugar&Central&v.&Ormoc&City&
'
&
4.&Government&Powers,&Police&Power&
VI.&FOURTH&REQUISITE:&MUST&APPLY&EQUALLY&TO&ALL&MEMBERS&OF&THE&SAME&CLASS&
The' law' can' create' a' valid' classification' between' activities' controlled' and' regulated'
Alikes'cannot'be'treated'as'unlikes'Loong&v.&COMELEC'
by'law'and'those'which'are'not'(in'this'case,'games'of'chance)'(7)&BASCO&v.&PAGCOR&
'
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
For' the' purpose' of' the' general' welfare' of' people' (moreover' those' who' are' in' the' Sandiganbayan&et&al.'
need)' and' exacting' social' justice,' the' state' can' use' its' police' power' to' create' a' There'is'substantial'distinction'between'criminally'accused'policemen'and'criminally'
classification'between'the'poor'and'others'(9)&Binay&v.&Domingo& accused'other'persons'insofar'as'the'former,'through'their'weapons'and'position,'can'
A'gambling'franchise'is'always'subject'to'the'exercise'of'police'power'for'the'public' intimidate'prospective'witnesses'(12)&Himagan&v.&People'
welfare'(14)&Lim&v.&Pacquing& There' is' substantial' distinction' between' those' who' have' pending' criminal' charges'
The'government'may'require'broadcasting'stations'to'allow'them'to'communicate'to' against'those'who'have'none'(18)&Marcos&v.&CA'
the' public.' This' is' part' of' their' responsibility' under' R.A.& 7252' (25)& TELEBAP& v.& Criminal'Immunity'under'Section&5'is'granted'only'to'witnesses'against'an'accused'in'
COMELEC& an'illOgotten'wealth'case.'This'proviso'gives'rise'to'a'substantial'distinction'between'
The'VFA'does'not'violate'the'EPC'because'the'certain'exemptions'and'privileges'given' principal'defendants'and'witnesses'in'such'cases'(24)&Chavez&v.&PCGG'
to'US'military'personnel'are'just'to'serve'out'the'agreements'purpose'of'promoting' There' is' a' substantial' distinction' between' cases' where' trial' already' begun' against'
mutual'trust'and'peace'among'the'two'countries'(33)&BAYAN&v.&Zamora& those'where'it'has'not'yet'started.'(27)&Lacson&v.&Executive&Secretary'
There'is'substantial'basis'for'a'different'treatment'of'a'member'of'a'foreign'military' The' grant' of' probation' does' not' require' financial' capability' on' the' part' of' the'
armed' forces' allowed' to' enter' our' territory' and' all' other' accused' (50)& Nicolas& v.& grantee.'However,'payment'of'civil'damages'may'be'validly'made'as'a'condition'for'
Romulo& the'continued'enjoyment'of'such'probation'(28)&Soriano&v.&CA'
A' motorcycle,' given' its' rather' fragile' characteristics,' may' be' singled' out' by' law' that' Article& 267' of' the' RPC' does' not' violate' the' RPC' given' that' anyone' may' commit' the'
intends'to'protect'the'safety'of'the'public'(43)&Mirasol&v.&DPWH& crimes' enumerated' therein' and' be' punished' with' the' same' penalty' (34)& People& v.&
Given' the' presence' of' terrorist' activity,' oil' depots' have' a' substantial' distinction' Mercado'
against'other'industries'because'of'the'severity'of'damage'they'may'cause'(47)&SJS&v.& An' elective' official' who' committed' a' crime' punished' by' a' period' that' goes' beyond'
Atienza& their' privilegedOfromOarrest' exemption' has' no' substantial' distinction' from' other'
The'cities'enumerated'in'the'cityhood'laws'have'substantial'difference'against'those' prisoners' who' committed' crimes' punished' by' the' same' penalties' (35)& People& v.&
not'enumerated'given'their'capability'to'become'component'cities'of'their'respective' Jalosjos'
provinces'(53)&League&of&Cities&v.&COMELEC& Penal' statues' do' not' go' against' the' EPC' as' they' do' not' punish' people' for' who' they'
& are,' rather' what' is' punished' is' what' they' do' or' how' they' conduct' themselves' (52)&
5.&Tax&Classification& People&v.&Siton'
Creating'classifications'for'the'purpose'of'taxation'is'inherent'in'the'taxing'power'of' &
the' State'(11)& Tolentino& v.& Sec.& of& Finance;& (17)& Sison& Jr.& v.& Ancheta;& (55)& CREBA& v.& 7.&Employment&
Romulo' There'is'substantial'distinction'between'landObased'and'seaObased'workers'in'terms'
The'Congress,'through'its'taxing'power'can'determine'the'extent'of'the'taxing'power' of' work' environment' and' accessibility' to' several' types' of' activities' (15)& Maritime&
of'LGUs'as'long'as'it'is'consistent'with'the'policy'of'local'autonomy'(37)&PHILRECA&v.& Manning&Agencies,&Inc.&v.&POEA'
Sec.&of&DILG' There'is'substantial'distinction'between'people'who'get'income'through'the'exercise'
& their' profession' (taxable' net' income)' and' those' who' have' a' fixed' income' ' (taxable'
6.&Criminal&Law,&Litigation& compensation'income)'(17)&Sison&Jr.&v.&Ancheta'
There' is' substantial' distinction' between' those' who' did' not' commit' any' actionable' There'is'substantial'distinction'between'nonOresident'aliens'and'resident'aliens'when'
wrong' against' those' who' instigated' and' committed' such' wrongs' (8)& Republic& v.& what'is'in'question'is'the'issuance'of'employment'permits'(22)&GMC&v.&Torres'

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
People' who' work' with' substantially' equal' qualifications,' skill,' effort' and' preliminary'investigation'and'further'proceedings'in'cases'it'handles'(45)&Dimayuga&v.&
responsibility,'under'similar'conditions,'should'be'paid'similar'salaries'(whether'they' OMB'
are'Filipino'or'not)'(31)&International&School&Alliance&of&Educators&v.&Quisumbing' The' Ombudsman' may' impose' suspension' to' prevent' accused' public' officers' from'
Different' classifications' of' employees' in' terms' of' their' respective' wage' structures' committing' acts' that' would' either' affect' the' case' or' those' that' could' create' more'
violates' the' EPC' if' no' substantial' distinctions' are' shown' between' the' groups' (42)& harm'(23)&Segovia&v.&Sandiganbayan;&(49)&Gobenciong&v.&CA'
Central&Bank&Employees&Association&v.&BSP' &
There'is'substantial'distinction'between'obese'cabin'attendants'against'others'given' (14)&Lim&v.&Pacquing&
that'the'formers'immobility'can'impeded'passengers'from'evacuation'the'aircraft'in' Franchise' is' not' a' simple' contract' but' a' mere' privilege' which' is' within' the'
cases'of'emergency'(46)&Yrasuegi&v.&PAL' governments'power'to'regulate'and'even'prohibit'thru'the'exercise'of'police'power.'
Even'if'a'law'seeks'to'alleviate'the'burden'of'another'sector'of'society,'if'it'transfers' A'gambling'franchise'is'always'subject'to'the'exercise'of'police'power'for'the'public'
such' unjust' and' discriminatory' burden' on' others' (OFWs),' it' is' contrary' to' law' (51)& welfare.'
Serrano&v.&Galant&Maritime&Services&Inc.' '
& (23)&Segovia&v.&Sandiganbayan&
8.&Permits,&Benefits&and&Privileges& Its' discretion' lies' only' during' the' preOsuspension' hearing' where' it' is' required' to'
A' valid' classification' with' regard' to' privileges' must' admit' of' substantial' distinctions' ascertain'whether'or'not
between' the' groups' concerned' for' it' to' be' considered' constitutional.' There' is' no' (1)'The'accused'had'been'afforded'due'preliminary'investigation'prior'to'the'filling'of'
substantial'distinction'between'branches'of'government'(20)&Phil&Judges&v.&Prado' the'information'against'him,
The'Mayor'does'not'have'unbridled'discretion'in'granting'business'permits.'To'make' (2)' The' acts' for' which' he' was' charged' constitute' a' violation' of' the' provisions' of'
a' valid' classification,' the' requirements' of' the' EPC' must' still' be' coplied' with.' (21)& Republic' Act.' No.' 3019' or' of' the' provisions' of' title' 7,' Book' II' of' the' revised' Penal'
Olivarez&v.&Sandiganbayan' Code,'or
There'is'substantial'distinction'between'nonOresident'aliens'and'resident'aliens'when' (3)'The'information'against'him'can'be'quashed,'under'any'of'the'grounds'provided'
what'is'in'question'is'the'issuance'of'employment'permits'(22)&GMC&v.&Torres' in'Section'2,'Rules'117'of'the'Rules'of'Court.'(People5vs.5Albana,5etc.,5at5al.5Supra,5fn.5
Lawmakers'have'the'discretion'to'grant'benefits'to'specific'areas'only'which'have'the' 26)
capability' of' luring' in' big' investments' and' many' employment' opportunities' for' '
Filipinos'(26)&Tiu&v.&CA'
If'there'is'substantial'equality'in'the'roles'people'from'different'positions'play'in'the'
judiciary,' classification' for' certain' benefits' and' privileges' with' regard' to'
compensation'is'prohibited'(44)&In&re&Request&of&ACA'
&
9.&Office&of&the&Ombudsman&&EPC&is&NOT&applicable&
The'Office'of'the'Ombudsman'can'choose'to'act'on'any'complaint'filed'in'any'manner'
(no' need' for' verified' complaints,' sworn' statements' and' full' disclosure' of' identity)'
against'public'officials'(13)&Almonte&v.&Vasquez'
The' Office' of' the' Ombudsman' has' the' sole' discretion' of' whether' or' not' to' pursue'

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
PROCEDURAL*DUE*PROCESS* 3. Informed#of#the#evidence#against#them#
4. Right#to#adduce#evidence#on#their#own#behalf#
*
5. Evidence#must#be#duty#considered#by#the#investigating#body.#
I.*Judicial*Proceedings*
#
A.*Requisites*for*judicial*proceedings:*CJAOJ*
IV.*Deportation*Lao*Gi*v.*CA*
Banco* Espaol* Filipino* v.* Palanca;* State* Prosecutors* v.* Muro;* People* v.* Teehankee;* Ang*
A.*Elements*of*Due*Process*in*Deportation*Proceedings*(SPARP)#
Tibay*v.*CIR*
1. Charges#against#an#alien#must#specify#the#acts#or#omissions#complained#of#
1. Court#tribunal#clothed#with#judicial#power#
2. Preliminary* investigation# must# be# conducted# to# determine# if# there# is# sufficient#
2. Jurisdiction#lawfully#acquired#over#person#or#property#
cause#to#charge#respondent#with#deportation#
3. Defendant#must#be#given#an#opportunity#to#be#heard#
3. Rules# of# Criminal# Procedure# should# be# followed# (with# respects# to# warrants,# bail,#
4. Judgment#must#be#rendered#upon#lawful#hearing#
motion#to#quash,#trial).#
*
4. Private#prosecutors#should#not#be#allowed#to#intervene.#
II.*Administrative*and*QuasiAJudicial*Proceedings*
#
A.*Requisites*for*administrative*proceedings,*in*general*[HEDSBIK]*
V.*Regulations:*Fixing*of*Rates*and*Regulations*of*Professions*
Ang*Tibay*v.*CIR*
A.*Fixing*of*Rates*Maceda*v.*ERB*
1. Right#to#a#hearing#and#to#submit#evidence#
Distinguishing#QuasiMlegislative#and#quasiMjudicial#functions#
2. Tribunal#must#consider#the#evidence#
o QuasiMlegislative#!#affects#the#general#public.#
3. Decision#must#have#something#to#support#itself#
o QuasiMjudicial#!#affects#only#the#parties#to#the#case.#
4. Evidence#must#be#substantial1#
Other#cases:#Globe#Telecom#v.#NTC;#Corona#v.#UHPAP#
5. Decision#must#be#based#on#the#evidence#presented#in#the#hearing#
#
6. Tribunal#acts#on#its#own#independent#consideration#of#the#law#and#facts#
B.*Regulation*of*Professions*Corona*v.*UHPAP*
7. The# tribunal# should# render# its# decision# in# such# manner# that# the# parties# know# the#
Profession#is#a#property#right#but#its#not#a#vested#one.#
various#issued#involved#and#the#reason#for#the#decision#
* As# a# general# rule,# notice# and# hearing# as# fundamental# requirements# of# procedural#
due#process,#are#not#essential#when#an#administrative#body#exercises#its#executive#
B.*Jurisprudence*on*due*process*in*special*administrative*proceedings:*
or# quasiMjudicial# function.# In# the# performance# of# its# executive# or# legislative#
1. Extradition#Government*of*Hong*Kong*v.*Olalia#
functions,# such# as# issuing# rules# and# regulations,# an# administrative# body# need# not#
#
III.*Academic*Discipline* comply#with#the#requirements#of#notice#and#hearing.#
A.*Minimum*standards*for*imposition*of*disciplinary*sanctions*in*schools*(IAAIAC);#ADMU* *
v.*Capulong* VI.*Dismissals,*Suspensions,*Reinstatements,*etc.*
1. Students#must#be#informed#of#the#nature#and#cause#of#any#accusation#against#them# A.*Dismissal*in*Government*Boards*and*Commissions*Abalos*v.*CSC*
2. Right#to#answer#the#charges,#with#assistance#of#counsel#if#desired# Part# of# procedural# due# process# is# to# be# accorded# the# right# to# be# heard,# and# to#
present#evidence#of#ones#innocence.#*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! *
1!Substantial!evidence!!!reasonable!evidence!as!a!reasonable!mind!might!accept!as!adequate!to!support!a! B.*Dismissal*in*Private*Sector*Salaw*v.*NLRC*
conclusion*
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
Notice# and# Hearing# !# BOTH# must# be# given# to# the# employee,# otherwise,# the# he#opts#to#be#silent#where#he#has#a#right#to#speak,#he#cannot#later#complain#that#he#
dismissal#is#illegal.## was#unduly#silenced.#
* *
C.*Preventive*Suspension*Alonzo*v.*Capulong* IX.*Tariff*and*Customs*Code*Feeder*v.*CA*
Purpose# of# Preventive# Suspension:# To# prevent# the# accused# from# using# his# position# Due# Process# involves# the# right# to# be# presumed# innocent# until# proven# guilty# !#
or#office#to#influence#prospective#witnesses#or#tamper#with#the#records#which#may# Petitioner,#which#is#a#corporate#entity,#has#no#personality#to#invoke#the#right#to#be#
be#vital#in#the#prosecution#of#the#case#against#him.# presumed#innocent,#which#right#is#only#available#to#an#individual#who#is#an#accused#
Prior# notice# and# hearing# was# not# required.# It# is# now# settled# that# the# preventive# in#a#criminal#case.#
suspension# of# a# civil# service# employee# or# officer# can# be# ordered# even# without# a# *
hearing#because#such#suspension#is#not#a#penalty#but#only#a#preliminary#step#in#an# X.*Closure*Proceedings*CB*v.*CA*
administrative#investigation.# In#closure#proceedings,#due#process#does#not#necessarily#require#a#prior#hearing;#a#
* hearing#or#an#opportunity#to#be#heard#may#be#subsequent#to#the#closure.#
VII.*Ordinance/Statute/Memo*CIR/Rules* *
A.*Challenges*to*the*validity*of*penal*laws/ordinances* XI.*Cancellation*of*Property*Rights/Privileges*
Void* for* Vagueness* Doctrine# !# a# statute# or# act# is# said# to# be# vague# when# it# lacks# ABAKADA*v.*Ermita*
comprehensible# standards# that# men# of# common# intelligence# must# necessarily# Due#process:#input#tax#is#not#a#property#right#but#a#statutory#right.#
guess#at#its#meaning#and#differ#as#to#application.#People*v.*Nazario* Input# tax# !# tax# that# is# passed# on# to# consumers# by# manufacturers# or# product*
Vague#laws#are#repugnant#to#the#Constitution#in#two#ways:* providers.##
o Violates#due#process#for#failure#to#inform#and#give#fair#notice#to#persons#of# British*American*Tobacco*v.*Camacho*
the#conduct#to#be#avoided.* Elements#of#estoppel,#as#related#to#the#party#to#be#estopped,#are:##
o Leaves#law#enforcers#unbridled#discretion#in#carrying#out#its#provisions#and# 1. Conduct#amounting#to#false#representation#or#concealment#of#material#facts;#or#at#
becomes# an# arbitrary# flexing# of# government# muscle.# People* v.* Nazario;* least# calculated# to# convey# the# impression# that# the# facts# are# other# than,# and#
Estrada*v.*Sandiganbayan* inconsistent#with,#those#which#the#party#subsequently#attempts#to#assert;##
Other#notes#on#Estrada#v.#Sandiganbayan* 2. Intent,#or#at#least#expectation#that#this#conduct#shall#be#acted#upon#by,#or#at#least#
o Overbreadth# Doctrine# !# a# government# purpose# may# not# be# achieved# by# influence,#the#other#party;#and##
means# which# sweep# unnecessarily# broadly# and# thereby# invade# the# area# of# 3. Knowledge,#actual#or#constructive,#of#the#real#facts.#
political#freedoms* *
o Overbreadth# and# vagueness# doctrines# (facial# challenge# have# special# XII.*Administrative*and*Preliminary*Investigation**Ombudsman*
application#only#to#free#speech#cases.* There#is#not#constitutional#right#to#preliminary#investigation#
To#invalidate#a#penal#statute,#an#as#applied#challenge#is#needed.* #
* XIII.*Publication*Requirement*
VIII.*Suretyship*Stronghold*Insurance*v.*CA* Internal#rules#and#regulations#need#not#be#published.#However#if#it#affects#the#rights#
Due# Process# and# the# Right# to# be# Heard# !# Due# Process# is# not# violated# where# a# of#the#public,#notification#is#indispensable.#(22)*Pilipinas*Kao*v.*CA*
person#is#not#heard#because#he#has#chosen,#for#whatever#reason,#not#to#be#heard.#If#

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SUBSTANTIVE*DUE*PROCESS* *
C.*Scope*of*Police*Power*(Lawful*Subjects)*
*
Scope"of"Police"Power:"Public"health,"safety,"morals,"comfort"or"general"welfare"of"the"
Relevance:" a" guarantee" against" the" exercise" of" arbitrary" power" even" when" the"
community"(2)*Churchill*v.*Rafferty"
power"is"exercised"according"to"proper"forms"and"procedure1"
Police" power" however" cannot" infringe" on" constitutional" rights" such" as" permanently"
Primarily"a"safeguard"against"police"power."The"standards"for"substantial"due"process"
depriving" an" individual" use" of" his" property" such" as" land" (3)* People* v.* Fajardo," or"
are"the"standards"for"valid"exercise"of"police"power."
legitimate"businesses"such"as"movies"houses"or"hotels"(6)*Balacuit*v.*CFI*Agusan*del*
"
Norte;"(4)*ErmitaRMalate*Hotel* and*Motel*Operators*Association,*Inc.*v.*Mayor*
I.*Police*Power*
A.*General*Points** of*Manila;"(50)*White*Light*Corporation*v.*City*of*Manila"
o Property"right"has"to"be"a"vested"right"(38)*Espinocilla*v.*Bagong*Tanyag"
Police"power"is"concerned"with"the:*
o Legitimate"governmental"functions* Profession"as"a"property"right"may"be"validly"regulated"especially"if"it"concerns"public"
health," morals" or" welfare" (14)* JMM* Promotion* and* Management,* Inc.* v.* Court* of*
o Preservation"of"the"State*
o Public"health,"welfare,"and"morals2"* Appeals;*(4)*St.*Lukes*v.*NLRC;*Corona*v.*UHPAP*
The"most"essential,"insistent"and"the"least"limitable"of"powers,"extending"as"it"does" Police"power"cannot"intrude"to"the"extent"of"intruding"a"persons"right"to"privacy"(16)"
to"all"the"great"public"needs*3* Ople*v.*Torres;*(35)*KMU*v.*Dir.*Gen.*
Exercised" by" the" legislative" but" can" be" delegated," within" limits," to" local" Compulsory" licensing" of" intellectual" property" is" for" the" benefit" of" the" public" and"
governments.* therefore"a"lawful"subject"for"the"exercise"of"police"power"(20)*Smith*Kline*v.*CA*
A"power"to"regulate"or"to"prohibit.* Regulation"of"firearms"have"long"been"held"as"a"valid"subject"for"the"exercise"of"police"
power"(25)*Chavez*v.*Romulo*
Publication" is" necessary" for" due" process." Internal" rules" and" regulations" need" not" be"
published."However"if"it"affects"the"rights"of"the"public,"notification"is"indispensable." Regulation" of" pension" is" possible" but" it" must" be" within" lawful" means" (e.g." prevent"
(23)*Pilipinas*Kao,*Inc.*v.*Court*of*Appeals* deathbed"marriages)"(26)*GSIS*v.*Montescarlos*
* Private" businesses" (e.g." commercial" blood" banks)" must" give" way" to" public" health"
B.*Requisites*of*Police*Power4* which"the"state"has"the"authority"to"regulate"(30)*Beltran*v.*Secretary*of*Health*
1. Legal"Subject"!"Required"by"the"interests"of"the"public" Traffic" congestion" is" a" lawful" subject" of" police" power." However," it" is" not" the"
2. Legal"Method"!"Means"used"are"reasonably"necessary"" terminals" but" the" indiscriminate" loading" and" unloading" which" must" be" addressed."
(1)*US*v.*Toribio;*(2)*Churchill*v.*Rafferty;*(3)*People*v.*Fajardo;*(4)*ErmitaRMalate*Hotel* (32)*Lucena*Grand*Terminal*v.*JAC*Liner;*(43)*MMDA*v.*Viron*
and* Motel* Operators* Association,* Inc.* v.* Mayor* of* Manila;* (5)* Ynot* v.* Intermediate* Use" of" public" highways" may" be" validly" regulated" (36)* Mirasol* v.* DPWH* and* Toll*
Appellate* Court;* (6)* Balacuit* v.* CFI* of* Agusan* del* Norte;* (7)* National* Devt* Corp.* and* Regulatory*Board*
New* Agrix,* Inc.* v.* Philippines* Veterans* bank;* (8)* ACCFA* v.* CUGCO;* (9)* Agustin* v.* Edu;* Computer"data"is"within"the"bounds"of"the"exercise"of"police"power."It"is"outside"of"
(10)*Maranaw*Hotel*v.*NLRC;*(11)*Magtajas*v.*Pryce*Properties*Corporation" its"bounds"only"when"there"is"reasonable"expectation"of"privacy"on"the"part"of"the"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! offended"party"(55)*Pollo*v.*Karina*Constantino*
1!JOAQUIN!G,!BERNAS,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!118!(2009!ed.)! *
2!JMM!Promotion!and!Management,!Inc.!v.!Court!of!Appeals,!G.R.!No.120095,!August!5,!1996! II.*Validity*of*Local*Ordinances**
3!Ermita9Malate!Hotel!and!Motel!Operators!Association,!Inc.!v.!Mayor!of!Manila,!G.R.!No.!L924693,!July!31,!1967!

4!US!v.!Toribio,!15!Phil.!85!(1910)!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONDS!(201192012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201292013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
A.*Requisites*for*the*validity*of*Local*Ordinances1*" A.*Requisites*for*judicial*review:*
1. Must"not"contravene"the"Constitution"or"any"statute" 1. Actual"and"appropriate"case"or"controversy"
2. Must"not"be"unfair"or"oppressive" 2. Locus"standipersonal"and"substantial"interest"
3. Must"not"be"partial"or"discriminatory" o A" constitutional" right" must" be" being" violated" in" order" for" the" law" to" be"
4. Must"not"prohibit"but"may"regulate"trade" entitled"to"a"judicial"review"(18)*Tan*v.*People"
5. Must"be"general"and"consistent"with"public"policy" 3. Brought"at"the"earliest"opportunity"
6. Must"not"be"unreasonable"" 4. The"consitutional"question"must"be"the"lis"mota"of"the"case"
(11)*Magtajas*v.*Pryce*Properties*Corporation;*(12)*Bennis*v.*Michigan;*(13)*Cruzan*v.* *
Director,*Missouri*Dept.*of*Health" B.*The*following*acts*of*Congress*are*not*subject*to*judicial*restraint*(in*short,*the*internal*
* processes*of*the*Congress):*
III.*Doctrine*of*Informed*Consent2* 1. Filing"of"bills"by"any"member"of"Congress"
A.*General*Points** 2. Approval"of"the"bills"by"the"members"of"Congress"
State*Interest*v.*Individual*Interest" 3. Reconciliation"by"the"Bicameral"conference"committe"
Under" the" Due" Process" Clause," all" competent" persons" have" the" right" to" refuse" 4. Approval"of"the"reconciled"bill"by"each"chamber"of"Congress"
medical" treatment." But" this" is" subject" to" the" balancing" of" interests" of" the" state" *
against"the"individuals"interest"(e.g."A"person"may"not"refuse"smallpox"vaccination" C.*Writ*of*Amparo*(44)*Sec.*of*DND*v.*Manalo;*(53)*Roxas*v.*Macapagal*Arroyo*
if"the"state"intends"to"eliminate"it)." Amparo"is"a"remedy"for"any"deprivation"of"life,"liberty,"or"property."
Informed*Consent*for*the*Incapacitated/Incompetent" Writ"of"Amparo"seeks"for"the"production"of"specific"items"(not"just"information)"to"
If"the"person"is"incompetent,"a"surrogate"can"exercise"this"right."Surrogates"actions" be"produced"or"returned."
must" be" proven," with" clear" and" convincing" evidence," that" they" conform" to" the" Amparo"provides"for"habeas&data"which"would"allow"more"questions/demands:"
patients"wishes"while"he/she"was"still"competent." o Premises"
(13)*Cruzan*v.*Director,*Missouri*Dept.*of*Health* o Information"
* Not"the"same"as"search"and"seizure"
B.*Standards*to*determine*Risk*of*Error* *
The"level"of"proof"is"to"distribute"between"the"litigants"the"risk"of"error" D.*Writ*of*Habeas*Data*(52)*MERALCO*v.*Lim;*(53)*Roxas*v.*Macapagal*Arroyo**
o If" court" grant" the" termination" of" life," and" it" turns" out" to" be" erroneous" it" Habeas"Data"is"relates"generally"to"information"of"any"form."
would"be"permanent"already" Tapuz" v." del" Rosario" !" writs" of" amparo" and" habeas" data" will" NOT" issue" to" protect"
o If" court" does" not" grant" it," and" it" turns" out" to" be" erroneous," other" events" purely"property"or"commercial"concerns"nor"when"the"grounds"invoked"in"support"of"
could" still" happen" to" correct" said" error" (e.g." eventual" natural" death" of" the"petitions"therefor"are"vague"or"doubtful."Employment"constitutes"a"property"right"
patient,"development"in"medicine,"etc.)" under"the"context"of"the"due"process"clause"of"the"Constitution."
" *
IV.*Principles*on*Judicial*Review3* V.*Equal*Protection*Clause*(EPC)*
A.*General*Points**
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Magtajas!v.!Pryce!Properties!Corporation,!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2 !Cruzan!v.!Director,!Missouri!Dept.!of!Health! 3 !Montescarlos!v.!COMELEC,!July!9,!2002!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONDS!(201192012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201292013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
(14)*JMM*Promotion*and*Management,*Inc.*v.*Court*of*Appeals* constitutionally"punished"is"unconstitutionally"vague"to"the"extent"that"it"fails"to"give"
EPC" does" not" require" absolute" equality" but" merely" equal" treatment" of" persons" adequate"warning"of"the"boundary"between"the"constitutionally"permissible"and"the"
under"the"same"conditions." constitutionally"impermissible"applications"of"the"statute."
It" does" not" forbid" classification" for" as" long" as" such" is" based" on" real" and" substantial" *
differences"having"a"reasonable"relation"to"the"subject"of"the"particular"legislation." *
If" classification" is" the" germane" purpose" of" the" law," then" the" qualification" does" not" Other*Terms/Points*
violate"the"EPC." (15)*Dans*Jr.*v.*People*
(21)*People*v.*De*la*Piedra* Demurrer* to* evidence" !" after" the" prosecution" rests" its" case," the" accused" may" file"
The"presumption"is"that"the"prosecuting"officers"regularly"performed"their"duties,"and" this"motion"to"dismiss"the"case"on"the"ground"that"there"is"no"sufficient"evidence"to"
this" presumption" can" be" overcome" only" by" proof" to" the" contrary," not" by" mere" prove"one's"guilt"
speculation." Relief:" bill" of" particulars" `" defendant" may" move" for" or" demand" a" "more" definite"
The"prosecution"of"one"guilty"person"while"others"equally"guilty"are"not"prosecuted,"is" statement"of"any"matter"which"is"not"clear"for"him""to"properly"prepare"for"trial""
not,"by"itself,"a"denial"of"the"equal"protection"of"the"laws."The"unlawful"administration" testimonial"evidence"is""formally"offered""once"the"witness"is"called"to"the"stand"
by" officers" of" a" statute" fair" on" its" face," resulting" in" its" unequal" application" to" those" (22)*Pilipinas*Kao*v.*CA*
who"are"entitled"to"be"treated"alike,"is"not"a"denial"of"equal"protection"unless"there"is" Internal"rules"and"regulations"need"not"be"published."However"if"it"affects"the"rights"
shown"to"be"present"in"it"an"element"of"intentional"or"purposeful"discrimination."But" of"the"public,"notification"is"indispensable."
a" discriminatory" purpose" is" not" presumed," there" must" be" a" showing" of" clear" and" CREBA*v.*Romulo*
intentional"discrimination." Difference"between"tax"avoidance"and"tax"evasion"
* Southern*Hemisphere*v.*ATC*
B.*Requisites** Human"Security"Act"
* Terrorism"!"sowing"terrorism"+"predicate"crime"="give"in"to"unlawful"demand"
CONSTITUTIONALITY*OF*A*STATUTE*ON*ACCOUNT*OF:** Pollo*v.*ConstantinoRDavid*
! *VAGUENESS*OR*ARBITRARINESS* Test*for*expectation*for*privacy:*(Privacy*right*is*twoRfold)*
(15)*Dans*Jr.*v.*People* 1. A"person"has"a"reasonable"expectation"of"his"personal"privacy."
A"law"is"not"vague"if"it"clearly"defines"and/or"answers"the"basic"queries" 2. Society"must"perceive"such"expectation"as"reasonable."
(21)*People*v.*De*la*Piedra* Government"Office" Private"Office"
Due"process"requires"that"the"terms"of"a"penal"statute"must"be"sufficiently"explicit"to" " Office" Home"
inform"those"who"are"subject"to"it"what"conduct"on"their"part"will"render"them"liable" Govt."computer"!"There" " "
to"its"penalties." should"be"specific"standards"
! *OVERBROAD*DOCTRINE* by"which"govt."offices"may"
A" statute" may" be" said" to" be" overbroad" where" it" operates" to" inhibit" the" exercise" of" take"action"before"opening"
individual" freedoms" affirmatively" guaranteed" by" the" Constitution," such" as" the" anothers"computer."
freedom"of"speech"or"religion."" Private"computer"in"govt."
A" generally" worded" statute," when" construed" to" punish" conduct" which" cannot" be" office"!"Still"need"

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONDS!(201192012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201292013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
"

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONDS!(201192012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201292013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
SECTION(2.( Requisites(of(valid(search(warrant((Revised(Rules(on(Criminal(Procedure,(Rule(126)!
The(right(of(the(people(to(be(secure(in(their(persons,(houses,(papers(and(effects(against( 1. Probable!cause!
unreasonable( searches( and( seizures( of( whatever( nature( and( for( any( purpose( shall( be( 2. Determined!personally!by!a!judge!
inviolable,( and( no( search( warrant( or( warrant( of( arrest( shall( issue( except( upon( probable( 3. Examination!upon!oath!or!affirmation!of!the!complainant!and!the!witnesses!
cause( to( be( determined( personally( by( the( judge( after( examination( under( oath( or( he!may!produce!
affirmation( of( the( complainant( and( the( witnesses( he( may( produce,( and( particularly( 4. Particularly!describing!the!place!to!be!searched!and!the!things!or!persons!to!
describing(the(place(to(be(searched(and(the(persons(or(things(to(be(seized.( be!seized.!
( (
I.(What(is(a(search?( A.(Probable(Cause(!
Routine(checkpoint.!Stop!involves!only!a!brief!detention!of!travellers!during!which! Defined.! Such! reasons,! supported! by! facts! and! circumstances,! as! will! warrant! a!
the!vehicles!occupants!are!required!to!answer!a!brief!question!or!two.!For!as!long! cautious! man! in! the! belief! that! his! actions,! and! the! means! taken! in! prosecuting! it,!
as!the!vehicle!is!neither!searched!nor!its!occupants!subjected!to!a!body!search,!and! are!legally!just!and!proper.!(9)(Corro(v.(Lising.!
the!inspection!of!the!vehicle!is!limited!to!a!visual!search,!said!routine!checks!cannot! o When!the!search!warrant!applied!for!is!directed!against!a!newspaper!
be!regarded!as!violative!of!an!individuals!right!against!unreasonable!searches.1(( publisher!or!editor!in!connection!with!the!publication!of!subversive!materials,!
Standing.! The! constitutional! right! against! unreasonable! searches! and! seizures! is! a! as!in!the!case!at!bar,!the!application!and/or!its!supporting!affidavits!must!
personal! right! invocable! only! by! those! whose! rights! have! been! infringed! or! contain!a!specification,!stating!with!particularity!the!alleged!subversive!
threatened!to!be!infringed.!They!must!be!actual!parties!in!interest.!(1)(SJS(v.(DDB( material!he!has!published!or!is!intending!to!publish.!Mere!generalization!will!
Requisites(of(Standing((ITR)( not!suffice.!(8)(Burgos(v.(AFP(Chief(of(Staff!
1. He!has!suffered!some!actual!or!threatened!injury!as!a!result!of!the!allegedly! One) Specific) Offense.! Under! the! rules! of! Court:! no! search! warrant! shall! issue! for!
illegal!government!conduct.! more!than!one!specific!offense!
2. Injury!is!fairly!traceable!to!challenged!action! o ScatterZshot(warrant!!!warrant!issued!for!more!than!one!specific!offense!
3. Injury!is!likely!to!be!redressed!by!a!favorable!action! (23)(Vallejo(v.(CA!
Rule( on( standing( can( be( relaxed.( For! nonFtraditional! plaintiffs,! like! ordinary! Summary) Proceeding.! Determined! in! summary! manner! because! it! merely! implies!
citizens,! taxpayers! and! legislators! when! the! public! interest! requires,! such! as! when! probability!of!guilt!and!low!quantum!and!quality!of!evidence!is!required!(16)(Webb(
the!matter!is!of!transcendental!importance,!of!overarching!significance!to!society!of! v.(De(Leon!
paramount!public!interest.( Appeal) of) finding.! An! appeal/motion! of! reinvestigation! from! a! resolution! finding! a!
( probable! cause! shall! not! hold! the! filing! the! information! in! court! (16)( Webb( v.( De(
II.(Requisites(of(a(valid(warrant( Leon!
Statutory( construction.( Statutes! authorizing! searches! and! seizures! or! search! Supreme) Courts) Rule.! The! Courts! duty! in! these! cases! is! confined! to! the! issue! of!
warrants!must!be!strictly!construed.!(3)(Alvarez(v.(CFI! whether! the! executive! or! judicial! determination! of! probable! cause! was! done! with!
Reasonableness( of( a( search( and( seizure( is( purely( a( judicial( question.! Determined! grave!abuse!of!discretions!amounting!to!lack!or!excess!of!jurisdiction.!(18)(Roberts(
from! the! circumstances! involved,! such! as! the! manner! it! was! made,! place! or! thing! v.(CA!
searched,!character!of!articles!procured.((25)(People(v.(CFI(Rizal! o This!is!consistent!with!the!general!rule!that!criminal!prosecution!may!not!be!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! stayed!by!injunction.!(18)(Roberts(v.(CA!
1 !Valmonte!v.!De!Villa!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
o Exceptions.!! routine! or! pro! forma.! Search! warrants! are! not! issued! on! loose,! vague! or! doubtful!
1. To! afford! adequate! protection! to! the! constitutional! rights! of! the! basis!of!fact,!nor!on!mere!suspicion!or!belief.!If!the!judge!is!satisfied!with!the!affidavit!
accused! of!the!complainant,!he!may!dispense!with!that!of!the!witnesses.!(22)(Uy(v.(BIR!
2. When!necessary!for!the!orderly!administration!of!justice!or!to!avoid! Personal) Knowledge.! The! oath! required! must! refer! to! the! truth! of! the! facts! within!
oppression!or!multiplicity!of!actions! the!personal!knowledge!of!the!petitioner!or!his!witnesses,!because!he!is!to!convince!
3. When!there!is!preFjudicial!question! the! magistrate,! not! the! individual! seeking! issuance! of! the! warrant,! that! probable!
4. When!the!acts!of!the!officer!are!without!or!in!excess!of!authority! cause!exists.!(22)(Uy(v.(BIR!
5. Where! the! prosecution! is! under! an! invalid! law,! ordinance! or! Hearsay)Evidence.!When!the!applicants!knowledge!of!the!facts!is!mere!hearsay,!the!
regulation! affidavit! of! one! or! more! witnesses! having! a! personal! knowledge! of! the! fact! is!
6. When!double!jeopardy!is!clearly!apparent! necessary.!(3)(Alvarez(v.(CFI!
7. Where!the!court!has!no!jurisdiction!over!the!offense! Personal)examination)unnecessary.!The!judge!is!not!required!to!personally!examine!
8. Where!it!is!a!case!of!persecution!rather!than!prosecution! the! complainant! and! his! witnesses.! (10)( Soliven( v.( Makasiar( dictates! that! the! judge!
9. Where! the! charges! are! manifestly! flase! and! motivated! by! the! lust! shall:!
for!vengeance! o Personally!evaluate!the!report!and!the!supporting!documents!submitted!by!
10. When!there!is!clearly!no!prima!facie!case!against!the!accused!and!a! the! fiscal! regarding! the! existence! of! probable! cause! and,! on! the! basis!
motion!to!quash!on!that!ground!has!been!denied.! thereof,!issue!a!warrant!of!arrest!
( o Or!if!on!the!basis!thereof!he!finds!no!probable!cause,!he!may!disregard!the!
B.( Quantum( of( evidence( required( to( establish( probable( cause( to( arrest( or( search.( (16)( fiscals! report! and! require! the! submission! of! supporting! affidavits! or!
Webb(v.(De(Leon! witnesses! to! aid! him! in! arriving! at! a! conclusion! as! to! the! existence! of!
Search)Cases.!That!the!items!sought!are!in!fact!seized!by!virtue!of!being!connected! probable!cause.!(7)(Placer(v.(Villanueva!
with!criminal!activity,!and!that!the!items!will!be!found!in!place!to!be!searched.!It!is! (
not!also!necessary!that!a!particular!person!be!implicated.! D.(Particularly(describing(the(place(to(be(searched(and(the(person(or(things(to(be(seized!
Arrest) Cases.) There! must! be! probable! cause! that! a! crime! has! been! committed! and! Purpose) of) requirement.! To! limit! the! things! to! be! seized! to! those,! and! only! those,!
that! the! person! to! be! arrested! committed! it,! which! of! course! can! exist! without! any! particularly!described!in!the!search!warrant!!to!leave!the!officers!of!the!law!with!
showing! that! evidence! of! the! crime! will! be! found! at! premises! under! that! persons! no! discretion! regarding! what! articles! they! shall! seize,! that! abuses! may! not! be!
control.! committed.!(6)(Bache(&(Co.(v.(Ruiz!
( Particularity.!A! search! warrant! may! be! said! to! particularly! describe! the! things! to! be!
C.( After( examination( upon( oath( or( affirmation( of( the( complainant( and( the( witnesses( he( seized!when:!(21)(Yousef(Al(Ghoul(v.(CA!
may(produce! o The! description! therein! is! as! specific! as! the! circumstances! will! ordinarily!
Oath.! Any! form! of! attestation! by! which! a! party! signifies! that! he! is! bound! in! allow.!
conscience!to!perform!an!act!faithfully!and!truthfully;!and!is!sometimes!defined!as! o The! description! expresses! a! conclusion! of! fact! ! not! of! law! ! by! which! the!
an! outward! pledge! given! by! a! person! taking! it! that! his! attestation! or! promise! is! warrant!officer!may!be!guided!in!making!the!search!or!seizure.!
made!under!an!immediate!sense!of!his!responsibility!to!God.!(3)(Alvarez(v.(CFI! o Substantial!similarity!of!those!articles!described!as!a!class!or!species!would!
Probing) and) Exhaustive.! Examination! must! be! probing! and! exhaustive,! not! merely! suffice.((

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
o The! things! described! are! limited! to! those! which! bear! direct! relation! to! the! o Exception.! Officers! of! certain! corporations! cannot! validly! object! to! the! use!
offense!for!which!the!warrant!is!being!issued.!( in!evidence!against!them!of!the!documents,!papers,!and!things!seized!from!
Not)Particular.!Seizure!of!items!not!specified!in!the!warrants!cannot!be!justified!by! the! offices! and! premises! of! the! corporations! since! the! right! to! object! to!
the! directive! to! seize! and! take! possession! of! other! properties! relative! to! such! their! admission! in! evidence! belongs! exclusively! to! the! corporations,! to!
violation,!which!in!now!way!can!be!characterized!as!a!particular!description!of!the! which! the! seized! effects! belong,! and! may! not! be! invoked! by! the! corporate!
things!to!be!seized.!(22)(Uy(v.(BIR! officers!in!proceedings!against!them!in!their!individual!capacity.!
Place.! A! description! of! a! place! to! be! searched! is! sufficient! if! the! officer! with! a! Corporations(are(protected(by(Section(2.(It!is!an!association!of!individuals!under!an!
warrant! can,! with! reasonable! effort,! ascertain! and! identify! the! place! intended.! (2)( assumed! name! and! with! a! distinct! legal! entity.! In! organizing! itself! as! a! collective!
People(v.(Veloso! body,!it!waives!no!constitutional!immunities!appropriate!to!such!body.!Its!property!
o The! controlling! subject! of! search! warrants! is! the! place! indicated! in! the! cannot! be! taken! without! compensation.! It! can! only! be! proceeded! against! by! due!
warrant! itself! and! not! the! place! identified! by! the! police.! (20)( People( v.( process!of!law,!and!is!protected!against!unlawful!discrimination.!(6)(Bache(&(Co.(v.(
Francisco! Ruiz.!
Role) of) Police/Agents.! The! place! cannot! be! changed,! enlarged,! or! amplified! by! the! Closure( of( a( publishing( house( in( search( warrant( issuances( is( anathema( to( a(
police.! The! particularization! of! the! description! of! the! place! to! be! searched! may! democracy.( [s]uch! closure! is! in! the! nature! of! previous! restraint! or! censorship!
properly!be!done!only!by!the!Judge,!and!only!in!the!warrant!itself.!A!search!warrant! abhorrent!to!the!freedom!of!the!press!guaranteed!under!the!fundamental!law,!and!
is! not! a! sweeping! authority! empowering! a! reading! party! to! undertake! a! fishing! constitutes! a! virtual! denial! of! petitioners! freedom! to! express! themselves! in! print.!
expedition!to!seize!and!confiscate!any!and!all!kinds!of!evidence!or!articles!relating! This!state!of!being!is!patently!anathematic!to!a!democratic!framework!where!a!free,!
to!a!crime.!(20)(People(v.(Francisco! alert,!and!even!militant!press!is!essential!for!the!political!enlightenment!and!growth!
JOHN( DOE( Warrant.! Must! contain! the! best! description) personae! possible! to! be! of!the!citizenry.!(8)(Burgos(v.(AFP(Chief(of(Staff!
obtained!of!the!person!or!persons!to!be!apprehended,!and!this!description!must!be! (
sufficient!to!indicate!clearly!the!proper!person!or!persons!upon!whom!the!warrant! IV.(Exception(to(the(General(Rule(that(prosecution(bodies(are(bereft(of(the(ability(to(issue(
is! to! be! served;! and! should! his! personal! appearance! and! peculiarities,! give! his! warrants(of(arrest:(The(arrest(of(aliens(for(deportation!
occupation!and!place!of!residence,!and!any!other!circumstances!by!means!of!which! PRESIDENT(may(issue(WARRANT(OF(ARREST(of(aliens(for(deportation.(The!power!
he!can!be!identified.!(2)(People(v.(Veloso! to!deport!an!alien!is!a!police!measure!against!undesirable!aliens!whose!presence!in!
Search( made( at( night.! Section( 101( of( General( Orders,( No.( 58! authorizes! that! the! the!country!is!found!to!be!injurious!to!the!public!good!and!domestic!tranquility!of!
search! be! made! at! night! when! it! is! positively! asserted! in! the! affidavits! that! the! the!people.!
property!is!on!the!person!or!in!the!place!ordered!to!be!searched!(3)(Alvarez(v.(CFI! Power( of( Commissioner( of( Immigration.! Immigration( Act( of( 1940:( Section( 37(a).!
General( Warrants.( General! search! warrants! are! outlawed! because! they! place! the! The! following! aliens! shall! be! arrested! upon! the! warrant! of! the! Commissioner! of!
sanctity! of! the! domicile! and! the! privacy! of! communication! and! correspondence! at! Immigration!or!of!any!other!officer!designated!by!him!for!the!purpose!and!deported!
the!mercy!of!the!whims,!caprice,!or!passion!of!peace!officers!(4)(Stonehill(v.(Diokno! upon! the! warrant! of! the! Commissioner! of! Immigration! after) a) determination) by) the)
! Board) of) Commissioner) of) the) existence) of) the) ground) for) deportation) as) charged)
III.(Exclusionary(Doctrine( against)the)alien!(12)(Board(of(Commissioners((CID)(v.(Dela(Rosa!
Exclusionary( Rule.! All! evidence! obtained! from! illegal! searches! and! seizures! are! o The! Commissioner! of! Immigration! may! issue! warrants! of! arrest! only! after! a!
deemed!inadmissible.! determination!by!the!Board!of!Commissioners!of!the!existence!of!the!ground!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
for!deportation!as!charged!against!the!alien.!
o The!warrant!of!arrest!must!be!for!the!sole!purpose!of!executing!a!final!order!
of! deportation.! A! warrant! of! arrest! issued! by! the! Commissioner! of!
Immigration! for! purposes! of! investigation! only,! as! in! the! case! at! bar,! is! null!
and!void!for!being!unconstitutional.!
Two(types(of(Preliminary(Investigation((13)(Lim(Sr.(v.(Judge(Felix!
1. Preliminary!investigation!proper!!!made!by!the!fiscal,!executive!in!nature,!to!
determine!probable!cause!for!knowing!whether!or!not!to!file!a!case.!
2. Preliminary!investigation!to!issue!warrant!!!made!by!the!judge,!judiciary!in!
nature,!to!determine!probable!cause!whether!or!not!to!issue!a!warrant.!
Partially(Defective(Warrant.(It!remains!valid!as!to!the!items!specifically!described!in!
the!warrant.!A!search!warrant!is!severable,!the!items!not!sufficiently!described!may!
be!cut!off!without!destroying!the!whole!warrant.!
Superseding(Warrant.!Where!the!apparent!intent!in!issuing!another!warrant!was!to!
supersede! an! earlier! warrant,! the! latter! should! be! deemed! revoked! by! the! former.!
Indeed! it! would! be! absurd! for! the! judge! to! issue! on! a! single! occasion! two! warrants!
authorizing!the!search!of!a!single!place!for!a!single!offense.!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
WARRANTLESS)SEARCHES)AND)SEIZURES) o As)shown)in)People)v.)Malmstedt,)police)checkpoints)can)also)be)a)situation)
where)a)moving)vehicle)can)be)searched.)(30))People)v.)Malmstedt)
)
o An)extensive)search)without)warrant)could)only)be)resorted)to)if)the)officers)
I.)Exceptions)to)the)search)warrant)requirement:)(IMPECEWES))
conducting) the) search) had) reasonable) or) probable) cause) to) believe) before)
1. Search)incidental)to)an)arrest)
the)search)that)either)the)motorist)was)a)law)offender)or)that)they)would)find)
2. Search)of)moving)vehicles)
the) instrumentality) or) evidence) pertaining) to) the) commission) of) a) crime) in)
3. Seizure)of)evidence)in)plain)view)
the)vehicle)to)be)searched.)(32))Aniag)v.)COMELEC)
4. Customs)searches)
)
5. Where)there)is)a)waiver)of)the)right)
C.)Evidence)in)plain)view)
Rare)exceptions)are)the)rules)on:)
Harris)v.)U.S.)defined)this)exception)as)objects)falling)in)the)plain)view)of)an)officer)
6. Exigent)circumstances)(24))MHP)Garments)v.)CA)
who)has)the)right)to)be)in)position)to)have)that)view)are)subject)to)seizure)and)may)
7. Stop)and)frisk)
be)introduced)as)evidence.)
)
This)was)modified)in)Coolidge)which)said)that)the)discovery)must)be)inadvertent.)It)
The)requisite)of)probable)cause)must)still)be)satisfied)before)a)warrantless)search)and)
is)not)inadvertent)if)the)evidence)was)discovered)by)an)officer)after)poking)around.3)
seizure)can)be)lawfully)conducted.)Probable)cause)must)be)based)only)on)reasonable)
Requisites)needed)under)the)Plain)View)Doctrine:)(38))Fajardo)v.)People)
ground)of)suspicion)or)belief)that)a)crime)has)been)or)about)to)be)committed.)This)is)
1. Law)enforcer)in)search)of)the)evidence)has)a)prior)justification)for)an)intrusion)or)is)in)
decided)not)by)a)judge)but)by)a)searching)officer.1)
a)position)from)which)he)can)view)a)particular)area))
)
2. Discovery)of)the)evidence)in)plain)view)is)inadvertent)and)
A.)Search)incidental)to)an)arrest)
3. It)is)immediately)apparent)to)the)officer)that)the)item)he)observes)may)be)evidence)
Prevailing) doctrine) is) from) the) case) of) (27)) Nolasco) v.) Pao,) where) Chief) Justice)
of)a)crime)or)subject)to)seizure)
Teehankee)opined)that)searches)incidental)to)an)arrest)should)be)a)strict)application)
)
of)the)exception)provided)in)Rule)126,)Section)12)and)limited)to)dangerous)weapons)
D.)Customs)Searches)(28))Papa)v.)Mago)
or) anything) which) may) be) used) as) proof) of) the) commission) of) the) offense.) This)
An)individual)deputized)by)the)Commission)of)Customs)for)the)purpose)of)enforcing)
excludes)searches)in)places)other)than)the)place)of)arrest.2)
customs) and) tariff) laws) may) validly) search) containers) without) a) warrant) if) there) is)
)
reasonable)cause)to)suspect)the)presence)of)dutiable)articles.)
B.)Search)of)moving)vehicle.)(25))People)v.)CFI)Rizal)
The)Tariff)and)Customs)Code)authorizes)persons)having)police)authority)to)enter)and)
From) the) leading) case) Carrol) v.) U.S.) rose) a) portion) of) the) Volstead) Act) allowing)
search)any)land,)dwelling,)warehouse,)store)or)building,)not)being)a)dwelling)house,)
warrantless) arrests) where) it) is) not) practicable) to) secure) a) warrant) because) the)
and)inspect)ay)vessel)or)aircraft)suspected)of)holding)dutiable)or)prohibited)articles.)
vehicle)can)be)quickly)moved)out)of)the)locality)or)jurisdiction)in)which)the)warrant)
)
must)be)sought.)
E.)Waiver)of)Right)
This)exception)must)be)distinguished)from)customs)searches.)
Right) against) unreasonable) searches) may) be) waived) expressly) or) impliedly.) Waiver)
Probable)cause)is)still)required)for)a)reasonable)search)of)moving)vehicle.)
can)be)shown)by)failure)to)make)an)objection)or)protest.4)
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!203!(2009!ed.)! 3 !Id.,!p.!197!
2!Id.,!p.!192.! 4 !Id.,!p.!198!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
A)waiver)must)be)understood)to)cover)only)what)is)included)within)the)terms)of)the) WARRANTLESS)ARRESTS)
language.1)
)
Requisites)of)a)valid)waiver)(44))People)v.)Burgos)
I.)Arrests)with)warrant)
1. The)right)exists)
A)case)Amarga)v.)Abbas)held)that)both)search)warrants)and)warrants)of)arrest)must)
2. The)person)involved)has)knowledge,)actual)or)constructive,)of)the)existence)of)such)
satisfy)the)same)requirements)as)to)probable)cause)and)manner)of)its)determination.)
right.)
3. The)aid)person)had)an)actual)intention)to)relinquish)the)right) A)judge)must)personally)examine)the)complainant)and)witnesses)in)writing)and)under)
) oath)before)determining)probable)cause)and)issuing)a)warrant)of)arrest.)
F.)Exigent)Circumstance) )
II.)Warrantless)Arrest)
Came)about)during)attempts)to)overthrow)President)Cory)Aquinos)administration.)In)
People)v.)De)Gracia,)a)surveillance)team)was)fired)upon)by)a)group)of)men)coming)out) Exceptions)to)the)requirement)of)an)arrest)warrant)are)discussed)in)Section)5,)Rule)
of)a)building)believed)to)be)used)as)headquarters)of)RAM.) 113,)Rules)on)Criminal)Procedure.)
) )
G.)Stop)and)Frisk)Rule) Section)5.)Arrest&without&a&warrant;&when&lawful&&A)peace)officer)or)private)
may)without)a)warrant,)arrest)a)person:)
Stop)and)Frisk)(Terry)vs.)Ohio):)"a)police)officer)may)in)appropriate)circumstances)
a. When)his)presence,)person)to)be)arrested)has)committed,)is)actually)
and) in) an) appropriate) manner) approach) a) person) for) the) purpose) of) investigating)
committing,)or)attempting)to)commit)an)offense;)
possible) criminal) behaviour) even) though) there) is) no) probable) cause) to) make) an)
b. When) an) offense) has) been) committed,) and) he) has) personal)
arrest.")In)such)a)situation,)it)is)reasonable)for)an)officer)rather)than)allow)a)crime)to)
knowledge) of) facts) indicating) that) person) to) be) arrested) has)
occur,)to)stop)a)suspicious)individual)briefly)to)determine)his)identity)or)maintain)the)
committed)it;)
status)quo)while)obtaining)more)information.)(31))Posadas)v.)CA)
c. When)the)person)to)be)arrested)is)a)prisoner)who)has)escaped)from)
Stop)and)Frisk)rule)serves)a)two`fold)interest:)
penal) establishment) or) place) where) he) is) serving) final) judgment) or)
1. Effective) crime) prevention) and) detection) ) under) appropriate) circumstances) and)
temporarily)confined)while)his)case)is)pending,)or)has)escaped)while)
manner,) a) police) officer) may) approach) a) person) to) investigate) possible) criminal)
being)transferred)from)one)confinement)to)another.)
behavior)even)without)probable)cause.)(48))Manalili)v.)CA)
)
2. Safety) and) self`preservation) ) for) an) officer) to) assure) himself) that) the) person) he) is)
In)cases)falling)under)paragraphs)a)and)b)hereof,)the)person)arrested)without)
dealing)with)is)not)armed)with)a)deadly)weapon)that)can)be)fatally)used)against)him.)
a)warrant)shall)be)forthwith)delivered)to)the)nearest)police)station)or)jail,)and)
)
he)shall)be)proceeded)against)in)accordance)with)Rule)112,)Section)7.)
II.)SuspicionEless)drug)tests)
)
Two)US)decisions)(Vernonia)School)District)v.)Action)and)Board)of)Educators)v.)Earls))
A.)Flagrante)Delicto)
upheld)the)policy)of)requiring)drug)tests)for)students.)The)latter)case)indicated)that)
Being)caught)of)possession)of)shabu)or)heroin)through)a)routine)airport)inspection)is)
what) is) essential) are) the) schools) custodial) responsibility) and) authority,) nature) of)
a)valid)arrest.)(17))People)v.)Woolock;)(37))People)v.)Canton)
intrusion,)confidentiality)of)test)results,)and)legitimate)government)interest.)
A)buy`bust)operation)is)a)form)of)entrapment)where)the)officer)poses)as)a)buyer.)He)
)
doesnt) instigate) the) accused) to) commit) a) crime) because) the) seller) has) already)
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Id.,!p.!200!
decided)to)commit)a)crime.)The)offense)happens)in)his)presence,)so)there)is)no)longer)
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
a)need)for)a)warrant)of)arrest)or)for)seizure)of)goods.1) order)for)preventive)detention)issued)by)the)president)as)Commander`in`Chief.)
The)type)of)entrapment)forbidden)by)law)is)inducing)of)another)who)is)otherwise)an) )
innocent)person)to)violate)the)law.)The)criminal)intent)originates)in)the)mind)of)the) VII.)Other)Considerations)in)determining)the)validity)of)warrantless)searches)and)arrests)
entrapping)person)and)the)accused)is)lured)into)committing)the)offense.2) Time)between)the)receipt)of)information)and)the)period)where)raid)or)arrest)was)to)
Where) the) criminal) intent) originates) from) the) accused) and) the) criminal) offense) is) be)conducted)(24))MHP)Garments)v.)CA;)(43))People)v.)Aminnudin)
completed,)a)person)acting)as)a)decoy)for)the)state,)or)aided)in)the)commission)of)the) Whether)or)not)the)person)to)be)arrested)or)the)placed)to)be)searched)is)known)(35))
crime) to) secure) evidence,) there) is) no) entrapment) and) the) accused) must) be) People)v.)Aruta;)(36))Asuncion)v.)CA)
convicted.3)
)
B.) When) the) officer) has) personal) knowledge) of) (1)) the) offense) committed) or) to) be)
committed)and)(2))the)identity)of)perpetrator)
When) the) knowledge) of) the) officer) came) entirely) from) another,) and) at) the) time) of)
the)arrest)the)defendant)was)not)committing)a)crime)nor)seemed)to)be)in)the)process)
of)committing)a)crime,)the)warrantless)arrest)is)invalid.)(44))People)v.)Burgos)
In)warrantless)arrests,)the)law)tilts)in)favor)of)the)authority.4)
In)continuing)crimes,)the)accused)is)assumed)to)be)always)committing)the)offense)
even)when)asleep.)Hence,)he)may)be)arrested)any)time)he)may)be)encountered.5)
)
V.)When)to)challenge)the)validity)of)arrest)
Section)26,)Rule)114,)Revised)Rules)in)Criminal)Procedure)says)that)an)application)for)
bail)or)admission)to)bail)by)an)accused)is)not)considered)a)waiver)of)his)right)to)assail)
the)warrant)issued)for)his)arrest)or)the)legalities)or)irregularities)thereof.6)
)
VI.)ASSOs)and)Presidential)Commitment)Orders)(PCO))
Arrest,)Search)and)Seizure)Orders)(ASSO))generally)issued)by)the)Minister)of)Defense)
by) virtue) of) General) Order) No.) 2`A) issued) by) the) President) pursuant) to) the)
proclamation)of)martial)law.)Search)and)seizures)by)the)military)of)persons)suspected)
to)be)part)of)the)revolutionary)groups)used)ASSO.)
After) lifting) martial) law) came) the) Presidential) Commitment) Order) (PCO).) It) was) an)
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!203!(2009!ed.),!p.!209!
2!Ibid.!
3!Ibid.!

4!Ibid.!

5!Id.,!p.!210.!

6!Id.,!p.!211!

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SECTION(3.( opportunity(to(be(heard(and(defend(himself,(and(assisted(by(a(representative(if(the(
(1) The(privacy(of(communication(and(correspondent(shall(be(inviolable(except(upon( employee( so( desires.( Ample( opportunity( connotes( every( kind( of( assistance( that(
lawful( order( of( the( court,( or( when( public( safety( or( order( requires( otherwise( as( management( must( accord( the( employee( to( enable( him( to( prepare( adequately( for(
prescribed(by(law.( his(defense,(including(legal(representation.((4)(Waterous(Drug(Corp.(v.(NLRC(
(2) Any( evidence( obtained( in( violation( of( this( or( the( preceding( section( shall( be( (
inadmissible(for(any(purpose(in(any(proceeding.( WAIVER(OF(RIGHTS(! (ARTICLE(III,(SECTION(2(AND(3(
(
The( constitutional( immunity( from( unreasonable( searches( and( seizures,( being(
PRIVACY(OF(COMMUNICATION(! (ARTICLE(III,(SECTION(3(1)(
personal( one,( cannot( be( waived( by( anyone( except( the( person( whose( rights( are(
Invasion( of( communication( and( correspondence( is( one( kind( of( search.1( invaded(or(one(who(is(expressly(authorized(to(do(so(in(his(or(her(behalf.((6)(People(
Communication( and( correspondence( is( to( be( used( in( its( general( sense.( Thus,( it( v.(Damaso(
covers(all(forms(of(communication(such(as(letters,(phone(calls,(and(even(electronic( Consent(to(a(search(is(a(waiver(to(the(extent(that(the(consent(is(given.((7)(Veroy(v.(
communication( like( email,( text( messaging,( etc.( (1)( SalcedoPOrtanez( v.( CA;( (2)( Layague(
Zulueta(v.(CA(
Part( of( a( persons( privacy( is( his( right( to( keep( certain( information( about( himself(
private.( Although( if( such( information( is( public( and( made( available( by( the( person(
prior( to( the( governments( institution( of( a( policy( asking( for( such( information( to( be(
made(public,(then(such(is(not(a(violation(of(ones(privacy.((5)(KMU(v.(NEDA(
(
THE(EXCLUSIONARY(RULE(! (ARTICLE(III,(SECTION(3(2)(
The( present( form( of( the( exclusionary( rule( was( an( adaptation( of( the( fruit( of( the(
poisoned(tree(doctrine(enunciated(in(Stonehill(v.(Diokno.(It(was(incorporated(into(
the( 1973( Constitution( and( then( into( the( 1987( Constitution.( Thus,( it( is( no( longer(
subject(to(the(vagaries(of(a(fluctuating(judicial(climate.2((1)(SalcedoPOrtanez(v.(CA(
In(the(absence(of(government(interference,(constitutional(rights(cannot(be(invoked(
against( the( state.( The( Bill( of( Rights( does( not( protect( citizens( from( unreasonable(
searches( and( seizures( perpetrated( by( private( individuals( (although( such( act( may(
result( in( civil( or( criminal( liabilities).( In( Walker( v.( State,( it( was( held( that( the( search(
and( seizure( clauses( are( restraints( upon( the( government( and( its( agents,( not( upon(
private(individuals.((3)(People(v.(Marti(
Procedural( due( process( requires( that( an( employee( be( apprised( of( the( charge(
against( him,( given( reasonable( time( to( answer( the( charge,( allowed( ample(
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!203!(2009!ed.),!p.217!
2 !Id.,!p.!229!
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SECTION(4.( pornography),! or! is! based! on! compelling! government! interest! that!
No(law(shall(be(passed(abridging(the(freedom(of(speech,(of(expression,(or(of(the(press,(or( also! has! constitutional! protection,! such! as! national! security! of! the!
of(the(right(of(the(people(peaceably(to(assemble(and(petition(the(government(for(redress( electoral!process.!
of(grievances.( ! Regardless! of! the! regulatory! schemes! that! broadcast! media! is!
( subjected! to,! the! Court! has! consistently! held! that! the! clear! and!
I.(General(Principles( present!danger!test!applies!to!contentFbased!restrictions!on!media,!
Free(speech(and(free(press.!The!liberty!to!discuss!publicly!and!truthfully!any!matter! without! making! a! distinction! as! to! traditional! print! or! broadcast!
of! public! interest! without! censorship! and! punishment.! There! is! to! be! no! prior! media.!
restraint! on! the! communication! of! views! or! subsequent! liability! whether! in! libel! (
suits,! prosecution! for! sedition,! or! action! for! damages,! or! contempt! proceedings! II.(Differentiation:(Limits(and(Restraints(of(Free(Speech.!(Chavez(v.(Gonzales)!
unless!there!be!a!clear!and!present!danger!of!substantive!evil!that!Congress!has!a! 3! tests! that! determine! the! validity! of! restraints! on! freedom! of! speech! and!
right!to!prevent.!(6)(Newsounds(v.(Dy! expression!(DBC)!
Free(speech(is(accorded(the(status(of(preferred(freedom.((15)(Adiong(v.(COMELEC( 1. Dangerous* Tendency* Doctrine.! Permits! limitations! once! a! rational! connection! has!
o This! status! arises! from! the! fact! that! it! is! an! indispensable! condition! to! of! been!established!between!the!speech!restrained!and!the!danger!contemplated.!
nearly!all!other!freedoms.! o Such! that! If! the! words! uttered! create! a! dangerous! tendency! which! the!
Freedom(of(Speech,(Expression,(and(of(the(Press.!(Chavez(v.(Gonzales)! state! has! a! right! to! prevent,! then! such! words! are! punishable.! It! is! not!
o The!ideas!expressed!under!this!freedom!are!confined!not!only!to!those!who! necessary! that! some! definite! or! immediate! acts! of! force,! violence,! or!
are!conventional!and!acceptable!to!the!majority!but!also!those!that!present! unlawfulness! be! advocated.! It! is! sufficient! that! such! acts! be! advocated! in!
the!articulation!of!the!unorthodox!view!thought!it!be!hostile!to!or!derided! general!terms.!(9)(Gonzalez(v.(COMELEC!
by!others.!! 2. Balancing*of*Interests*Test.*Used!when!there!is!a!need!to!balance!conflicting!social!
o The!scope!of!freedom!of!expression!is!so!broad!that!it!extends!protection!to! values! and! individual! interests;! requires! a! conscious! and! detailed! consideration! of!
nearly!all!forms!of!communication.! the!interplay!of!interests!observable!in!a!given!situation.!
Dichotomy(of(Free(Press:(Print(v.(Broadcast(Media((Chavez(v.(Gonzales)! 3. Clear* and* Present* Danger* Rule.! Speech! may! be! restrained! because! there! is!
o U.S.! Courts! have! excluded! broadcast! media! from! the! application! of! the! substantial! danger! that! the! speech! will! likely! lead! to! an! evil! the! government! has! to!
strict! scrutiny! standard! because! of! three! major! reasons! (instead! the! prevent! (substantive,! extremely! serious! danger! where! the! degree! of! imminence! is!
intermediate!approach!applies):! really!high).!(8)(Dennis(v.(US!
! Scarcity!of!the!frequencies!by!which!the!medium!operates.! o Clear!and!present!danger!does!not!mean!the!government!may!not!act!until!
! Pervasiveness!as!a!medium.! the!Putsch!(uprising/revolt)!has!been!plotted!and!on!is!the!verge!of!being!
! Unique!accessibility!to!children.! executed.!(8)(Dennis(v.(US(
o However,! in! this! jurisdiction,! cases! show! two! distinct! features! of! this! (
dichotomy:! III.( Anatomy( of( Restrictions:( Prior( Restraint,( ContentUNeutral( and( ContentUBased(
! The! difference! in! treatment! is! in! the! regulatory! scheme! applied! to! Regulations((Chavez(v.(Gonzales)!
broadcast!media!that!is!not!imposed!on!traditional!print!media,!and! Prior* Restraint.! Official! government! restrictions! on! the! press! or! other! forms! of!
narrowly! confined! to! unprotected! speech! (e.g.! obscenity,! expression!in!advance!of!actual!publication!or!dissemination;!determined!on!a!caseF

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toFcase!basis,!always!tested!by!scrutinizing!the!governmental!issuance!or!act!against! contained!in!the!record!and!disclosed!to!the!parties!affected)!
the!circumstances!in!which!they!operate,!and!then!determining!the!appropriate!test! o Tribunal,!body!or!any!of!its!judges!must!act!on!its!or!his!own!independent!
with!which!to!evaluate.! consideration!of!the!law!and!facts!of!the!controversy!and!not!simply!accept!
Content9Neutral*Regulation.!Merely!concerned!with!the!incidents!of!the!speech,!or! the!views!of!a!subordinate!
one! that! merely! controls! the! time,! place! or! manner,! and! under! well! defined! o The! board! or! body! should! render! its! decision! in! such! a! manner! that! the!
standards.! parties! to! the! proceeding! can! know! the! various! issued! involved! and! the!
o Regulations! of! this! type! are! not! designed! to! suppress! any! particular! reasons!for!the!decision!rendered.!
message,!they!are!not!subject!to!the!strictest!form!of!judicial!scrutiny!by!an! 2. While! there! is! no! controlling! and! precise! definition! of! due! process,! it! furnishes! an!
intermediate! approach! (somewhere! between! the! mere! rationality! that! is! unavoidable!standard!to!which!government!action!must!conform!in!order!that!any!
required! of! any! other! law! and! the! compelling! interest! standard! applied! to! deprivation!of!life,!liberty,!or!property,!in!each!appropriate!case,!may!be!valid.!
contentFbased!regulations).! 3. Media! is! entitled! to! the! broad! protection! of! freedom! of! speech! and! expression!
o OBrien( Test( (CSUE)! "! this! test! provides! that! a! government! regulation! is! clause.! The! test! for! limitations! on! freedom! of! expression! is! the! clear! and! present!
sufficiently!justified!if:!(18)(SWS(v.(COMELEC! danger!rule!(that!words!are!used!in!such!circumstances!and!are!of!such!nature!as!to!
1. It!is!within!the!constitutional!power!of!the!government.! create! a! clear! and! present! danger! that! they! will! bring! about! the! substantive! evils!
2. It!furthers!an!important!or!substantial!governmental!interest.! that!the!lawmaker!has!a!right!to!prevent).!
3. The! governmental! interest! is! unrelated! to! the! suppression! of! free! 4. Broadcasting!has!to!be!licensed.!The!freedom!of!television!and!radio!broadcasting!is!
expression.! somewhat!lesser!in!scope!than!print!media.!This!is!because!(1)!broadcast!media!is!
4. The!incident!restriction!on!alleged!First!Amendment!freedoms!is!no!greater! more! pervasive! and! (2)! easily! accessible! to! children.! Because! of! its! pervasiveness,!
than!is!essential!to!the!furtherance!of!that!interest.! the! impact! of! inflammatory! or! offensive! speech! on! people! would! be! difficult! to!
Content9Based* Restraint* or* Censorship.! Restriction! based! on! the! subject! matter! of! monitor! or! predict.! Unlike! readers! of! the! printed! work,! the! radio! (and! television)!
the!utterance!or!speech.! audience!has!lesser!opportunity!to!cogitate,!analyze!and!reject!the!utterance.!
o It!has!to!pass!the!clear!and!present!danger!rule!for!it!to!be!accepted.! 5. The! clear! and! present! danger! test! must! take! the! particular! circumstance! of!
( broadcast!media!into!account.!There!has!to!be!a!balance!between!the!governments!
IV.( Guidelines( for( inferior( courts( and( quasiUjudicial( administrative( tribunals( (6)( right!to!be!protected!against!broadcasts!which!incite!listeners!to!overthrow!it,!and!
Newsounds(v.(Dy! the!peoples!right!to!be!informed.!
1. The! seven! requisites! of! administrative! proceedings! in! Ang! Tibay! v.! CIR! should! be! 6. The! freedom! to! comment! on! public! affairs! is! essential! to! the! vitality! of! a!
followed!before!a!broadcast!station!is!closed!or!its!operations!curtailed.! representative!democracy.!
o Right!to!a!hearing!(includes!right!to!present!ones!case!and!submit!evidence! 7. Broadcast!stations!deserve!the!special!protection!given!to!all!forms!of!media!by!the!
in!support!thereof)! due! process! and! freedom! of! expression! clauses! of! the! Constitution! (Section( 1( and(
o Tribunal!must!consider!the!evidence!presented! Section(4,(Article(3,(1987(Constitution).!
o Decision!must!have!something!to!support!itself!! (
o Evidence!must!be!substantial! V.(Free(Press(and(Speech(visUUvis(Individual(rights((e.g.(right(to(privacy)(
! Substantial! evidence:! reasonable! evidence! as! a! reasonable! mind! A.(Press((Newspapers(and(Periodicals)(
might!accept!as!adequate!to!support!a!conclusion! Freedom!of!the!Press((Chavez(v.(Gonzales)(
o Decision!must!be!based!on!the!evidence!presented!at!the!hearing!(at!least! o Most!pervasive!and!powerful!vehicle!of!opinion!on!public!questions.(
!
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o Without! a! vigilant! press,! the! mistakes! of! every! administration! would! go! liability!for!the!first!mistake.(
uncorrected!and!its!abuses!unexposed.( A!publication!is!libelous*per*se!if!the!words!tend!to!injure!a!person!in!his!reputation!
o Given!its!contributions!to!the!public,!the!press!deserves!extra!protection.( or! to! bring! him! into! public! contempt.! Once! libel! per! se! has! been! established,! the!
The!liberty!of!the!press,!and!of!speech,!is!within!the!liberty!safeguarded!by!the!due! defendant! has! no! defense! as! to! stated! facts! unless! he! can! persuade! the! jury! that!
process! clause! of! the! 14th! Amendment! from! invasion! by! state! action( (1)( Near( v.( they!were!true!in!all!their!particulars.!(24)(New(York(Times(Co.(v.(Sullivan(
Minnesota( 1. A!rule!compelling!the!critic!of!official!conduct!to!guarantee!the!truth!of!all!
o This!immunity!from!previous!restraint,!however,!is!not!absolute.( his! factual! assertions! ! and! to! do! so! on! pain! of! libel! judgments! virtually!
! Example:! In! times! of! war,! there! are! some! things! which! the! press! unlimited!in!amount!!leads!to!a!comparable!selfFcensorship.!
cannot!report!on!lest!it!jeopardize!military!operations.( 2. The! constitutional! guarantees! require! a! federal! rule! that! prohibits! a! public!
o Enjoining!press!upon!mere!proof!of!publication!is!invalid!prior!restraint.!The! official!from!recovering!damages!for!a!defamatory!falsehood!relating!to!his!
proper!remedy!for!such!kind!of!publications!is!a!libel!case!filed!against!the! official!conduct!unless!he!proves!that!the!statement!was!made!with!actual*
publishers,! not! an! injunction.! In! a! libel! case,! the! factual! bases! of! the! malice! i.e.! with! knowledge! that! it! was! false! or! with! reckless! disregard! of!
publications!are!examined.( whether!it!was!false!or!not.!
o The!burden!of!proof!is!upon!the!government!to!show!cause!as!to!why!such! !
articles!should!not!be!published((3)(NY(Times(v.(US( B.(Motion(Picture/TV/Radio(
LIBEL( The!freedom!of!films,!television!and!radio!broadcasting!is!somewhat!lesser!in!scope!
Libel! laws! protect! two! separate! interests! of! the! individual( (25)( Rosenbloom( v.( than!the!freedom!accorded!to!newspapers!and!other!print!media,!since!the!medium!
Metromedia( is!more!pervasive((Chavez(v.(Gonzales)!
1. His!desire!to!preserve!privacy!from!intrusion! Nothing! in! national! law! exempts! media! entities! from! being! required! to! obtain!
2. To!preserve!his!good!name!and!reputation.! permits!or!licenses!from!local!governments!in!the!same!manner!as!other!businesses!
The! immunity! enjoyed! by! the! press! presupposes! that! the! derogatory! information! are!expected!to!do!so,!so!long!as!such!requirement!has!been!duly!ordained!through!
they!publish!are!both!true*and*fair,*and*made*in*good*faith!without!any!comments! local!legislation!and!contentFneutral!in!character.!No!other!restraints!are!allowed!by!
or!remarks.!(22)(Policarpio(v.(Manila(Times( law.!(6)(Newsounds(v.(Dy!
Treatise( of( Newell( on( Slander( and( Libel:( Publication! of! a! persons! photograph! in! A! noncriminal! process! which! requires! the! prior! submission! of! a! film! to! a! censor!
connection!with!an!article!libelous!of!a!third!person,!is!a!libel!on!the!person!whose! avoids! constitutional! infirmity! only! if! it! takes! place! under! procedural! safeguards!
picture! is! published,! where! the! acts! set! out! in! the! article! are! imputed! to! such! designed!to!obviate!the!dangers!of!a!censorship!system.!(2)(Freedman(v.(Maryland!
person.!(23)(Lopez(v.(CA( Censorship!must!show!proof!of!a!clear!and!present!danger!of!a!substantive!evil.((31)(
Retraction! or! correction! does! not! wipe! out! the! responsibility! arising! from! the! Gonzales(v.(KalawUKatigbak!
publication!of!the!first!article.!It!merely!mitigates!it.!(22)(Policarpio(v.(Manila(Times( Three!guidelines!as!adequate!safeguards!to!protect!against!the!undue!inhibition!of!
In!cases!of!retraction!or!correction:!(23)(Lopez(v.(CA( protected!expression!(2)(Freedman(v.(Maryland!
o Newspaper:! should! not! be! held! to! account! to! a! point! of! suppression! for! 1. Place! the! burden! of! proving! the! film! is! unprotected! expression! upon! the!
honest!mistakes!or!imperfection!in!the!choice!of!words!because!it!is!under! censors.!
pressure!of!a!daily!deadline.( 2. Require!judicial!determination!to!impose!a!valid!determination,!and!
o Magazine:! there! is! no! such! pressure! so! corrections! do! not! wipe! out! the! 3. Require!prompt!determination!within!a!specified!time!period.!

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Power!of!the![censorship]!Board!is!limited!to!the!classification!of!films,!but!it!cannot! whether! it! was! false! or! not! (i.e.! actual! malice).( (27)( Hustler( Magazine( v.(
impose! a! censorship! in! the! production! of! movies,! which! would! constitute! a! prior! Falwell!
restraint.!(31)(Gonzales(v.(KalawUKatigbak! ! Public! figures! and! public! officials! may! not! recover! for! the! tort! of!
Congress! can! grant! an! administrative! body! quasiFjudicial! power! to! preview! and! intentional!infliction!of!emotional!distress!by!reason!of!publications!
classify! TV! programs! and! enforce! its! decision! subject! to! review! by! our! courts! (28)( such! as! the! one! here! at! issue! without! showing! in! addition! that! the!
INC(v.(CA((Section(5)! publication!contains!a!false!statement!of!fact!which!was!made!with!
o Presumption! is! in! favor! of! the! correctness! of! his! action! and! courts! will! not! actual!malice.!(27)(Hustler(Magazine(v.(Falwell!
interfere!with!his!decision!unless!clearly!of!opinion!that!it!was!wrong.! Private(Individuals((26)(Gertz.(v.(Welch!
! o A! publisher! or! broadcaster! of! defamatory! falsehoods! about! private!
C.(Privacy(of(private(and(public(figures/criticism(of(courts:( individual! figures! may! not! claim! the! New! York! Times! protection! against!
The! protection! of! the! right! of! individual! persons! to! private! reputation! is! also! a! liability! for! defamation! on! the! ground! that! the! defamatory! statements!
matter! of! public! interest! and! must! be! reckoned! with! as! a! factor! in! identifying! and! concern!an!issue!of!public!or!general!interest,!because!they!are!not.!!
laying!down!the!norms!concerning!the!exercise!of!press!freedom!and!free!speech.! o Differences!between!private!and!public!individuals!
Public(Figures( Public(Figure( Private(Individual(
o Public! Figure! "! Person! who,! by! his! accomplishments,! fame,! or! mode! of! Public!figures!usually!enjoy!significantly! Private!individuals!are!more!vulnerable!to!
living,! or! by! adopting! a! profession! or! calling! which! gives! the! public! a! greater!access!to!the!channels!of!effective! injury,!and!the!state!interest!in!protecting!
legitimate! interest! in! his! doings,! his! affairs,! and! his! character.! He! is! other! communication!and!hence!have!a!more! them!is!correspondingly!greater.!
words!a!celebrity.!He!has!achieved!some!degree!of!reputation!by!appearing! realistic!opportunity!to!counteract!false!
before!the!public.!The!public!attention!is!focused!upon!him!as!a!person.!(11)( statements!than!private!individuals!normally!
Ayer(Productions(v.(Capulong! enjoy.!
o The! right! of! privacy! or! the! right! to! be! let! alone,! like! the! right! of! free! A!public!figure!runs!the!risk!of!closer!public! A!private!individual!has!relinquished!no!part!
expression,!is!not!an!absolute!right((11)(Ayer(Productions(v.(Capulong! scrutiny!as!a!necessary!consequence!of!that! of!his!interest!in!the!protection!of!his!own!
! A!limited!intrusion!into!a!persons!privacy!has!long!been!regarded!as! involvement!in!public!affairs.!Those!who! good!name,!and!consequently!he!has!a!more!
permissible!where:! attain!the!status!of!a!public!figure!have! compelling!call!on!the!courts!for!redress!of!
That!person!is!a!public!figure! assumed!roles!of!especial!prominence!in!the! injury!inflicted!by!defamatory!falsehood.!
The! information! sought! to! be! elicited! from! him! or! to! be! affairs! of! society! and! by! that! reason! they!
published!about!him!constitute!of!a!public!character.! invite!attention!and!comment.!
! The! interest! sought! to! be! protected! by! the! right! of! privacy! is! the! Criticism(of(the(courts!
right! to! be! free! from! unwarranted! publicity,! from! the! wrongful! o His!letter!is!full!of!contemptuous!remarks!tending!to!degrade!the!dignitiy!of!
publicizing!of!the!private!affairs!and!activities!of!an!individual!which! the! Supreme! Court! (SC)! and! erode! public! confidence! that! should! be!
are!outside!the!realm!of!legitimate!public!conern.! accorded! it.! SC! does! not! prohibit! a! lawyer! to! be! critical! of! the! courts! and!
o Public! figures! may! hold! a! speaker! liable! for! the! damage! to! reputation! judges! as! long! as! they! are! made! in! properly! respectful! terms! and! through!
caused!by!publication!of!a!defamatory!falsehood,!but!only!if!the!statement! legitimate!channels!(12)(Roxas(v(De(Zuzuarregui!
was! made! with! knowledge! that! it! was! false! or! with! reckless! disregard! of! o Judges! voluntarily! subject! themselves! to! norms! of! conduct,! which! embody!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
more! stringent! standards! of! honestly,! integrity,! and! competence! than! are! A.(General(Points(
required!from!private!persons!(28)(In(re(Jurado! A!clear!and!present!danger!must!be!shown!to!effect!a!contentFbased!regulation((15)(
! They!have!no!forfeited!any!right!to!private!honor!and!reputation! Adiong(v.(COMELEC(
! The! point! of! adjustment! or! accommodation! between! these! two! Regulation!of!election!campaign!may!not!pass!the!test!of!validity!if!it!is!too!general!
legitimate!interests!is!found!in!the!norm!which!requires!those!who,! in! its! terms! or! not! limited! in! time! and! scope! in! its! application,! if! it! restricts! ones!
invoking! freedom! of! speech,! publish! statements! which! are! clearly! expression!of!belief!in!a!candidate!or!ones!opinion!of!his!or!her!qualifications,!if!it!
defamatory!to!identifiable!judges!or!other!public!officials!to!exercise! cuts! off! the! flow! of! media! reporting,! and! if! the! regulatory! measure! bears! no! clear!
bona! fide! care! in! ascertaining! the! truth! of! the! statements! they! and!reasonable!nexus!with!the!constitutionally!sanctioned!objective.! (14)(National(
publish.! Press(Club(v.(COMELEC(
Other(Concepts:((29)(Borjal(v.(CA( Prohibition! on! columnists,! commentators,! and! announcers! to! use! their! column,!
o Absolute( privileged( communications( are! those! not! actionable! even! if! the! radio!or!television!time!to!campaign!for!or!against!plebiscite!issues!on!plebiscite!day!
author!of!such!communication!is!in!bad!faith.(( is! contentFbased.! Here! the! COMELEC! has! acted! beyond! its! power! and! such!
o Qualifiedly( privileged( communications( are! those! containing! defamatory! restriction!is!not!satisfied!by!the!test.!(13)(Sanidad(v.(COMELEC(
imputations! that! are! nonFactionable! unless! they! are! found! to! be! malicious! A!15F!and!7Fday!wait!period!for!the!release!of!survey!results!is!more!than(necessary(
and!false.! to!further!the!governmental!interest.!This!fails!the!OBrien!Test!for!contentFneutral!
o Doctrine( of( Fair( Comment:( While! the! general! rule! states! that! every! restrictions((18)(SWS(v.(COMELEC((
discreditable! imputation! against! a! person! is! deemed! false,! the! exception! (
states! that! if! the! imputation! is! directed! against! a! public! official,! it! is! not! B.(Not(ContentUBased(Restriction((14)(National(Press(Club(v.(COMELEC(
necessarily!actionable.!It!must!be!proven!to!be!a!false!allegation!based!on!a! It!does!not!purport!in!any!way!to!restrict!the!reporting!by!newspapers!or!radio!or!
false! supposition.! If! the! comment! is! a! mere! opinion! based! on! established! television!stations!of!news!or!newsFworthy!events!relating!to!the!elections.(
facts,!then!it!is!immaterial!that!the!opinion!be!mistaken,!as!long!as!it!may!be! It!does!not!reach!commentaries!and!expressions!of!belief!or!opinion!by!reporters!
reasonably!inferred!from!the!facts.! or! broadcasters! or! editors! or! commentators! or! columnists! xxx! so! long! at! least! as!
Other(Notes((from(Dean(Cadelarias(discussion)( such! comments,! opinions! and! beliefs! are! not! in! fact! advertisements! for! particular!
In!criticizing!courts:! candidates!covertly!paid!for.(
o Stricter!standards!with!the!SC,!being!the!highest!court!of!the!land! (
o Lower!court!judges!are!open!to!criticism! C.(ContentUBased(Restrictions((
Privacy:! The! prohibition! use! of! property! to! campaign! would! not! only! deprive! the! owner! !
o Private!Persons!!complete!protection! who!consents!to!such!posting!!the!use!of!his!property!but!more!important,!in!the!
o Public!Official! process,! it! would! deprive! the! citizen! of! his! right! to! free! speech! in! that! he! cannot!
! Private!life!!protected! support,! using! his! property,! the! candidate! whom! he! wishes! to! be! elected.( (15)(
! Public!life!!more!open!to!scrutiny! Adiong(v.(COMELEC(
o A! public! figure! is! not! always! necessarily! a! public! servant! (like! Manny! Exit(polls(generate!important!research!data!which!may!be!used!to!study!influencing!
Pacquiao)l!but!a!public!servant!is!always!necessarily!a!public!figure.! factors!and!trends!in!voting!behavior.!(17)(ABSUCBN(v.(COMELEC(
! o An!absolute!prohibition!of!such!would!thus!be!unreasonably!restrictive.(
VI.(Speech(and(Electoral(Process(
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
! Prevents!electionFday!projections.( Offensiveness( of( the( material( to! be! determined! on! community! and! not! national!
! Prevents!longFterm!research.( standards.!(30)(Miller(v.(California!
( Test( to( determine( obscenity( (Philippine( Standards).( Whether! to! the! average!
VII.(Commercial(Speech( person,!applying!contemporary!community!standards!would!find!the!work,!taken!as!
Commercial!speech!"!speech!that!concerns!only!commercial!or!economic!activity.! a!whole,!appeals!to!the!prurient*interest.((31)(Gonzales(v.(KalawUKatigbak!
o Governments! right! to! regulate! commercial! speech! is! greater! than! its! right! (
to! regulate! nonFcommercial! speech,! but! it! must! establish! a! reasonable! fit! IX.(Assembly(and(Petition(
between!its!regulation!an!the!goals!sought!to!be!achieved.((20)(Cincinnati(v.( A.(Assembly(
Discovery(NetworK! Right( to( peaceable( assemble( is( limitable.! The! right! to! peaceably! assemble! and!
Central( Hudson( Test.! Test! to! determine! whether! a! restriction! on! commercial! petition! for! redress! of! grievances! enjoys! primacy! in! the! realm! of! constitutional!
speech!passes!the!scrutiny!of!the!First!Amendment!prohibition!(LSDN).! protection.! However,! the! exercise! of! those! rights! is! not! absolute! for! it! may! be! so!
1. Commercial!speech!must!concern!lawful!activity!and!is!not!misleading! regulated! under! the! exercise! of! sovereign! police! power,! upon! showing! of! a! clear!
2. There!is!substantial!government!interest! and! present! danger! of! substantive! evil! that! the! State! has! a! right! to! prevent.! (43)(
3. The!regulation!directly!advances!the!asserted!government!interest.! Bayan(v.(Ermita(
4. Whether!it!is!not!more!extensive!than!necessary!to!serve!that!interest.! o The! government! has! the! right! to! regulate! the! time! and! manner! of! an!
Banning(signs(altogether(is(contentUbased.(A!time,!place!and!manner!restriction!is! assembly!to!allow!for!minimal!disruption!of!societys!daily!life.!(34)(Navarro(
permissible!(contentFneutral),!but!such!restraints!imposed!such!as!to!ban!a!mode!of! v.(Villegas(
expression!without!leaving!an!alternative!medium!is!contentFbased.!It!was!not!tied! o Freedom! of! speech! and! assembly! cannot! be! unduly! limited.! The! only!
to!a!harm!that!police!power!could!prevent.!(21)(City(of(Ladue(v.(Gilleo! justifiable!restriction!on!these!fundamental!liberties!is!a!strong!showing!of!a!
( clear!and!present!danger!of!a!substantive!evil!that!the!state!has!the!right!
VIII.(Obscenity( to!prevent.!(41)(JBL(Reyes(v.(Mayor(Bagatsing!
Obscenity!is!not!protected!by!the!First!Amendment.((30)(Miller(v.(California! The!right!to!assemble!is!not!subject!to!previous!restraint!or!censorship.!It!may!not!
o Nudity!"!the!showing!of!the!human!male!or!female!genitals,!pubic!area,!or! be! conditioned! upon! the! prior! issuance! of! a! permit! or! authorization! from! the!
buttocks!with!less!than!a!fully!opaque!covering,!the!showing!of!the!female! government! authorities! except! if! the! assembly! is! intended! to! be! held! in! a! public!
breast! with! less! than! a! fully! opaque! covering! of! any! part! of! the! nipple,! or! place,! a! permit! for! the! use! of! such! place,! and! not! for! the! assembly! itself,! may! be!
the!showing!of!the!covered!male!genitals!in!a!discernibly!turgid!state.!(33)( validly!required!(Chavez(v.(Gonzales)(
Barnes(v.(Glen(Theater! Under!B.P.(880,!the!authority!to!regulate!assemblies!and!rallies!is!lodged!with!the!
Basic(guideline(for(the(trier(of(fact((PPV)((U.S.(Standards! LGUs.!They!have!the!power!to!issue!permits!and!to!revoke!such!permits!after!due!
1. Whether!the!average!person,!applying!contemporary!community!standards! notice! and! hearing! on! the! determination! of! the! presence! of! clear! and! present!
would!find!the!work,!taken!as!a!whole,!appeals!to!the!prurient*interest.! danger.!(Chavez(v.(Gonzales)(
2. Whether! the! work! depicts! or! describes,! in! patently* offensive* way,* sexual! Courts!guidelines!if!the!assembly!is!to!be!held!in!school!premises:!(42)(Malabanan(
conduct!specifically!defined!by!the!applicable!state!law.! v.(Ramento!
3. Whether!the!work,!taken!as!a!whole,!lacks!serious!literary,!artistic,!political,! 1. Permit! must! be! sought! from! its! school! authorities,! who! are! devoid! of! the!
or!scientific!value.*! power!to!deny!such!request!arbitrarily!or!unreasonably.!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
2. In!granting!such!permit,!there!may!be!conditions!as!to!the!time!and!place!of! state.!
the!assembly!to!avoid!disruption!of!classes!or!stoppage!of!work!of!the!nonF o Inherent! police! power! can! be! exercised! to! prevent! religious! practices!
academic!personnel.! inimical!to!society.!
3. Even! if,! however,! there! be! violations! of! its! terms,! the! penalty! incurred! !
should!not!be!disproportionate!to!the!offense.! !
4. Their! exercise! to! discuss! matters! affecting! their! welfare! or! involving! public! !
interest! is! not! to! be! subjected! to! previous! restraint! or! subsequent!
punishment! unless! there! be! a! showing! of! a! clear! and! present! danger! to! a!
substantive!evil!that!the!state,!has!a!right!to!present.(
(
B.(Seditious(Speech(and(Communist(Party(Association(
Criticism,!no!matter!how!severe,!on!the!Executive,!the!Legislature!or!the!Judiciary,!
is!within!the!range!of!liberty!of!speech,!unless!the!intention!and!effect!be!seditious.!
But! when! the! intention! and! effect! of! the! act! is! seditious,! the! constitutional!
guaranties!of!freedom!of!speech!and!press!and!of!assembly!and!petition!must!yield!
to! punitive! measures! designed! to! maintain! the! prestige! of! constituted! authority,!
the! supremacy! of! the! constitution! and! the! laws,! and! the! existence! of! the! State!"!
Dangerous(tendency(rule(is(applicable(to(seditious(speech((7)(People(v.(Perez(
The! question! in! every! case! is! whether! the! words! used! are! used! in! such!
circumstances!and!are!of!such!a!nature!as!to!create!a!clear!and!present!danger!that!
they!will!bring!about!the!substantive!evils!that!Congress!has!a!right!to!prevent!(9)(
(8)(Dennis(v.(US(
o The!SC!said!that!the!requisite!danger!existed!in!this!case:!Communist!Party(
! There!was!a!group!ready!to!make!the!attempt(
! Highly!organized!conspiracy(
! Ideologically!attuned(
o The! effect! of! restraining! speech! here! is! only! incidental! to! suppressing! the!
association;!what!is!being!restrained!is!not!discussion,!but!advocacy.(
(
Religion(
It( is( only( where( it( is( unavoidably( necessary( to( prevent( an( immediate( and( grave(
danger( (clear( and( present( danger)( to( the( security( and( welfare( of( the( community(
that(infringement(of(religious(freedom(may(be(justified.((28)(INC(v.(CA((Section(5)!
o Where!the!individual!externalized!his!belief!in!acts!or!omissions!that!affect!
the! public,! his! freedom! to! do! so! becomes! subject! to! the! authority! of! the!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(5.( o However,% because% of% Philippine% culture,% this% rule% is% not% as% strict% in% our%
No( law( shall( be( made( respecting( an( establishment( of( religion,( or( prohibiting( the( free( jurisdiction.% For% example,% it% is% not% uncommon% to% find% a% crucifix% in% a% court%
exercise( thereof.( The( free( exercise( and( enjoyment( of( religious( profession( and( worship,( room.(
without(discrimination(or(preference,(shall(forever(be(allowed.(No(religious(test(shall(be( Public(Schools(and(Religious(Instruction(
required(for(the(exercise(of(civil(or(political(rights.( o Based% on% American% jurisprudence,% religious% instruction% particularly% the% use%
( of%State%resources%for%religious%instruction%is%not%allowed.%There%is%excessive%
I.(NonDestablishment(of(Religion:( entanglement.(
This% means% that% the% government% cannot% pass% laws% which% promote% or% inhibit% any% ! However,% if% the% law% provides% a% general% benefit% to% students%
religion.%In%other%words,%it%mandates%government%neutrality.% regardless% of% religion,% it% can% be% valid.% (4)( Board( of( Education( v.(
Four(General(Propositions(of(Government(Neutrality((PAFE)1% Allen;((8)(Zobrest(v.(Catalina(Foothills(School(District(
1. Government% must% not% prefer% one% religion% over% another,% or% religion% over% ! Thus,% the% lending% of% books% (which% are% not% religious% in% nature% but%
irreligion.% rather% secular)% is% allowable% since% the% primary% effect% did% not% inhibit%
2. Government%funds%must%not%be%used%for%religious%purposes.2% or%promote%religion.%(4)(Board(of(Education(v.(Allen(
3. Government%action%must%not%aid%religion.% ! An%interpreter%provided%by%the%state%can%teach%and%suggest,%but%that%
4. Government%action%must%not%result%in%excessive%entanglement%with%religion.% is%incidental%to%the%main%service%that%is%interpretation.%(8)(Zobrest(v.(
Allowable( government( aid% % There% are% forms% of% government% aid% which% are% Catalina(Foothills(School(District(
allowable.%The%requisites%are%(SEN):% o In%the%Philippines,%this%is%not%entirely%disallowed.%The%Constitution%allows%for%
o A%secular%legislative%purpose.% religious% instruction% during% school% hours% to% be% conducted% by% instructors%
o Must%not%require%excessive%entanglement%with%the%religious%institution.% designated% by% the% religion% they% belong% to.% This% is% without% cost% to% the%
o A%primary%effect%that%neither%advance%nor%inhibits%religion.% government% AND% with% written% consent% by% parents.% (Section( 3(3),( Article(
(3)(School(District(v.(Schempp;((4)(Board(of(Education(v.(Allen;((5)(Lemon( XIV,(1987(Constitution)(
v.(Kurtzman;((6)(Tilton(v.(Richardson;((7)(County(of(Allegheny(v.(ACLU( State(jurisdiction(over(religious(affairs%(the%government%does%not%have%the%power%
On(Religions(symbols( to%interfere%and%substitute%its%judgment%on%matters%of%religious%doctrine%and%other%
o The% display% of% religious% symbols% (e.g.% crucifix,% menorah,% crche,% etc.)% in% purely% religious% affairs% (11)( Islamic( Dawah( Council( v.( Executive( Secretary;( (12)(
public% places% and% buildings% can% be% disallowed% if% it% tends% to% show% that% the% Taruc(v.(De(La(Cruz(
government% endorses% its% religious% message.% (7)( County( of( Allegheny( v.( o Example:%Halal%certification%or%excommunication%from%a%church.(
ACLU( Government%neutrality%is%not%compromised%even%if%some%acts%cause%some%incidental%
o ContentIneutral% limits% are% valid% for% regulating% displays% of% religious% symbols% benefit% to% any% religion.% The% determining% factor% is% that% it% is% not% primarily% aimed% at%
in%public%places.( providing%such%benefit.%(1)(Aglipay(v.(Ruiz(
o Similar%to%free%speech,%contentIbased%restrictions%on%religious%messages%can% (
only% be% implemented% if% there% is% a% compelling% state% interest.% (9)( Capitol( II.(Free(Exercise(of(Religion(
Square(Review(Board(v.(Pinette(&(Ku(Klux(Klan.( 2%Aspects%of%Free%Exercise%of%Religion%(14)(Cantwell(v.(Connecticut%
1. Freedom4 to4 Believe.% Absolute% freedom% which% cannot% be% regulated.% People%
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Bernas!Green!Book! are%free%to%believe%whatever%want,%even%if%they%cannot%prove%it.%
2 !See!Garces!v.!Estenzo! 2. Freedom4 to4 Act.% When% belief% is% translated% into% external% acts,% they% can% be%
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
subjects% of% regulation% and% police% power,% especially% if% they% are% injurious% to% 1. Justified%by%a%compelling%interest%
public%safety.% 2. Narrowly%tailored%to%advance%that%interest%(i.e.%it%must%not%be%overbroad%nor%
o While%the%courts%can%look%into%the%good%faith%of%an%individual,%they%cannot% underinclusive%or%too%specific%to%a%certain%religion)%
inquire% into% the% truthfulness% or% falsity% of% religious% beliefs.% (15)( U.S.( v.( (25)(Church(of(the(Lukumi(v.(City(of(Hialeah(
Ballard% Benevolent( Neutrality( ( The% approach% that% gives% room% for% accommodation% of%
Free% exercise% of% religion% carries% with% it% the% right% to% disseminate% religious% religious%exercises,%provided%that%it%does%not%offend%compelling%state%interest.%(26)(
information.% Any% restraint% of% such% right% must% pass% the% test% of% clear% and% present% Estrada(v.(Escritor(
danger% of% any% substantive% evil% which% the% State% may% prevent.% (16)( American( Bible( o Compelling(State(Interest(Test((SLI)(
Society(v.(City(of(Manila% ! Look%into%sincerity%of%belief.(
Solicitations%for%religious%purposes%may%be%regulated%by%the%State%in%its%exercise%of% ! The% State% has% to% prove% that% its% purposes% are% legitimate% and%
police%power.%The%State%may%protect%its%citizens%from%fraudulent%solicitations.%It%may% compelling.(
regulate%the%time%and%manner%of%solicitations.%(23)(Centeno(v.(VillalonDPornillos% ! The%State%must%use%the%lease%intrusive%means%possible.(
Freedom%of%religion%is%a%valid%reason%for%people%to%be%exempted%from%the%operation% Religious( Tests( ( Government% may% not% use% religion% as% a% basis% of% classification% for%
of%certain%laws%and%policies.% the%imposition%of%duties,%penalties,%privileges%or%benefits.(
o On( union( membership( % Despite% having% a% closed% shop% provision% in% the% o The% prohibition% in% the% Revised% Administrative% Code% of% 1917% of% an%
CBA,%a%member%of%the%Iglesia%Ni%Cristo%may%opt%not%to%join%the%labor%union% ecclesiastic% from% elected% office% was% considered% as% a% prohibited% religious%
since%this%is%disallowed%by%his%religion.%Freedom%of%religion%is%superior%over% test.% However,% the% Court% was% 1% vote% short% to% declare% such% provision%
contractual%rights%like%the%CBA.%(13)(Victoriano(v.(Elizalde% unconstitutional.%(19)(Pamil(v.(Teleron(
o On( flag( ceremony( ( Jehovahs% Witnesses% may% be% excluded% from% the% o The% statute% which% bars% a% Baptist% minister% from% being% a% member% of% the%
mandatory%flag%ceremony%in%public%schools%mandated%by%R.A.(1265%because% Tennessee% constitutional% convention% was% held% to% be% unconstitutional% (20)(
it%is%against%their%religion%to%worship%other%idols.%While%maintaining%that%the% McDaniel(v.(Paty(
Philippine%flag%and%the%flag%ceremony%are%not%religious%idols%and%rituals,%the% Religious( Clothing( ( wearing% articles% of% clothing% with% religious% significance% (e.g.%
Supreme%Court%upheld%their%right%to%not%participate.%They%may%not%disrupt%it% yarmulke,% turban,% veil,% etc.)% is% a% form% of% religious% expression.% Prohibition% against%
either.%(17)(Ebralinag(v.(Division(Superintendent% them%must%undergo%the%same%tests%for%restrictions%on%religious%expression.(
o On( mandatory( education( % The% Amish% community% may% refuse% to% enroll% o The%wearing%of%a%yarmulke%instead%of%the%required%headgear%of%an%Air%Force%
their% children% from% the% public% school% system% despite% a% compulsory% officers%uniform%was%prohibited%due%to%the%special%nature%and%structure%of%
education%policy%by%the%state%of%Wisconsin.%They%have%their%own%system%of% the%military.%The%uniform%is%part%of%the%means%by%which%the%military%enforces%
education% which% is% more% appropriate% for% their% religious% belief.% (18)( discipline.%(21)(Goldman(v.(Weinberger(
Wisconsin(v.(Yoder.% Religious%rituals%and%actions%which%are%not%done%in%good%faith%and%are%instead%done%
o Oh( government( office( hours( ( Muslim% court% employees% were% exempted% to% do% something% detrimental% to% national% interest% (e.g.% going% to% St.% Judes% chapel%
from%the%8am%to%5pm%work%hours.%Instead,%they%were%allowed%to%work%from% besides% Malacaang% with% an% intent% to% disturb% the% government)% can% be% validly%
7:30am% to% 3:30pm% without% breaks% in% order% to% comply% with% their% Ramadan% regulated%and%even%prohibited%by%the%State.%(22)(German(v.(Barangan(
obligation%of%fasting.%(30)(In(re:(Request(of(Muslim(Employees% The%inclusion%of%prayer%rites%in%a%public%high%school%graduation%by%the%principal%can%
A% law% that% burdens% religious% practices% need% not% be% justified% by% a% compelling% be%construed%as%an%indirect%action%by%the%State%of%coercing%students%into%professing%
government%interest%if%it%is%neutral%and%of%general%applicability.%Otherwise%it%must%be% a% certain% religion.% This% is% prohibited% by% the% Free% Exercise% Clause.% (24)( Lee( v.(
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
Weisman( (7)(County(of(Allegheny(v.(ACLU(
The%prohibition%against%the%showing%of%a%film%on%family%values%in%the%public%school% o From% a% cultural% context,% whats% the% difference% between% the% Menorah% and%
forum% outside% of% class% hours% based% solely% on% the% fact% that% is% religious% in% nature% is% the%Nativity%Scene?%
invalid.%It%is%against%freedom%of%expression%of%religion%and%allowing%such%film%would% o When%the%government%declares%holidays%in%light%of%a%religious%holiday,%does%
not%have%caused%excessive%entanglement%since%it%is%done%outside%of%class%hours.%(26)( it%violate%the%Establishment%Clause?%
Lambs(Chapel(v.(Center(Moriches(School(District( ! Idelfetur% (muslim% holiday)% is% declaring% it% a% holiday% a% kind% of%
Criticisms%of%other%religions%by%any%other%religions%is%not%a%valid%ground%to%prohibit% endorsement?%
that%religions%show%on%TV%since%it%does%not%pass%the%clear%and%present%danger%test% ! What% if% President% Aquino% declares% the% death% of% Manalo% (INC%
for%prohibiting%free%speech%and%free%exercise%of%religion.%(28)(INC(v.(CA( Founder)%a%holiday?%Is%he%endorsing%a%religion?%
( (9)(Capitol(Square(Review(Board(v.(Pinette(&(Ku(Klux(Klan%
Establishment(Clause( Free(Exercise(Clause( o What%if%the%religious%symbol%placed%is%offensive?%May%the%government%then%
The%wholesome%neutrality%of%which%this% The%right%of%every%person%to%freely%choose% stop%its%display?%
Courts%cases%speak%stems%from%a% his%own%course%with%reference%thereto,%free% (26)(Estrada(v.(Escritor%
recognition%of%the%teachings%of%history%that% of%any%compulsion%from%the%state.%This%is% o What% compelling% state% interest% may% overwhelm% the% exercise% of% religious%
powerful%sects%or%groups%might%bring%about% what%the%Free%Exercise%Clause%guarantees.% right%to%remarry%even%though%divorce%is%not%allowed%in%the%Philippines?%
a%fusion%of%governmental%and%religious% (3)(School(District(v.(Schempp(( (30)(In(re:(Request(of(Muslim(Employees%
functions%or%a%concert%or%dependency%of%one% o In% the% case% of% private% institutions,% would% such% institutions% have% a% right% to%
upon%the%other%to%the%end%that%official% deny% employees% or% students% if% they% request% for% a% (Muslime/Jewish)% prayer%
support%of%the%State%or%Federal%Government% room?%
would%be%placed%behind%the%tenets%of%one%or%
of%all%orthodoxies.%This%is%what%the%
Establishment%Clause%prohibits.%
(
III.(Other(Notes((questions(raised(by(Dean(Candelaria):(
(4)(Abington(School(District(v.(Schempp(
o With%regard%to%Philippine%Courts,%is%it%a%violation%of%the%Establishment%Clause%
to%pray%prior%to%the%start%of%a%hearing?%
o What%is%the%difference%with%Schemepp?%
(5)(Lemon(v.(Kurtzman(
o If% the% law% school% were% to% offer% a% Law% and% Religion% class,% would% it% be%
violative% of% the% Establishment% clause?% NO% so% long% as% it% has% a% secular%
purpose.(
o If%such%class%was%offered,%is%the%professor%teaching%religion%or%Constitutional%
Law?(

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
!SECTION!6.! ones' right' to' travel.' A' persons' right' to' travel' and' abode' can' be' impaired'
The! liberty! of! abode! and! of! changing! the! same! within! the! limits! prescribed! by! law! shall! pursuant'to'state'interest.'(2)!Marcos!v.!Manglapus'
not!be!impaired!except!upon!lawful!order!of!the!court.!Neither!shall!the!right!to!travel!be! Subject'to'judicial'review'
impaired!except!in!the!interest!of!national!security,!public!safety,!or!public!health,!as!may! Right'to'travel'can'be'impaired'through'statutes'or'Rules'of'Court.''
be!provided!by!law.! Example:''
! o A'person'on'bail'can'be'prevented'from'leaving'the'country.'(3)!Silverio!v.!
FREEDOM!OF!MOVEMENT:!LIBERTY!OF!ABODE!AND!OF!TRAVEL! CA;!(4)!Santiago!v.!Vasquez'
o A'person'on'bail'asking'to'travel'for'medical'reasons,'the'Court'can'seek'the'
!
advice' of' medical' experts,' apart' from' that' presented' by' the' person,' to'
I.!General!Principles!
determine'the'necessity'to'travel'abroad.'It'is'within'the'courts'discretion'
Freedom'of'movement'in'Section!6'includes'two'(2)'rights:!
to' grant' the' request' to' travel' for' humanitarian' reasons' (5)! Marcos! v.!
o The'liberty'of'abode.!
Sandiganbayan'or'to'change'ones'residence'(6)!Yap!v.!CA'
o The'liberty'of'travel.!
o In'Kant'Kwong'v.'PCGG,'the'Court'held'that'when'a'hold'order'has'expired'
Travel'need'not'include'abode,'but'abode'necessarily'includes'the'right'to'travel.!
and'no'good'reason'appears'for'extending,'an'alien'may'not'be'prevented'
!
to'leave'the'country.'
A.!The!Liberty!of!Abode!
!
The'liberty'of'abode'may'only'be'impaired'upon'lawful'order'of'the'court,'based'
RIGHT!OF!ENTER!THE!COUNTRY!
on'limits'prescribed'by'law'on'the'liberty'itself.1!
o Even' public' officers' do' not' have' the' power' to' order' individuals' to' leave' !
Manila'and'move'to'Davao'(1)!Villavicencio!v.!Lukban! I.!General!Principles!
Intent'was'to'proscribe'practices'like'hamletting! The'right'to'leave'and'the'right'to'return'may'be'considered,'as'a'generally'
o Hamletting.' Practice' of' herding' people' into' a' militarily' quarantined' accepted'principle'of'international'law'and,'under'our'Constitution,'is'part'of'the'law'
sanctuary'within'rebel'areas.! of'the'land.'However,'it'is'distinct'and'separate'from'the'right'to'travel'and'enjoys'a'
! different'protection'under'the'ICCPR.'(2)!Marcos!v.!Manglapus'
B.!The!Liberty!of!Travel! !
The' liberty' of' travel' may' be' impaired' even' without' a' court' order,' but' the' ALIENS!AND!RIGHT!OF!ENTRY!
appropriate' executive' officers' is' not' armed' with' arbitrary' discretion' to' impose'
limitations.'He'can'impose'limits'based'on'national'security,'public'safety,'or'public' !
health'and'as'may'be'provided'by'law.2' I.!General!Principles!
o The'Presidents'determination'that'the'destabilization'caused'by'the'return'of' Admission'of'aliens'into'the'country'is'a'political'matter'beyond'the'reach'of'judicial'
the'Marcoses'would'wipe'away'the'gains'achieved'during'the'past'few'years' review.'
and' lead' to' total' economic' collapse' is' sufficient' basis' to' impose' limits' on' Every'country'has'a'right'to'forbid'the'entry'of'foreigners'within'its'dominion,'or'to'
admit'them'upon'conditions'it'may'see'fit'to'prescribe.'
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! '
1 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!376!(2009!ed.)! '
2 !Id.,!p.!377!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(7.( b. Documents'and'papers'pertaining'to'official'acts,'transactions'and'decisions;'
The(right(of(the(people(to(information(on(matters(of(public(concern(shall(be(recognized.( and''
Access( to( official( records,( and( to( documents( and( papers( pertaining( to( official( acts,( c. Government'research'data'used'in'formulating'policies'
transactions,(or(decisions,(as(well(as(to(government(research(data(used(as(basis(for(policy( Requisites'for'something'to'be'construed'within'Section(7((1)(Legaspi(v.(CSC(
development,(shall(be(afforded(the(citizen,(subject(to(such(limitations(as(may(be(provided( a. Being'of'public'concern'or'one'that'involves'public'interest,'and,''
by(law.( b. Not'being'exempted'by'law'from'the'operation'of'the'constitutional'
( guarantee.'
I.(General(Principles( (
Rights' guaranteed' of' Section( 7' are' (1)' right' to' information' on' matters' of' public' B.(Official(Records(
concern'and'(2)'access'to'official'records'and'documents.' The'documents'of'GSIS'are'not'private'in'nature'because'GSIS'as'a'governmentC
o Section( 7' guarantees' only' a' general' right.' The' right' of' access' to' official' controlled'corporation'exercises'a'proprietary'function,'which'then'falls'within'the'
records'is'given'as'an'implementation'of'the'right'to'information.' Constitutional'right'to'information.'(2)(Valmonte,(et(al.(v.(Belmonte(Jr.''
o These'political'rights'are'available'to'citizens'only.' Since'the'imposition'of'the'death'penalty'is'a'matter'of'life'and'death,'it'must'always'
( be'reviewable'by'the'court,'and'accessible'to'the'person'directly'affected'by'the'
RIGHT(TO(INFORMATION(AND(ACCESS(TO(PUBLIC(DOCUMENTS( manual.((4)(Echegaray(v.(Secretary(of(Justice(
(
(
C.(Documents(and(papers(pertaining(to(official(acts,(transactions(and(decisions(
I.(General(Principles((
Official'Acts'
Purpose' !' for' the' people' to' know' what' their' government' is' doing;' participatory'
o This' right' may' be' asserted' even' against' GOCCs' because' their' function'
democracy'(2)(Valmonte,(et(al.(v.(Belmonte(Jr.'
similar'to'government'agencies''that'is,'to'serve'the'people.'
Nature'of'Right'!'selfCexecutory'
o Trade' secrets' are' of' a' privileged' nature.' The' Securities' Regulation' Code' is'
Remedy'!'petition'for'mandamus'(since'the'act'of'releasing'information'of'public' explicit'that'SEC'is'not'authorized'to'require'the'revelation'of'trade'secrets'
interest'is'ministerial)'' or'processes'in'any'application'filed'with'SEC.1'
o Ministerial'v.'Discretionary' o Decisions'of'the'MTRCB'and'the'individual'voting'slips'accomplished'by'the'
" Discretionary' !' it' is' the' choice' of' the' government.' You' cannot' members'concerned'are'acts'made'pursuant'to'their'official'functions,'and'
compel'them'to'perform.'' as' such,' are' neither' personal' nor' private' in' nature' but' rather' public' in'
" Ministerial'!'the'law'mandates'that'the'government'perform.' character'(3)(AquinoXSarmiento(v.(Morato'
(
Transactions' !' include' the' negotiation' stages' of' a' contract' to' be' made' available,'
II.(Scope((
not' just' the' consummated' contract.' The' information,' however,' must' constitute'
A.(Matters(of(Public(Interest(
definite'propositions'by'the'government'and'should'not'cover'recognized'exceptions'
Matters'of'pubic'concern(! (the'appointments'made'to'public'offices'and'the' like' privileged' information,' military' and' diplomatic' secrets' and' similar' matters'
utilization'of'public'property.'(6)(Gonzales(v.(Narvasa' affecting'national'security'and'public'order.'(5)(Chavez(v.(PCGG;((7)(Chavez(v.(PEA'
Matters'of'public'concern'include:''
Decisions' !' and' opinions' of' a' court' are' public' matters.' However,' pleadings' and'
a. Official'records'
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Id.,!p.!386!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
other' documents' filed' by' parties' to' a' case' are' not' matters' of' public' concern.' (8)' In'Chavez'v.'PCGG,'the'Court'enumerated'some'recognized'limitations'on'the'right'
Hilado(v.(Reyes' to'information:'
( o National' security' matters,' military,' diplomatic,' and' other' national' security'
D.(Government(research(data(used(in(formulating(policies(( state' secrets,' information' on' interCgovernment' exchanges' prior' to'
1987( Constitution' included' the' phrase' as' well' as' to' government' research' data' conclusion'of'treaties'and'executive'agreements.'
used' as' basis' for' policy' development.' This' was' a' reaction' to' a' practice' during' " Diplomatic' relations' include' trade' negotiations' with' foreign'
martial'law'of'withholding'social'research'data'from'the'public'whenever'the'data' countries'(10)(Neri(v.(Senate'
contradicted'with'government'policies.1' o Trade' secrets' and' banking' transactions.' Pursuant' to' Intellectual' Property'
o Government' research' data' refers' to' government' funded' research' and' not' Code' (R.A.( 8283)' and' related' laws,' the' Secrecy' of' Bank' Deposits' Act' (R.A.(
privately'funded'research.' 1405).'
Inquiries'in'aid'of'legislation'also'falls'underneath'this,'because'such'is'used'in'the' o Criminal' matters' or' law' enforcement' matters.' Information' on'
formulation'of'policies,'which'the'people'should'be'informed'with'so'that'they'may' apprehension,'prosecution'and'detention'of'criminals.'
formulate'their'own'opinions'concerning'the'matter.'(9)(Sabio(v.(Gordon' o Other' confidential' matters.' Ethical' Standards' Act' (R.A.( 6713)' prohibits'
( disclosure' of' confidential' information' known' to' public' officials' and'
( Executive( Legislative( Judiciary( employees' by' virtue' of' their' office.' Other' limitations' include' diplomatic'
CAN'be' You'know'the'number'of'votes'and' You'may' Decisions'of'the'SC'are' correspondence,' closed' door' cabinet' meetings,' executive' session' in'
revealed' who'voted'for'which.' know'the' public'!'you'know'the' Congress,'and'internal'deliberations'of'the'Supreme'Court.'
votes' number'of'the'votes'and' Decisions'and'opinions'of'a'court'are'public'matters.'However,'pleadings'and'other'
who'voted'for'who.' documents'filed'by'parties'to'a'case'are'not'matters'of'public'concern.'
CANNOT' National'security'matters,'military,' Cannot' What'cannot'be'revealed' o Access' to' court' records' may' be' permitted' at' the' discretion' of' the' court,'
be' diplomatic,'and'other'national' reveal'the' to'the'public'is'the' considering'purpose'of'documents'requested'and'possible'prejudice'against'
revealed' security'state'secrets,'information' executive' decision'making'process' any'of'the'parties.2'(8)(Hilado(v.(Reyes'
on'interCgovernment'exchanges' decisions' and'the'files'involved' (
prior'to'conclusion'of'treaties'and' (deliberations'of'justices)' B.(Restrictions(to(right(to(public(information((military,(diplomatic,(etc)(
executive'agreements;'privileged' !'EXCEPTION:'oral' Case( Transaction( Stage( Judicial(Infirmity(
information' argument.' PEA' Government' Negotiation' Ok'
' Contract' (definition)'
III.(Limitations( NERI' ZTE' Signed'Contract' '
A.(Right(to(information(and(access(to(public(documents(may(be(regulated( SUPLICO' ZTE' Signed'Contract' Moot'but'decided'on'to'guide'the'bar'for'
While'access'to'official'records'may'not'be'prohibited,'it'can'still'be'regulated.'This' possible'repetition'
is'based'on'inherent'power'of'an'officer'to'control'his'office'and'records'under'his' AKBAYAN' JPEPA' Negotiation' not'yet'
custody.' The' office' also' has' the' power' to' regulate' the' manner' records' may' be' (drafts;'
inspected,'examined,'or'copied.'(2)(Valmonte,(et(al.(v.(Belmonte(Jr.' diplomatic)'
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
11 ! !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!376!(2009!ed.),!p.381! 2 !Ibid.!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
North' MOACAD' Peace'Agreement' Treaty'was'cancelled'but'Court'ruled'on'it'
Cotabato' peace'panel' in'case'of'repetition:''
!'Consultation'required'
NERI:' Where' the' Court' may' intervene' to' prevent' the' Senate' in' compelling' someone' to'
come'in'aid'of'legislation.'
When' you' are' the' subject' of' Senate' investigation,' you' need' to' take' into'
consideration' the' nature' of' your' personality' in' connection' with' the' topic' of'
investigation'
'
IV.(Extent(of(Executive(Privilege(
Any' executive' issuance' tending' to' unduly' limit' disclosures' of' information' in' such'
investigations'necessarily'deprives'the'people'of'information'which,'being'presumed'
to'be'in'aid'of'legislation,'is'presumed'to'be'a'matter'of'public'concern.'The'citizens'
are'thereby'denied'access'to'information'which'they'can'use'in'formulating'their'own'
opinions'on'the'matter'before'Congress.'(9)(Sabio(v.(Gordon'
To' overcome' the' presumption' favoring' confidentiality,' you' look' at' the' nature' and'
the'appropriateness'of'the'function'and'performance,'and'the'degree'to'which'the'
information' or' document' was' necessary' for' such' performance' (i.e.' how' necessary'
was'it'for'the'accomplishment'of'the'function).'(12)(Akbayan(v.(Aquino'

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(8.( Schools(Teachers(Association(v.(Laguio,(Jr.$
The( right( of( the( people,( including( those( employed( in( the( public( and( private( sectors,( to( (
form( unions,( associations,( or( societies( for( purposes( not( contrary( to( law( shall( not( be( B.(Limitations(on(Private(Sector(
abridged.( No$similar$absolute$constitutional$right$to$organize$should$be$deemed$to$have$been$
( granted$to$topKlevel$and$middle$managers$(employees$concerned$with$management$
RIGHT(TO(FORM(LAWFUL(ASSOCIATIONS( policy).$All$managerial$employees$are$confidential$employees.$They$assist$and$act$in$a$
confidential$capacity.$If$these$managerial$employees$would$belong$to$or$be$affiliated$
(
with$a$Union,$the$latter$might$not$be$assured$of$their$loyalty$to$the$Union$in$view$of$
I.(General(Principles(
evident$ conflict$ of$ interests.$ The$ union$ can$ also$ become$ companyKdominated$ with$
The$right$to$form$unions$and$associations$is$recognized$to$belong$to$people$whether$
the$presence$of$managerial$employees.((4)(UPSCU(v.(Laguesma$
employed$or$unemployed,$working$in$the$government$or$private$sector.$
(
The$right$to$form$associations$shall$not$be$impaired$except$through$a$valid$exercise$ III.(Class(Discussion(
of$police$power,$hence$for$purposes$not$contrary$to$law.$
On$campus$
$
o So$ long$ as$ the$ fraternities$ and/or$ sororities$ are$ not$ contrary$ to$ law,$ their$
II.(Right(to(Strike(v.(Right(to(form(Associations(
assembly$will$be$consistent$with$Section$8.$
The$right$to$form$lawful$associations$does$not$carry$with$it$the$right$to$strike$(2)(SSS(
(3)( Manila( Public( School( Teachers( Association( v.( Laguio( Jr.( ! ( At$ what$ point$ is$ a$
Employees(v.(CA$
mass$action$a$strike?$Does$wearing$colored$armbands$even$during$working$hours$a$
In$ Section( 13,( Article( XIII,( the$ right$ to$ strike$ is$ qualified$ with$ the$ phrase$ in$ strike?$
accordance$to$with$law.$$ o Wearing$ colored$ armbands$ during$ working$ hours$ does$ not$ impede$
o The$right$to$organize$is$seen$as$a$broader$than$right$to$strike.$The$latter$may$ government$services$(which$is$the$reason$why$government$agencies$are$not$
be$curtailed$by$law$for$valid$reasons.$ allowed$ to$ strike).$ In$ addition,$ wearing$ of$ armbands$ is$ part$ and$ parcel$ of$
The$current$ban$on$government$employees$to$go$on$strike$is$statutory$and$may$be$ your$freedom$to$expression.$
lifted$by$another$statute.$
o At$ present,$ in$ the$ absence$ of$ any$ legislation$ allowing$ govt$ employees$ to$
strike,$recognizing$their$right$to$do$so,$or$regulating$the$exercise$of$the$right,$
they$ are$ prohibited$ from$ striking,$ by$ express$ provision$ of$ Memorandum(
Circular(No.(6(as(implied(in(E.O.(No.(180.$(2)(SSS(Employees(v.(CA$
$
A.(Limitations(on(Public(Sector(
Those$government$owned$or$controlled$corporations$(GOCC)$with$original$charters,$
and$not$formed$under$the$general$corporation$law,$are$covered$by$the$Civil$Service$
and$ therefore$ have$ no$ right$ to$ organize$ for$ purposes$ of$ collective$ bargaining.$ (1)(
TUCP(v.(NBC$
Mass$ actions$ for$ essentially$ economic$ reasons$ are$ actually$ strikes,$ and$ absent$ any$
legislation$ allowing$ for$ such$ in$ public$ schools,$ it$ is$ prohibited.( (3)( Manila( Public(
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(9.( ELEMENTS(OF(SECTION(9(
Private(property(shall(not(be(taken(for(public(use(without(just(compensation.(
1. Private!property!of!an!individual!(whether!natural!or!juridical)(
(
2. Taking!by!the!government(
EMINENT(DOMAIN(
3. For!public!purpose/use(
( 4. Provision!of!just!compensation!in!exchange(
I.(Definition( !
Right& of& eminent& domain! !! sovereign! power! to! appropriate! public! and! private! A.(Private(property(of(a(natural(or(juridical(person(
property!of!all!citizens!within!its!territory!for!public!use.1! The!owner!of!the!property!has!the!right!to!hold!on!to!the!title!of!the!property!until!
! the! expropriation! process! is! over.! Only! upon! receiving! completely! just!
II.(Nature( compensation! will! the! title! pass! from! the! owner! to! the! government.! As! such,! the!
The! power! is! traditionally! executive! in! nature! but! can! be! initiated! thorugh! owner!has!the!right!to!exercise!all!acts!of!ownership!over!the!property!including!the!
legislation.2!(17)(Republic(v.(De(Knecht! right!to!alienate!(3)(Republic(v.(Salem(
The!power!of!eminent!domain!is!generally!exercised!by!the!central!government! (
o May!be!delegated!to!instrumentalities!(created!by!law)!of!the!government,! B.(Taking(
who! when! dissolved,! will! revert! such! power! back! to! the! central! Elements(of(Taking:((ETMAPTO)3((4)(Republic(v.(de(Castellvi(
government.!(2)(Iron(and(Steel(Authority! 1. Expropriator!must!enter!private!property.(
Expropriation!can!happen!in!3!ways!(17)(Republic(v.(De(Knecht! 2. Entrance! must! not! be! for! a! momentary! period,! that! is,! the! entrance! must! be!
o Voluntary!Negotiation! permanent.(
o Filing!a!court!action! o The! nature! of! the! taking! (permanent! or! temporary! easement)! is! also! crucial!
o Through!Legislation! to!the!determination!of!whether!just!compensation!is!due!to!the!party!or!not.!
Two!requisites!for!the!exercise!of!eminent!domain:!(1)(Vda.(De(Ouna(v.(Republic! (5)(US(v.(Causby(
o It!is!for!a!particular!public!use! 3. Entry!must!be!under!warrant!or!color!of!legal!authority.(
o Just!compensation!be!paid!to!the!owner! 4. Property! must! be! devoted! to! public! use! or! otherwise! informally! appropriated! or!
Two!Stages!of!the!Expropriation:!(3)(Republic(v.(Salem! injuriously!affected.(
o Determination!of!the!authority!of!the!plaintiff!to!exercise!eminent!domain! o When! a! private! entity! voluntarily! allows! the! State! to! make! use! of! its!
o Determination!of!just!compensation! property! or! services! for! public! use,! the! general! public! immediately! acquires!
Two!parties!involved((3)(Republic(v.(Salem! an!interest!in!it,!conferring!upon!the!property!a!public!status!(7)(RP(v.(PLDT(
o Government! 5. Utilization!of!property!must!be!in!such!a!way!as!to!oust!the!owner!and!deprive!him!
o Private!natural!or!juridical!person! of!all!beneficial!enjoyment!of!the!property.(
( o The! implement! local! ordinances! which! limit! the! use! of! the! property! such!
( that! it! deprives! the! owner! of! significant! beneficial! enjoyment! of! the!
property!amounts!to!taking!(6)(People(v.(Fajardo;((9)(OSG(v.(Ayala(
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
11 ! !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!376!(2009!ed.),!p.!396! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2 !Id.,!p.!397! 3 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution:!A!Comprehensive!Reviewer,!98!(2011!ed.)!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
! expectations.(
When! property! right! is! impaired! by! regulation,! compensation! is! not! required;! Meaning! of! taking! of! property! in! connection! with! just! compensation! is!
o
whereas,!when!property!is!taken,!the!Constitution!prescribes!just!compensation.1( interpreted!in!accordance!with!local!law.!(5)(US(v.(Causby(
o When! title! to! property! is! transferred! to! expropriation! authority,! there! is! a! Recent!cases!involving!the!meaning!of!taking:10(
clear!case!of!compensable!taking.2( o Entry! for! purposes! of! conducting! mining! activities! such! as! exploration,!
o It! is! a! settled! rule! that! neither! acquisition! of! title! nor! total! destruction! of! extraction,!and!processing!of!minerals.(
value!is!essential!to!taking.3( o Right! of! way! enforced! by! the! state! results! in! making! adjoining! property!
o Where! a! property! interest! is! merely! restricted! because! continued! unusable.11(
unrestricted! use! would! be! injurious! to! public! welfare! or! where! property! is! o Installation! of! transmission! lines! results! in! imposition! of! limitation! against!
destroyed! because! continued! existence! of! the! property! would! be! injurious! the!use!of!the!land!for!an!indefinite!period.(
to!public!interest,!there!is!no!compensable!taking.4( o Prescribing!the!manner!in!which!a!property!should!be!used!is!tantamount!to!
o The! deprivation! of! use! can! be! total! and! it! will! not! constitute! compensable! taking!as!this!involves!excessive!intrusion!into!property!rights!of!the!owner!
taking!if!nobody!else!acquires!use!of!the!property!or!any!property!interest! (6)(People(v.(Fajardo;((9)(OSG(v.(Ayala(
therein.5! Total! destruction! without! utilization! is! not! appropriation! but! is! !
merely!regulation!by!police!power.6( C.(For(public(use(
A!mere!declaration!of!an!intention!to!expropriate!does!not!yet!serve!to!curtail!the! Constitutional!limitations!on!the!power!of!eminent!domain:!(1)!taking!must!be!for!
dominical!rights!of!the!owner.7( public!use;!(2)!just!compensation!given!to!the!private!owner.12!
o Hipolito!v.!City!of!Manila!!!The!Court!held!that!to!deny!plaintiff!a!building! Whatever!is!beneficially!employed!for!the!community!is!public!use.!
permit! on! the! ground! that! the! land! he! planned! to! build! on! would! be! used! o Concept!of!public!use!is!as!broad!as!public!welfare.13!
for! widening! the! street! and! before! such! land! is! expropriated! is! to! take! o The!scope!of!power!of!eminent!domain!has!become!as!broad!as!the!scope!
plaintiffs!property!without!due!process!of!law.8( of!police!power.14!
Factors! to! be! considered! in! determining! if! action! amounts! to! taking! or! to! As!a!rule,!the!determination!of!whether!there!is!a!genuine!necessity!for!the!exercise!
regulation.9!( of! eminent! domain! is! just! a! justiciable! question.! However,! when! the! power! is!
o Economic! impact! of! the! regulation! on! the! property.! (8)( Penn( Central( exercised! by! the! legislature,! the! question! of! necessity! is! essentially! a! political!
Transportation(v.(New(York(City( question.15!
o Extent! to! which! the! regulation! might! interfere! with! investment! Purpose.(From!Mactan!Cebu!International!Airport!v.!Lozada!Jr.!!!The!expropriator!
must!use!the!property!for!the!purpose!specified!in!the!petition.!If!this!is!not!done,!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! the! expropriator! must! return! the! property,! even! if! there! was! no! agreement! for!
1!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary,!433!(2009!ed.)!
2!Ibid.!
reversal.! But! the! owner! must! return! to! the! expropriator! the! compensation! it! had!
3!Ibid.!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4!Ibid.! 10 Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!439!
5!Id.,!p.!434! 11 !Similar!to!easement!as!discussed!in!US!v.!Causby!
6!Id.,!p.435! 12 !Id.,!p.!400!

7!Id.,!p.!438! 13 !Id.,!p.!401!

8!Id.!P.!437! 14 !Ibid.!

9!Id.! 15 !Id.,!p.!402!

!
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CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
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received!with!legal!interests!and!must!pay!the!expropriator!for!the!benefits!the!he! and!exercise!proprietary!rights.7!
may!have!obtained.1!(12)(Mactan(v.(Tudtud! What( period( should( be( the( basis( for( determining( Just( Compensation:( Value! must!
Agricultural( Lands.( For! a! long! time,! the! size! of! the! land! was! the! factor! used! to! be!determined!at!the!time!of!the!filing!of!the!complaint!of!expropriation!(Section(4,(
determine! just! compensation.! In! Sumulong! it! was! disregarded.! This! focuses! on! Rule(67,(Rules(of(Court)8!
agricultural! lands! expropriated! for! socialized! housing,! which! is! considered! as! for! o Filing!of!the!case!usually!coincides!with!the!taking!of!the!property.!
public!use!even!though!only!a!few!people!are!directly!benefited!by!it!(10)(Sumulong( o Exception.!When!filing!of!the!case!comes!later!and!the!property!value!grows!
v.(Guerrero! due!to!use!expropriator!put!it!to,!property!shall!be!valued!at!the!time!of!the!
Urban(Lands.(Expropriation!is!not!limited!to!expropriating!urban!lands!for!housing! earlier!taking.!
purposes!(11)(Phil.(Columbian(Assn.(V.(Hon.(Panis! o (4)(Republic(v.(De(Castelvi!!!Ideally,!taking!happens!upon!the!filing!of!the!
! expropriation!case.!If!taking!happens!after!the!filing,!just!compensation!will!
D.(Just(Compensation( be! determined! from! the! filing.! If! the! taking! happens! prior! to! filing,! just!
Just&compensation!!!The!price!which!the!property!will!command!if!the!seller!is!not! compensation!begins!to!be!computed!from!the!time!actual!taking!happens!
bound!to!sell!and!the!buyer!is!not!bound!to!buy.2! Basis(of(Just(Compensation((value!of!the!land!may!be!determined!by!the!following):!
o Market&Value.!Price!fixed!by!buyer!and!seller!in!the!open!market.3! (13)(City(of(Manila(v.(Estrada(
" Consequential& Damages.! Damages! to! other! interests! of! the! owner! Acceptable!(because!they!reflect!the!true!value!of!the!property)!
that!can!be!attributed!to!expropriation.4! o Testimony! as! to! real! estate! transaction! in! the! area! is! the! location! and!
" Consequential& Benefits.! Increase! in! value! of! the! other! interests! of! character!of!the!property!should!be!similar!and!the!sales!are!reasonably!near!
the!owner!attributed!to!the!new!use!of!property!by!expropriation.! in!point!of!time.!!
" Consequential!damages!are!deducted!from!consequential!benefits.! o Premises!made!by!the!commissioners.!But!only!in!some!cases.!
o If!property!is!taken!before!compensation!is!given!or!deposited!to!court,!the! Not(Acceptable((because!they!dont!reflect!the!true!value!of!the!property)!
final!compensation!must!include!interests!on!its!just!value,!to!be!computed! o Testimony!as!to!mere!offers.!!
from! the! time! property! was! taken! to! the! time! compensation! is! given! or! o Prices!paid!for!neighboring!lands!under!eminent!domain!proceedings.!Nature!
deposited!with!the!court.5! of!a!compromise!which!does!not!reflect!the!market!value!of!the!property.!!
For!purposes!of!entry!into!the!property!before!full!payment,!Section(10,(R.A.(7160! What( forms( should( Just( Compensation( be( in:( Just! as! the! Constitution! does! not!
requires! a! deposit! with! the! court! of! at! least! 15%! of! fair! market! value! of! property! require!prior!compensation,!neither!does!it!specify!that!compensation!be!in!money.!
based!on!the!current!tax!declaration!of!the!property.6! What!it!does!require!is!just!compensation.9!
o Under! R.A.( 8974,! in! infrastructure! projects,! the! government! must! make! a! o Laws! which! attempt! to! fix! just! compensation! were! declared!
direct! payment! of! the! proffered! value! of! the! property! before! it! can! enter! unconstitutional.!
o Land! Bank! Bonds! are! valid! means! of! just! compensation.! Government!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! agencies!accepting!them!must!accept!in!full!value.!(14)(Maddumba(v.(GSIS!
1!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution:!A!Comprehensive!Reviewer!(2011!ed.),!p.!100! Section( 4,( Article( XIII,( 1987( Constitution! mandates! the! distribution! of! agricultural!
2!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.413!
3!Ibid.!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4!Id.,!p.403! 7!Id.,!p.!405!
5!Ibid.! 8!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution:!A!Comprehensive!Reviewer!(2011!ed.),!p.!105!!
6!Ibid.! 9!Id.,!p.!409!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
lands!subject!to!payment!of!just!compensation.1! proper!evidence.7(
o Landowners! right! to! just! compensation! should! be! balanced! with! the! o The! courts! can! look! into! the! public! character! of! the! purpose! of! the!
purpose!of!agrarian!reform.2! government!agencies!other!than!the!legislature.8(
When( should( Just( Compensation( be( given:( Concept! of! just! compensation! also! The! principle! of! res! judicata! does! not! apply! to! the! right! of! the! state! to! exercise!
includes!payment!within!a!reasonable!time!from!its!taking.3! eminent!domain.(
Instance( when( Just( Compensation( is( absent:( There! is! taking! without! just! o Res& Judicata! applies! to! specific! issues! decided! in! a! previous! case! (e.g.! final!
compensation! when! restitution! takes! place! between! the! parties! whereby! the! judgment! dismissing! expropriation! because! there! was! no! prior! offer,!
money! paid! to! the! owner! is! returned,! but! there! is! refusal! to! return! the! land! another!suit!cannot!be!raised!for!the!same!issue).!However,!it!cannot!stop!
purchased!by!that!money.!(15)(Mactan(v.(Urgello!! the! State! from! exercising! its! power! of! eminent! domain! over! the! same!
! property.! (e.g.! complying! with! the! requirement! of! prior! offer! from! the!
JUDICIAL(REVIEW( previous!example).9(
!
! II.((17)(Republic(v.(De(Knecht((
I.(General(Principles(
Judicial! Review:! Still! within! Courts! prerogative! if! in! the! exercise! of! the! power! of!
The! following! aspects! of! the! exercise! of! the! power! of! eminent! domain! have! been! expropriation,!the!private!party!affected!was!the!victim!of!partiality!and!prejudice.!
subjected!to!judicial!review:4( However,!subsequent!legislation!can!overturn!this!judicial!determination.!!
o Adequacy!of!the!compensation.(
o Necessity!of!the!taking.(
o Public!use!character!of!the!purpose!of!the!taking.(
Three! commissioners! are! appointed! to! view! the! premises! and! assess! the! damages!
to!be!paid!for!the!condemnation.(
o Judiciary! can! still! change! or! modify! the! report! of! the! commissioners! by!
increasing!or!decreasing!the!amount!if!facts!of!the!case!justify!such!change.5(
When!expropriation!is!done!not!directly!by!the!legislative!authority!but!by!another!
government! agency! or! by! a! municipal! corporation! and! in! virtue! of! an! authorizing!
statute! which! neither! specifies! the! purpose! of! the! taking! nor! the! property! to! be!
taken,! there! should! be! no! doubt! but! that! the! courts! must! come! in! to! perform! its!
duty!of!enforcing!the!provision!of!the!Constitution.6(
o The! necessity! of! taking! is! a! question! of! fact! that! must! be! established! by!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!412!
2!Ibid.!
3!Ibid.!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4!Id.,!p.!426! 7!Id.,!p.!428!
5!Ibid.! 8!Id.,!p.!429!
6!Id.,!p.!427! 9!Id.,!p.!432!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(10.( A! law! authorizing! interference,! when! appropriate,! in! the! contractual!
o
No(law(impairing(the(obligation(of(contracts(shall(be(passed.( relations!between!or!among!parties!is!deemed!read!into!the!contract!and!its!
( implementation! cannot! successfully! be! resisted! by! force! of! the! non8
NON>IMPAIRMENT(CLAUSE( impairment!guarantee.!(8)(Hacienda(Luisita(v.(PARC!
o Moratorium!laws!providing!for!postponement!of!fulfillment!of!obligations!is!
(
within!the!police!power!of!the!state!as!that!power!was!called!into!exercise!
I.(Impairment(defined(
by! the! public! emergency! that! the! legislature! found! to! exist.3! (2)( Rutter( v.(
Impairment! !! To! come! under! the! Constitutional! prohibition,! the! law! must! effect! a! Esteban(
change! in! the! rights! of! the! parties! with! reference! to! each! other! and! not! with! o When!extensions!are!unreasonable,!they!infringe!against!the!impairment!of!
reference!to!non8parties.!(3)(Abella(v.(NLRC( contracts.4!(2)(Rutter(v.(Esteban(
( o The! non8impairment! clause! is! a! limit! on! the! exercise! of! legislative! power!
II.(Impairment(occurs(when( and!not!of!judicial!or!quasi8judicial!power.(
General(Rule:(Contracts!are!bound!by!the!laws!in!force!during!their!execution.!The! o Zoning!laws!are!valid!exercises!of!police!power!whereby!contracts!between!
government! cannot! ! in! enacting! subsequent! laws! ! transgress! the! binding! power! parties!regarding!use!of!property!can!be!impaired!(4)(Presley(v.(Bel>Air;((5)(
of!contracts!between!two!parties.( Ortigas(&(Co.(v.(Feati(Bank(and(Trust(Co.(
o The!non8impairment!clause!is!not!absolute.!Possible!exercise!of!reasonable! Section(12,(Article(XII,(1987(Constitution!is!a!reservation!clause(
police!power!is!also!read!into!all!contracts.!(3)(Abella(v.(NLRC;((8)(Hacienda( o With!or!without!a!reservation!clause,!franchises!are!subject!to!alternations!
Luisita(v.(PARC( through! a! reasonable! exercise! of! police! power.! They! are! also! subject! to!
Exception:(the!subsequent!legislation!is!an!act!of!police!power!(3)(Abella(v.(NLRC( alternation! by! the! power! to! tax,! which! like! police! power,! cannot! be!
Instances!when!contracts!can!be!transgressed!by!police!power:!(2)(Rutter(v.(Esteban! contracted!away.5(
1. Impairment!should!only!refer!to!the!remedy!and!not!a!substantive!right!! o A! license! or! a! permit! is! not! a! contract! between! the! sovereign! and! the!
2. Propriety!of!the!remedy!(must!not!be!burdened!with!restrictions!which!would!make! licensee! or! permitee,! and! is! not! a! property! in! any! constitutional! sense.! A!
remedy!hardly!pursuing)!! license! is! rather! in! the! nature! of! a! special! privilege,! or! permission,! or!
Police!power!may!only!be!invoked:!(2)(Rutter(v.(Esteban! authority!to!do!what!is!within!its!terms.6(
1. Justified!by!an!emergency!temporary!in!nature!! " A! license! granted! by! the! State! is! always! revocable.! This! power! to!
2. Can!only!be!exercised!upon!reasonable!conditions! revoke! can! only! be! restrained! by! an! explicit! contract! upon! good!
( consideration!to!that!effect.7(
III.(Police(Power(exercised(by(legislative( " Tax! exemptions! are! mere! privileges! granted! by! the! state! to!
The! Constitutional! guarantee! of! non8impairment! is! limited! by! the! police! power! of! businesses! in! special! economic! zones! (SEZ),! and! therefore! may! be!
the!State,!in!the!interest!of!public!health,!safety,!morals!and!general!welfare.1( validly! revoked! even! if! such! impairs! contracts! between! SEZ!
The!power!of!the!legislature!to!change!existing!remedies!and!modes!of!procedures!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
rest!on!police!power.2( 3!Ibid.!
4!Ibid.!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5!Id.,!p.!461!

1 !Id.,!p.!455! 6!6!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution:!A!Comprehensive!Reviewer!(2011),!p.!106!!

2 !Ibid.! 7!Ibid.!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
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authorities!and!businesses.!(7)(Republic(v.(Caguioa(
!
IV.(Other(Cases(
Gaspar! v.! Molina! !! The! law! relating! to! the! obligations! of! contracts! does! not!
prohibit! every! change! in! existing! laws.! To! fall! within! the! prohibition,! the! change!
must! impair! the! obligation! of! the! existing! contract,! and! the! impairment! must! be!
substantial.1(
Clemons! v.! Nolting! !! A! law! which! changes! the! terms! of! a! legal! contract! between!
parties,!either!in!the!time!or!mode!of!the!performance,!or!imposes!new!conditions,!
or! dispenses! with! those! expressed,! or! authorizes! for! its! satisfaction! something!
different! from! that! provided! in! its! terms,! is! law! which! impairs! the! obligation! of! a!
contract!and!is!therefore!null!and!void.2(
U.S.!v.!Dias!Conde!!!Any!law!which!enlarges,!abridges,!or!in!any!manner!changes!
the!intention!of!the!parties,!necessarily!impairs!the!contract!itself.3(
Manila! Trading! Co.! v.! Reyes! !! The! Court! ruled! that! what! the! contract! clause!
prohibits!is!a!substantial!impairment!of!contracts.!Changes!in!procedural!remedies!
which!do!not!diminish!substantive!rights!or!increase!substantive!obligations!do!not!
violate!the!guarantee.(
!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
! !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.444!
11

2!Id.,!p.!445!
3!Ibid.!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
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SECTION(11.(
Free(access(to(the(courts(and(quasi9judicial(bodies(and(adequate(legal(assistance(shall(not(
be(denied(to(any(person(by(reason(of(poverty.(
(
FREE(ACCESS(TO(THE(COURTS,(QUASI9JUDICIAL(BODIES,(&(ADEQUATE(LEGAL(ASSISTANCE(
(
I.(General(Principles(
Who$are$protected:(
o Those$ protected$ include$ low$ paid$ employees,$ domestic$ servants$ and$
laborers.(
o They$ need$ not$ be$ persons$ so$ poor$ that$ they$ must$ be$ supported$ at$ public$
expense.(
o It$suffice$that$plaintiff$is$indigent.(
o Difference$ between$ paupers$ and$ indigent$ persons$ is$ that$ the$ latter$ are$
persons$ who$ have$ no$ property$ or$ sources$ of$ income$ sufficient$ aside$ from$
their$ own$ labor$ through$ self?supporting$ when$ able$ to$ work$ and$ in$
employment.(
Purpose$ of$ this$ provision$ is$ to$ bar$ Philippine$ jurisprudence$ from$ the$ distinction$
made$ in$ American$ jurisprudence$ which$ requires$ two$ requirements$ before$ giving$
free$access$to$courts.(
o Interest$sought$to$be$protected$must$be$fundamental.(
o Objectively$impossible$to$protect$the$interest$except$in$a$court$of$law.(
The$ expansion$ of$ the$ free$ access$ clause$ in$ the$ 1987$ Constitution$ had$ in$ mind$ free$
access$to$labor$courts.(

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
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SECTION(12.( 4. Right!to!proper!treatment!of!those!under!investigation1!
(1) Any( person( under( investigation( for( the( commission( of( an( offense( shall( have( the( !
right( to( be( informed( of( his( right( to( remain( silent( and( to( have( competent( and( III.(Miranda(Rights(
independent(counsel(preferably(of(his(own(choice.(If(the(person(cannot(afford(the( A.(Reason(for(the(rule:(
services(of(counsel,(he(must(be(provided(with(one.(These(rights(cannot(be(waived( It!recognized!the!fact!that!the!psychological!if!not!physical!atmosphere!of!custodial!
except(in(writing(and(in(the(presence(of(counsel.cralaw( investigations,!in!the!absence!of!proper!safeguards,!is!inherently!coercive.!
(2) No(torture,(force,(violence,(threat,(intimidation,(or(any(other(means(which(vitiate( (
the( free( will( shall( be( used( against( him.( Secret( detention( places,( solitary,( B.(The(Miranda(Rights((Procedure)((1)(Miranda(v.(Arizona2(
incommunicado,(or(other(similar(forms(of(detention(are(prohibited.cralaw( 1. The! person! in! custody! must! be! informed! at! the! outset! in! clear! and! unequivocal!
(3) Any( confession( or( admission( obtained( in( violation( of( this( or( Section( 17( hereof( terms!that!he!has!the!right!to!remain!silent.!
shall(be(inadmissible(in(evidence(against(him.cralaw( 2. After!being!so!informed,!he!must!be!told!that!anything!he!says!can!and!will!be!used!
(4) The(law(shall(provide(for(penal(and(civil(sanctions(for(violations(of(this(section(as( against!him!in!court.!
well( as( compensation( to( the( rehabilitation( of( victims( of( torture( or( similar( 3. He! must! be! clearly! informed! that! he! has! the! right! to! consult! with! a! lawyer! and! to!
practices,(and(their(families.( have! the! lawyer! with! him! during! the! interrogation.! He! does! not! have! to! ask! for! a!
( lawyer.! The! investigator! should! tell! him! that! he! has! the! right! to! counsel! at! that!
I.(Cases(Summary:(Section(12!gives!the!new!rights!to!accused!which!was!not!provided!prior! point.!
to!the!passage!of!the!1973!Constitution.!More!particularly!this!is!the!right!to!be!informed!of! 4. He!should!be!warned!that!not!only!has!he!the!right!to!consult!with!a!lawyer!but!also!
his!right!to!be!silent!and!to!an!attorney!(Miranda).!Being!so,!such!right!was!held!to!be!apply! that!if!he!is!indigent,!a!lawyer!will!be!appointed!to!represent!him.!
prospectively! (Magtoto).! With! regard! to! the! right! to! independent! and! competent! counsel,! 5. Even!if!the!person!consents!to!answer!questions!without!the!assistance!of!counsel,!
the! court! held! that! a! city! legal! officer! which! provides! free! legal! aid! services! for! the! the!moment!he!asks!for!a!lawyer!at!any!point!in!the!investigation,!the!interrogation!
promotion! of! peace! and! order! cant! be! considered! as! an! independent! legal! counsel! seeing! must!cease!until!an!attorney!is!present.!
that! theres! a! conflict! of! interest! between! such! officer! and! the! accused! (Sunga).! Rights! 6. If!the!foregoing!protections!and!warnings!are!not!demonstrated!during!the!trial!to!
under!Section(12!are!not!also!available!during!identification!through!police!line!ups!except! have! been! observed! by! the! prosecution,! no! evidence! obtained! as! a! result! of! the!
when!the!accused!is!already!under!custodial!investigation!(Gamboa,!Escordial).!It!was!also! interrogation!can!be!used!against!him.!
held!that!there!is!no!hard!and!fast!rule!with!regard!to!the!place!where!police!line!ups!can!be! !
held.! Thus! even! if! it! was! done! outside! the! police! station,! as! long! as! done! property,! IV.(Right(to(Counsel(
identification! is! valid! (Teehankee).! On! the! last! case! assigned,! the! court! held! that! a! law! Right! of! counsel! involves! more! than! just! the! presence! of! a! lawyer;! rather! it! means!
restricting! the! right! to! remain! in! silence! (against! right! to! selfMincrimination)! during! an! efficient!and!decisive!legal!assistance!and!not!a!simple!perfunctory!presentation.((2)!
investigation!conducted!by!a!panel!is!unconstitutional.!A!witness/accused!has!these!rights! People(v.(Sunga!
even!during!such!investigation!(Galman).! Not!independent!counsel!(SPCMMBO)!
! o Special!Counsel!
II.(Citizens(Rights(under(Section(12((ISIP)( o Public/Private!Prosecutor!
1. Right!to!be!informed!of!rights!(#2!&!#3!below)!
2. Right!to!remain!silent! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.)!
3. Right!to!have!competent!and!independent!counsel.! 2 !Id.,!p.!467!!468!
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o Counsel!of!the!Police! !
o Municipal!attorney!whose!interest!is!admittedly!adverse!to!the!accused.! VI.(NonTapplicability(of(rights(
o A!mayor!unless!the!accused!approaches!him!as!counselor!or!adviser.! Section(12(1)!does!not!apply!to!a!situation!where!a!person!presents!himself!to!the!
o A!barangay!captain.! police!and!in!the!process!make!his!admissions.3(
o Any!other!whose!interest!may!be!adverse!to!that!of!the!accused.! Parrafin!Test!"!Such!tests!is!not!a!communicative!action!or!testimonial!compulsion.(
! Police!Line!Up!(4)(Gamboa(v.(Judge(Cruz;((5)(People(v.(Escordial(
V.(When(Right(Attaches( o Exception.! When! there! is! a! move! on! the! part! of! the! investigators! to! elicit!
Application!of!right! admissions.!
o Applied! prospectively! after! the! effectivity! of! the! 1973! constitution! when! o Exception.!When!the!person!is!already!under!custodial!investigation.!
right!to!be!informed!of!rights!first!appeared.!(3)(Magtoto(v.(Manguera! Totality!of!Circumstances!Test!(to!determine!validity!of!out!of!court!identification):!
Availability!of!rights!to!a!person!being!investigated! 1. The!witness!opportunity!to!view!the!criminal!at!the!time!of!the!crime.!
o Bernas1! said! that! the! Gaiman! case! says! that! the! right! attaches! when! a! 2. The!witness!degree!of!attention!at!that!time.!
person!is!being!investigated!already!and!not!necessary!that!he!is!in!custody.! 3. The!accuracy!of!any!prior!description!given!by!the!witness.!
o Recent! jurisprudence! states! that! rights' under' Section( 12' is' available' only' 4. The!level!of!certainty!demonstrated!by!the!witness!at!the!identification.!
when'the'person'is'already'in'custody.2! 5. The!length!of!time!between!the!crime!and!the!identification.!
! Custodial! investigation! involves! any! questioning! initiated! by! law! 6. The!suggestiveness!of!the!identification!procedure.!
enforcement! officer! after! a! person! has! been! taken! into! custody! or! !
otherwise!deprived!of!his!freedom!of!action!in!any!significant!way.! VII.(When(Rights(Ends(
It! is! only! after! the! investigation! ceases! to! be! a! general! inquiry! into! Section( 12(1)! applies! only! to! the! investigation! prior! to! the! filing! of! charges,! after!
an! unsolved! crime! and! beings! to! focus! on! a! particular! suspect,! the! which!Sections(14(and!17(comes!in!to!protect!the!accused.4!
suspect!is!taken!into!custody,!and!the!police!carried!out!a!process!of! (
interrogations! that! lends! itself! to! eliciting! incriminating! statements! VIII.(Waiver(of(Rights(under(Section(12(
that!the!rule!beings!to!operate.! Theres!a!presumption!that!the!accused!did!not!waive!the!right;!burden!of!proof!on!
o However,! R.A.( 7438! extended! the! guarantee! to! situation! in! which! an! prosecution.5!
individual!has!not!been!formally!arrested!but!has!merely!been!invited!for! Can!only!waive!if!done!voluntarily,!knowingly,!and!intelligently!and!in!writing!and!in!
questioning.!There!is!therefore!a!broader!statutory!guarantee.! the!presence!of!counsel.6!
Availability!of!rights!to!a!person!witnessing! However,!failure!to!object!or!raise!the!violations!as!early!as!possible!(during!trial),!it!
o Provision! covers! not! only! confessions! but! also! admissions,! whether! made! shall!be!deemed!that!accused!waived!his!rights!under!Section(12.7!
by!a!witness!in!any!proceeding!or!by!an!accused!in!a!criminal!proceeding!or!
any!person!under!investigation!for!the!commission!of!an!offense.!Because!the!
witnesses!were!compelled!to!testify,!a!coMextensive!protection!in!the!form!of! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
an!immunity!must!be!offered.!(6)(Galman(v.(Pamaran! 3!Id.,!p.!470;!People!v.!Taylaran!
4!Id.,!p.!476!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5!Id.,!p.!478!

1 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!471! 6!Id.,!p.!477!!478!!

2 !Id.,!p.!472;!People!v.!Marra! 7!Id.,!p.!473!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
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SECTION(13.( Burden!is!on!the!prosecution!to!show!that!the!evidence!meets!the!required!
o
All( persons,( except( those( charged( with( offenses( punishable( by( reclusion( perpetua( when( quantum! (strong! evidence).! The! prosecution! must! be! given! opportunity! to!
evidence(of(guilt(is(strong,(shall,(before(conviction,(be(bailable(by(sufficient(sureties,(or(be( present!evidence,!otherwise!grant!of!bail!is!void.!
released( on( recognizance( as( may( be( provided( by( law.( The( right( to( bail( shall( not( be( Strong!evidence.!
impaired( even( when( the( privilege( of( the( writ( of( habeas( corpus( is( suspended.( Excessive( o Means! accused! will! probably! be! punished;! not! whether! the! evidence!
bail(shall(not(be(required.( established! guilt! beyond! reasonable! doubt! but! rather! whether! it! shows!
! evident!guilt!or!a!great!presumption!of!guilt.!
I.(Right(to(Bail( !
Another!means!of!immediately!obtaining!liberty.( IV.(Availability(of(the(Right(to(Bail(
Enables!the!accused!to!prepare!his!defense.( A.(When(available(
Purpose:(To!guarantee!appearance!of!the!accused!at!the!trial.!(1)(Yap(v.(CA( Bail!must!be!available!to!one!who!is!detained!even!before!formal!charges!are!filed.2!!
( Bail! is! available! to! defendant! in! extradition! proceedings! as! well! as! deportation!
II.(Setting(up(Bail( proceedings! (provided! he! is! not! a! flight! risk),! because! it! involves! a! prolonged!
Court!cannot!require!a!strictly!cash!bond.1!! restraint!of!liberty.!(2)(Government(of(Hong(Kong(v.(Olalia!
Amount! should! be! high! enough! to! assure! presence! when! required,! but! no! higher! !
than!is!reasonably!calculated!to!fulfill!this!purpose.!! B.(When(not(available(
o If!it!is!unreasonably!excessive,!it!is!tantamount!to!denial!of!bail!(1)!Yap(v.(CA! Right!to!bail!is!not!available!to!military!personnel!because!of!the!unique!structure!of!
o Bail! should! not! be! excessive.! If! it! were! excessive,! it! becomes! meaningless! the!community,!and!because!it!will!be!paid!out!from!the!taxes.!(4)(Commendador(v.(
since!the!accused!wont!be!able!to!afford!it.!(3)(De(La(Camara(v.(Enage! General(de(Villa!
Guidelines!(ANONRAEPNFFB):!(3)(De(La(Camara(v.(Enage! (
1. Nature!of!the!offense.! V.(Waiver(of(Bail!
2. Penalty!for!the!offense!charged.! Right! to! bail! may! be! waived! even! implicitly! in! an! irrecoverable! manner! as! in! the!
3. Character!and!strength!of!the!evidence.! case! when! accused! agreed! to! remain! in! legal! custody! during! the! pendency! of! the!
4. Ability!of!the!accused!to!give!bail.! trial!of!his!criminal!case.!
5. Character!and!reputation!of!the!accused.!
6. Health!of!the!accused.!
7. Probability!of!the!accused!appearing!in!trial.!
8. Whether!the!accused!was!a!fugitive!from!justice!when!arrested.!
9. Forfeiture!of!other!bonds.!
10. If!the!accused!is!under!bond!for!appearance!at!trial!in!other!cases.!
!
III.(Degree(of(Evidence!
When!offense!charged!is!capital!in!nature.!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Almeda!v.!Villaluz! 2 !Herras!Tehankee!v.!Rovira!
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CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(14.( o The(sentence(being(imposed(in(accordance(with(a(valid(law.(
(1) No( person( shall( be( held( to( answer( for( a( criminal( offense( without( due( process( of( Nuez(v.(Sandiganbayan3(
law.( (
(2) In( all( criminal( prosecutions,( the( accused( shall( be( presumed( innocent( until( the( B.(Right(Against(Trial(by(Publicity(
contrary(is(proved,(and(shall(enjoy(the(right(to(be(heard(by(himself(and(counsel,(to( Theres(a(presumption(of(impartiality(towards(the(judge.(
be( informed( of( the( nature( and( cause( of( the( accusation( against( him,( to( have( a( To(warrant(a(finding(of(prejudicial(publicity(there(must(be(
speedy,(impartial,(and(public(trial,(to(meet(the(witnesses(face(to(face,(and(to(have( o Allegation(and(proof(that(the(judges(have(been(unduly(influenced.(
compulsory(process(to(secure(the(attendance(of(witnesses(and(the(production(of( o Not(simply(that(they(might(be,(by(the(barrage(of(publicity(
evidence( in( his( behalf.( However,( after( arraignment,( trial( may( proceed( Webb(v.(De(Leon4(
notwithstanding( the( absence( of( the( accused:( Provided,( that( he( has( been( duly( Effect( of( publicity( on( judges( cannot( be( presumed( especially( since,( unlike( jurors,(
notified(and(his(failure(to(appear(is(unjustifiable.( judges(are(trained(professionals.(People(v.(Teehankee(Jr.5(
( (
I.(Citizens(Rights(Under(Section(14((DIHIMSWA)( C.(Due(Process(and(Military(Tribunals(
1. Right(to(due(process(of(law( Ordinarily,( the( Supreme( Court( cannot( review( the( rulings( and( proceedings( of( the(
2. Right(to(be(presumed(innocent( military(commission(
3. Right(to(be(heard(by(himself(and(counsel( o Generally,( this( court( does( not( exercise( over( military( commissions( the(
4. Right(to(be(informed(of(the(nature(and(cause(of(the(accusation(against(him( supervisory(jurisdiction(which(it(possesses(over(civil(trial(courts.(Buscayan(v.(
5. Right(to(have(a(speedy,(impartial,(and(public(trial( Military6(
6. Right(to(meet(the(witness(face(to(face( Civilian( Jurisdiction( of( military( commission( or( tribunal.( Olaguer( v.( Military(
7. Right( to( have( compulsory( process( to( secure( the( attendance( of( witnesses( and( Commission(No.(34(
the(production(of(evidence(in(his(behalf( o No( Jurisdiction( !( cannot( try( and( exercise( jurisdiction,( even( during( the(
( period( of( martial( law,( over( civilians( for( offenses( allegedly( committed( by(
II.(Due(Process(of(Law( them.(
A.(General(Principles( " As(long(as(the(civil(courts(are(open(and(functioning.(
Requires(the(procedure(established(by(law(be(followed.(U.S.(v.(Ocampo1( " Any(judgment(rendered(by(such(body(relating(to(a(civilian(is(null(and(
Due(Process(here(is(procedural(due(process.(U.S.(v.(Grant2( void(for(lack(of(jurisdiction(on(the(part(of(the(military(tribunal.(
Due(Process(is(satisfied(if(the(accused(is( o Olaguer( reversed( Aquino( Jr.( v.( Military( Commission( where( it( was( held( that(
o Informed(as(to(why(he(is(proceeded(against( military(courts(have(jurisdiction(over(civilians(during(martial(law.(
o Informed(what(charge(he(has(to(meet( o This(case(did(not(acquit(the(convicted(accused(but(ordered(rehearing.(
o With( his( conviction( [passed( by( a( court( with( competent( jurisdiction]( being( (
made(to(rest(on(evidence(that(is(not(tainted(with(falsity.(
o After(full(opportunity(for(him(to(rebut(it( !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3!Id.,!p.!499!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4!Id.,!p.!500!
1 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!498! 5!Ibid.!

2 !Ibid.! 6!Id.,!p.!505!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
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III.(Presumption(of(Innocence( reasonable(qualifications(for(local(candidates.3(
Burden(of(Proof( What(prosecution(must(do(before(there(can(be(a(conviction.(People(v.(Ming(
o Prosecution(has(the(burden(to(overcome(such(presumption(of(innocence(by( o The( accused( enjoys( the( constitutional( presumption( of( innocence( until( final(
presenting( the( quantum( of( evidence( required( (proof( beyond( reasonable( conviction;(conviction(requires(no(less(than(evidence(sufficient(to(arrive(at(a(
doubt)( moral( certainty( of( guilt,( not( only( with( respect( to( the( existence( of( a( crime,(
o The( prosecution( must( rest( on( its( own( merits( and( must( not( rely( on( the( but( more( importantly,( of( the( identity( of( the( accused( as( the( author( of( the(
weakness(of(the(defense.( crime.(
Reasonable(Doubt( o Prosecutions(case(must(rise(and(fall(on(its(own(merits(and(cannot(draw(its(
o That( doubt( engendered( by( an( investigation( of( the( whole( proof( and( an( strength(from(the(weakness(of(the(defense.(
inability( after( such( investigation( to( let( the( mind( rest( upon( the( certainty( of( (
guilty.( IV.(Right(to(be(Heard4(
The(presumption( A.(General(Principles(
o Presumption( of( innocence( includes( that( of( morality( and( decency( and( The(Hearer(
chastity((i.e.(presumption(of(virginity).(Valdepenas(v.(People1( o Quality(demanded:(fairness(and(impartiality(
o If(accused(appeals(after(being(convicted(by(lower(court,(the(presumption(of( " Judge(may(not(play(the(double(role(of(prosecutor(and(judge(in(one(
innocence(still(applies.(Mangubat(v.(Sandiganbayan2( and(the(same(case.(
Legislation( The(one(being(Heard(
o Congress(has(the(power(to(define(what(shall(constitute(prima(facie(evidence( o Right(to(present(evidence(and(to(be(present(at(the(trial(
of( guilt( for( a( crime( and( such( power( is( not( violative( of( right( against( o The(right(to(be(assisted(by(counsel(
presumption( of( innocence,( since( such( prima( facie( evidence( can( easily( be( o Right( to( compulsory( process( to( compel( the( attendance( of( witness( in( his(
rebutted.(U.S.(v.(Luling( behalf.(
o A( law( stating( that( one( shall( be( disqualified( to( run( for( office( on( the( ground( Right(to(present(evidence.(
alone( that( charges( have( been( filed( against( him( before( the( court( is( o Right( to( testify( in( ones( favor( and( the( right( to( be( given( time( to( call(
considered( as( violative( of( the( right( to( be( presumed( innocent.( Dumlao( v.( witnesses.(
COMELEC( One(has(the(right(also,(if(being(accused(of(two(offenses,(for(trial(of(each(of(the(case.(
o In( Marquez( Jr.( v.( COMELEC,( the( Court( upheld( the( disqualification( of( a( (
candidate(on(the(grounds(that(he(is(a(fugitive(from(justice.(The(court(here( B.(Right(to(be(tried(by(an(impartial(judge(
said( that( fugitive( applies( to( those( who( was( not( yet( convicted( but( was( Imperative(character(of(the(safeguard(of(due(process(connotes,(at(the(very(least,(an(
running(away(from(trial.(This(did(not(violate(the(presumption(of(innocent(as( impartial(tribunal.(Mateo(Jr.(v.(Villaluz(
disqualification( is( not( a( penalty( and( that( Congress( is( allowed( to( prescribe( Ground(in(which(judge(can(disqualify(himself((PRMPO):(Mateo(Jr.(v.(Villaluz(
1. Pecuniary(interest.(
2. Relationships7
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1!Seduction!case!cited!in!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
(2009!ed.),!p.!510! 3 !Id.,!p.!511!
2!Id.,!p.!512! 4 !Id.,!p.!514!!515!!
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Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
3. Previous(participation(in(the(matter(that(calls(for(adjudication( he( is( poor,( and( grant( him( a( reasonable( time( to( procure( an( attorney( of( his(
4. Other(just(or(valid(reason(which(erodes(trait(of(objectivity( own.(
Examples(of(when(judge(is(partial:( o Denial(such(right(would(be(sufficient(cause(for(the(reversal(of(the(case.(U.S.(
o Line( of( questioning( showed( his( hostility( against( the( accused( who( was( a( v.(Seradoy5(
notorious(criminal.(People(v.(Opida1( o Counsel(de(officio(must(be(a(qualified(lawyer.(
o Judge(convicted(the(petitioner(of(arson,(he(attributed(the(act(to(the(desire( Presumption(of(Regularity(
of(petitioner(to(destroy(evidence(of(malversation,(the(judge(was(disqualified( o There( is( a( presumption( that( the( court( did( the( said( acts( above.( People( v.(
from(subsequently(trying(the(petitioner(for(malversation.(Ignacio(v.(Villaluz2( Miranda6(
Judge(who(inherit(a(case(from(another(judge,(even(though(he(was(not(able(to(hear( When(right(attaches.(Sayson(v.(People7(
all(the(witnesses(presented,(still(have(the(presumption(of(being(impartial.3( o Time(of(arraignment(
( o Before(arraignment,(rights(under(Article(12(shall(apply(to(the(accused(
C.(Right(to(Counsel( Cases(where(theres(no(denial(of(right(to(counsel(
Basic(elements(of(the(right(to(counsel:( o The( accused( has( proceeded( with( the( arraignment( and( the( trial( with( a(
o Court( is( duty`bound( to( inform( the( defendant( that( he( has( a( right( to( an( counsel(of(his(choice(but(when(the(time(for(the(presentation(of(evidence(for(
attorney(before(he(is(arraigned.( the(defense(has(arrived,(he(appears(by(himself(alone(and(the(absence(of(his(
o The(Court(must(ask(him(if(he(desires(the(service(of(counsel.( counsel(was(inexcusable.(Sayson(v.(People8(
o If(he(does,(and(is(unable(to(get(one,(the(Court(must(assign(counsel(de(officio( o A( counsel( de( officio( was( appointed( during( the( absence( of( the( accused(
o Of,( if( the( accused( wishes( to( procure( private( counsel,( the( court( must( give( counsel(de(parte(pursuant(to(the(courts(desire(to(finish(the(case(as(early(as(
him( time( to( obtain( one.( If( appointed( counsels( interests( are( divided( practicable(under(continuous(trial(system(
between( prosecutor( and( the( defense,( his( appointment( constitutes( o Petitioner( was( represented( by( counsel( de( parte( at( the( arraignment( and(
reversible(error.( trial,(the(trial(court(could(not(be(deemed(duty`bound(to(appoint(a(counsel(
o Where(duly(authorized(members(of(the(bar(are(not(available,(the(court(may( de(officio(for(the(continuation(of(his(cross(examination.(
appoint(any(person(resident(of(the(province(and(of(good(repute(for(probity( Waiver(of(right(to(counsel9(
and(ability.( o Accused(said(that(he(did(not(want(a(counsel.(People(v.(Sim(Ben(
The(Right( o Accused( went( to( trial( alone( and( conducted( his( own( defense( after( being(
o Accused(must(be(informed(by(the(court(that(he(has(a(right(to(have(counsel( asked(if(he(wanted(a(counsel.(
before(being(arraigned,(and(must(be(asked(if(he(desires(the(aid(of(counsel.( o Presumption(is(always(against(the(waiver.(
If(he(desires(and(is(unable(to(employ(counsel,(the(court(must(assign(counsel( o Prosecution(must(prove(with(strong(evidence(waiver(was(made(willingly(and(
(counsel(de(officio)(to(defend(him.(U.S.(v.(Gemino4( voluntarily.(
o It(is(essential(that(the(court(should(assign(one(de(officio(if(he(desires(and(if( (
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5!Id.,!p.!518!
1!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!502! 6!Id.,!p.!520!
2!Ibid.! 7!Id.,!p.!521!

3!Id.,!p.!503! 8!Ibid.!

4!Id.,!p.!517! 9!Id.,!p.!522!!523!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
V.(Right(to(be(informed( B.(Speedy(Trial(
Cardinal(requisite:(accused(be(informed(of(facts(that(are(imputed(to(him.( Denial( of( the( right( to( speedy( trial( shall( entitle( the( accused( to( the( dismissal( of( the(
o Information(must(describe(the(act(with(sufficient(particularity.( case(filed(against(him.(Conde(v.(Rivera(
o Descriptive( terms( used( must( be( sufficient( in( their( common( and( ordinary( What(constitution(prohibits(are(unreasonable(delays.3(
acceptation( to( show( with( certainty( to( the( common( understanding( of( Thus(if(delay(was(reasonable(it(does(not(violate(right(to(speedy(trial((See(examples)(
intelligent(men(what(the(property(was(and(to(fully(identify(it.( o Absence(of(the(complainant(due(to(medical(reasons.(People(v.(Gines(
o Qualifying(circumstances(must(be(alleged.( o Four(days(in(the(transmission(of(appeal(papers.(
o The( right( to( assail( the( sufficiency( of( the( information( or( the( admission( of( o War/Liberation(
evidence(may(be(waived(by(the(accused(if(he(fails(to(object(to(its(sufficiency( o Typhoon(
during( the( trial( and( the( deficiency( is( cured( by( competent( evidence( If(accused(raise(the(defense(of(denial(of(speedy(trial(only(on(appeal,(its(deemed(to(
presented(therein.( have(been(waived.(
o Need( not( allege( the( precise( time( of( the( commission( of( the( offense,( unless( Waiver(or(abandonment(may(be(presumed(only(when(the(postponement(of(the(trial(
time(is(an(essential(element(of(the(crime(charged.( has(been(sought(and(obtained(by(the(accused(himself(or(by(his(attorney.(
o Time( of( commission( of( the( offense( must( be( alleged( as( near( to( the( actual( Remedy(of(an(accused(when(theres(a(violation(of(right(to(speedy(trial(is(dismissal(
date( as( the( information( of( complaint( will( permit( (Section( 11,( Rule( 110,( which( is( equivalent( to( acquittal,( thus( double( jeopardy( applies( to( habeas( corpus( if(
Rules(of(Court).( detained.(
o Due( process( requires( that( not( only( he( (accused)( needs( to( be( informed,( he( (
must(be(able(to(understand(what(the(law(commands(or(prohibits((otherwise( C.(Public(Trial(
its(void(for(vagueness)( When(anyone(interested(in(observing(the(manner(a(judge(conducts(the(proceedings(
o Right( to( sufficient( information( is( a( right( in( criminal( proceedigns( and( not( in( in(his(courtroom(may(do(so.(
administrative( proceedings,( which( only( requires( that( the( respondent( be( Exception:( general( public( may( be( excluded( when( the( evidence( to( be( presented( in(
given(the(opportunity(to(be(heard.( the(proceeding(may(be(characterized(as(offensive(to(decency(or(public(morals.(
An( information( filed( must( contain( all( the( valid( charges( against( the( accused( as( it( is( o But( even( in( such( instances,( the( constitution( demands( that( the( accused(
the(right(of(the(accused(to(be(informed(of(the(nature(and(the(cause(of(accusation( should(be(allowed(to(at(least(have(his(friends,(relatives,(and(counsel(present(
against(him.(People(v.(Regala( no(matter(with(what(offense(he(may(be(charged.(
( Right( is( a( safeguard( against( any( attempt( to( employ( our( courts( as( instruments( of(
VI.(Speedy,(impartial(and(public(trial( persecution.(
A.(Impartial(Trial( (
Right(to(impartial(trial(is(not(a(bar(to(a(judges(intervention(in(cross`examination.1( VII.(Right(to(Confrontation(
It(is(the(duty(of(a(trial(judge(to(examine(witnesses(when(it(appears(necessary(for(the( Right(to(meet(the(witness(face(to(face(
elucidation(of(the(record.2( Two`fold(purpose:(
( o Afford( the( accused( an( opportunity( to( test( the( testimony( of( the( witness( by((
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!526! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2 !Ibid.! 3 !Id.,!p.!527!
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Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
cross`examination.( 4. Bench7 Warrant.( Compels( the( attendance( in( court( of( a( key( witness( different(
o Secondarily(to(allow(the(judge(to(observe(the(deportment(of(the(witness.( from(an(arrest(or(search(warrant,(thus,(no(need(for(probable(cause.(
A( doctor( who( executes( the( medical( certificate( must( be( presented( for( cross( Since( preliminary( investigation( can( result( in( an( arrest,( the( accused( should( not( be(
examination.(U.S.(v.(Lorenzana1( denied(access(to(evidence(favorable(to(him.(Webb(v.(De(Leon(
Agreement( between( prosecution( and( the( defense( to( the( effect( that( certain( (
witnesses,(if(presented,(would(testify(to(certain(facts(can(deprive(the(defendant(of( B.(Trial(in(absentia(
the(right(of(confrontation(is(not(completely(disallowed.(U.S.(v.(Donato2( Accused( was( so( noisy,( disorderly( and( disruptive( during( the( trial( that( it( was(
Testimony(not(subject(to(cross(examination(must(be(excluded(from(consideration.( impossible( for( the( trial( to( proceed.( The( judge( ordered( accused( to( be( removed.( SC(
o Exception.( When( cross( examination( was( started,( but( was( not( finished,( said(he(forfeited(his(right(to(be(present(throughout(the(trial.(Illinois(v.(Allen(
before( witness( can( come( back,( he( dies.( Testimony( already( made( is( Requisites(for(trial(in(absentia(
admissible.(People(v.(Seneris.( o Accused(has(been(arraigned(
The( provision( which( allows( the( sharia( court( to( render( a( decision( based( on( an( o Notice(of(the(trial(was(duly(served(to(him(and(properly(returned(
unexamined( oath( made( by( the( defendant( without( any( other( evidence,( denies( a( o His(failure(to(appear(is(unjustified(
party( his( right( to( confront( the( witnesses( against( him( and( to( cross`examine( them,( Why(after(arraignment(
thus(it(is(a(violation(of(due(process.(Tampar(v.(Usman( o During( arraignment,( the( information( is( read( to( the( accused( and( he( enters(
Right( of( confrontation( is( recognized( during( preliminary( investigation( proper( his(plea.(
(whether(or(not(to(file(a(case),(but(not(during(preliminary(examination((whether(or( o Trial(court(acquires(jurisdiction(over(the(person.(
not(to(issue(a(warrant).(Marinas(v.(Siochi( There(is(statutory(rule(which(requires(the(presence(of(the(accused(at(promulgation(
( of(judgment.(
VIII.(Compulsory(Process( Trial( in( absentia( can( be( made( voluntarily( but( he( may( be( compelled( to( appear( for(
To( establish( the( right( to( continuance( by( reason( of( absence( of( witnesses,( the( purpose(of(identification(by(the(witnesses(of(the(prosecution.3(
accused(must(show((MMNAE):( If(he(really(does(not(want(to(appear,(he(must(unqualifiedly(admit(that(every(time(a(
1. That(the(witness(is(really(material( witnesses(mentions(a(name(by(which(he(is(known,(the(witness(is(to(be(understood(
2. That( he( is( guilty( of( no( neglect( in( previously( obtaining( attendance( of( said( as(referring(to(him.(Carredo(v.(People(
witness.(
3. That(the(witness(will(be(available(at(the(time(desired.(
4. That(no(similar(evidence(could(be(obtained.(
The(following(are(kinds(of(compulsory(processes(available(to(the(accused:(
1. Subpoena7duces7tecum.(Summon(documents(in(court.(
2. Subpoena7ad7testificandum.(Summon(witnesses(to(testify(in(court.(
3. Contempt.( Punishment( for( disobedience( or( dishonor( to( the( court;( may( be(
direct(or(indirect.(
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!531! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2 !Ibid.! 3 !Id.,!p.!535!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(15.(
The( privilege( of( the( writ( of( habeas( corpus( shall( not( be( suspended( except( in( cases( of(
invasion(or(rebellion,(when(the(public(safety(requires(it.(
!
I.(Writ(of(Habeas(Corpus(Defined(
It!is!defined!as!a!writ!directed!to!the!person!detaining!another,!commanding!him!to!
produce!the!body!of!the!prisoner!at!a!designated!time!and!place,!with!the!day!and!
cause!of!his!caption!and!detention,!to!do,!submit!to,!and!receive!whatever!the!court!
or!judge!awarding!the!writ!shall!consider!in!that!behalf.(
An!essential!requisite!for!the!availability!of!the!writ!is!actual!deprivation!of!personal!
liberty.(
!
II.(Privilege(of(writ(of(habeas(corpus(
Right! to! have! an! immediate! determination! of! the! legality! of! the! deprivation! of!
physical!liberty(
What!is!suspended!is!the!privilege!and!not!the!writ(
It!is!the!president!who!suspends(
!
III.(Requisites(for(suspension(
1. Existence!of!actual!invasion!or!rebellion!
2. Public!safety!requires!the!suspension!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(16.(
All( persons( shall( have( the( right( to( a( speedy( disposition( of( their( cases( before( all( judicial,(
quasiCjudicial,(or(administrative(bodies.(
(
I.(General(Principles(
A.(Speedy(Disposition(of(Cases(
This%provision%covers%the%periods%before,%during,%and%after%trial.%
It%gives%a%broader%protection%than%Section(14%which%guarantees%merely%the%right%to%a%
speedy%trial.%
This%provision%applies%to%all%civil,%criminal,%and%administrative%cases.%
It%also%applies%to%all%judicial%or%quasi=judicial%proceedings.%
%
B.(Speedy(as(a(Relative(and(Flexible(Term(
The% concept% of% speedy% disposition% such% as% speedy% trial% is% relative% and% must%
necessarily%be%flexible.%
It%is%consistent%with%reasonable%delay.%
In% determination% of% whether% or% not% the% right% has% been% violated,% the% following%
factors%may%be%considered%and%balanced.%(1)(Guiani(v.(Sandiganbayan%
1. Length%of%delay%
2. Reason%for%the%delay%
3. Assertion%of%the%right%or%failure%to%assert%it%
4. Prejudice%caused%by%the%delay%
%
II.(Proper(Remedy:(Mandamus(
The% remedy% for% violation% of% the% right% to% a% speedy% disposition% of% a% case% is% dismissal%
through%mandamus.(
%
III.(Speedy(Disposition(of(Cases(v.(Speedy(Trial(
(
Speedy(Disposition( Speedy(Trial(
Begins%from%the%preliminary%investigation% Begins%from%the%moment%the%charge%is%filed%
%

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(17.( o (8)(Cabal(v.(Kapunan(Jr.!!forfeiture!of!property!
No(person(shall(be(compelled(to(be(a(witness(against(himself.( o (9)(Pascual(Jr.(v.(Board(of(Medical(Examiners(!revocation!of!license.!
!
RIGHT(AGAINST(SELFDINCRIMINATION( III.(Not(an(Absolute(Right(
It!does!not!prohibit!every!form!of!preliminary!investigation!
(
o Preliminary! investigation! is! often! the! only! means! of! discovering! the!
I.(General(Principles:(Right(Against(SelfDIncrimination(
persons! who! may! be! reasonably! charged! with! a! crime! so! as! to! enable! to!
Self%Incrimination! !! If! the! disclosure! made! is! capable! of! being! used! against! the!
fiscal!to!prepare!his!complaint!or!information.!
defendant! as! a! confession! of! a! crime! then! such! disclosure! would! be! an! accusation!
The! guarantee! does! not! prohibit! a! party! litigant! from! using! his! adversary! as! a!
against!himself!(1)(US(v.(Navarro!
witness! when! the! case! is! not! a! criminal! case! where! the! intended! witness! is! the!
Justification!of!the!guarantee.!(1)(US(v.(Navarro!
accused!himself.!
o Public!policy:!if!the!party!were!required!to!testify,!it!would!place!the!witness!
If! a! subpoena! was! issued! by! the! Senate! to! issue! queries! in! aid! of! legislation,! the!
under!the!strongest!temptation!to!commit!perjury.!
witness! (even! if! accused! in! a! criminal! case)! may! be! compelled! to! take! the! witness!
o Humanity:!It!would!prevent!the!extorting!of!confessions!by!duress.!
stand!even!if!what!is!to!be!asked!is!related!to!the!criminal!case.!
Purpose!
o However,!they!may!still!invoke!the!right!if!they!find!that!the!question!issued!
o Prohibit!compulsory!oral!examination!of!prisoner!before!trial,!or!upon!trial,!
to!them!is!incriminating.!
for! the! purpose! of! extorting! unwilling! confessions! or! declarations!
!
implicating!them!in!the!commission!of!the!crime.!(2)(US(v.(Tan(Teng!
IV.(When(to(raise(the(Privilege(
o Also!covers!the!fact!that!an!accused!may!not!be!forced!to!create!evidence!
(
that!will!implicate!himself.!(5)(Beltran(v.(Samson!
Before!taking!the!witness! Before!answering!an!
Who!determines!whether!or!not!a!question!is!incriminating?! !
stand! incriminating!question!
o Answer:!The!Court!
Accused!in!a!criminal!case! X( (
!
Accused!not!in!a!criminal!
II.(Compulsion(to((1)(take(the(witness(stand(or((2)(to(answer(an(incriminating(question( ( X(
(7)(Chavez(v.(CA( case!
( Witness! ( X(
Taking!the!witness! Answer!an! !
Taking!the!witness! V.(Prohibition(does(not(preclude(a(body(checkDup;(mechanical(acts(
! stand!in!a!criminal! incriminating!
stand! Substance! emitting! from! the! body! of! the! defendant! was! received! as! evidence! in! a!
case! question!
Accused! Cannot!be!compelled! prosecution!for!a!rape!case.!(2)(US(v.(Tan(Teng(
Can!be!compelled! Cannot!be!compelled! Morphine!forced!out!of!the!mouth!of!the!accused!was!received!as!evidence.!(3)(US(
Witness! Can!be!compelled!
*with!an!exception!substantiated!in!the!next!section! v.(Ong(Sui(Hong(
! Pregnancy!test!is!not!a!violation!of!the!right!against!selfPincrimination!as!long!as!it!is!
Can!also!be!applied!in!administrative!proceedings!partaking!the!nature!of!a!criminal! not!done!with!torture!or!force.!(3)(Villaflor(v.(Summers(
proceeding!or!analogous!to!a!criminal!proceeding!! (

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
VI.(Handwriting(
Writing! is! not! a! purely! mechanical! act,! because! it! requires! the! application! of!
intelligence!and!attention.!(5)(Beltran(v.(Samson!
o Forcing! someone! to! furnish! a! specimen! of! his! handwriting! is! equal! to!
compelling!a!person!to!produce!a!document!which!is!a!violation!of!this!right!
!the!witness!is!required!to!furnish!evidence!against!himself.!
!
VII.(Waiver(of(Right(
When!a!person!voluntarily!answers!an!incriminating!question,!he!is!deemed!to!have!
waived!his!right.!
Denial!on!the!part!of!the!accused!when!it!was!said!that!it!was!she!who!wrote!on!the!
documents! does! not! constitute! a! waiver! and! therefore! cannot! be! required! to!
produce!a!sample!of!her!handwriting.!(6)(Bermudez(v.(Castillo!
(
VIII.(Documents(and(records(
The!right!against!selfPincrimination!covers!documentary!evidence.!
This!right!is!a!personal!one!!thus!applying!only!to!a!natural!person.!
o Hence,!a!corporation!may!be!compelled!to!submit!to!the!visitorial!powers!of!
the!state!even!if!this!results!in!disclosure!of!criminal!acts!of!the!corporation.!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(18.(( suspended#it.#(2)(People(v.(Echegaray#
(1) No( person( shall( be( detained( solely( by( reason( of( his( political( beliefs( and( o Its# framers# have# left# the# discretion# to# the# legislature# to# restore# it# if# they#
aspirations.( find#compelling#reasons#involving#heinous#crimes#
(2) No( involuntary( servitude( in( any( form( shall( exist( except( as( a( punishment( for( a( This#is#not#cruel#and#unusual#
crime(whereof(the(party(shall(have(been(duly(convicted.( o It#only#becomes#such#if#the#penalty#involves#torture#and#lingering#death.#
( #
SECTION(19.(( II.(Heinous(Crimes(
(1) Excessive(fines(shall(not(be(imposed,(nor(cruel,(degrading(or(inhuman(punishment( Defined#under#R.A.(7659#(Death(Penalty(Law)#
inflicted.( Neither( shall( death( penalty( be( imposed,( unless,( for( compelling( reasons( Crimes#are#heinous#for#being#grievous,#odious,#and#hateful#offenses#and#which,#by#
involving( heinous( crimes,( the( Congress( hereafter( provides( for( it.( Any( death( reason#of#their#inherent#or#manifest#wickedness,#viciousness,#atrocity#and#perversity#
penalty(already(imposed(shall(be(reduced(to(reclusion(perpetua.( are#repugnant#and#outrageous#to#the#common#standards#and#norms#of#decency#and#
(2) The(employment(of(physical,(psychological,(or(degrading(punishment(against(any( morality#in#a#just,#civilized#and#ordered#society.#
prisoner( or( detainee( or( the( use( of( substandard( or( inadequate( penal( facilities( #
under(subhuman(conditions(shall(be(dealt(with(by(law.( III.(Power(to(restore(the(Death(Penalty(
( Does# not# fall# within# the# plenary# power# of# the# Congress:# it# is# subject# to# a# clear#
CRUEL,(DEGRADING,(INHUMAN(OR(EXCESSIVE(PENALTY( showing#of#compelling#reasons#involving#heinous#crimes#
( Entails#the#following:#(2)(People(v.(Echegaray#
I.(Cruel,(Degrading,(or(inhuman(( o That#the#Congress#must#define#what#is#meant#by#heinous#crimes#
To# come# under# the# ban,# the# punishment# must# be# flagrantly# and# plainly# o That# the# Congress# must# specify# and# penalize# by# death,# only# crimes# that#
oppressive,#wholly#disproportionate#to#the#nature#of#the#offense#as#to#shock#them# qualify#as#heinous#in#accordance#with#the#definition#or#description#set#in#the#
moral#sense#of#the#community.#((1)(People(v.(Estoista# death#penalty#bill#and/or#designate#crimes#punishable#by#reclusion#perpetua#
Involves#torture#or#lingering#death.# to# death# in# which# latter# case,# death# can# only# be# imposed# upon# the#
# attendance# of# circumstances# duly# proven# in# court# that# characterize# the#
II.(Penalty(constitutional(but(excessive( crimes# to# be# heinous# in# accordance# with# the# definition# set# in# the# death#
penalty#bill.#
There# are# instances# where# in# the# penalty# for# a# certain# crime# is# generally#
o That# Congress,# in# enacting# such# law,# be# motivated# by# compelling# reasons#
proportionate#but#excessive#if#certain#facts#and#circumstances#are#changed.#
involving#heinous#crimes.#
In# such# situations,# the# court# must# still# impose# such# penalty# but# with#
recommendation#for#executive#clemency.#(1)#People(v.(Estoista#
(
DEATH(PENALTY(
(
I.(Death(Penalty(
The#1987#Constitution#does#not#ban#the#imposition#of#the#death#penalty,#it#merely#

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(20.((
No(person(shall(be(imprisoned(for(debt(or(non;payment(of(a(poll(tax.(
(
I.(Debt(
A.(Coverage(of(Debt(
No#person#may#be#imprisoned#for#debut#in#virtue#of#an#order#in#a#civil#proceeding,#
either#as#a#substitute#for#satisfaction#of#a#debut#or#as#a#means#of#compelling#
satisfaction.#
Ex#contractu.#From#a#contract.#
#
B.(What(is(the(not(covered(
A#person#may#be#imprisoned#as#a#penalty#for#a#crime#arising#from#a#contractual#
debut#and#imposed#in#a#proper#criminal#proceeding.#(1)(Lozano(v.(Martinez#
Ex#Delicto.#For#a#tort.#
#
II.(Poll(Tax(
A#poll#tax#may#also#be#understood#as#the#cedula#tax#or#residence#tax#
The#Constitution#does#not#prohibit#the#cedula#tax#but#it#prohibits#imprisonment#for#
non>payment#of#the#cedula#or#residence#tax.#
#

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(21.(( 4. After&plea&
No(person(shall(be(twice(put(in(jeopardy(of(punishment(for(the(same(offense.(If(an(act(is( &
punished(by(a(law(and(an(ordinance,(conviction(or(acquittal(under(either(shall(constitute( C.(GENERAL(RULE:(Instances(of(Termination((2)(Bulaong(v.(People(
a(bar(to(another(prosecution(for(the(same(act.( 1. Acquittal&!&when&the&case&is&terminated&upon&the&merits&of&the&issue&(e.g.&guilt&not&
( proven&beyond&reasonable&doubt).&
I.(General(Points( Note:& Dismissal& based& on& demurrer& of& evidence& is& an& acquittal.& Hence,& if& the&
( demurrer& is& void,& there& is& not& acquittal& and& double& jeopardy& does& not& attach.& (6)(
Double(Jeopardy( Legal(Jeopardy( Mupas(v.(People(
Twice&punished&for&the&same&offense& Twice&tried&for&the&same&offense& 2. FINAL& Conviction& !& accused& guilt& is& proven& and& there& is& no& more& opportunity& for&
(Ex:&Being&punished&under&(1)&an&ordinance& appeal.&
which&has&the&exact&same&elements& 3. Dismissal& without& express& consent& of& the& accused& !& dismissal& on& any& ground& that&
necessary&to&be&punished&under&(2)&a& does&not&decide&the&merits&of&the&case;&there&should&be&no&consent&on&the&part&of&
statute)& the&accused&(e.g.&lack&of&jurisdiction).&
The&fact&of&being&prosecuted&or&sentenced& The&risk&of&conviction&and&punishment&that& Note:&Mere&silence&does&not&necessarily&mean&consent&(1)(People(v.(Ylagan(
twice&for&substantially&the&same&offense& the&criminal&defendant&faces&at&trial& 4. Dismissal& on& the& merits& !& most& common& example& is& dismissal& on& the& ground& of&
( denial&of&the&right&to&a&speedy&trial.&
A.(Requisites(for(the(Attachment(of(Double(Jeopardy.(( Note:(Dismissal&must&be&done&by&the&judge&in&writing.&A&mere&verbal&dismissal&is&not&
1. A&first&jeopardy&must&have&attached&prior&to&the&second&!&legal&jeopardy& final&until&written&and&signed&by&the&judge.&
2. The&first&jeopardy&must&have&terminated&!&termination& &
3. The&second&jeopardy&must&be&for&the&same&offense&as&that&in&the&first&!&identity&of& D.(EXCEPTION:(Supervening(Fact&
the&offense& When& after& the& filing& of& the& first& information,& a& supervening& fact& takes& place& and&
Requisites(for(Double(Jeopardy((9)(Estrada(v.(Desierto( changes& the& character& of& the& crime& charged,& amending& the& information& would& not&
1. Upon&a&valid&complaint&& constitute&a&violation&of&double&jeopardy.&(3)(Melo(v.(People&
2. Before&a&competent&court&& o The& second& crime& must& not& have& been& in& existence& when& the& first&
3. After&arraignment&& information&was&filed.&
4. When&a&valid&plea&has&been&entered&& o Example:&Death&of&victim&changes&the&character&of&homicide&from&frustrated&
5. When& the& defendant& was& acquitted& or& convicted& or& the& case& was& dismissed& or& to&consummated.&
otherwise&terminated&without&the&express&consent&of&the&accused& To& be& accepted& as& a& supervening& fact& that& creates& an& exception,& it& must& not& have&
( been&present&during&the&filing&of&the&first&information.&
B.(Requisites(for(Attachment(of(Legal(Jeopardy((1)(People(v.(Ylagan( o If& the& discovery& of& such& fact& (presence& of& a& fracture& which& changes& the&
1. Upon&a&valid&indictment/complaint& character& of& the& crime)& was& just& delayed& due& to& the& incompetence& of& a&
2. Before&a&competent&court&with&jurisdiction& doctor,&double&jeopardy&will&attach.&(4)(People(v.(Buling&
3. After&arraignment1& (
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Arraignment!!!initial!step!in!a!criminal!prosecution!whereby!the!defendant!is!brought!before!the!court!to!hear!the! charges!and!to!enter!a!plea.!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
II.(First(Part:(Same(Offense( waives&his&right&against&double&jeopardy.&
No&person&shall&be&twice&put&in&jeopardy&of&punishment&for&the&same&offense.( o Given&this,&the&imposition&of&a&higher&penalty&upon&appeal&is&not&contrary&to&
( the&constitutional&guarantee.&
A.(Identity(of(the(Offense((3)(Melo(v.(People( &
1. One&offense&is&identical&to&another& IV.(Special(Case:(Impeachment.((9)(Estrada(v.(Desierto(
2. One&is&an&(a)&attempt&or&(b)&frustration&of&the&other& Conviction& or& acquittal& in& an& impeachment& proceeding& is& not& a& condition& sine% qua%
3. One&(a)&necessarily&includes&or&(b)&is&necessarily&included&in&the&other& non&to&prosecution&under&the&Ombudsman.&
( Resignation& from& ones& position& is& express& consent& for& the& dismissal& of& the&
Note:&When&the&same&set&of&acts&constitute&two&or&more&offenses&distinctly&punished&by&the& impeachment&case.&
law,&termination&of&either&one&does&not&bar&prosecution&for&another.&In&this&case,&there&is&an& o Thus,& when& one& resigns,& the& case& automatically& does& not& fall& under& the&
element&in&one&that&is&not&in&the&other&(5)(People(v.(Tiozon& instances& of& termination& that& give& rise& to& the& attachment& of& double&
Example:& illegal& possession& of& Firearms& under& a& special& law& and& homicide/murder& jeopardy.&
under&the&RPC& If&an&impeachment&trial&is&declared&functus&officio,&the&best&argument&available&for&
( the& defendant& in& saying& that& double& jeopardy& should& attach& is& failure& to& prosecute&
II.(Second(Part:(Ordinance(and(Statute( amounting&to&a&violation&of&ones&right&to&a&speedy&trial&which&may&lead&to&dismissal&
If&an&act&is&punished&by&a&law&and&an&ordinance,&conviction&or&acquittal&under&either& on& the& merits& which& is& one& of& the& instances& of& termination& that& give& rise& to& the&
shall&constitute&a&bar&to&another&prosecution&for&the&same&act.& attachment&of&double&jeopardy.&
&
A.(General(Points(
Contrary&to&what&is&covered&in&the&first&part,&the&second&part&of&the&provision&covers&
the&same&acts.&
o Thus,&even&if&the&same&act&constitutes&two&different&offenses&wherein&one&is&
punished& under& an& ordinance& and& the& other& under& a& national& law,&
termination& under& either& shall& constitute& a& bar& to& the& prosecution& of& the&
other.&(7)(People(v.(Relova&
(
III.(Appeals(
The&protection&against&second&jeopardy&not&only&means&that&an&accused&cannot&be&
prosecuted&a&second&time&for&the&same&offense&but&also&that&the&prosecution&cannot&
appeal&a&judgment&of&acquittal.&
o Nor&will&the&prosecution&be&allowed&to&appeal&an&judgment&of&conviction&in&
order&to&obtain&a&modification&of&the&penalty&when&the&penalty&imposed&is&
lighter&than&what&is&legally&demandable.&
When& the& accused& himself& appeals& from& a& decision& of& conviction,& he& effectively&

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(22.(( '
No(ex(post(facto(law(or(bill(of(attainder(shall(be(enacted.( III.(Jurisprudential(Requisites.(People(v.(Ferrer(
( The'statute'specifies'persons'or'groups'
EX(POST(FACTO(LAW( Statute'is'applied'retroactively'and'may'reach'past'conduct'
(
I.(Characteristics(of(an(ex(post(facto(law(
1. That'which'makes'an'action'before'the'passing'of'the'law'and'which'was'innocent'
when'done'criminal'and'punishes'such'action,'or'
2. Which'aggravates'a'crime'or'makes'it'greater'than'when'it'was'committed;'or'
3. Which' changes' the' punishment' and' inflicts' a' greater' punishment' than' the' law'
annexed'to'the'crime'when'it'was'committed;'
4. Which' alters' the' legal' rules' of' evidence' and' receives' less' or' different' testimony'
than' the' law' required' at' the' time' of' the' commission' of' the' offense' in' order' to'
convict'the'defendant.'(2)(Virata(v.(Sandiganbayan'
'
II.(Prohibits(all(retrospective(laws?(
No,' only' retrospective' penal' laws' (proscribes' a' criminal' penalty' or' an' equivalent'
burden'imposable'in'a'criminal'trial)'(3)(Lacson(v.(Executive(Secretary'
If' law' is' favourable' to' the' accused,' it' may' be' applied' retrospectively' (e.g.' Revila'
Laws'effect'on'Robin'Padilla)'
'
BILL(OF(ATTAINDER(
'
I.(Definition(of(a(Bill(of(Attainder((1)(People(v.(Ferrer(
A'legislative'act'which'inflicts'punishment'without'judicial'trial'
The'essence'of'the'bill'of'attainder'is'the'substitution'of'a'legislative'rather'than'a'
judicial'determination'of'guilt.'
'
II.(Essential(Elements(of(a(Bill(of(Attainder(
1. There'must'be'a'law'
2. The' law' imposes' a' penal' burden' on' a' named' individual' or' easily' ascertainable'
members'of'a'group.'
3. The'penal'burden'is'imposed'directly'by'the'law'without'judicial'trial'

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
ARTICLE(IV:(CITIZENSHIP( nationality)of)their)father)if)paternity)is)clear.))
( b. Convention)on)the)Rights)of)the)Child:)Children)shall)no)be)discriminated)on)
SECTION(1.(( the)basis)of)birth)(thus)FPJ)was)allowed)to)run)even)if)he)was)an)illegitimate)
The(following(are(citizens(of(the(Philippines:( child)of)a)Filipino)Father))
1. Those( who( are( citizens( of( the( Philippines( at( the( time( of( the( adoption( of( this( There)is)nothing)preventing)the)legislature)from)adopting)the)principle)of)jus)soli)or)
Constitution;( any)of)its)features)as)supplementary)law)on)citizenship.)
2. Those(whose(fathers(or(mothers(are(citizens(of(the(Philippines;( o The)legislature)is)endowed)with)broad)powers)to)pass)naturalization)laws.)
3. Those( born( before( January( 17,( 1973,( of( Filipino( mothers,( who( elect( Philippine( )
citizenship(upon(reaching(the(age(of(majority;(and(( IV.(Section(1(3):(Citizens(by(election(
4. Those(who(are(naturalized(in(accordance(with(law.( Election) must) be) expressed) in) a) statement) sworn) before) any) officer) authorized) to)
( administer) oaths) and) filed) with) the) nearest) civil) registry) and) accompanied) by) an)
I.(Citizenship( oath)of)allegiance)to)the)Philippine)Constitution.)
Personal)and)more)or)less)permanent)membership)in)a)political)community.) If) a) minors) father) is) naturalized,) he) does) not) need) to) elect) Philippine) Citizenship)
Denotes) possession) within) that) particular) political) community) of) full) civil) and) anymore.)(5)(Co(v.(Electoral(Tribunal)
political)rights)subject)to)special)disqualifications.) Election)may)be)obtained)impliedly.)(5)(Co(v.(Electoral(Tribunal)
Reciprocally,)it)imposes)the)duty)of)allegiance.) o e.g.)positive)acts)such)as)living)ones)whole)life)in)the)Philippines)
) Paragraph( 3,( Section( 1,( Article( XIV) is) intended) to) be) in) the) nature) of) a) transitory)
II.(Modes(of(Acquiring(Citizenship( provision)applicable)to)children)born)under)the)1935)Constitution)who)had)not)yet)
Jus$Sanguinis.)Blood)relationship.) reached)majority)when)the)1973)Constitution)took)effect.(
Jus$Soli.)Place)of)birth.) o There) is) no) right) of) election) for) election) for) children) born) under) the) 1973)
Constitution,(
Naturalization.)Adopting)an)alien.)
The) Philippines) follows) the) rule) of) jus$ sanguinis) and) has) legal) procedures) for) There)is)nothing)in)the)law)that)prevents)Congress)from)granting)a)statutory)right)of)
election)identical)with)the)right)formerly)given)in)the)1935)Constitution.(
naturalization.)
o However,) a) child) who) elects) under) such) statute) shall) not) be) considered) a)
)
naturalTborn) citizen) under) Section( 2) because) such) election) is) not) in) the)
III.(Section(1(2):(Children(of(Filipino(Fathers(and(Mothers(
virtue)of)Section(1(3),(Article(XIV.(
Rule)of)jus$sanguinis)(1)(Valles(v.(COMELEC)
(
a. Applies)only)to)natural)filiation)and)not)to)filiation)by)adoption.)
V.(Section(1(4):(Naturalization,(Judicial(and(Administrative(
b. Only)legitimate)children)follow)the)citizenship)of)the)father.)
Note:) Presumption) of) validity) of) a) marriage) celebrated) in) another) country) Naturalization:) legal) act) of) adopting) an) alien) and) clothing) him) with) the) rights) that)
belong)to)a)natural)born)citizen.)May)be)obtained)through:)
gives) birth) to) the) presumption) of) being) the) legitimate) child) of) the) couple.)
o General)law)of)naturalization)applied)through)a)judicial)process.)
Citizenship)may)be)based)on)such)presumptions.)(3)(Gatchalian(v.(BOC(
o Special)act)of)the)legislature.)
c. Illegitimate)children)follow)the)nationality)of)their)mother.)
o Administrative) naturalization:) handled) by) the) Special) Committee) on)
Exception:)(4))Tecson(v.(COMELEC)
Naturalization)chaired)by)the)Solicitor)General.)
a. Illegitimate) children) may) (possibility) of) dual) citizenship)) also) follow) the)
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
The)power)of)the)legislature)includes:) 2. Those)born)of)a)Filipino)mother)and)an)alien)father)when)the)law)in)their)fathers)
o Control)over)processes)through)which)citizenship)is)acquired)or)lost) country)declare)them)to)have)the)same)citizenship)as)their)father.)
o Determination)of)substantive)criteria)for)admission)to)citizenship) 3. Those)who)marry)aliens)if)by)the)laws)of)the)latters)country)the)former)are)
o Fixing) of) consequences) of) the) grant) of) citizenship) on) the) wife) or) minor) considered)citizens.)
children)of)the)grantee) )
C.A.(473)(Revised(Naturalization(Law)) SECTION(2.(
o Substantive)requirements.)(2)(Ong(Chia(v.(COMELEC) Natural^born( citizens( are( those( who( are( citizens( of( the( Philippines( from( birth( without(
! Names)one)has)been)known) having( to( perform( any( act( to( acquire( or( perfect( their( Philippine( citizenship.( Those( who(
! All)past)addresses) elect( Philippine( citizenship( in( accordance( with( paragraph( (3),( SECTION( 1( hereof( shall( be(
! Manifestation)of)good)and)reproachable)manner) deemed(natural^born(citizens.(
! Lucrative)trade/profession) (
o Procedural)requirements) I.(Who(are(natural^born(citizens(
! Declaration)of)intention) Those)without)having)to)perform)any)act)to)acquire)or)perfect)Philippine)citizenship)
! Filing)of)petition) o Exception.)Those)who)repatriated.)(11)(Bengson(v.(HRET)
! Hearing)and)initial)judgment) Those)who)elect)Philippine)citizenship)in)accordance)with)Section(1(3),(Article(XIV.)
! Period)of)probation) Naturalized)citizens)are)NOT)naturalTborn)
! Rehearing)and)final)judgment) o The) process) of) naturalization) is) a) performance) of) an) act) to) acquire)
o Note:(Naturalization)is)strictly)construed)against)the)applicant) citizenship.)
The)grant)of)citizenship)to)a)parent)also)extends)citizenship)to)minor)children)under) )
parental)authority) II.(Purpose(of(adding(the(second(sentence(
) To)equalize)the)status)of)those)born)of)Filipina)parents)before)January)17,)1973)with)
VI.(Res(Judicata( those)born)of)Filipina)parents)on)or)before)the)said)date.)
A.(GENERAL(RULE( )
Generally,)res)judicata)does)not)apply)in)resolving)issues)of)citizenship.) SECTION(3.((
) Philippine(citizenship(may(be(lost(or(reacquired(in(the(manner(provided(by(law.(
B.(Requisites(for(Exception((1)(Valles(v.(COMELEC( (
1. A) persons) citizenship) be) raised) as) a) material) issue) in) a) controversy) where) said) I.(Loss(of(Citizenship(
person)is)a)party.) A.(Renunciation(
2. The) Solicitor) General) or) his) authorized) representative) took) active) part) in) the) C.A.(No.(63)applies)to)both)naturalTborn)and)naturalized)citizenship.(
resolution)thereof.) o Section(1(provides,)subject)to)some)exceptions,)that)citizenship)is)lost)by:(
3. The)finding)on)citizenship)is)affirmed)by)the)SC) ! Naturalization)in)a)foreign)country.(
( ! Express)renunciation)of)citizenship.)(6)(Yu(v.(Defensor(Santiago(
VII.(Dual(Citizenship((9)(Mercado(v.(Manzano( ! Oath)of)allegiance)to)a)foreign)country.(
Possible)for)the)following)classes)of)citizens)of)the)Philippines)to)have)dual)citizenship:$ ! Rendering)service)in)the)armed)forces)of)a)foreign)country.(
1. Those)born)of)Filipino)parents)in)foreign)countries)adopting)the)jus)soli)doctrine.) ! Deserter)of)the)armed)forces.(
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
Renunciation)of)Philippine)citizenship)must)be)made)expressly) A.(Repatriation(
o Mere) possession) of) an) alien) certificate) of) registration) does) not) amount) to) Retroacts)to)the)day)where)application)was)filed.)(7)(Frivaldo(v.(COMELEC)
renunciation.)(9)(Mercado(v.(Manzano) Upon)repatriation,)original)citizenship)is)reacquired.)(11)(Bengson(v.(HRET)
Expressly)is)not)the)same)as)formally.)(6)(Yu(v.(Defensor^Santiago) o Considered)as)naturalTborn)citizens)after)repatriation)if)naturalTborn)before)
o Renunciation)of)citizenship)need)not)be)made)formally.) loss)of)citizenship.)
o Express) renunciation) may) be) deemed) from) ones) acts,) which) show) Repatriation)under)R.A.(8171.((10)(Tabasa(v.(COMELEC)
repudiation)of)ones)citizenship.) o Women)who)lost)citizenship)by)marriage.)
) o Those)who)lost)citizenship)for)political)or)economic)reasons)
B.(Cancellation(Proceeding( Repatriation)under)R.A.(2630.((11)(Bengson(v.(HRET)
C.A.(No.(473)applies)to)naturalized)citizenship.( o Section) 1.) Any) person) who) had) lost) his) Philippine) citizenship) by) rendering)
o Section( 18) thereof) provides) that) a) certificate) of) naturalization) may) be) service) to,) or) accepting) commission) in,) the) Armed) Forces) of) the) United)
cancelled.( States,) or) after) separation) from) the) Armed) Forces) of) the) United) States,)
! When)found)to)have)been)fraudulently)or)illegally)obtained.( acquired) United) States) citizenship,) may) reacquire) Philippine) citizenship) by)
! By)permanent)residence)in)the)country)of)origin)within)5)years)from) taking) an) oath) of) allegiance) to) the) Republic) of) the) Philippines) and)
naturalization.( registering) the) same) with) the) Local) Civil) Registry) in) the) place) where) he)
! When)petition)is)found)to)have)been)made)on)invalid)declaration)of) resides) or) last) resided) in) the) Philippines.) The) said) oath) of) allegiance) shall)
intent.( contain)renunciation)of)any)other)citizenship.)
! Upon)failure)to)comply)with)the)requirements)of)education)of)minor) Repatriation)may)be)had)by)those)who)lost)their)citizenship)due)to:)
children.( o Desertion)of)the)Armed)Forces)
! If)the)person)allows)himself)to)be)a)dummy)for)aliens.( o Services)in)the)Armed)Forces)of)the)Allied)Forces)in)World)War)II)
Burden)of)proof)is)shifted)to)the)government.) o Service)in)the)Armed)Forces)of)the)USA)at)any)other)time)
Naturalized) citizenship) may) only) be) cancelled) upon) evidence) that) is) clear,) o Marriage)of)a)Filipino)woman)to)an)alien)
unequivocal)and)convincing)and)no)merely)preponderant.) o Political)economic)necessity)
o Naturalized) citizens) are) not) secondTclass) citizens;) they) are) also) afforded) (
protection)by)law.) SECTION(4.((
) Citizens(of(the(Philippines(who(marry(aliens(shall(retain(their(citizenship,(unless(by(their(
II.(Reacquisition(of(citizenship( act(or(omission,(they(are(deemed,(under(the(law,(to(have(renounced(it.(
May)be)done)in)three)(3))ways:)(C.A.(No.(63)((8)(Labo(Jr.(v.(COMELEC) (
o Direct)grant)by)law) I.(Marriage(to(an(alien(spouse((9)(Mercado(v.(Manzano(
o Naturalization) The) fact) alone) of) marriage) cannot) strip) a) Filipino) woman) of) her) Philippine)
o Repatriation) citizenship(
Note:(The)process)of)reacquiring)your)citizenship)must)be)complete,)and)you)must) Only)acts)or)omission,)which)Congress)may)prescribe,)constitute)explicit)or)implicit)
be)able)to)present)proof)that)the)process)was)completed.) renunciation)of)citizenship.(
) This)provision)is)prospective(

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
o It) does) not) serve) to) restore) citizenship) already) lost) by) marriage) under) the) is)seldom)intentional)and,)perhaps,)never)insidious.(
old)law.( o Dual) allegiance) referred) to) that) unsettled) kind) of) allegiance) of) persons)
( who)are)already)Filipinos)but)who,)by)their)acts,)may)be)said)to)be)bound)by)
SECTION(5.(( a)second)allegiance.(
Dual( allegiance( of( citizens( is( inimical( to( the( national( interest( and( shall( be( dealt( with( by( (
law.( III.(Restoration(of(Civil(and(Political(Rigths(
( Civil)and)political)rights)are)restored.)
I.(Dual(Citizenship(( However,)there)are)restrictions)under)R.A.(9225)
The)Constitution)allows)for)the)possibility)of)dual)citizenship.) (
o It) is,) after) all,) a) condition) which) arises) from) the) fact) that) Philippine) law) Section( 5.( Civil% and% Political% Rights% and% Liabilities% ) Those) who) retain) or) reTacquire)
cannot) control) international) law) and) the) laws) of) other) countries) on) Philippine)citizenship)under)this)Act)shall)enjoy)full)civil)and)political)rights)and)be)subject)to)
citizenship.) all) attendant) liabilities) and) responsibilities) under) existing) laws) of) Philippines) and) the)
The) 1987) Constitutional) Commission) preferred) to) leave) the) matter) of) dual) following)conditions:)
citizenship)to)ordinary)legislation.) 1. Those) intending) to) exercise) their) right) of) suffrage) must) meet) the) requirements)
o R.A.(9225,)the)Dual)Citizenship)Law,)deals)with)two)classes)of)person.) under) Section( 1,( Article( V) of) the) Constitution,) Republic( Act( No.( 9189,) otherwise)
! Filipinos) who) lost) their) citizenship) prior) to) the) enactment) of) R.A.( known)as)The)Overseas)Absentee)Voting)Act)of)2003)and)other)existing)laws;)
9225) 2. Those) seeking) elective) public) in) the) Philippines) shall) meet) the) qualification) for)
! Filipinos) who) become) citizens) of) another) country) after) the) holding)such)public)office)as)required)by)the)Constitution)and)existing)laws)and,)at)
effectivity)of)this)law.) the) time) of) the) filing) of) the) certificate) of) candidacy,) make) a) personal) and) sworn)
Possible)for)the)following)classes)of)citizens)of)the)Philippines)to)have)dual)citizenship:) renunciation) of) any) and) all)foreign) citizenship) before) any) public) officer) authorized)
(9)(Mercado(v.(Manzano) to)administer)an)oath;)
o Those)born)of)Filipino)parents)in)foreign)countries)adopting)the)jus$soli$ 3. Those) appointed) to) any) public) office) shall) subscribe) and) swear) to) an) oath) of)
doctrine.$ allegiance) to) the) Republic) of) the) Philippines) and) its) duly) constituted) authorities)
o Those)born)of)a)Filipino)mother)and)an)alien)father)when)the)law)in)their) prior) to) their) assumption) of) office:) Provided,) that) they) renounce) their) oath) of)
fathers)country)declare)them)to)have)the)same)citizenship)as)their)father.$ allegiance)to)the)country)where)they)took)that)oath;)
o Those)who)marry)aliens)if)by)the)laws)of)the)latters)country)the)former)are) 4. Those) intending) to) practice) their) profession) in) the) Philippines) shall) apply) with) the)
considered)citize) proper)authority)for)a)license)or)permit)to)engage)in)such)practice;)and)
Dual) Citizenship) is) not) a) ground) for) loss) of) Philippine) Citizenship) (1)( Valles( v.( 5. That)right)to)vote)or)be)elected)or)appointed)to)any)public)office)in)the)Philippines)
COMELEC) cannot)be)exercised)by,)or)extended)to,)those)who:)
) a. Are)candidates)for)or)are)occupying)any)public)office)in)the)country)of)which)
II.(Dual(Allegiance((12)(AASJS^Calilung(v.(Datumanong( they)are)naturalized)citizens;)and/or)
Dual)allegiance)is)not)the)same)as)dual)citizenship.( b. Are) in) active) service) as) commissioned) or) nonTcommissioned) officers) in) the)
Constitutional)Convention)Sessions)(Commissioner)Ople)( armed)forces)of)the)country)which)they)are)naturalized)citizens.)
o larger)and)more)threatening)than)that)of)mere)double)citizenship)which) )

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
ARTICLE(V:(SUFFRAGE( o An#intention#to#abandon#the#old#domicile(
( One# could# register# as# a# voter# away# from# his# municipal# domicile# of# origin# as# he# has#
SECTION(1.(( the# qualification# to# be# one# and# is# not# willing# to# give# up# or# lose# the# opportunity# to#
Suffrage(may(be(exercised(by(all(citizens(of(the(Philippines(not(otherwise(disqualified(by( choose#the#officials#who#are#to#run#the#government#especially#in#national#election.4#
law,(who(are(at(least(eighteen(years(of(age,(and(who(shall(have(resided(in(the(Philippines( (
for( at( least( one( year,( and( in( the( place( wherein( they( propose( to( vote,( for( at( least( six( III.(Absentee(Voting5(
months( immediately( preceding( the( election.( No( literacy,( property,( or( other( substantive( According# to# the# deliberations# of# the# constitutional# commission,# absentee# voting#
requirement(shall(be(imposed(on(the(exercise(of(suffrage.( applies#to#person#who#have#all#the#qualification#of#a#vote#but:(
( o Who#happen#to#be#temporarily#abroad(
SECTION(2.(( o Who# are# in# the# Philippines# but# are# temporarily# absent# from# their# voting#
The(Congress(shall(provide(a(system(for(securing(the(secrecy(and(sanctity(of(the(ballot(as( places.(
well(as(a(system(for(absentee(voting(by(qualified(Filipinos(abroad.( The#execution#of#the#affidavit#of#intent#to#return#is#sufficient#to#show#that#those#who#
( are# not# currently# residing# in# the# Philippines# have# no# abandoned# their# domicile.# (1)(
The( Congress( shall( also( design( a( procedure( for( the( disabled( and( the( illiterates( to( vote( Macalintal(v.(COMELEC(
without(the(assistance(of(other(persons.(Until(then,(they(shall(be(allowed(to(vote(under( Absentee#voting#applies#to#national#elections#only.6#(
existing( laws( and( such( rules( as( the( Commission( on( Elections( may( promulgate( to( protect( (
the(secrecy(of(the(ballot.( IV.(Substantive(Requirements(
( Legislature# is# forever# banned# from# imposing# any# substantive# qualification# similar# in#
I.(Suffrage( nature#to#literacy#or#ownership#of#property.7(
It#is#the#right#to#vote1# What#is#prohibited#is#substantive#requirement#not#procedural.8(
Qualification#of#age:#One#is#eighteen#one#ones#eighteenth#birthday.2# o Thus,# it# has# to# be# recognized# that# certain# procedural# requirements# must# be#
# complied#with#before#the#right#can#be#exercised.9(
II.(Residence3( o Part# of# the# exercise# of# police# power# to# safeguard# and# regulate# the# act# of#
The# term# residence# as# used# in# the# election# law# is# synonymous# with# domicile,# which# voters#registration.10(
imports#not#only#intention#to#reside#in#a#fixed#place#but#also#personal#presence#in#that# #
place,#coupled#with#conduct#indicative#of#such#intention.#(3)(Romualdez(v.(RTC( V.(Disqualification(
Act#of#the#person#must#conform#with#his#purpose.( Legislature#is#given#the#power#to#prescribe#disqualification.11(
The#change#of#residence#must#be#voluntary( !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Requisite:#animus#non#revertendi#and#animus#manendi#(PRA)( 4!Id.,!p.!660;!Faypon!v.!Quirino!1954!
o Residence#or#bodily#presence#in#the#new#locality( 5!Id.,!p.!663!!664!
6!Velasco!v.!COMELEC!
o An#intention#to#remain#there( 7!Id.,!p.!670!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 8!Ibid.!

1!Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.!651! 9!Id.,!p.!674!

2!Id.,!p.!656! 10 !Ibid.!

3!Id.,!p.!658;!Gallego!v.!Verra! 11 !Id.,!p.!671!

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
Disqualification#must#not#be#in#the#form#of#additional#qualification.1(
Examples:(
o Conviction#for#a#crime#(e.g.#accessory#penalties#in#RPC)(
o Person#who#violated#his#allegiance#to#the#republic(
o Insane/incompetent/feebleWminded#persons(
The#president#through#his#pardoning#power#may#erase#the#disqualification.2(

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1 !Ibid.!
2 !Joaquin!G.!Bernas,!S.J.,!The!1987!Constitution!of!the!Republic!of!the!Philippines:!A!Commentary!(2009!ed.),!p.673!!
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
ARTICLE(XIII( Article( XIII% is% an% accompaniment% of% Section( 10,( Article( II.% Many% of% the% rights%
expressed%herein%are%collective%rights%(Candelaria,%2011).(
( (
A.(SOCIAL(JUSTICE(AND(HUMAN(RIGHTS( B.(LABOR(
( (
SECTION(1.(( SECTION(3.((
The( Congress( shall( give( highest( priority( to( the( enactment( of( measures( that( protect( and( The( State( shall( afford( full( protection( to( labor,( local( and( overseas,( organized( and(
enhance(the(right(of(all(the(people(to(human(dignity,(reduce(social,(economic,(and(political( unorganized,(and(((promote(full(employment(and(equality(of(employment(opportunities(for(
inequalities,( and( remove( cultural( inequities( by( equitably( diffusing( wealth( and( political( all.(
power(for(the(common(good.( (
( It( shall( guarantee( the( rights( of( all( workers( to( selfQorganization,( collective( bargaining( and(
To( this( end,( the( State( shall( regulate( the( acquisition,( ownership,( use,( and( disposition( of( negotiations,( and( peaceful( concerted( activities,( including( the( right( to( strike( in( accordance(
property(and(its(increments.( with( law.( They( shall( be( entitled( to( security( of( tenure,( humane( conditions( of( work,( and( a(
( living( wage.( They( shall( also( participate( in( policy( and( decisionQmaking( processes( affecting(
I.(Curbing(Social(Injustice( their(rights(and(benefits(as(may(be(provided(by(law.(
Part% of% curbing% social% injustice% is% curbing% discrimination% such% as% that% made% between% (
local% hired% and% foreign% hires% in% terms% of% salary% differences% (1)( International( School( The( State( shall( promote( the( principle( of( shared( responsibility( between( workers( and(
Alliance(of(Educators(v.(Quisumbing% employers( and( the( preferential( use( of( voluntary( modes( in( settling( disputes,( including(
( conciliation,(and(shall(enforce(their(mutual(compliance(therewith(to(foster(industrial(peace.(
SECTION(2.(( The(State(shall(regulate(the(relations(between(workers(and(employers,(recognizing(the(right(
The( promotion( of( social( justice( shall( include( the( commitment( to( create( economic( of( labor( to( its( just( share( in( the( fruits( of( production( and( the( right( of( enterprises( to(
opportunities(based(on(freedom(of(initiative(and(selfQreliance.( reasonable(returns(to(investments,(and(to(expansion(and(growth.(
( (
I.(General(Principles( I.(Full(protection(to(labor(
Two%(2)%Principal%activities%that%the%State%is%commanded%to%attend%to%to%achieve%the% Union.%No%sector%may%be%prohibited%from%forming%unions.%
goals%of%social%justice( Strike.% Selected% sectors% may% be% prohibited% from% resorting% to% strike;% the% right% to%
o Creation%of%more%economic%opportunities%and%more%wealth( strike%is%limited%by%in%accordance%with%law.%
o Close%regulation%of%the%acquisition,%ownership,%use,%dispotiion%of%property%in% Right( to( participate( the( decision( making( process.% They% have% a% right% on% matters%
order%to%achieve%a%more%equitable%distribution%of%wealth%and%political%power.( affecting%their%rights%and%benefits%as%may%be%provided%by%law.%
Highest(Priority.%Denotes%urgency%because%it%is%essential%to%the%survival%of%the%Republic% o These%rights%may%be%done%through:%
and%attainment%of%its%goals.( 1. Collective%bargaining%agreements.%
Import(of(social(justice.(When%the%law%is%clear,%it%must%be%applied,%but%when%it%can%be% 2. Grievance%Machineries.%
interpreted%in%more%ways%than%one,%an%interpretation%that%favors%the%underprivileged% 3. Voluntary%modes%of%settling%disputes.%
must%be%favored.( Conciliation%proceedings%mediated%by%the%government%

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
Compulsory%arbitration%%is%not%ruled%out%but%downplayed.% C.(AGRARIAN(REFORM(AND(NATURAL(RESOURCES(REFORM(
% (
II.(Factors(weighed(in(regulating(the(relations(between(workers(and(employers( SECTION(4.((
1. Right%of%labor%to%its%just%share%in%the%fruits%of%production.% The( State( shall,( by( law,( undertake( an( agrarian( reform( program( founded( on( the( right( of(
2. Right% of% enterprises% to% reasonable% returns% on% investments,% and% to% expansion% and% farmers(and(regular(farmworkers(who(are(landless,(to(own(directly(or(collectively(the(lands(
growth.% they(till(or,(in(the(case(of(other(farmworkers,(to(receive(a(just(share(of(the(fruits(thereof.(To(
% this( end,( the( State( shall( encourage( and( undertake( the( just( distribution( of( all( agricultural(
III.(Equal(pay(for(equal(work( lands,( subject( to( such( priorities( and( reasonable( retention( limits( as( the( Congress( may(
Salary.%A%reward%or%recompense%for%services%performed.%It%is%the%consideration%paid%at% prescribe,( taking( into( account( ecological,( developmental,( or( equity( considerations,( and(
regular%intervals%for%the%rendering%of%services.% subject( to( the( payment( of( just( compensation.( In( determining( retention( limits,( the( State(
Persons% who% work% with% substantially% equal% qualifications,% skill% effort% and% shall( respect( the( right( of( small( landowners.( The( State( shall( further( provide( incentives( for(
responsibility,%under%similar%conditions,%should%be%paid%similar%salaries.% voluntary(landQsharing.(
If%the%employer%pays%one%employee%less%than%the%rest,%it%is%not%for%that%employee%to% (
explain%why%he%receives%less%or%why%the%others%receive%more.%It%is%for%the%employer%to% I.(Goals(of(Agrarian(Reform(
explain%why%the%employee%is%treated%unfairly.% 1. Efficient%production%
% 2. More%equitable%distribution%of%land%which%recognizes%the%right%of%farmers%and%regular%
IV.(Collective(Bargaining( farm%workers%who%are%landless%to%own%the%land%they%till.%
Bargaining(unit.%A%group%of%employees%of%a%given%employer,%comprised%of%all%or%less% 3. Just%share%of%other%or%seasonal%farm%workers%in%the%fruits%of%the%land.%
than% all% of% the% entire% body% of% employees,% consistent% with% equity% to% the% employer% %
indicate%to%be%the%best%suited%to%serve%the%reciprocal%rights%and%duties%of%the%parties% II.(Agrarian(Reform(
under%the%collective%bargaining%provision%of%the%law.( Land%that%come%under%the%scope%of%agrarian%reform(
The% basic% test% of% an% asserted% bargaining% units% acceptability% is% whether% or% not% is% o All%kinds%of%land%devoted%to%agriculture(
fundamentally%the%combination%which%will%best%assure%to%all%employees%the%exercise% o Agricultural%lands%%arable%and%suitable%agricultural%lands%and%do%not%include%
of%their%collective%bargaining%rights.( commercial,%industrial%and%residential%lands.(
Factors(in(determining(the(appropriate(Collective(Bargaining(Unit:((WASH)( o Even%lands%for%which%one%holds%a%naked%title.(
o Will%of%the%employees.%Globe(Doctrine( Lands%that%are%exempt%(
o Affinitiy( and% unity% of% the% employees% interest% (Substantial% % Mutual% Interest% o NonZagricultural%lands(
Rule)( o Agricultural%lands%converted%to%nonZagricultural%uses%prior%to%the%effectivity%of%
o Prior%collective%bargaining%history( CARL(
o Similarity%of%employment%status.( Issuance%of%a%certificate%of%land%transfer%%to%a%beneficiary%does%not%automatically%vest%
( ownership;% it% is% just% a% recognition% that% the% beneficiaries% may% avail% of% the% ownership%
( subject%to%compliance%with%obligations;%it%is%still%revocable.(
( Retention%limits%(1)(Assn.(of(Small(Landowners(v.(Sec.(of(Agrarian(Reform(
o State% must% protect% small( landowners% or% ordinary% people% who% may% have%

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
inherited%small%pieces%of%land%or%who%through%sheer%hard%work%and%frugality% organization,( and( management( of( the( program,( and( shall( provide( support( to( agriculture(
have%managed%to%save%enough%to%be%able%to%purchase%land%for%the%security%of% through( appropriate( technology( and( research,( and( adequate( financial,( production,(
their%future.( marketing,(and(other(support(services.(
o Choice%of%land%to%be%retained%%belongs%with%the%owner,%as%long%as%it%does%not% (
exceed% five% (5)% hectares% and% is% compact% or% contiguous;% otherwise,% the% State% SECTION(6.((
may%intervene.( The(State(shall(apply(the(principles(of(agrarian(reform(or(stewardship,(whenever(applicable(
Power%of%eminent%domain%v.%Police%power( in(accordance(with(law,(in(the(disposition(or(utilization(of(other(natural(resources,(including(
o In%so%far%as%the%provision%of%retention%limits,%police%power( lands(of(the(public(domain(under(lease(or(concession(suitable(to(agriculture,(subject(to(prior(
o Any% land% taken% in% excess% of% retention% limits,% eminent% domain;% the% rights,(homestead(rights(of(small(settlers,(and(the(rights(of(indigenous(communities(to(their(
Government%will%have%to%pay%just%compensation.( ancestral(lands.(
Just%compensation%(2)(Luz(Farms(v.(Sec.(of(Agrarian(Reform( (
o The%farmer%beneficiary%will%only%pay%the%portion%of%the%compensation%that%he% The( State( may( resettle( landless( farmers( and( farmworkers( in( its( own( agricultural( estates(
can%afford;%the%rest%will%be%subsidized%by%the%State.( which(shall(be(distributed(to(them(in(the(manner(provided(by(law.(
o May%be%fixed%by%administrative%bodies,%but%subject%to%judicial%review( (
o The% CARP% Law% conditions% the% transfer% of% possession% and% ownership% to% the% SECTION(7.((
government% on% receipt% by% the% landowner% of% the% corresponding% payment% of% The(State(shall(protect(the(rights(of(subsistence(fishermen,(especially(of(local(communities,(
the%deposit%by%the%DAR%of%the%compensation%in%cash%or%bonds.( to( the( preferential( use( of( the( communal( marine( and( fishing( resources,( both( inland( and(
Compensation%( offshore.( It( shall( provide( support( to( such( fishermen( through( appropriate( technology( and(
o Jurisprudence%hold%that%compensation%must%be%in%money( research,(adequate(financial,(production,(and(marketing(assistance,(and(other(services.(The(
o BUT,%this%is%a%revolutionary%kind%of%expropriation,%so%it%is%understandable%that% State(shall(also(protect,(develop,(and(conserve(such(resources.(The(protection(shall(extend(
the%government%does%not%have%all%the%money%needed%now%so%other%financial% to(offshore(fishing(grounds(of(subsistence(fishermen(against(foreign(intrusion.(Fishworkers(
instruments%are%allowed.%(2)(Luz(Farms(v.(Sec.(of(Agrarian(Reform( shall(receive(a(just(share(from(their(labor(in(the(utilization(of(marine(and(fishing(resources.(
o Revolutionary.% Affects% all% private% agricultural% lands,% for% the% benefit% of% the% (
entire% Filipino% nation,% affecting% the% whole% territory,% both% now% and% for% the% SECTION(8.((
forseeable%future.%(2)(Luz(Farms(v.(Sec.(of(Agrarian(Reform( The( State( shall( provide( incentives( to( landowners( to( invest( the( proceeds( of( the( agrarian(
( reform( program( to( promote( industrialization,( employment( creation,( and( privatization( of(
III.(Not(included(in(agrarian(reform( public( sector( enterprises.( Financial( instruments( used( as( payment( for( their( lands( shall( be(
1987( Constitutional( Deliberations% % clearly% show% that% it% was% never% the% intention% of% honored(as(equity(in(enterprises(of(their(choice.(
the% framers% of% the% Constitution% to% include% livestock% and% poultry% industry% in% the% (
coverage% of% the% constitutionallyZmandated% agrarian% reform% program% of% the% I.(General(Principles(
Government.( Other% natural% resources% are% covered% by% agrarian% reform% % even% including% the%
( enjoyment%of%%communal%marine%and%fishing%grounds.%
SECTION(5.(( Relation%between%industrialization%and%agrarian%reform%%mutually%beneficial;%agrarian%
The( State( shall( recognize( the( right( of( farmers,( farmworkers,( and( landowners,( as( well( as( reform% should% unlock% idle% wealth% hidden% in% land% for% investment% in% industrialization,%
cooperatives,(and(other(independent(farmers'(organizations(to(participate(in(the(planning,( and% industrialization% itself,% among% other% benefits,% should% be% able% to% absorb% farm%
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
workers%released%from%farms%because%of%mechanization.% E.(HEALTH(
( (
D.(URBAN(LAND(REFORM( SECTION(11.((
( The( State( shall( adopt( an( integrated( and( comprehensive( approach( to( health( development(
SECTION(9.(( which(shall(endeavor(to(make(essential(goods,(health(and(other(social(services(available(to(
The( State( shall,( by( law,( and( for( the( common( good,( undertake,( in( cooperation( with( the( all( the( people( at( affordable( cost.( There( shall( be( priority( for( the( needs( of( the( underQ
private( sector,( a( continuing( program( of( urban( land( reform( and( housing( which( will( make( privileged,(sick,(elderly,(disabled,(women,(and(children.(The(State(shall(endeavor(to(provide(
available( at( affordable( cost,( decent( housing( and( basic( services( to( underQprivileged( and( free(medical(care(to(paupers.(
homeless(citizens(in(urban(centers(and(resettlement(areas.(It(shall(also(promote(adequate( (
employment( opportunities( to( such( citizens.( In( the( implementation( of( such( program( the( SECTION(12.((
State(shall(respect(the(rights(of(small(property(owners.( The( State( shall( establish( and( maintain( an( effective( food( and( drug( regulatory( system( and(
( undertake( appropriate( health,( manpower( development,( and( research,( responsive( to( the(
SECTION(10.(( country's(health(needs(and(problems.(
Urban(or(rural(poor(dwellers(shall(not(be(evicted(nor(their(dwelling(demolished,(except(in( (
accordance(with(law(and(in(a(just(and(humane(manner.( SECTION(13.((
No( resettlement( of( urban( or( rural( dwellers( shall( be( undertaken( without( adequate( The( State( shall( establish( a( special( agency( for( disabled( person( for( their( rehabilitation,( selfQ
consultation(with(them(and(the(communities(where(they(are(to(be(relocated.( development,(and(selfQreliance,(and(their(integration(into(the(mainstream(of(society.(
( (
I.(Reform( WOMEN(
Not% just% the% proper% urban% land% use% or% zoning% but% also% the% right% thing% of% inequitable% SECTION(14.((
land% distribution.% It% thus% includes% the% authorization% to% use% expropriation% for% The(State(shall(protect(working(women(by(providing(safe(and(healthful(working(conditions,(
redistribution%of%urban%land.( taking(into(account(their(maternal(functions,(and(such(facilities(and(opportunities(that(will(
% enhance( their( welfare( and( enable( them( to( realize( their( full( potential( in( the( service( of( the(
II.(In(accordance(with(law(and(in(a(just(and(humane(manner((1)(People(v.(Leachon( nation.(
What% is% meant% by% this% is% that% the% accused% be% afforded% due% process% !% accorded% an% (
opportunity% to% controvert% the% allegation% that% his% or% her% occupation% is% unlawful% or% D.(ROLE(AND(RIGHTS(OF(PEOPLE'S(ORGANIZATIONS(
against%the%will%of%the%landowner;%the%occupant%be%sufficiently%notified%before%actual% SECTION(15.((
eviction%or%demolition%is%done;%and%that%there%be%no%loss%of%lives,%physical%injuries%or% The(State(shall(respect(the(role(of(independent(people's(organizations(to(enable(the(people(
unnecessary%loss%of%damage%to%properties.% to( pursue( and( protect,( within( the( democratic( framework,( their( legitimate( and( collective(
It%is%not%necessary%that%resettlement%areas%be%established%first%or%that%there%be%prior% interests(and(aspirations(through(peaceful(and(lawful(means.(
consultation%with%the%persons%to%be%evicted.% People's(organizations(are(bona(fide(associations(of(citizens(with(demonstrated(capacity(to(
( promote(the(public(interest(and(with(identifiable(leadership,(membership,(and(structure.(
( (
(
(
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
SECTION(16.(( 4. Exercise(visitorial(powers(over(jails,(prisons,(or(detention(facilities;(
The(right(of(the(people(and(their(organizations(to(effective(and(reasonable(participation(at( 5. Establish(a(continuing(program(of(research,(education,(and(information(to(enhance(
all(levels(of(social,(political,(and(economic(decisionQmaking(shall(not(be(abridged.(The(State( respect(for(the(primacy(of(human(rights;(
shall,(by(law,(facilitate(the(establishment(of(adequate(consultation(mechanisms.( 6. Recommend( to( Congress( effective( measures( to( promote( human( rights( and( to(
( provide(for(compensation(to(victims(of(violations(of(human(rights,(or(their(families;(
I.(Peoples(Organizations( 7. Monitor( the( Philippine( Government's( compliance( with( international( treaty(
They%must%not%be%juridical;%the%right%protected%is%that%of%individual%members,%because% obligations(on(human(rights;(
only%persons%can%be%the%subject%of%rights.( 8. Grant( immunity( from( prosecution( to( any( person( whose( testimony( or( whose(
Independent%%not%controlled%by%manipulative%forces%in%or%out%of%the%government.( possession(of(documents(or(other(evidence(is(necessary(or(convenient(to(determine(
( the(truth(in(any(investigation(conducted(by(it(or(under(its(authority;(
E.(HUMAN(RIGHTS( 9. Request( the( assistance( of( any( department,( bureau,( office,( or( agency( in( the(
performance(of(its(functions;(
(
10. Appoint(its(officers(and(employees(in(accordance(with(law;(and((
SECTION(17.((
11. Perform(such(other(duties(and(functions(as(may(be(provided(by(law.(
1. There( is( hereby( created( an( independent( office( called( the( Commission( on( Human(
(
Rights.(
I.(CHR(power(is(limited(to(factQfinding(and(NOT(adjudicating(
2. The(Commission(shall(be(composed(of(a(Chairman(and(four(Members(who(must(be(
naturalQborn(citizens(of(the(Philippines(and(a(majority(of(whom(shall(be(members(of( (1)(Cario(v.(CHR(! (The%only%power%of%the%CHR%close%to%adjudication%is%to%investigate.%
FactZfinding% is% not% equivalent% to% adjudication% so% it% cannot% try% to% apply% the% law% and%
the(Bar.(The(term(of(office(and(other(qualifications(and(disabilities(of(the(Members(
resolve%cases%based%on%its%merits.%
of(the(Commission(shall(be(provided(by(law.(
3. Until(this(Commission(is(constituted,(the(existing(Presidential(Committee(on(Human( (2)(EPZA(v.(CHR(! (CHR%has%no%power%to%issue%writs.%They%may%only%approach%proper%
Rights(shall(continue(to(exercise(its(present(functions(and(powers.( authorities%clothe%with%such%power%in%behalf%of%the%complainants.%
4. The(approved(annual(appropriations(of(the(Commission(shall(be(automatically(and( (3)(Simon(v.(CHR(! (Orders%to%desist%are%writs%which%is%not%within%the%power%of%the%
regularly(released.( CHR.%Neither%can%the%CHR%cite%parties%in%contempt.%
( (
SECTION(18.(( SECTION(19.((
The(Commission(on(Human(Rights(shall(have(the(following(powers(and(functions:(( The( Congress( may( provide( for( other( cases( of( violations( of( human( rights( that( should( fall(
1. Investigate,( on( its( own( or( on( complaint( by( any( party,( all( forms( of( human( rights( within(the(authority(of(the(Commission,(taking(into(account(its(recommendations.(
violations(involving(civil(and(political(rights;( (
2. Adopt(its(operational(guidelines(and(rules(of(procedure,(and(cite(for(contempt(for( I.(Constitutional(Status(
violations(thereof(in(accordance(with(the(Rules(of(Court;( It% is% a% constitutional% creation,% but% not% on% the% same% level% as% the% constitutional%
3. Provide( appropriate( legal( measures( for( the( protection( of( human( rights( of( all( commissions.(
persons(within(the(Philippines,(as(well(as(Filipinos(residing(abroad,(and(provide(for( Full%operationalization%requires%legislation.(
preventive( measures( and( legal( aid( services( to( the( underQprivileged( whose( human( Section(19%provides%for%the%possibility%of%expansion%of%its%powers%by%legislation.(
rights(have(been(violated(or(need(protection;( (

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
!
II.(Service(to(those(abroad( o This%provision%refers%to%extrajudicial%and%judicial%remedies%which%the%CHR%may%
Through%representation%with%consular%and%other%diplomatic%personnel%abroad.% seek%in%behalf%of%the%victims.%
% " CHR%may%file,%in%behalf%of%victims,%a%petition%for%prohibition,%injunction%
III.(Human(Rights(Violation( or%restraining%order%in%the%proper%courts.%
The( International( Covenant( on( Economic,( Social( and( Cultural( Rights( (ICESCR)( and( Power(to(cite(for(contempt(%should%be%understood%to%apply%only%to%violations%of%its%
International(Covenant(on(Civil(and(Political(Rights((ICCPR)((scope%of%human%rights% adopted% operational% guidelines% and% rules% of% procedure% essential% to% carry% out% its%
can% be% understood% to% include% those% that% relate% to% an% individuals% social,% economic,% investigatorial%powers.%
cultural,%political%and%civil%relations.% o The% order( to( desist% is% not% investigatorial% in% character% but% prescinds% from% an%
The(framers(of(the(Constitution(%envisioned%the%CHR%that%would%focus%its%attention% adjudicative%power%that%it%does%not%possess.%The%Commission%does%not%have%
to% the% more% severe% cases% of% human% rights% violations% such% as% protection% of% rights% of% legal% standing% to% indorse,% for% appropriate% action,% its% findings% and%
political% detainees,% treatment% of% prisoners% and% the% prevention% of% tortures,% fair% and% recommendations%to%any%appropriate%agency%of%government.%
public%trials,%disappearances,%salvagings%and%hamletting,%and%other%crimes%committed%
against% the% religious.% Congress% may% provide% for% other% cases% of% violations% of% human%
rights%that%should%fall%within%the%authority%of%CHR.%
(
IV.(Powers(
Power%is%that%it%may%investigate%
o Receive%evidence.%
o Make%findings%of%facts%regarding%human%rights%violations.%
o Investigate.%
o Examine%and%inquire%
o An%inquiry%
o Taking%of%evidence%
Adjudicate%
o Settle%with%exercise%of%judicial%authority%
o To%decide,%settle,%decree,%sentence,%or%condemn%
FactZfinding% is% not% adjudication% % it% may% receive% evidence% and% make% factual% findings%
BUT%MAY%NOT%make%an%application%of%law%on%the%factual%conclusions%to%the%end%that%
the%controversy%may%be%decided%or%determined%authoritatively,%finally%and%definitely,%
subject%to%such%appeals%or%modes%of%review%as%may%be%provided%by%law.%
provide( for( preventive( measures( and( legal( aid( services( to( the( underprivileged(
whose(human(rights(have(been(violated(or(need(protection((may%not%be%construed%
to%confer%jurisdiction%on%the%CHR%to%issue%restraining%order%to%injunction%
o Jurisdiction%is%never%implied,%it%must%be%expressly%given%by%the%constitution.%

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
ARTICLE(XIV( human( rights,( appreciation( of( the( role( of( national( heroes( in( the( historical(
development(of(the(country,(teach(the(rights(and(duties(of(citizenship,(strengthen(
( ethical( and( spiritual( values,( develop( moral( character( and( personal( discipline,(
A.(Education( encourage( critical( and( creative( thinking,( broaden( scientific( and( technological(
( knowledge,(and(promote(vocational(efficiency.(
SECTION(1.( 3. At( the( option( expressed( in( writing( by( the( parents( or( guardians,( religion( shall( be(
The(State(shall(protect(and(promote(the(right(of(all(citizens(to(quality(education(at(all(levels( allowed( to( be( taught( to( their( children( or( wards( in( public( elementary( and( high(
of(education(and(shall(take(appropriate(steps(to(make(such(education(accessible(to(all.( schools(within(the(regular(class(hours(by(instructors(designated(or(approved(by(the(
! religious( authorities( of( the( religion( to( which( the( children( or( ward( belong,( without(
I.(Academic(Freedom( additional(cost(to(the(government.(
Right(to(Quality(Education( (
The! right! to! education! is! a! constitutional! right! but! it! is! not! absolute.! Hence,! while! I.(Comment(on(paragraph(3(
everyone!may!aspire!to!be!a!doctor,!no!one!has!a!constitutional!right!to!pursue!and! This!is!not!an!inconsistency!with!the!non:establishment!clause!(Section(5,(Article(III).!
be!a!doctor!(1)(DECS(v.(San(Diego!! Note! that! the! religious! instruction,! when! allowed,! is! to! be! done! by! a! person!
! designated! by! that! religious! sect,! and! without! cost! to! the! government.! Thus,!
SECTION(2.( government!does!not!have!any!participation!in!the!religious!instruction.!
The(State(shall:( !
1. Establish,( maintain( and( support( a( complete,( adequate( and( integrated( system( of( II.(Academic(Freedom(
education(relevant(to(the(needs(of(the(people(and(society;( Inherent! in! an! institutions! right! to! teach! is! the! right! to! penalize! its! students! for!
2. Establish(and(maintain(a(system(of(free(public(education(in(the(elementary(and(high( misdemeanors! and! improper! conduct.! This! is! in! line! with! Article( 14,( Section( 3[2]!
school( levels.( Without( limiting( the( natural( right( of( parents( to( rear( their( children,( which!requires!a!school!to!inculcate!certain!values!to!its!students!(1)(Miriam(College(
elementary(education(is(compulsory(for(all(children(of(school(age;( v.(CA!
3. Establish( and( maintain( a( system( of( scholarship( grants,( students( loan( programs,( !
subsidies,( and( other( incentives( which( shall( be( available( to( deserving( students( in( Section(4.(
both(public(and(private(school,(especially(to(the(underprivileged;( 1. The(State(recognizes(the(complementary(roles(of(public(and(private(institutions(in(
4. Encouraged(nonTformal,(informal,(and(indigenous(learning(systems,(as(well(as(selfT the(educational(system(and(shall(exercise(reasonable(supervision(and(regulation(of(
learning,( independent,( and( outTofTschool( study( programs( particularly( those( that( all(educational(institutions.(
respond(to(community(needs,(and(( (
5. Provide( adult( citizen,( the( disabled,( and( outTofTschool( youth( with( training( in( civic,( 2. Educational( institutions,( other( than( those( established( by( religious( groups( and(
vocational(efficiency,(and(other(skills.( mission(boards,(shall(be(owned(solely(by(citizens(of(the(Philippines(or(corporations(
( or( associations( at( least( sixty( per( centum( of( the( capital( of( which( is( owned( by( such(
SECTION(3.( citizens.(The(Congress(may,(however,(require(increased(Filipino(equity(participation(
1. All(educational(institutions(shall(include(the(study(of(the(Constitution(as(part(of(the( in(all(educational(institutions.(
curricula.( (
2. The(shall(inculcate(patriotism(and(nationalism,(foster(love(of(humanity,(respect(for( The(control(and(administration(of(educational(institutions(shall(be(vested(in(citizens(
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
of(the(Philippines.( (
( I.(Academic(Freedom(of(institutions(means(that(the(school(may(choose:((1)(Garcia(v.(Faculty(
No(educational(institution(shall(be(established(exclusively(for(aliens(and(no(group(of( Admission(
aliens( shall( comprise( more( than( oneTthird( of( the( enrollment( in( any( school.( The( 1. What!may!be!taught!
provisions( of( this( subsection( shall( not( apply( to( schools( established( for( foreign( 2. How!it!may!be!taught!
diplomatic(personnel(and(their(dependents(and,(unless(otherwise(provided(by(law,( 3. Who!may!teach!it!
for(other(foreign(temporary(residents.( 4. Who!may!be!admitted!to!be!taught!
( !
3. All( revenues( and( assets( of( nonTstock,( nonTprofit( educational( institutions( used( II.(Who(may(be(admitted(to(be(taught(
actually,( directly,( and( exclusively( for( educational( purposes( shall( be( exempt( from( Who!are!admitted!as!students!of!a!school!is!within!the!discretion!of!the!school.!The!
taxes( and( duties.( Upon( the( dissolution( or( cessation( of( the( corporate( existence( of( government!has!only!supervisory!powers!at!most!over!an!educational!institution.!(1)(
such(institutions,(their(assets(shall(be(disposed(of(in(the(manner(provided(by(law.( Garcia(v.(Faculty!
( (
Proprietary( educational( institutions,( including( those( cooperatively( owned,( may( III.(How(it(may(be(taught(
likewise(be(entitled(to(such(exemptions,(subject(to(the(limitations(provided(by(law,( A.(Policies((2)(University(of(San(Carlos(v.(Court(of(Appeals(
including(restrictions(on(dividends(and(provisions(for(reinvestment.( The! Court! held! that! the! Private! Respondent! should! know! and! is! presumed! to! know!
( those!University!policies!and!is!bound!to!comply!therewith.!
4. Subject( to( conditions( prescribed( by( law,( all( grants,( endowments,( donations,( or( o The!Court!held!that!it!is!an!accepted!principle!and!part!of!academic!freedom,!
contributions(used(actually,(directly,(and(exclusively(for(educational(purposes(shall( for!institutions!to!formulate!rules!and!guidelines!in!the!granting!of!honors.!It!
be(exempt(from(tax.( is! with! the! discretion! and! competence! of! universities! and! colleges! to!
( determine!who!are!entitled!to!the!grant!of!honors!and!this!discretion!may!not!
Section(5.(( be!disturbed!much!less!controlled!by!the!courts!unless!there!is!grave!abuse!of!
1. The( State( shall( take( into( account( regional( and( sectoral( needs( and( conditions( and( discretion!in!its!exercise.!!
shall( encourage( local( planning( in( the( development( of( educational( policies( and( (
programs.( B.(Only(possible(reasons(for(expelling(or(dismissing(a(student(
2. Academic(freedom(shall(be(enjoyed(in(all(institutions(of(higher(learning.( 1. Failure!to!reach!academic!standards!
3. Every( citizen( has( a( right( to( select( a( profession( or( course( of( study,( subject( to( fair,( 2. Violation!of!disciplinary!rules!
reasonable,(and(equitable(admission(and(academic(requirements.(
4. The( State( shall( enhance( the( right( of( teachers( to( professional( advancement.( NonT
teaching( academic( and( nonTacademic( personnel( shall( enjoy( the( protection( of( the(
State.(
5. The( State( shall( assign( the( highest( budgetary( priority( to( education( and( ensure( that(
teaching( will( attract( and( retain( its( rightful( share( of( the( best( available( talents(
through( adequate( remuneration( and( other( means( of( job( satisfaction( and(
fulfillment.(
!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!
CONSTITUTIONAL*LAW*II* * * * * * * * * ***********ATTY.**SEDFREY*CANDELARIA*
*
Article(XV:(The(Family( The# guarantee# of# a# right# to# family# living# wage# was# conceived# due# to# may# families#
( living#below#poverty#level.(
SECTION(1.(( #
The(State(recognizes(the(Filipino(family(as(the(foundation(of(the(nation.(Accordingly,(it(shall( SECTION(4.((
strengthen(its(solidarity(and(actively(promote(its(total(development.( The( family( has( the( duty( to( care( for( its( elderly( members( but( the( State( may( also( do( so(
( through(just(programs(of(social(security.(
SECTION(2.(( (
Marriage,( as( an( inviolable( social( institution,( is( the( foundation( of( the( family( and( shall( be(
protected(by(the(State.(
(
I.(General(Principles(
Section(2(is#not#a#blanket#prohibition#against#divorce.(
In# annulment# cases,# any# doubt# should# be# resolved# in# favor# of# the# validity# of# the#
marriage.(
#
SECTION(3.((
The(State(shall(defend:(
(1)(The(right(of(spouses(to(found(a(family(in(accordance(with(their(religious(convictions(and(
the(demands(of(responsible(parenthood;(
(2)( The( right( of( children( to( assistance,( including( proper( care( and( nutrition,( and( special(
protection( from( all( forms( of( neglect,( abuse,( cruelty,( exploitation( and( other( conditions(
prejudicial(to(their(development;(
(3)(The(right(of(the(family(to(a(family(living(wage(and(income;(and(
(4)( The( right( of( families( or( family( associations( to( participate( in( the( planning( and(
implementation(of(policies(and(programs(that(affect(them.(
(
I.(General(Principles(
The# intent# of# the# first# paragraph# is# to# protect# the# right# of# parents# to# determine# the#
size#of#their#family.(
Paragraph(3#was#approved#against#a#background#of#rampant#child#prostitution,#child#
labor,#child#abuse#and#child#neglect.(
o R.A.(7610#was#passed#towards#the#implementation#of#a#national#program#for#
the# survival# of# Filipino# children,# in# keeping# with# the# mandate# of# Section( 3,(
Article(XV.(

!
Original!Material!from!CROMBONS!(201182012).!Edited!by!Rachelle!Anne!Gutierrez!(201282013)!