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Second Edition


Ta r y n B e n b o w - P f a l z g r a f
Taryn Benbow-Pfalzgraf, Editor

Glynis Benbow-Niemier, Associate Editor

Kristin G. Hart, Project Coordinator

Laura Standley Berger, Joann Cerrito, Dave Collins,

Steve Cusack, Nicolet V. Elert, Miranda Ferrara, Jamie FitzGerald,
Laura S. Kryhoski, Margaret Mazurkiewicz, Michael J. Tyrkus
St. James Press Staff

Peter M. Gareffa, Managing Editor, St. James Press

Mary Beth Trimper, Composition Manager

Dorothy Maki, Manufacturing Manager
Wendy Blurton, Senior Buyer

Cynthia Baldwin, Product Design Manager

Martha Schiebold, Art Director

Ronald D. Montgomery, Data Entry Manager

Gwendolyn S. Tucker, Project Administrator

While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, St. James
Press does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. St. James Press accepts no payment for listing;
and inclusion of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply
endorsement of the editors or publisher.

Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and veried to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in
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This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation,
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Copyright 2000
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All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

American women writers : from colonial times to the present : a

critical reference guide / editor: Taryn Benbow-Pfalzgraf. -- 2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-55862-429-5 (set) ISBN 1-55862-430-9 (vol.1) ISBN 1-55862-431-7 (vol.2)
ISBN 1-55862-432-5 (vol.3) ISBN 1-55862-433-3 (vol.4)
1. American literature-Women authors-Bio-bibliography
Dictionaries. 2. Women authors, American-Biography Dictionaries.
3. American literature-Women authors Dictionaries. I. Benbow-Pfalzgraf, Taryn
PS147.A42 1999
810.9928703dc21 99-43293

Printed in the United States of America

St. James Press is an imprint of Gale Group

Gale Group and Design is a trademark used herein under license
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

American Women Writers, Second Edition is an important resource for many reasons, the least of which is to disseminate information about
hundreds of women writers who have been routinely overlooked. A veritable treasure trove of knowledge, the women proled in this series have
literally changed the world, from Margaret Sangers quest for reproductive freedom to Jane Addams and Hull House, from Sylvia Earle and Rachel
Carsons environmental concerns, to the aching beauty of poems by Olga Broumas, Emily Dickinson, Georgia Douglas Johnson, Marianne
Moore, Sylvia Plath, Sara Teasdale, Lorrie Moore, and many others. There are writers who are immensely entertaining (M.F.K. Fisher, Jean
Craighead George, Sue Grafton, Helen MacInnes, Terry McMillan, C. L. Moore, Barbara Neely, Danielle Steel), some who wish to instruct on
faith (Dorothy Day, Mary Baker Eddy, Catherine Marshall, Anne Morrow Lindbergh), others who revisit the past to educate us (Gwendolyn
Brooks, Judith Ortiz Cofer, Paula Allen Gunn, Carolyn Heilbrun, Mary Johnston, Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, Mary White Ovington, Sherley
Ann Williams, Mourning Dove), and still more who wish to shock us from complacency of one kind or another (Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, Lillian
Hellman, Shirley Jackson, Harriet Jacobs, Shirley Jackson, Carson McCullers, A.G. Mojtabai, Bharati Mukherjee, Carry A. Nation, Flannery
OConnor, Anne Sexton, Phillis Wheatley, and more).
The women lling these pages have nothing and everything in common; they are female, yes, but view their lives and worth in vastly different
manners. There is no census of ethnicity, class, age, or sexualitythe prerequisites for inclusion had only to do with a body of work, the written
word in all its forms, and the unfortunate limits of time and space. Yes, there are omissions, none by choice: some were overlooked in favor of
others (by a voting selection process), others were assigned and the material never received. In the end, it is the ongoing bane of publishing: there
will never be enough time nor space to capture allfor there will (hopefully) always be new women writers coming to the fore, and newly
discovered manuscripts to test our conceptions of life from a womans eye.
Yet American Women Writers is just what its title implies, a series of books recounting the life and works of American women from Colonial
days to the present. Some writers produced far more than others, yet each woman contributed writing worthy of historical note, to be brought to the
forefront of scholarship for new generations to read. Last but never least, thanks to Peter Gareffa for this opportunity; to Kristin Hart for her
continual support and great attitude; to my associate editor Glynis Benbow-Niemier; to my editorial and research staff (Jocelyn Prucha, Diane
Murphy, and Lori Prucha), and to the beloveds: Jordyn, Wylie, Foley, Hadley, and John.


In a memorandum to contributors, Lina Mainiero, the founding editor of American Women Writers described the project she envi-
sioned in 1978:

Written wholly by women critics, this reference work is designed as a four-volume survey of American women writers from colonial
days to the present. . . Most entries will be on women who have written what is traditionally dened as literature. But AWW will also
include entries on writers in other elds. . . I see AWW as a precious opportunity for womenthose who write it and those who read it
to integrate at a more self- conscious level a variety of reading experience.

The result was a document of its time, a period when feminism was associated with building sisterhood and raising consciousness. Even a
commercial publishing venture might take on the trappings of a consciousness raising session in which readers and writers met. The idea now
seems naive, but the ideal is worth remembering. In 1978 Mainiero was neither young nor revolutionary. She was hesitant about pushing too far;
she was content to let traditional denitions stand. But the very inclusion of Rachel Carson and Margaret Mead, Betty Smith and Ursula LeGuin,
Rebecca Harding Davis and Phillis Wheatley, Gertrude Stein and Dorothy Parker in a reference work entitled simply and profoundly American
Women Writers spoke eloquently. Without ever referring explicitly to canon revision, these four volumes contributed to the process. Having the
books on the shelves testied to the existence of hundreds of women who had written across the centuries. Including those whose work was
perceived to be literary alongside those whose work was not, pregured debates that continue today both inside and outside of the academy.
Mainiero was especially concerned that contributors not aim their entries at the academic specialist. The putative reader was a college
senior, who was conversant with literary history and criticism, feminism, and the humanities. This emphasis provoked criticism, because it was
expressed during the heyday of academic feminism. American Women Writers appeared the same year as Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar
published The Madwoman in the Attic, their inuential study of 19th-century English women writers. Nina Bayms American Women Writers and
Womens Fiction: A Guide to Novels by and About Women in America had appeared the year before. In retrospect, however, the reader Mainiero
targeted is precisely the young woman she hoped would join the consciousness session organized by her elders, a woman who would not become
an academic, but who would nd in womens writing the necessary bread to sustain her in living her life.
Ideals and realities clashed in a project that was clearly intended to make money, but declined to pay honoraria to individual contributors.
Instead, the publisher promised to contribute a percentage of any prots to womens causes. The desire to reach the common reader was one
reason the volumes were published without a scholarly overview. The decision not to address an academic audience meant the entries contained no
critical jargon, but it also meant no authorities checked facts. In fairness, few facts were known about many of the women in the book. Numerous
articles proled women about whom no one had written. One way to gauge the success of feminist scholarship over the past two decades would be
to compare the bibliographies of women in this edition with those in the original edition. What we know now about womens writing in the United
States is more than we realized there was to know two decades ago. Let me use my contributions as examples. I wrote entries on Gwendolyn
Brooks, Frances Watkins Harper, Nella Larsen, and Anne Spencer. These black women lived and worked across almost two centuries. Harper, an
abolitionist and womens rights advocate, had been the most popular African American poet of the mid-19th century. Larsen and Spencer
published ction and poetry, respectively, during the Harlem Renaissance. Of Brooks, I concluded, by any reckoning, hers is one of the major
voices of 20th-century American poetry. Yet no biographies existed for any of them. All of the information in print on Harper referred to a
single source.
Twenty years later, scholars have explored Harpers life in depth; digging through the archives, Frances Smith Foster discovered three lost
novels and a treasure trove of poems. In search of the women of the Harlem Renaissance, scholars have unearthed much more information
concerning Larsen and Spencer. Now the subject of a biography by Thadious Davis, Larsen and her novelsPassing in particularhave become
key texts in the formulation of feminist theory and queer theory. Ironically, though Spencers oeuvre was the most slender, she was the only one of
these writers to have been the subject of a book: J. Lee Greenes Times Unfading Garden, a biographical and critical treatment of the poet along
with a selection of her poems. Brooks has begun to receive her due in ve biographical and critical studies. As scholars have continued their work,
readers have found a valuable reference tool in American Women Writers. The fourth and nal volume of the original edition appeared in 1982.
Soon afterward, Langdon Lynne Faust edited an abridged version, including a two-volume edition in paperback. In part because the original
edition concentrated on writers before 1960, a supplement, edited by Carol Hurd Green and Mary G. Mason, was published in 1993. The writers
included were more diverse than ever, as a more inclusive understanding of American grew.
Fostering that understanding has been a priority of this project since the beginning. That new editions continue to be published conrms the
existence of a need that these volumes ll. The explosion of feminist scholarship has enriched each subsequent edition of American Women
Writers. In this venue at least, the gap between academic specialist and common reader has narrowed. One development that no one would have
predicted is the re-emergence of the literary society, a common feature in 19th-century American life. The name has changed; it is now more often
called the reading group. But the membership remains mostly female. Such groups have grown up in every segment of American society. Indeed,
Oprahs Book Club is a macrocosm of a widespread local phenomenon. I hope and suspect members of reading groups, as well as the
undergraduates who remain its putative readers, will nd this new edition of American Women Writers a resource that can be put to everyday use.

Professor of English
Rutgers University


Roger Blackwell Bailey, Ph.D. Kathleen Bonann Marshall

Professor of English Assistant Director, Center for the
San Antonio College Writing Arts
Alanna K. Brown, Ph.D. Northwestern University
Professor of English
Montana State University Margaret (Maggie) McFadden
Pattie Cowell Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies
Professor of English Editor, National Womens Studies
Colorado State University Association Journal
Appalachian State University
Barbara Grier
President and CEO
Naiad Press, Inc. Kit Reed
Novelist, Teaching at Wesleyan
Jessica Grim
Reference Librarian University
Oberlin College Library
Carolyn G. Heilbrun Cheryl A. Wall
Avalon Professor in the Humanities, Professor of English
Emerita Rutgers University
Columbia University
Marlene Manoff Barbara A. White
Associate Head/Collection Manager Professor Emeritus of Womens
Humanities Library Studies
Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of New Hampshire


Aarons, Victoria Antler, Joyce

Allegra Goodman Lynne Sharon Schwartz
Alice Hoffman
Armeny, Susan
Faye Kellerman
Mary Sewall Gardner
Lesla Newman
Lillian D. Wald
Tillie Olsen
Francine Prose Armitage, Shelley
Ina Donna Coolbrith
Adams, Barbara
Anne Ellis
Aimee Semple McPherson
Assendelft, Nick
Adams, Pauline
Lisa Alther
Marion Marsh Todd
Anne Bernays
Alldredge, Betty J. E. M. Broner
Katherine Mayo Marilyn Hacker
Katharine Pearson Woods Joy Harjo
Maureen Howard
Allen, Carol Florence Howe
Alice Childress Susanne K. Langer
Allen, Suzanne Meridel Le Sueur
Martha Moore Avery Bach, Peggy
Madeleine Vinton Dahlgren Evelyn Scott
Anna McKenney Dorsey
Ella Loraine Dorsey Bakerman, Jane S.
Susan Blanchard Elder Vera Caspary
Caroline Gordon Ursula Reilly Curtiss
Laura Z. Hobson Dorothea Caneld Fisher
Lillian Smith Lois Gould
Elisabeth Sanxay Holding
Alonso, Helena Emma Lathen
Julia lvarez Ruth Doan MacDougall
Sandra Cisneros Margaret Millar
Achy Obejas Toni Morrison
Anderson, Celia Catlett May Sarton
Beverly Cleary Elizabeth Savage
Marguerite Henry Susan Fromberg Schaeffer
Florence Crannell Means Gene Stratton-Porter
Cornelia Meigs Mary Sture-Vasa
Dorothy Uhnak
Anderson, Eileen M. Jessamyn West
Phyllis Chesler
Bannan, Helen M.
Anderson, Kathryn Murphy Fabiola Cabeza de Baca
Beth Henley Elizabeth Bacon Custer
Marsha Norman Elaine Goodale Eastman
Helen Hunt Jackson
Anderson, Maggie
Mary Harris Jones
Jane Cooper
Kathryn Anderson McLean
Anderson, Nancy G. Franc Johnson Newcomb
Dorothy Scarborough Anna Moore Shaw
Lella Warren Elizabeth G. Stern


Banner, Lois W. Benet, Sydonie

Harriet Hubbard Ayer Janet Flanner
Mary McCarthy
Barbour, Paula L.
Josephine Miles
Jane Auer Bowles
Edna St. Vincent Millay
Barbuto, Domenica Virginia Ramey Mollenkott
Anne Warner French Linda Pastan
Amanda Theodocia Jones Katherine Paterson
Marilyn Sachs
Barnhart, Jacqueline Baker Elizabeth Spencer
Sarah Bayliss Royce
Ruth Stone
Elinore Pruitt Stewart
Michele Wallace
Barr, Marleen S. Mae West
Deborah Norris Logan Sherley Anne Williams

Baruch, Elaine Hoffman Berke, Jacqueline

Susan Sontag Harriet Stratemeyer Adams
Diana Trilling Eleanor Hodgman Porter
Bauer, Denise Berry, Linda S.
Lucille Clifton Georgia Douglas Johnson
Alicia Ostriker
Alix Kates Shulman Berube, Linda
Susan Grifn
Baytop, Adrianne Alice Hoffman
Margaret Walker Maxine W. Kumin
Phillis Wheatley Valerie Miner
Grace Paley
Beasley, Maurine
May Swenson
Mary E. Clemmer Ames
Emily Edson Briggs Beyer, Janet M.
Kate Field Erma Bombeck
Beecher, Maureen Ursenbach Ellen Goodman
Susa Young Gates Lois Gould
Doris Grumbach
Bell, Alice Nicole Hollander
Paula Fox
Biancarosa, Gina
Belli, Angela Erica Jong
Frances Winwar
Bienstock, Beverly Gray
Ben-Merre, Diana Anita Loos
Helen McCloy Shirley MacLaine
Benardete, Jane Cornelia Otis Skinner
Harriot Stanton Blatch Thyra Samter Winslow
Abby Morton Diaz Biguenet, John
Mary Abigail Dodge Valerie Martin
Amanda Minnie Douglas
Malvina Hoffman Bird, Christiane
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody Rosamond Neal DuJardin
Lydia Huntley Sigourney Josephine Lawrence
Sophie Swett Harper Lee
Harriet Stone Lothrop
Benbow-Niemier, Glynis Alice Duer Miller
Jane Kenyon
Lorine Niedecker Bittker, Anne S.
Jean Valentine Mary Margaret McBride


Blair, Karen J. Brooker-Gross, Susan R.

Jane Cunningham Croly Ellen Churchill Semple
Ella Giles Ruddy
Brookes, Kimberly Hayden
Blicksilver, Edith Barbara Deming
Leslie Marmon Silko
Brostoff, Anita
Bloom, Lynn Z. Gladys Schmitt
Natalie Stark Crouter
Brown, Alanna Kathleen
Bloom, Steven F. Mourning Dove
Wendy Wasserstein
Brown, Dorothy H.
Bloom, Susan P. Rose Falls Bres
Natalie Babbitt Elma Godchaux
Eloise Greeneld Margaret Landon
Boisvert, Nancy L. Mary Lasswell
Judith Rossner Mary Ashley Townsend
Jeannette Hadermann Walworth
Bonazoli, Robert
Kit Reed Brown, Fahamisha Patricia
Jayne Cortez
Bordin, Ruth Carolyn M. Rodgers
Elizabeth Margaret Chandler Ntozake Shange
Mary Rice Livermore
Anna H. Shaw Brown, Lois
Octavia E. Butler
Boyd, Karen Leslie Terry McMillan
Patricia Highsmith
Nora Roberts Brown, Lynda W.
Caroline Whiting Hentz
Boyd, Lois A. Octavia Walton Le Vert
Paula Marie Cooey Anne Newport Royall
Boyd, Zohara Jennette Reid Tandy
Sophia Robbins Little Bryer, Marjorie
Josephine Pollard Michele Wallace
Martha Remick
Mary Jane Windle Buchanan, Harriette Cuttino
Corra May Harris
Brahm, Laura Helen Kendrick Johnson
Judy Grahn Agnes C. Laut
Mary Oliver Blair Rice Niles
Breitsprecher, Nancy Marie Conway Oemler
Zona Gale Josephine Pinckney
Lizette Woodworth Reese
Bremer, Sidney H. Mary Howard Schoolcraft
Lucy Monroe
Elia Wilkinson Peattie Bucknall, Barbara J.
Eunice Tietjens Pearl S. Buck
Edith Franklin Wyatt Ursula K. Le Guin
Phyllis McGinley
Brett, Sally Hannah Whittal Smith
Inglis Clark Fletcher Evangeline Walton
Bernice Kelly Harris
Edith Summers Kelley Burger, Mary
Ida Tarbell Diane DiPrima
Broner, E. M. Burns, Lois
Anne Bernays Mary Hunter Austin


Burns, Melissa Challinor, Joan R.

Anne Bernays Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams
E. M. Broner
Mary McCarthy Chase, Evelyn Hyman
Helen Hennessy Vendler Mary Ellen Chase

Butery, Karen Ann Chew, Martha

Karen Horney Mary Henderson Eastman
Sallie Rochester Ford
Butler, Francelia Maria Jane McIntosh
Harriet Taylor Upton
Chou, Jerome
Byers, Inzer Elisabeth Kbler-Ross
Annie Heloise Abel Cathy Song
Mary Sheldon Barnes Eudora Welty
Mary Louise Booth Kate Wilhelm
Catherine Drinker Bowen
Carrie Chapman Catt Christensen, Lois E.
Frances Manwaring Caulkins Louise Smith Clappe
Margaret Antoinette Clapp Clark, Susan L.
Margaret L. Coit Mignon G. Eberhart
Angelina Grimk Doris Grumbach
Sarah Moore Grimk Mary R. Higham
Louise Kellogg Mabel Seeley
Adrienne Koch
Martha Nash Lamb Cleveland, Carol
Alma Lutz Patricia Highsmith
Nellie Neilson
Cohn, Amy L.
Martha Laurens Ramsay
Lois Lowry
Constance Lindsay Skinner
Margaret Bayard Smith Cohn, Jan
Byington, Juliet Mary Roberts Rinehart
Susan Brownmiller Coleman, Linda S.
Lorna Dee Cervantes Mollie Dorsey Sanford
Alice Childress
Rosalyn Drexler Condit, Rebecca C.
Eloise Greeneld Ai
Catharine A. MacKinnon Jayne Cortez
Kate Millett Joan Didion
Andrea Nye Frances FitzGerald
Susan Sontag Paula Fox
Sandra M. Gilbert
Campbell, Mary B. Ellen Gilchrist
Carolyn Forch Marita Golden
Carl, Lisa Mary Catherine Gordon
Nikki Giovanni Lois Gould
Mary Lee Settle Joanne Greenberg
Beth Henley
Carlin, Sandra Pauline Kael
Louella Oettinger Parsons Alison Lurie
Marge Piercy
Carnes, Valerie
Rosemary Radford Ruether
Janet Flanner
Linda Ty-Casper
Carroll, Linda A. Dorothy Uhnak
Jean Craighead George Ann Belford Ulanov


Cook, Martha E. Dash, Irene

Virginia Hamilton Carolyn G. Heilbrun
Annie Fellows Johnston
George Madden Martin Davidson, Cathy N.
Katherine Bonner McDowell E. M. Broner
Mary Murfree Laura Jean Libbey
Tabitha Tenney
Cook, Sylvia
Olive Tilford Dargan
Davis, Barbara Kerr
Grace Lumpkin
Ellen Moers
Coultrap-McQuin, Susan
Eliza Leslie Davis, Thadious M.
Catharine Arnold Williams Anna Julia Cooper
Mollie Moore Davis
Cowell, Pattie
Shirley Graham
Bathsheba Bowers
Mary Spring Walker
Martha Wadsworth Brewster
Elizabeth Sandwith Drinker Rhoda E. White
Anna Young Smith
Annis Boudinot Stockton Deegan, Mary Jo
Lydia Fish Willis Edith Abbott
Anna Green Winslow Emily Greene Balch
Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge
Cox, Virginia Helen Merrell Lynd
Erica Jong Marion Talbott
Crabbe, Katharyn F.
Jane Andrews DeMarr, Mary Jean
Carolyn Sherwin Bailey Charlotte Armstrong
Katherine Lee Bates Sarah T. Bolton
Margery Williams Bianco Gwen Bristow
Claire Huchet Bishop Doris Miles Disney
Rebecca Sophia Clarke Janet Ayer Fairbank
Clara F. Guernsey Rachel Lyman Field
Lucy Ellen Guernsey Alice Tisdale Hobart
Theodora Kroeber Agnes Newton Keith
Elizabeth Foreman Lewis Alice Hegan Rice
Ella Farman Pratt Mari Sandoz
Susan Ridley Sedgwick Anya Seton
Monica Shannon Ruth Suckow
Eva March Tappan Elswyth Thane
Louisa Huggins Tuthill Agnes Sligh Turnbull
Elizabeth Gray Vining Carolyn Wells
Eliza Orne White
Demetrakopoulos, Stephanie
Crumpacker, Laurie
Mary Daly
Sarah Prince Gill
Mary Esther Harding
Cutler, Evelyn S. June K. Singer
Rose ONeill Ann Belford Ulanov
Dame, Enid
Deming, Caren J.
Edna St. Vincent Millay
Gertrude Berg
Darney, Virginia Elaine Sterne Carrington
Maude Howe Elliott Agnes E. Nixon
Laura Howe Richards Irna Phillips


Denler, Heidi Hartwig Donnelly, Daria

Alice French Sarah Appleton-Weber
Tina Howe Joy Harjo
Kristin Hunter-Lattany Naomi Shihab Nye
Alice McDermott Linda Pastan
Anne Tyler
Donovan, Josephine
Denniston, Dorothy L. Annie Adams Fields
Paule Marshall Louise Imogen Guiney
Sarah Orne Jewett
DeRoche, Celeste Lucy Larcom
Beverly Cleary Celia Laighton Thaxter
Natalie Zemon Davis Dooley, Dale A.
Rachel Blau DuPlessis Ai
Sylvia A. Earle Alexis DeVeaux
Louise Erdrich
Gail Godwin Dorenkamp, Angela
Katharine Graham Mary Catherine Gordon
Carolyn G. Heilbrun
Dorenkamp, Monica
Linda Hogan
Kathy Acker
Nicole Hollander
Alicia Ostriker
Barbara C. Jordan
Nancy Mairs Dykeman, Amy
Maria Mitchell Kate W. Hamilton
Robin Morgan Cecilia Viets Jamison
Gloria Naylor Adeline Trafton Knox
Anne Firor Scott
Joan Wallach Scott Eliasberg, Ann Pringle
Vida Dutton Scudder Annie Brown Leslie
Jane P. Tompkins Josephine Preston Peabody
Dorothy West Dorothy Thompson
Victoria Woodhull
Dixon, Janette Goff
Estess, Sybil
Judy Blume
Maxine W. Kumin
Erma Bombeck
Betty Friedan Etheridge, Billie W.
Barbara Tuchman Abigail Smith Adams
Helen Hennessy Vendler Mercy Otis Warren

Dobbs, Jeannine Evans, Elizabeth

Hildegarde Flanner Josephine Jacobsen
Hazel Hall Helen MacInnes
Lydia Sayer Hasbrouck Frances Newman
Leonora von Stosch Speyer Margaret Junkin Preston
Jean Starr Untermeyer Anne Tyler
Marya Zaturenska Eudora Welty

Ewell, Barbara C.
Domina, Lynn
Sarah McLean Greene
Dorothy Allison
Fannie Heaslip Lea
Susan B. Anthony
Eliza Jane Poitevent Nicholson
Rita Dove Eliza Phillips Pugh
Anne Lamott
Denise Levertov Faust, Langdon
Sojourner Truth Frances Willard


Ferguson, Mary Anne Friedman, Ellen

Lisa Alther Anna Hempstead Branch
Sally Benson Bettina Liebowitz Knapp
Doris Betts Dilys Bennett Laing
Tess Slesinger
Fuchs, Miriam
Finger, Mary E. Beulah Marie Dix
Josephine Herbst Maude McVeigh Hutchins
Madeleine LEngle
Gabbard, Lucina P.
Fiore, Jullie Ann Mary Coyle Chase
Annie Dillard Clare Boothe Luce

Fish, Virginia K. Galanter, Margit

Frances R. Donovan Barbara Tuchman
Annie Marion MacLean
Gallo, Rose Adrienne
Fitch, Noel R. Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald
Sylvia Beach Garson, Helen S.
Fleche, Anne Jacqueline Susann
Adrienne Kennedy Sophie Kerr Underwood

Fleenor, Juliann E. Gartner, Carol B.

Catharine Esther Beecher Carman Dee Barnes
Caroline Chesebrough Laura Bent
Susan Hale Mary Putnam Jacobi
Emily Chubbuck Judson Kate Jordan
Margaret Sanger Myra Kelly
Ann Winterbotham Stephens Gaskill, Gayle
Flint, Joyce Isabella MacDonald Alden
Margaret Craven Beatrice J. Chute
Marchette Chute
Florence, Barbara Moench Mathilde Eiker
Lella Secor Sarah Barnwell Elliott
Jean Kerr
Fowler, Lois
Eleanor Flexner Gensler, Kinereth
Frances Dana Gage Sandra M. Gilbert
Ida Husted Harper
Julia McNair Wright Gentilella, Dacia
Paula Gunn Allen
Franklin, Phyllis
Gerson, Risa
Judith Sargent Murray
Susanna Anthony
Elsie Clews Parsons
E. L. Konigsburg
Jean Stafford
Eliza Buckminster Lee
Frazer, Winifred
Gibbons, Christina Tischler
Dorothy Day
Mary Palmer Tyler
Voltairine de Cleyre
Emma Goldman Gibbons, Sheila J.
Mary McGrory
Freiberg, Karen
Kate Wilhelm Gilbert, Melissa Kesler
Gloria Steinem
Freibert, Lucy
Georgiana Bruce Kirby Giles, Jane
Jessica N. MacDonald Elizabeth Elkins Sanders
Marianne Dwight Orvis Catharine Maria Sedgwick


Ginsberg, Elaine K. Grifth, Susan

Amelia Jenks Bloomer Nicholasa Mohr
Maria Susanna Cummins
Hannah Webster Foster Grim, Jessica
Mary Jane Hawes Holmes Theresa Hak Kyung Cha
Betty Smith Lucy R. Lippard
E. D. E. N. Southworth Eileen Myles
Rosmarie Waldrop
Gironda, Suzanne
Michelle Cliff Groben, Anne R.
Jill Johnston Ella Wheeler Wilcox
Meridel Le Sueur
Grove, Shari
Gladstein, Mimi R. Linda Hogan
Ayn Rand
Hall, Joan Wylie
Gleason, Phyllis S. Ruth McEnery Stuart
Alice Adams Eudora Welty
Alison Lurie
Halpern, Faye
Goldman, Maureen Joanne Greenberg
Esther Edwards Burr
Maureen Howard
Hannah Flagg Gould
Hannah Sawyer Lee Hamblen, Abigail Ann
Eleanor Hallowell Abbott
Gottfried, Erika
Temple Bailey
Rose Pesotta
Amelia E. Barr
Gottlieb, Phyllis Clara L. Root Burnham
Lucy Hooper Elizabeth Jane Coatsworth
Lucy Jones Hooper Margaret Campbell Deland
Mary E. Wilkins Freeman
Graham, Theodora R.
Honor McCue Morrow
Louise Bogan
Louise Redeld Peattie
Grace Elizabeth King
Lucy Fitch Perkins
Josephine Miles
Margaret E. Sangster
Harriet Monroe
Elsie Singmaster
Grant, Mary H. Elizabeth Barstow Stoddard
Florence Howe Hall Nelia Gardner White
Julia Ward Howe Ola Elizabeth Winslow

Green, Carol Hurd Hamblen, Vicki Lynn

Eve Merriam Helen M. Winslow
Greene, Dana Hannay, Margaret P.
Sophia Hume Marabel Morgan
Martha Shepard Lippincott
Lucretia Mott Hardesty, Nancy
Sara Vickers Oberholtzer Antoinette Brown Blackwell
Hannah Chaplin Conant
Greyson, Laura Sarah Ewing Hall
Hannah Arendt Phoebe Worrall Palmer
Grider, Sylvia Ann Elizabeth Payson Prentiss
Linda Dgh Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Emma Willard
Grierson, Beth
Rita Mae Brown Hardy, Willene S.
Alma Routsong Katharine Fullerton Gerould


Harlan, Judith Hill, Vicki Lynn

Sue Grafton Bessie Breuer
Shere Hite Mary Cruger
Diane Johnson Helen Hamilton Gardener
Sarah Winnemucca Ursula N. Gestefeld
Naomi Wolf Marie Howland
Ellen Warner Kirk
Harris, Miriam Kalman, Ph.D Theresa S. Malkiel
Jean Houston Myra Page
Claire Myers Owens Martha W. Tyler
Florida Scott-Maxwell Marie Van Vorst
Harvey, Mary E. Mary Heaton Vorse
Mari Evans Bessie McGinnis Van Vorst
Sally Miller Gearhart Hobbs, Glenda
Marita Golden Harriette Simpson Arnow
Kristin Hunter-Lattany
Hoeveler, Diane Long
Healey, Claire Mathilde Franziska Giesler Anneke
H. D. Phoebe Cary
Amy Lowell Mary Andrews Denison
Alice Bradley Haven
Heilbrun, Carolyn G.
Eleanor Mercein Kelly
A. G. Mojtabai
Juliette Magill Kinzie
Helbig, Alethea K. Marya Mannes
Carol Ryrie Brink Jessica Mitford
Eleanor Estes Frances Crosby Van Alstyne
Lucretia Peabody Hale Babette Deutsch
Irene Hunt Holbrook, Amy
Madeleine LEngle Alice McDermott
Myra Cohn Livingston
Emily Cheney Neville Holdstein, Deborah H.
Ruth Sawyer Harriet Livermore
Kate Seredy Vienna G. Morrell Ramsay
Caroline Dale Snedeker Dora Knowlton Ranous
Zilpha Keatley Snyder Itti Kinney Reno
Elizabeth George Speare Mae West
Anne Terry White
Holly, Marcia
Ella Young
Margaret Culkin Banning
Henderson, Kathy
Hornstein, Jacqueline
Linda J. Barnes
Jenny Fenno
Joan Didion
Sarah Symmes Fiske
Martha Grimes
Susannah Johnson Hastings
Susan Minot
Elizabeth Mixer
Henning, Wendy J. Sarah Parsons Moorhead
Marie Manning Sarah Wentworth Morton
Sarah Osborn
Hepps, Marcia Sarah Porter
Mara Irene Forns Eunice Smith
Tina Howe Jane Turell
Megan Terry Elizabeth White
Hill, Holly Horton, Beverly
Mina Kirstein Curtiss Harriet Jacobs


Howard, Lillie Jones, Judith P.

Fannie Cook Phyllis Chesler
Alice Walker Eleanor Clark
Elizabeth Gould Davis
Howze, Jo Gayl Jones
Mary McLeod Bethune
Kafatou, Sarah
Hoyle, Karen Nelson Ellen Bryant Voigt
Virginia Lee Burton
Natalie Savage Carlson Kahn, Mariam
Marguerite Lofft de Angeli Ruth Benedict
Jean Lee Latham Margaret Mead

Hudspeth, Cheryl K. Kaledin, Eugenia

Rodello Hunter Carolyn Kizer
Elizabeth Spencer
Hughson, Lois
Mary Ritter Beard Karp, Sheema Hamdani
Barbara Tuchman Adrienne Rich

Humez, Jean McMahon Kaufman, Janet E.

Rebecca Cox Jackson Eliza Frances Andrews
Mary Miller Chesnut
Hunter, Edith F. Kate Cumming
Sophia Lyon Fahs Sarah Ellis Dorsey
Rebecca Latimer Felton
Irvin, Helen Deiss Constance Cary Harrison
Antoinette Doolittle Sarah Stone Holmes
Anna White Mary Ann Webster Loughborough
Judith Brockenbrough McGuire
Johnson, Claudia D. Elizabeth Avery Meriwether
Olive Logan Phoebe Yates Pember
Clara Morris Sara Rice Pryor
Sallie A. Brock Putnam
Johnson, Lee Ann Eliza M. Ripley
Mary Hallock Foote Cornelia Phillips Spencer
Susie King Taylor
Johnson, Robin
Katharine Prescott Wormeley
Marianne Moore
Kavo, Rose F.
Jones, Allison A.
Sue Petigru Bowen
Maxine W. Kumin Jane C. Campbell
Rhoda Lerman Juliet Lewis Campbell
Lois Lowry Jane McManus Cazneau
Paule Marshall Jane Dunbar Chaplin
Terry McMillan Ella Rodman Church
A. G. Mojtabai Jane Hardin Cross
Katherine M. Rogers
Susan Fromberg Schaeffer Keeney, William
Ntozake Shange Mara Irene Forns
Tina Howe
Jones, Anne Hudson
Kate C. Hurd-Mead Keeshen, Kathleen Kearney
Elisabeth Kbler-Ross Marguerite Higgins
Esther Pohl Lovejoy Ada Louise Huxtable
Gail Sheehy Miriam Ottenberg


Kelleghan, Fiona Koengeter, L. W.

Marion Zimmer Bradley Ann Eliza Schuyler Bleecker
Suzy McKee Charnas Maria Gowen Brooks
Anne McCaffrey Hannah Mather Crocker
Vonda N. McIntyre Margaretta V. Faugeres
Andre Norton Rose Wilder Lane
Kit Reed Adah Isaacs Menken
Elizabeth Ann Scarborough Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory
Sheri S. Tepper Anna Botsford Comstock
Connie Willis Almira Lincoln Phelps
Kenschaft, Lori Kolmerten, Carol A.
Martha Ballard Frances Wright
Barbara Ehrenreich
Kondelik, Marlene
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Mary Shipman Andrews
Frances Kellor
Carson McCullers Koon, Helene
Ann Lane Petry Marian Anderson
Ida B. Wells-Barnett Ruth Gordon
Anna Mowatt Ritchie
Kern, Donna Casella Elizabeth Robins
Frances Fuller Victor Catherine Turney
S. S. B. K. Wood
Kern, Edith
Ann Landers Koppes, Phyllis Bixlir
Frances Hodgson Burnett
Kessler, Carol Farley
Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Kouidis, Virginia M.
Mina Loy
King, Margaret J. Krieg, Joann Peck
Clara Jessup Bloomeld-Moore Charlotte Mary Sanford Barnes
Peg Bracken Susan Fenimore Cooper
Judith Crist Mary Baker Eddy
Maureen Daly
Pauline Kael Kroll, Diane E.
Elizabeth Linington Jean Fritz
Madalyn Murray OHair Katherine Paterson
Emily Post Krouse, Agate Nesaule
Mary Wilson Sherwood Rhoda Lerman
Amy Vanderbilt
Kuenhold, Sandra
Kish, Dorothy Leta Stetter Hollingworth
Rebecca Harding Davis
Kuznets, Lois R.
Klein, Kathleen Gregory Esther Forbes
Susan Grifn Lois Lenski
Ruth McKenney Lamping, Marilyn
Anne Nichols Hallie Quinn Brown
Bella Cohen Spewak Pauline Hopkins
Megan Terry Maria W. Stewart
Fannie Barrier Williams
Klein, Michael
Jean Valentine Langhals, Patricia
Florence Wheelock Ayscough
Knapp, Bettina L. Alice Bacon
Anas Nin Dorothy Borg


Langsam, Miriam Z. Ludwig, Linda

Margaret Bourke-White Kathryn Cavarly Hulme
Margaret Mitchell
Laska, Vera
Marcia Gluck Davenport MacDonald, Maureen
Elisabeth Elliot Katherine Bolton Black
Lauter, Estella MacKay, Kathryn L.
Diane Wakoski Maurine Whipple
Levy, Ilise MacPike, Loralee
Alice Hamilton Emily Kimbrough
Jane Jacobs Maxine Hong Kingston
Lewandowska, M. L. Mary Jane Ward
Marilyn Hacker Madsen, Carol Cornwall
Lewis, Janette Seaton Louisa Greene Richards
Carrie Jacobs Bond Emmeline Woodward Wells
Joanne Greenberg Maida, Patricia D.
Lewis, Sharon A. Lillian ODonnell
Marita Bonner Mainiero, Lina
Lezburg, Amy K. Willa Sibert Cather
Ilka Chase
Maio, Kathleen L.
Linden-Ward, Blanche Anna Katharine Green
Andrea Dworkin Mary R. Platt Hatch
Marilyn French Lenore Glen Offord
Robin Morgan Metta Fuller Victor

Loeb, Helen Mallett, Daryl F.

Inez Haynes Irwin Leigh Brackett
Jane E. Brody
Lohman, Judith S.
Carolyn Chute
Crystal Eastman
Emma Lathen
Londr, Felicia Hardison Ursula K. Le Guin
Agnes de Mille Reeve Lindbergh
Edith Ellis Bobbie Ann Mason
Anne Crawford Flexner Rachel Pollack
Harriet Ford Anne Rice
Rose Franken Kristine Kathryn Rusch
Ketti Frings Joanna Russ
Dorothy Kuhns Heyward Jessica Amanda Salmonson
Jeannette Augustus Marks Lee Smith
Frances Aymar Mathews Margaret Truman
Adelaide Matthews
Marguerite Merington Marchino, Lois
Lillian Mortimer Rita Mae Brown
Martha Morton Marcus, Lisa
Josena Niggli bell hooks
Charlotte Blair Parker Sherley Anne Williams
Lillian Ross
Lillie West Margolis, Tina
Rida Johnson Young Eva LeGallienne
Lord, Charlotte V. Marie, Jacquelyn
Sidney Cowell Bateman Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni


Marks, Elaine McCarthy, Joanne

Germaine Bre Kay Boyle
Maeve Brennan
Marshall, Kathleen Bonann Mary Maguire Colum
Susan H. Bergman Hedda Hopper
Elizabeth Hardwick
Betty MacDonald
Linda Kaufman Kerber
Kathleen Thompson Norris
Bette Bao Lord
Lorrie Moore McCay, Mary A.
Sara Paretsky Rosellen Brown
Elaine Showalter Louise Erdrich
Mona Van Duyn Kaye Gibbons
Edith Wharton Ellen Gilchrist
Martinez, Elizabeth Coonrod Patricia Highsmith
Sandra Bentez Barbara Kingsolver
Rosa Guy Bobbie Ann Mason
Demetria Martnez Brenda Marie Osbey
Cherre Moraga Anne Rice
Judith Ortiz Cofer Helen Yglesias
Esmeralda Santiago
Helena Mara Viramontes McClure, Charlotte S.
Gertrude Atherton
Masel-Walters, Lynne
Alice Stone Blackwell McColgan, Kristin
Mary Ware Dennett Dorothea Lynde Dix
Miriam Follin Leslie
Inez Haynes Irwin McCrea, Joan M.
Katharine Coman
Mason, Mary Grimley
Betty Friedan McDannell, M. Colleen
Carolyn G. Heilbrun Katherine Eleanor Conway
Nancy Gardner Prince Pearl Richards Craigie
Amanda Smith
Mason, Sarah E. Frances Fisher Tiernan
Pauline Kael Ellen Gould White
Masteller, Jean Carwile
McFadden-Gerber, Margaret
Annie Nathan Meyer
Sally Carrighar
Elizabeth Seifert
Annie Dillard
Masters, Joellen Wilma Dykeman
Gayl Jones Fannie Hardy Eckstorm
Josephine Winslow Johnson
Masters, Jollen Harriet M. Miller
Susan Fromberg Schaeffer Louise Dickinson Rich
Matherne, Beverly M. McGovern, Edythe M.
Alice Gerstenberg Margaret Wise Brown
May, Jill P. Rachel Crothers
Ann Nolan Clark Susan Glaspell
Ingri Mortenson dAulaire Lorraine Hansberry
Maud Fuller Petersham Sophie Treadwell
Marilyn Sachs Charlotte Zolotow

Mayer, Elsie F. McKay, Mary A.

Anne Morrow Lindbergh Lee Smith


McLennan, Karen Mollenkott, Virginia Ramey

Harriette Simpson Arnow Grace Livingston Hill-Lutz
Toni Cade Bambara Sarah Smith Martyn
Mary Daly Marjorie Hope Nicolson
Louise Glck Rosemond Tuve
Virginia Johnson-Masters
Montenegro, David
Audre Lorde
Linda Ty-Casper
Patricia Meyer Spacks
Morris, Linda A.
McQuin, Susan Coultrap Marietta Holley
Sarah Ann Evans Frances Berry Whitcher
Medeiros, Kimbally A. Mortimer, Gail
Sandra Harding Katherine Anne Porter
Eleanor Munro
Anne Truitt Mossberg, Barbara A. Clarke
Anne Waldman Sylvia Plath
Genevieve Taggard
Menger, Lucy
Ruth Shick Montgomery Moynihan, Ruth Barnes
Jane Roberts Abigail Scott Duniway
Susy Smith Murphy, Maureen
Mercier, Cathryn M. Mary E. McGrath Blake
Yoshiko Uchida Helena Lefroy Caperton
Cynthia Voigt Kathleen Coyle
Blanche McManus Manseld
Miller, James A. Mary L. Meaney
Margaret Randall Asenath Hatch Nicholson
Florence J. OConnor
Miller, Marlene M. Jessie Fremont ODonnell
Elizabeth Bishop Katharine A. OKeeffe
Kelly Cherry Clara M. Thompson
Elizabeth Cook-Lynn
M. F. K. Fisher Murphy, Miriam B.
June Jordan Sarah E. Carmichael
Martha Spence Heywood
Mitchell, Nora
Olga Broumas Murphy, Paula C.
Louise Glck Maya Angelou
Sharon Olds Eleanor Taylor Bland
Nora Ephron
Mitchell, Sally Barbara Kingsolver
Francesca Alexander Barbara Neely
Helen Dore Boylston
Margaret Mayo Mussell, Kay
Cora Baggerly Older Phyllis A. Whitney
Mary Green Pike Nance, Guin A.
Rose Porter Gail Godwin
Molly Elliot Seawell Nancy Hale
Mary Ella Waller Virginia M. Satir
Elizabeth Spencer
Moe, Phyllis
Clara M. Thompson
Abbie Farwell Brown
Helen Stuart Campbell Neils, Patricia Langhals
Eliza Cabot Follen Emily Hahn
Emily Huntington Miller Charlotte Y. Salisbury
Sarah Chauncey Woolsey Mary Clabaugh Wright


Neville, Tam Lin Peterson, Margaret

Ruth Stone Emily Dickinson
Newman, Anne Janet Lewis
Julia Mood Peterkin
Elizabeth Sewell Pettis, Joyce
Amlie Rives Troubetzkoy Zora Neale Hurston
Nichols, Kathleen L.
Miriam Coles Harris Philips, Elizabeth
Ellen Peck Sarah Helen Whitman
Harriet Waters Preston
Anne Sexton
Phillips, Elizabeth
Nix, E. M. Elizabeth Ellet
Gail Godwin Annie Somers Gilchrist
Nochimson, Martha Estelle Robinson Lewis
Carry A. Nation Frances Sargent Osgood
Martha Harrison Robinson Caroline Ticknor
Norman, Marion Mabel Loomis Todd
Lucretia Maria Davidson
Margaret Miller Davidson Piercy, Josephine K.
OConnor, Christine Anne Dudley Bradstreet
Martha Ostenso
OLoughlin, James Pogel, Nancy
Tillie Olsen Constance Mayeld Rourke

Ockerstrom, Lolly
Mona Van Duyn Poland, Helene Dwyer
Julia Henrietta Gulliver
Pannill, Linda Susanne K. Langer
Isadora Duncan
Parker, Alice Pool, Gail
Ada Jack Carver Cynthia Ozick
Edith Hamilton
Dawn Powell
Passty, Jeanette Nyda
Isabella Oliver Sharp Pouncey, Lorene
Sarah Pogson Smith
Vassar Miller
Sukey Vickery Watson
Marguerite Young
Payne, Alma J.
Louisa May Alcott
Preston, Caroline
Pelzer, Linda C. Annie Trumbull Slosson
Patricia Cornwell
Martha Gellhorn
Pringle, Mary Beth
Anita Shreve
Lonie Fuller Adams
Penn, Patricia E. Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Del Martin
Annie Smith Peck
Puk, Francine Shapiro
Penn, Shana Elizabeth Akers Allen
Lucy S. Dawidowicz Victoria Lincoln
Perez-Guntin, Amiris Dorothy Parker
Julia de Burgos Frances Gray Patton


Radtke, Barbara Anne Rhodes, Nelson

Mary Daly Margaret Wise Brown
Rosemary Radford Ruether Alexis DeVeaux
Ann Douglas
Ratigan, Virginia Kaib Susan Grifn
Isabella Marshall Graham Lillian Hellman
Mary Agnes Tincker Zenna Henderson
Jill Johnston
Raugust, Karen Elisabeth Kbler-Ross
Kathy Acker Madeleine LEngle
Natalie Angier Harper Lee
Nevada Barr Anne Morrow Lindbergh
Ann Beattie Shirley MacLaine
Blanche McCrary Boyd Nancy Mairs
Sandra Brown Del Martin
Edna Buchanan Marsha Norman
Amy Clampitt Rochelle Owens
Nancy F. Cott Sylvia Plath
Elizabeth Daly Ayn Rand
Dorothy Salisbury Davis Hannah Whittal Smith
Elizabeth Drew Gertrude Stein
Carolyn Forch Megan Terry
Jean Garrigue Phyllis A. Whitney
Kaye Gibbons Richardson, Susan B.
Doris Kearns Goodwin Mitsuye Yamada
Jorie Graham Hisaye Yamamoto
Jane Hamilton
Lyn Hejinian Richmond, Velma Bourgeois
Laurie R. King Anne Fremantle
Frances Parkinson Keyes
Ray, Sandra Ruth Painter Randall
Rosa Guy Agnes Repplier
Mildred Pitts Walter
Nancy Willard Richter, Heddy A.
Elizabeth Frances Corbett
Rayson, Ann Olive Higgins Prouty
Adelle Davis Roberts, Audrey
Ann Lane Petry Caroline M. Stansbury Kirkland
Reardon, Joan Roberts, Bette B.
Julia Child Lydia Maria Child

Reisman, Jessica Roberts, Elizabeth

Hortense Calisher Fannie W. Rankin
Angela Yvonne Davis Maggie Roberts
Rachel Hadas Harriet Winslow Sewall
Anne Moody Eliza Ann Youmans
Ann Rule Roca, Ana
Cynthia Voigt Julia lvarez
Alice Walker Gloria Anzalda
Kate Wilhelm Achy Obejas

Reuman, Ann E. Rogers, Katharine M.

Janice Mirikitani Lillian Hellman


Rosenberg, Julia Schoenbach, Lisi

Emma Manley Embury Germaine Bre
Mary E. Moore Hewitt
Schoeld, Ann
Rebecca Rush
Helen Marot
Caroline Warren Thayer
Schull, Elinor
Rosinsky, Natalie McCaffrey Adela Rogers St. Johns
Anne McCaffrey
Judith Merril Schwartz, Helen J.
C. L. Moore Mary Antin
Hortense Calisher
Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer
Rowe, Anne
Margaret Thompson Janvier
Maya Angelou Margaret Woods Lawrence
Elizabeth Madox Roberts Tillie Olsen
Constance Fenimore Woolson Grace Paley

Rudnick, Lois P. Schweik, Joanne L.

Mabel Dodge Luhan Marilyn French
Isabella Gardner
Rushin, Kate Vivian Gornick
Hettie Jones
Audre Lorde
Gloria Steinem
Ryan, Rosalie Tutela Scura, Dorothy M.
Jane Starkweather Locke Mary Johnston

Seaton, Beverly
Salo, Alice Bell
Florence Merriam Bailey
Marjorie Hill Allee
Gladys Hasty Carroll
Mabel Leigh Hunt
Mary Hartwell Catherwood
Elizabeth Yates
Nellie Blanchan Doubleday
Mateel Howe Farnham
Sandberg, Elisabeth Margaret Flint
Carolyn Chute Helen Morgenthau Fox
Ruth Seid Mary Grifth
Susan Huntington
Scanzoni, Letha Louisa Yeomans King
Anita Bryant Elizabeth L. Lawrence
Virginia Ramey Mollenkott Alice Lounsberry
Helen Reimensnyder Martin
Schiavoni, Andrew Sarah Edgarton Mayo
Rochelle Owens Josephine Clifford McCrackin
Susan Sontag Helen Matthews Nitsch
Frances Dana Parsons
Grace Richmond
Schleuning, Neala Yount
Gladys Bagg Taber
Meridel Le Sueur Anna Bartlett Warner
Susan Bogert Warner
Schoen, Carol B. Mary Stanbery Watts
Hannah Adams Adeline D. T. Whitney
Rebekah Bettelheim Kohut Kate Douglass Wiggin
Emma Lazarus Laura Ingalls Wilder
Penina Moise Louise Beebe Wilder
Ruth Seid Mabel Osgood Wright


Secrest, Rose Shostak, Elizabeth

V. C. Andrews Bette Bao Lord
Mary Higgins Clark Jayne Anne Phillips
June Doman Kate Simon
Katherine V. Forrest
Nancy Freedman
Carolyn G. Hart Shur, Cherri L.
Joyce Maynard Marianne Wiggins
Sharon McCrumb
Bharati Mukherjee Shute, Carolyn
Frances Perkins Judy Blume
Belva Plain Mildred Delois Taylor
Patricia Polacco
Sylvia F. Porter
Pamela Sargent Siefert, Susan E.
Ariel Durant
Shaffer-Koros, Carole M. Fannie Merritt Farmer
Willystine Goodsell
Helen Hazlett
Ruth Putnam Skaggs, Peggy
Helen Keller
Shakir, Evelyn Catherine Marshall
Ednah Littlehale Cheney
Abigail May Alcott Nieriker
Sladics, Devra M.
Sharistanian, Janet Lilian Jackson Braun
Florence Howe Gwendolyn Brooks
Elizabeth Janeway
Tess Gallagher
Helen Waite Papashvily
Doris Grumbach
Katherine M. Rogers
Sonia Sanchez
Shelton, Pamela Dana Stabenow
Rita Mae Brown Wendy Wasserstein
Nikki Giovanni Sylvia Watanabe
Harriet Jacobs Jade Snow Wong
Sherman, Sarah Way Charlotte Zolotow
Sarah Knowles Bolton
Alice Brown Slaughter, Jane
Rose Terry Cooke Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
Gertrude Battles Lane
Louise Chandler Moulton
Mary Alicia Owen Smelstor, Marjorie
Fanny Kemble
Shinn, Thelma J.
Margaret Ayer Barnes
Frances Courtenay Baylor Barnum Smethurst, James
Kate Chopin Maya Angelou
Martha Finley Marilyn Hacker
Lucy Smith French Maxine Hong Kingston
Shirley Ann Grau Sonia Sanchez
Mary Dana Shindler Alice Walker
Harriet Prescott Spofford Margaret Walker
Shortreed, Vivian H.
Elizabeth Oakes Smith Smith, Martha Nell
Jane Grey Swisshelm Toi Derricotte


Smith, Susan Sutton Sparks, Leah J.

Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz Sanora Babb
Jane Goodwin Austin Carman Dee Barnes
Delia Salter Bacon Doris Betts
Sarah G. Bagley Germaine Bre
Mary Edwards Bryan Olga Broumas
Maria Weston Chapman Octavia E. Butler
Adelaide Crapsey Rachel Carson
Caroline Healey Dall Kim Chernin
Eliza Ann Dupuy Phyllis Chesler
Harriet Farley Marilyn Chin
Eliza Rotch Farrar Michelle Cliff
Judith Crist
Margaret Fuller
Toi Derricotte
Caroline Howard Gilman
Diane DiPrima
Caroline Gilman Jervey
Andrea Dworkin
Elizabeth Dodge Kinney
Suzette Haden Elgin
Sara Jane Lippincott
Carol Emshwiller
Harriet Hanson Robinson Marjorie Garber
Phoebe Atwood Taylor Sally Miller Gearhart
Mary Hawes Terhune Donna Haraway
Jean Webster Lillian Hellman
Susan Isaacs
Sneller, Jo Leslie Molly Ivins
Rosemary Sprague Shirley Jackson
Gerda Lerner
Snipes, Katherine Del Martin
Clara Barton Alice Notley
Laura Jackson Martha Craven Nussbaum
Carson McCullers Flannery OConnor
Joyce Carol Oates
Snyder, Carrie Camille Paglia
Ana Castillo Margaret Randall
Julia Child Harriet Beecher Stowe
Jane Cooper Lois-Ann Yamanaka
Mari Evans
Mara Irene Forns Spencer, Linda
Shirley Ann Grau Jayne Anne Phillips
Bertha Harris Eleanor Roosevelt
Erica Jong Judith Rossner
Sandra McPherson Sprague, Rosemary
Valerie Miner Sara Teasdale
Alma Routsong
Anya Seton Sproat, Elaine
Lola Ridge
Gail Sheehy
Leslie Marmon Silko Stackhouse, Amy D.
Zilpha Keatley Snyder Edith Maud Eaton
Cathy Song Lorine Niedecker
Danielle Steel
Staley, Ann
Mildred Pitts Walter
Jane Hirsheld
Sonnenschein, Dana Stanbrough, Jane
Rosalyn Drexler Elizabeth Manning Hawthorne
Jorie Graham Hildegarde Hawthorne
Sandra McPherson Rose Hawthorne Lathrop


Stanford, Ann Swartz, Mark

Sanora Babb Djuna Barnes
Sarah Kemble Knight bell hooks
May Swenson Susan Howe
Ann Lauterbach
Staples, Katherine Cynthia Ozick
G. M. Flanders
Louisa Park Hall Swidler, Arlene Anderson
Caroline E. Rush Sarah N. Brownson
Alma Sioux Scarberry Katherine Kurz Burton
Aline Murray Kilmer
Stauffer, Helen Sister Mary Madeleva
Bess Streeter Aldrich Helen Constance White
Bertha Muzzy Sinclair
Sylvander, Carolyn Wedin
Dorothy Swain Thomas
Martha Grifth Browne
Steele, Karen B. Jessie Redmon Fauset
Elizabeth W. Latimer Frances Noyes Hart
Mary Lowell Putnam Helen Hull
Mary Britton Miller
Stein, Karen F. Mary White Ovington
Paulina Wright Davis Laura M. Towne
Alice Dunbar-Nelson Szymanski, Karen
Abbie Huston Evans Anne C. Lynch Botta
Phebe Cofn Hanaford Eliza Woodson Farnham
Elinor Hoyt Wylie
Talamantez, Ins
Stein, Rachel Ella Cara Deloria
Toni Cade Bambara
Tebbe, Jennifer L.
Stepanski, Lisa Georgette Meyer Chapelle
Ann Beattie Elisabeth May Craig
Rheta Childe Dorr
Stetson, Erlene Elizabeth Drew
Gwendolyn B. Bennett Barbara Ehrenreich
Frances FitzGerald
Stevenson, Deanna Anne OHare McCormick
Olga Broumas Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman
Anna Louise Strong
Stiller, Nikki
Helaine Newstead Terris, Virginia R.
Alice Henry
Stinson, Peggy Sarah Bryan Piatt
Jane Addams Jessie B. Rittenhouse
Agnes Smedley Lillian Whiting
Ella Winter
Anzia Yezierska Thibaux, Marcelle
Faith Baldwin Cuthrell
Stoddard, Karen M. Julia Ripley Dorr
Dorothy Daniels Ellen Glasgow
Anne Green
Summers, Shauna Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Joan Didion
Anne Tyler Thomas, Gwendolyn A.
Henrietta Buckmaster
Swan, Susan Charlotte L. Forten
Jamaica Kincaid Pauli Murray


Thompson, Ann Vogrin, Valerie

Rosemary Radford Ruether Alice Adams
Annie Dillard
Thompson, Dorothea Mosley Jamaica Kincaid
Mary Cunningham Logan Maxine Hong Kingston
Ruth Bryan Owen Carole Maso
Irma von Starkloff Rombauer Toni Morrison
Caroline White Soule Sharon Olds
Grace Paley
Thornton, Emma S. Ann Patchett
Marion Marsh Todd Amy Tan

Tipps, Lisa Wahlstrom, Billie J.

Bertha Harris Alice Cary
Anna Peyre Dinnies
Tobin, Jean Betty Friedan
Hilda Morley Zenna Henderson
Adrienne Rich Andre Norton
Ruth Whitman Joanna Russ

Townsend, Janis Waldron, Karen E.

Mildred Aldrich Kim Chernin
Gertrude Stein
Alice B. Toklas Walker, Cynthia L.
Shirley Barker
Treckel, Paula A. Taylor Caldwell
Alice Morse Earle Edna Ferber
Gerda Lerner Eleanor Gates
Emily Smith Putnam Caroline Pafford Miller
Lucy Maynard Salmon Myrtle Reed
Eliza Snow Smith Florence Barrett Willoughby
Fanny Stenhouse
Wall, Cheryl A.
Narcissa Prestiss Whitman
Gwendolyn Brooks
Ann Eliza Young
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
Nella Larsen
Turner, Alberta
Gloria Naylor
Katherine Garrison Chapin
Anne Spencer
Ruth Herschberger
Barbara Howes Ward, Jean M.
Muriel Rukeyser Elizabeth Blackwell
Ella Rhoads Higginson
Uffen, Ellen Serlen
Bethenia Owens-Adair
Fannie Hurst
Welch, Barbara A.
Uphaus, Suzanne Henning Alice James
Ann Chidester
Eleanor Carroll Chilton Werden, Frieda L.
Sarah Norcliffe Cleghorn Dorothy Dodds Baker
Pamela Frankau Kate Millett
Maureen Howard Bernice Love Wiggins
Marge Piercy
West, Martha Ullman
Vasquez, Pamela Rosellen Brown
Judith Ortiz Cofer Lynne Sharon Schwartz


White, Barbara A. Yee, Carole Zonis

Lillie Devereux Blake Leane Zugsmith
Sarah Josepha Hale
Sara Willis Parton Yglesias, Helen
Marilla M. Ricker Amy Tan
Caroline Slade
White, Evelyn C. Yongue, Patricia Lee
Angela Yvonne Davis Zo Akins
Williams, Donna Glee Anne Douglas Sedgwick
Diane Wakoski Helen Hennessy Vendler

Williams, Lynn F. Young, Melanie

Marion Zimmer Bradley Harriette Fanning Read
Joanna Russ
Caroline H. Woods
Wolff, Ellen
Harriet E. Adams Wilson Zajdel, Melody M.
Jade Snow Wong Caresse Crosby
Wolfson, Rose
Klara Goldzieher Roman Zilboorg, Caroline
Elise Justine Bayard
Wollons, Roberta
Ann Douglas
Sidonie Matzner Gruenberg
Maud Wilder Goodwin
Woodward, Angela Sarah Sprague Jacobs
Natalie Babbitt Charlotte A. Jerauld
Ellen Goodman Mary Elizabeth Lee
Elizabeth Gray Vining Dolley Madison
Diane Wakoski Louisa Cheves McCord
Wright, Catherine Morris Maria G. Milward
Mary Mapes Dodge Agnes Woods Mitchell
Mrs. H. J. Moore
Yarbro-Bejarano, Yvonne
Gloria Anzalda Martha Read
Ana Castillo Catherine Ware Wareld
Lorna Dee Cervantes Amelia Coppuck Welby
Sandra Cisneros
Cherre Moraga Zimmerman, Karen
Helena Mara Viramontes Marcia Muller


Abbott, Edith Auerbach, Hilda See Morley, Hilda

Abbott, Eleanor Hallowell Austin, Jane Goodwin
Abel, Annie Heloise Austin, Mary Hunter
Acker, Kathy Avery, Martha Moore
Adams, Abigail Smith Ayer, Harriet Hubbard
Adams, Alice Ayscough, Florence Wheelock
Adams, Hannah
Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer Babb, Sanora
Adams, Lonie Fuller Babbitt, Natalie
Adams, Louisa Catherine Johnson Bacon, Alice
Addams, Jane Bacon, Delia Salter
Adisa, Giamba See Lorde, Audre Bagley, Sarah G.
Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot Cary Bailey, Temple
Ai Bailey, Carolyn Sherwin
Akins, Zo Bailey, Florence Merriam
Alcott, Louisa May Baker, Dorothy Dodds
Alden, Isabella MacDonald Balch, Emily Greene
Aldon, Adair See Meigs, Cornelia Ballard, Martha
Aldrich, Bess Streeter Bambara, Toni Cade
Aldrich, Mildred Banning, Margaret Culkin
Alexander, Francesca Barker, Shirley
Allee, Marjorie Hill Barnard, A. M. See Alcott, Louisa May
Allen, Elizabeth Akers Barnes, Carman Dee
Allen, Paula Gunn Barnes, Charlotte Mary Sanford
Allison, Dorothy Barnes, Djuna
Alther, Lisa Barnes, Linda J.
lvarez, Julia Barnes, Margaret Ayer
Ames, Mary E. Clemmer Barnes, Mary Sheldon
Anderson, Marian Barnum, Frances Courtenay Baylor
Andrew, Joseph Maree See Bonner, Marita Barr, Amelia E.
Andrews, Eliza Frances Barr, Nevada
Andrews, Jane Barton, Clara
Andrews, Mary Shipman Barton, May Hollis See Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer
Andrews, V. C. Bateman, Sidney Cowell
Angelou, Maya Bates, Katherine Lee
Angier, Natalie Bayard, Elise Justine
Anneke, Mathilde Franziska Giesler Beach, Sylvia
Anpetu Wate See Deloria, Ella Cara Beard, Mary Ritter
Anthony, Susan B. Beattie, Ann
Anthony, Susanna Beebe, Mary Blair See Niles, Blair Rice
Antin, Mary Beecher, Catharine Esther
Anzalda, Gloria Benedict, Ruth
Appleton-Weber, Sarah Bent, Laura
Appleton, Sarah See Appleton-Weber, Sarah Bentez, Sandra
Appleton, Victor, II See Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer Bennett, Gwendolyn B.
Arendt, Hannah Benson, Sally
Armstrong, Charlotte Berg, Gertrude
Arnow, Harriette Simpson Bergman, Susan H.
Ashley, Ellen See Seifert, Elizabeth Bernays, Anne
Atherton, Gertrude Berne, Victoria See Fisher, M. F. K.
Atom, Ann See Walworth, Jeannette Hadermann Bethune, Mary McLeod


Betts, Doris Broner, E. M.

Bianco, Margery Williams Brooks, Gwendolyn
Bishop, Claire Huchet Brooks, Maria Gowen
Bishop, Elizabeth Broumas, Olga
Black, Katherine Bolton Brown, Abbie Farwell
Blackwell, Alice Stone Brown, Alice
Blackwell, Antoinette Brown Brown, Hallie Quinn
Blackwell, Elizabeth Brown, Margaret Wise
Blaisdell, Anne See Linington, Elizabeth Brown, Nancy See Leslie, Annie Brown
Blake, Lillie Devereux Brown, Rita Mae
Blake, Mary E. McGrath Brown, Rosellen
Bland, Eleanor Taylor Brown, Sandra
Blatch, Harriot Stanton Browne, Martha Grifth
Bleecker, Ann Eliza Schuyler Brownmiller, Susan
Bloomer, Amelia Jenks Brownson, Sarah N.
Bloomeld-Moore, Clara Jessup Bryan, Mary Edwards
Blume, Judy Bryant, Anita
Bly, Nellie See Seaman, Elizabeth Cochrane Buchanan, Edna
Bogan, Louise Buck, Pearl S.
Bolton, Isabel See Miller, Mary Britton Buckmaster, Henrietta
Bolton, Sarah T. Burke, Fielding See Dargan, Olive Tilford
Bolton, Sarah Knowles Burnett, Frances Hodgson
Bombeck, Erma Burnham, Clara L. Root
Bond, Carrie Jacobs Burr, Esther Edwards
Bonner, Marita Burton, Katherine Kurz
Booth, Mary Louise Burton, Virginia Lee
Borg, Dorothy Butler, Octavia E.
Botta, Anne C. Lynch
Bourke-White, Margaret Cabeza de Baca, Fabiola
Bowen, Catherine Drinker Cade, Toni See Bambara, Toni Cade
Bowen, Sue Petigru Caldwell, Taylor
Bower, B. M. See Sinclair, Bertha Muzzy Calhoun, Lucy See Monroe, Lucy
Bowers, Bathsheba Calisher, Hortense
Bowles, Jane Auer Campbell, Helen Stuart
Boyd, Blanche McCrary Campbell, Jane C.
Boyd, Nancy See Millay, Edna St. Vincent Campbell, Juliet Lewis
Boyle, Kay Caperton, Helena Lefroy
Boylston, Helen Dore Carlson, Natalie Savage
Bracken, Peg Carmichael, Sarah E.
Brackett, Leigh Carrighar, Sally
Bradley, Marion Zimmer Carrington, Elaine Sterne
Bradstreet, Anne Dudley Carroll, Gladys Hasty
Branch, Anna Hempstead Carson, Rachel
Braun, Lilian Jackson Carver, Ada Jack
Breckinridge, Sophonisba Preston Cary, Alice
Bre, Germaine Cary, Phoebe
Brennan, Maeve Caspary, Vera
Brent, Linda See Jacobs, Harriet Castillo, Ana
Bres, Rose Falls Cather, Willa Sibert
Breuer, Bessie Catherwood, Mary Hartwell
Brewster, Martha Wadsworth Catt, Carrie Chapman
Briggs, Emily Edson Caulkins, Frances Manwaring
Brink, Carol Ryrie Cazneau, Jane McManus
Bristow, Gwen Cervantes, Lorna Dee
Brody, Jane E. Cha, Theresa Hak Kyung


Chandler, Elizabeth Margaret Cooper, Susan Fenimore

Chapelle, Georgette Meyer Corbett, Elizabeth Frances
Chapin, Katherine Garrison Cornwell, Patricia
Chaplin, Jane Dunbar Cortez, Jayne
Chapman, Lee See Bradley, Marion Zimmer Cott, Nancy F.
Chapman, Maria Weston Coyle, Kathleen
Charnas, Suzy McKee Craig, Elisabeth May
Chase, Ilka Craig, Kit See Reed, Kit
Chase, Mary Coyle Craigie, Pearl Richards
Chase, Mary Ellen Crapsey, Adelaide
Chehia See Shaw, Anna Moore Craven, Margaret
Cheney, Ednah Littlehale Crist, Judith
Chernin, Kim Crocker, Hannah Mather
Cherry, Kelly Croly, Jane Cunningham
Chesebrough, Caroline Crosby, Caresse
Chesler, Phyllis Cross, Amanda See Heilbrun, Carolyn G.
Chesnut, Mary Miller Cross, Jane Hardin
Chidester, Ann Crothers, Rachel
Child, Julia Crouter, Natalie Stark
Child, Lydia Maria Crowe, F. J. See Johnston, Jill
Childress, Alice Cruger, Mary
Chilton, Eleanor Carroll Cumming, Kate
Chin, Marilyn Cummins, Maria Susanna
Chopin, Kate Curtiss, Mina Kirstein
Church, Ella Rodman Curtiss, Ursula Reilly
Chute, Beatrice J. Custer, Elizabeth Bacon
Chute, Carolyn Cuthrell, Faith Baldwin
Chute, Marchette
Cisneros, Sandra Dahlgren, Madeleine Vinton
Clampitt, Amy Dall, Caroline Healey
Clapp, Margaret Antoinette Daly, Elizabeth
Clappe, Louise Smith Daly, Mary
Clark, Ann Nolan Daly, Maureen
Clark, Eleanor Daniels, Dorothy
Clark, Mary Higgins Dargan, Olive Tilford
Clarke, Rebecca Sophia dAulaire, Ingri Mortenson
Cleary, Beverly Davenport, Marcia Gluck
Cleghorn, Sarah Norcliffe Davidson, Lucretia Maria
Cliff, Michelle Davidson, Margaret Miller
Clifton, Lucille Davis, Adelle
Coatsworth, Elizabeth Jane Davis, Angela Yvonne
Coit, Margaret L. Davis, Dorothy Salisbury
Colum, Mary Maguire Davis, Elizabeth Gould
Coman, Katharine Davis, Mollie Moore
Comstock, Anna Botsford Davis, Natalie Zemon
Conant, Hannah Chaplin Davis, Paulina Wright
Conway, Katherine Eleanor Davis, Rebecca Harding
Cooey, Paula Marie Dawidowicz, Lucy S.
Cook, Fannie Day, Dorothy
Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth de Angeli, Marguerite Lofft
Cooke, Rose Terry de Mille, Agnes
Coolbrith, Ina Donna de Burgos, Julia
Coolidge, Susan See Woolsey, Sarah Chauncey de Mondragon, Margaret Randall See Randall, Margaret
Cooper, Anna Julia de Cleyre, Voltairine
Cooper, Jane Dgh, Linda


Deland, Margaret Campbell Earle, Alice Morse

del Occidente, Maria See Brooks, Maria Gowen Earle, Sylvia A.
Deloria, Ella Cara Eastman, Crystal
Deming, Barbara Eastman, Elaine Goodale
Denison, Mary Andrews Eastman, Mary Henderson
Dennett, Mary Ware Eaton, Edith Maud
Derricotte, Toi Eberhart, Mignon G.
Deutsch, Babette Eberhart, Sheri S. See Tepper, Sheri S.
DeVeaux, Alexis Eckstorm, Fannie Hardy
Dexter, John See Bradley, Marion Zimmer Eddy, Mary Baker
Diaz, Abby Morton Egan, Lesley See Linington, Elizabeth
Dickinson, Emily Ehrenreich, Barbara
Didion, Joan Eiker, Mathilde
Dillard, Annie Elder, Susan Blanchard
Dinnies, Anna Peyre Elgin, Suzette Haden
DiPrima, Diane Ellet, Elizabeth
Disney, Doris Miles Elliot, Elisabeth
Divakaruni, Chitra Banerjee Elliott, Maude Howe
Dix, Beulah Marie Elliott, Sarah Barnwell
Dix, Dorothea Lynde Ellis, Anne
Dix, Dorothy See Gilmer, Elizabeth Meriwether Ellis, Edith
Dixon, Franklin W. See Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer Embury, Emma Manley
Dodge, Mary Abigail Emshwiller, Carol
Dodge, Mary Mapes Ephron, Nora
Doman, June Erdrich, Louise
Domini, Rey See Lorde, Audre Estes, Eleanor
Dominic, R. B. See Lathen, Emma Evans, Abbie Huston
Donovan, Frances R. Evans, Mari
Doolittle, Antoinette Evans, Sarah Ann
D(oolittle), H(ilda) Evermay, March See Eiker, Mathilde
Dorr, Julia Ripley Fahs, Sophia Lyon
Dorr, Rheta Childe Fairbank, Janet Ayer
Dorsett, Danielle See Daniels, Dorothy Faireld, A. M. See Alcott, Louisa May
Dorsey, Anna McKenney Farley, Harriet
Dorsey, Ella Loraine Farmer, Fannie Merritt
Dorsey, Sarah Ellis Farnham, Eliza Woodson
Doubleday, Nellie Blanchan Farnham, Mateel Howe
Douglas, Amanda Minnie Farquharson, Martha See Finley, Martha
Douglas, Ann Farrar, Eliza Rotch
Dove, Rita Faugeres, Margaretta V.
Drew, Elizabeth Fauset, Jessie Redmon
Drexler, Rosalyn Felton, Rebecca Latimer
Drinker, Elizabeth Sandwith Fenno, Jenny
DuBois, Shirley Graham See Graham, Shirley Ferber, Edna
DuJardin, Rosamond Neal Field, Kate
Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Field, Rachel Lyman
Duncan, Isadora Fields, Annie Adams
Duniway, Abigail Scott Finley, Martha
Dunlap, Jane See Davis, Adelle Fisher, Dorothea Caneld
DuPlessis, Rachel Blau Fisher, M. F. K.
Dupuy, Eliza Ann Fiske, Sarah Symmes
Durant, Ariel Fitzgerald, Zelda Sayre
Dworkin, Andrea FitzGerald, Frances
Dykeman, Wilma Flanders, G. M.


Flanner, Hildegarde Gilbert, Sandra M.

Flanner, Janet Gilchrist, Annie Somers
Fletcher, Inglis Clark Gilchrist, Ellen
Flexner, Anne Crawford Gill, Sarah Prince
Flexner, Eleanor Gilman, Caroline Howard
Flint, Margaret Gilman, Charlotte Perkins
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley Gilmer, Elizabeth Meriwether
Follen, Eliza Cabot Giovanni, Nikki
Foote, Mary Hallock Glasgow, Ellen
Forbes, Esther Glaspell, Susan
Forch, Carolyn Glck, Louise
Ford, Harriet Godchaux, Elma
Ford, Sallie Rochester Godwin, Gail
Forester, Fanny See Judson, Emily Chubbuck Golden, Marita
Forns, Mara Irene Goldman, Emma
Forrest, Katherine V. Goodman, Allegra
Forten, Charlotte L. Goodman, Ellen
Foster, Hannah Webster Goodsell, Willystine
Fox, Helen Morgenthau Goodwin, Doris Kearns
Fox, Paula Goodwin, Maud Wilder
Frankau, Pamela Gordon, Caroline
Franken, Rose Gordon, Mary Catherine
Freedman, Nancy Gordon, Ruth
Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins Gornick, Vivian
Fremantle, Anne Gottschalk, Laura Riding See Jackson, Laura
French, Alice Gould, Hannah Flagg
French, Anne Warner Gould, Lois
French, Lucy Smith Grafton, Sue
French, Marilyn Graham, Isabella Marshall
Friedan, Betty Graham, Jorie
Frings, Ketti Graham, Katharine
Fritz, Jean Graham, Shirley
Fuller, Margaret Grahn, Judy
Gage, Frances Dana Grant, Margaret See Franken, Rose
Gale, Zona Grau, Shirley Ann
Gallagher, Tess Graves, Valerie See Bradley, Marion Zimmer
Garber, Marjorie Gray, Angela See Daniels, Dorothy
Gardener, Helen Hamilton Green, Anna Katharine
Gardner, Isabella Green, Anne
Gardner, Mariam See Bradley, Marion Zimmer Green, Olive See Reed, Myrtle
Gardner, Mary Sewall Greenberg, Joanne
Garrigue, Jean Greene, Sarah McLean
Gates, Eleanor Greeneld, Eloise
Gates, Susa Young Greenwood, Grace See Lippincott, Sara Jane
Gearhart, Sally Miller Grifn, Susan
Gellhorn, Martha Grifth, Mary
Gent See Flanner, Janet Grimes, Martha
George, Jean Craighead Grimk, Angelina
Gerould, Katharine Fullerton Grimk, Sarah Moore
Gerstenberg, Alice Gruenberg, Sidonie Matzner
Gestefeld, Ursula N. Grumbach, Doris
Gibbons, Kaye Guernsey, Clara F.
Gilbert, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca See Cabeza de Guernsey, Lucy Ellen
Baca, Fabiola Guiney, Louise Imogen


Gulliver, Julia Henrietta Hewitt, Mary E. Moore

Guy, Rosa Heyward, Dorothy Kuhns
Heywood, Martha Spence
H. D. See D(oolittle), H(ilda)
Higgins, Marguerite
Hacker, Marilyn
Higginson, Ella Rhoads
Hadas, Rachel
Higham, Mary R.
Hahn, Emily
Highet, Helen MacInnes See MacInnes, Helen
Hale, Lucretia Peabody
Highsmith, Patricia
Hale, Nancy
Hill-Lutz, Grace Livingston
Hale, Sarah Josepha
Hirsheld, Jane
Hale, Susan
Hite, Shere
Hall, Florence Howe
Hobart, Alice Tisdale
Hall, Hazel
Hobson, Laura Z.
Hall, Louisa Park
Hoffman, Alice
Hall, Sarah Ewing
Hamilton, Alice Hoffman, Malvina
Hamilton, Edith Hogan, Linda
Hamilton, Gail See Dodge, Mary Abigail Holding, Elisabeth Sanxay
Hamilton, Jane Hollander, Nicole
Hamilton, Kate W. Holley, Marietta
Hamilton, Virginia Hollingworth, Leta Stetter
Hanaford, Phebe Cofn Holm, Saxe See Jackson, Helen Hunt
Hansberry, Lorraine Holmes, Mary Jane Hawes
Haraway, Donna Holmes, Sarah Stone
Harding, Mary Esther hooks, bell
Harding, Sandra Hooper, Lucy Jones
Hardwick, Elizabeth Hooper, Lucy
Harjo, Joy Hope, Laura Lee See Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer
Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins Hopkins, Pauline
Harper, Ida Husted Hopper, Hedda
Harris, Bernice Kelly Horlak, E. E. See Tepper, Sheri S.
Harris, Bertha Horney, Karen
Harris, Corra May Houston, Jean
Harris, Miriam Coles Howard, Maureen
Harrison, Constance Cary Howe, Florence
Hart, Carolyn G. Howe, Julia Ward
Hart, Frances Noyes Howe, Susan
Hasbrouck, Lydia Sayer Howe, Tina
Hastings, Susannah Johnson Howes, Barbara
Hatch, Mary R. Platt Howland, Marie
Haven, Alice Bradley Hull, Helen
Hawthorne, Elizabeth Manning Hulme, Kathryn Cavarly
Hawthorne, Hildegarde Hume, Sophia
Hazlett, Helen Humishuma See Mourning Dove
Heilbrun, Carolyn G. Hunt, Irene
Hejinian, Lyn Hunt, Mabel Leigh
Hellman, Lillian Hunter, Rodello
Henderson, Zenna Hunter-Lattany, Kristin
Henissart, Martha See Lathen, Emma Huntington, Susan
Henley, Beth Hurd-Mead, Kate C.
Henry, Alice Hurst, Fannie
Henry, Marguerite Hurston, Zora Neale
Hentz, Caroline Whiting Hutchins, Maude McVeigh
Herbst, Josephine Huxtable, Ada Louise
Herschberger, Ruth Hyde, Shelley See Reed, Kit


Ireland, Jane See Norris, Kathleen Kennedy, Adrienne

Thompson Kenyon, Jane
Irwin, Inez Haynes Kerber, Linda Kaufman
Isaacs, Susan Kerr, Jean
Ives, Morgan See Bradley, Marion Zimmer Keyes, Frances Parkinson
Ivins, Molly Kilmer, Aline Murray
Kimbrough, Emily
Jackson, Helen Hunt
Kincaid, Jamaica
Jackson, Laura
King, Grace Elizabeth
Jackson, Rebecca Cox
King, Laurie R.
Jackson, Shirley
King, Louisa Yeomans
Jackson, Ward See Braun, Lilian Jackson
Kingsolver, Barbara
Jacobi, Mary Putnam
Kingston, Maxine Hong
Jacobs, Harriet
Kinney, Elizabeth Dodge
Jacobs, Jane
Jacobs, Sarah Sprague Kinzie, Juliette Magill
Jacobsen, Josephine Kirby, Georgiana Bruce
James, Alice Kirk, Ellen Warner
Jamison, Cecilia Viets Kirkland, Caroline M. Stansbury
Janeway, Elizabeth Kizer, Carolyn
Janvier, Margaret Thompson Knapp, Bettina Liebowitz
Jerauld, Charlotte A. Knight, Sarah Kemble
Jervey, Caroline Gilman Knox, Adeline Trafton
Jewett, Sarah Orne Koch, Adrienne
Johnson, Diane Kohut, Rebekah Bettelheim
Johnson, Georgia Douglas Konigsburg, E. L.
Johnson, Helen Kendrick Kroeber, Theodora
Johnson, Josephine Winslow Kbler-Ross, Elisabeth
Johnson-Masters, Virginia Kumin, Maxine W.
Johnston, Annie Fellows Laing, Dilys Bennett
Johnston, Jill Lamb, Martha Nash
Johnston, Mary Lamott, Anne
Jones, Amanda Theodocia Landers, Ann
Jones, Edith See Wharton, Edith Landon, Margaret
Jones, Gayl Lane, Gertrude Battles
Jones, Hettie Lane, Rose Wilder
Jones, Mary Harris Langdon, Mary See Pike, Mary Green
Jong, Erica Langer, Susanne K.
Jordan, Barbara C. Larcom, Lucy
Jordan, June Larsen, Nella
Jordan, Kate
Lasswell, Mary
Jordan, Laura See Brown, Sandra
Latham, Jean Lee
Judson, Emily Chubbuck
Lathen, Emma
Kael, Pauline Lathrop, Rose Hawthorne
Kavanaugh, Cynthia See Daniels, Dorothy Latimer, Elizabeth W.
Keene, Carolyn See Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer Latsis, Mary Jane See Lathen, Emma
Keith, Agnes Newton Laut, Agnes C.
Keller, Helen Lauterbach, Ann
Kellerman, Faye Lawrence, Elizabeth L.
Kelley, Edith Summers Lawrence, Josephine
Kellogg, Louise Lawrence, Margaret Woods
Kellor, Frances Lazarus, Emma
Kelly, Eleanor Mercein Le Guin, Ursula K.
Kelly, Myra Le Sueur, Meridel
Kemble, Fanny Le Vert, Octavia Walton


Lea, Fannie Heaslip Macdonald, Marcia See Hill-Lutz, Grace Livingston

Lee, Eliza Buckminster MacDougall, Ruth Doan
Lee, Hannah Sawyer MacInnes, Helen
Lee, Harper MacKinnon, Catharine A.
Lee, Marion See Comstock, Anna Botsford MacLaine, Shirley
Lee, Mary Elizabeth MacLean, Annie Marion
LeGallienne, Eva Macumber, Marie S. See Sandoz, Mari
LEngle, Madeleine Madeleva, Sister Mary
Lenski, Lois Madison, Dolley
Lerman, Rhoda Mairs, Nancy
Lerner, Gerda Malkiel, Theresa S.
Leslie, Annie Brown Mannes, Marya
Leslie, Eliza Manning, Marie
Leslie, Miriam Follin Manseld, Blanche McManus
Levertov, Denise March, Anne See Woolson, Constance Fenimore
Lewis, Elizabeth Foreman Marks, Jeannette Augustus
Lewis, Estelle Robinson Marot, Helen
Lewis, Janet Marshall, Catherine
Libbey, Laura Jean Marshall, Gertrude Helen See Fahs, Sophia Lyon
Lincoln, Victoria Marshall, Paule
Lindbergh, Anne Morrow Martin, Del
Lindbergh, Reeve Martin, George Madden
Linington, Elizabeth Martin, Helen Reimensnyder
Lippard, Lucy R. Martin, Valerie
Lippincott, Martha Shepard Martnez, Demetria
Lippincott, Sara Jane Martyn, Sarah Smith
Little, Sophia Robbins Maso, Carole
Livermore, Harriet Mason, Bobbie Ann
Livermore, Mary Rice Mathews, Frances Aymar
Livingston, Myra Cohn Matthews, Adelaide
Locke, Jane Starkweather May, Sophie See Clarke, Rebecca Sophia
Logan, Deborah Norris Maynard, Joyce
Logan, Mary Cunningham Mayo, Katherine
Logan, Olive Mayo, Margaret
Loos, Anita Mayo, Sarah Edgarton
Lord, Bette Bao McBride, Mary Margaret
Lorde, Audre McCaffrey, Anne
Lothrop, Amy See Warner, Anna Bartlett McCarthy, Mary
Lothrop, Harriet Stone McCloy, Helen
Loughborough, Mary Ann Webster McCord, Louisa Cheves
Lounsberry, Alice McCormick, Anne OHare
Lovejoy, Esther Pohl McCrackin, Josephine Clifford
Lowell, Amy McCrumb, Sharon
Lowry, Lois McCullers, Carson
Loy, Mina McDermott, Alice
Lucas, Victoria See Plath, Sylvia McDowell, Katherine Bonner
Luce, Clare Boothe McGinley, Phyllis
Luhan, Mabel Dodge McGrory, Mary
Lumpkin, Grace McGuire, Judith Brockenbrough
Lurie, Alison McIntosh, Maria Jane
Lutz, Alma McIntyre, Vonda N.
McKenney, Ruth
Lynd, Helen Merrell
McLean, Kathryn Anderson
MacDonald, Betty McMillan, Terry
MacDonald, Jessica N. McPherson, Aimee Semple


McPherson, Sandra Morris, Clara

Mead, Kate C. See Hurd-Mead, Kate C. Morrison, Toni
Mead, Margaret Morrow, Honor McCue
Meaney, Mary L. Mortimer, Lillian
Means, Florence Crannell Morton, Martha
Meigs, Cornelia Morton, Sarah Wentworth
Meloney, Franken See Franken, Rose Mother Goose See Walworth, Jeannette Hadermann
Menken, Adah Isaacs Mott, Lucretia
Merington, Marguerite Moulton, Louise Chandler
Meriwether, Elizabeth Avery Mourning Dove
Merriam, Eve Mukherjee, Bharati
Merril, Judith Muller, Marcia
Meyer, Annie Nathan Munro, Eleanor
Meyer, June See Jordan, June M. Murfree, Mary
Miles, Josephine Murray, Judith Sargent
Millar, Margaret Murray, Pauli
Millay, Edna St. Vincent Myles, Eileen
Miller, Alice Duer
Nation, Carry A.
Miller, Caroline Pafford
Naylor, Gloria
Miller, Emily Huntington
Neely, Barbara
Miller, Harriet M.
Neilson, Nellie
Miller, Isabel See Routsong, Alma
Neville, Emily Cheney
Miller, Mary Britton
Newcomb, Franc Johnson
Miller, Vassar
Newman, Frances
Millett, Kate
Newman, Lesla
Milward, Maria G.
Newstead, Helaine
Miner, Valerie
Nichols, Anne
Minot, Susan
Nicholson, Asenath Hatch
Mirikitani, Janice
Nicholson, Eliza Jane Poitevent
Mitchell, Agnes Woods
Nicolson, Marjorie Hope
Mitchell, Margaret
Niedecker, Lorine
Mitchell, Maria
Nieriker, Abigail May Alcott
Mitford, Jessica
Niggli, Josena
Mixer, Elizabeth
Niles, Blair Rice
Moers, Ellen
Nin, Anas
Mohr, Nicholasa
Nitsch, Helen Matthews
Moise, Penina
Nixon, Agnes E.
Mojtabai, A. G.
Norman, Marsha
Mollenkott, Virginia Ramey
Norris, Kathleen Thompson
Monroe, Harriet
Norton, Alice See Norton, Andre
Monroe, Lucy
Norton, Andre
Montgomery, Ruth Shick
Norton, Katherine LaForge See Reed, Myrtle
Moody, Anne
Notley, Alice
Moore, C. L.
Nussbaum, Martha Craven
Moore, Lorrie
Nye, Andrea
Moore, Marianne
Nye, Naomi Shihab
Moore, Mary Evelyn See Davis, Mollie Moore
Moore, Mollie E. See Davis, Mollie Moore Oates, Joyce Carol
Moore, Mrs. H. J. Obejas, Achy
Moorhead, Sarah Parsons Oberholtzer, Sara Vickers
Moraga, Cherre OConnor, Flannery
Morgan, Claire See Highsmith, Patricia OConnor, Florence J.
Morgan, Marabel ODonnell, Jessie Fremont
Morgan, Robin ODonnell, Lillian
Morley, Hilda Oemler, Marie Conway


Offord, Lenore Glen Perkins, Frances

OHair, Madalyn Murray Perkins, Lucy Fitch
OHara, Mary See Sture-Vasa, Mary Pesotta, Rose
OKeeffe, Katharine A. Peterkin, Julia Mood
ONeill, Egan See Linington, Elizabeth Peters, Sandra See Plath, Sylvia
Older, Cora Baggerly Petersham, Maud Fuller
Olds, Sharon Petry, Ann Lane
Oliphant, B. J. See Tepper, Sheri S. Phelps, Almira Lincoln
Oliver, Mary Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart
Olsen, Tillie Phillips, Irna
ONeill, Rose Phillips, Jayne Anne
Orde, A. J. See Tepper, Sheri S. Piatt, Sarah Bryan
Ortiz Cofer, Judith Piercy, Marge
Orvis, Marianne Dwight Pike, Mary Green
Osbey, Brenda Marie Pinckney, Josephine
Osborn, Sarah Pine, Cuyler See Peck, Ellen
Osgood, Frances Sargent Plain, Belva
Ostenso, Martha Plath, Sylvia
Ostriker, Alicia Polacco, Patricia
Ottenberg, Miriam Pollack, Rachel
Ovington, Mary White Pollard, Josephine
Owen, Catherine See Nitsch, Helen Matthews Porter, Eleanor Hodgman
Owen, Mary Alicia Porter, Katherine Anne
Owen, Ruth Bryan Porter, Rose
Owens, Claire Myers Porter, Sarah
Owens-Adair, Bethenia Porter, Sylvia F.
Owens, Rochelle Post, Emily
Ozick, Cynthia Powell, Dawn
Pratt, Ella Farman
Page, Myra
Prentiss, Elizabeth Payson
Paglia, Camille
Preston, Harriet Waters
Paley, Grace
Preston, Margaret Junkin
Palmer, Phoebe Worrall
Prince, Nancy Gardner
Papashvily, Helen Waite
Prose, Francine
Paretsky, Sara
Prouty, Olive Higgins
Parker, Charlotte Blair
Pryor, Sara Rice
Parker, Dorothy
Pugh, Eliza Phillips
Parrish, Mary Frances See Fisher, M. F. K.
Putnam, Emily Smith
Parsons, Elsie Clews
Putnam, Mary Lowell
Parsons, Frances Dana
Putnam, Ruth
Parsons, Louella Oettinger
Putnam, Sallie A. Brock
Parton, Sara Willis
Pastan, Linda Raimond, C. E. See Robins, Elizabeth
Patchett, Ann Rampling, Anne See Rice, Anne
Paterson, Katherine Ramsay, Martha Laurens
Patton, Frances Gray Ramsay, Vienna G. Morrell
Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer Rand, Ayn
Peabody, Josephine Preston Randall, Margaret
Peattie, Elia Wilkinson Randall, Ruth Painter
Peattie, Louise Redeld Rankin, Fannie W.
Peck, Annie Smith Ranous, Dora Knowlton
Peck, Ellen Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan
Pember, Phoebe Yates Read, Harriette Fanning
Penfeather, Anabel See Cooper, Susan Fenimore Read, Martha
Percy, Florence See Allen, Elizabeth Akers Reed, Kit


Reed, Myrtle St. Claire, Erin See Brown, Sandra

Reese, Lizette Woodworth Salisbury, Charlotte Y.
Remick, Martha Salmon, Lucy Maynard
Reno, Itti Kinney Salmonson, Jessica Amanda
Repplier, Agnes Sanchez, Sonia
Rice, Alice Hegan Sanders, Elizabeth Elkins
Rice, Anne Sandoz, Mari
Rich, Adrienne Sanford, Mollie Dorsey
Rich, Barbara See Jackson, Laura Sanger, Margaret
Rich, Louise Dickinson Sangster, Margaret E.
Richards, Laura Howe Santiago, Esmeralda
Richards, Louisa Greene Sargent, Pamela
Richmond, Grace Sarton, May
Ricker, Marilla M. Satir, Virginia M.
Ridge, Lola Savage, Elizabeth
Riding, Laura See Jackson, Laura Sawyer, Ruth
Rinehart, Mary Roberts Scarberry, Alma Sioux
Ripley, Eliza M. Scarborough, Dorothy
Ritchie, Anna Mowatt Scarborough, Elizabeth Ann
Rittenhouse, Jessie B. Schaeffer, Susan Fromberg
Rivers, Alfrida See Bradley, Marion Zimmer Schmitt, Gladys
Rivers, Pearl See Nicholson, Eliza Jane Poitevent Schoeld, Sandy See Rusch, Kristine Kathryn
Robb, J. D. See Roberts, Nora Schoolcraft, Mary Howard
Roberts, Elizabeth Madox Schwartz, Lynne Sharon
Roberts, Jane Scott, Anne Firor
Roberts, Maggie Scott, Evelyn
Roberts, Nora Scott, Joan Wallach
Robins, Elizabeth Scott, Julia See Owen, Mary Alicia
Robinson, Harriet Hanson Scott-Maxwell, Florida
Robinson, Martha Harrison Scudder, Vida Dutton
Rodgers, Carolyn M. Seaman, Elizabeth Cochrane
Rogers, Katherine M. Seawell, Molly Elliot
Roman, Klara Goldzieher Secor, Lella
Rombauer, Irma von Starkloff Sedges, John See Buck, Pearl S.
Roosevelt, Eleanor Sedgwick, Anne Douglas
Roquelaure, A. N. See Rice, Anne Sedgwick, Catharine Maria
Ross, Helaine See Daniels, Dorothy Sedgwick, Susan Ridley
Ross, Lillian Seeley, Mabel
Rossner, Judith Seid, Ruth
Rourke, Constance Mayeld Seifert, Elizabeth
Routsong, Alma Semple, Ellen Churchill
Royall, Anne Newport Seredy, Kate
Royce, Sarah Bayliss Seton, Anya
Ruddy, Ella Giles Settle, Mary Lee
Ruether, Rosemary Radford Sewall, Harriet Winslow
Rukeyser, Muriel Sewell, Elizabeth
Rule, Ann Sexton, Anne
Rusch, Kristine Kathryn Shange, Ntozake
Rush, Caroline E. Shannon, Dell See Linington, Elizabeth
Rush, Rebecca Shannon, Monica
Russ, Joanna Sharon, Rose See Merril, Judith
Sharp, Isabella Oliver
Ryan, Rachel See Brown, Sandra
Shaw, Anna Moore
Sachs, Marilyn Shaw, Anna H.
St. Johns, Adela Rogers Sheehy, Gail


Sheldon, Ann See Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer Stack, Andy See Rule, Ann
Sherwood, Mary Wilson Stafford, Jean
Shindler, Mary Dana Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
Showalter, Elaine Steel, Danielle
Shreve, Anita Stein, Gertrude
Shulman, Alix Kates Steinem, Gloria
Sidlosky, Carolyn See Forch, Carolyn Stenhouse, Fanny
Sigourney, Lydia Huntley Stephens, Ann Winterbotham
Silko, Leslie Marmon Stephens, Margaret Dean See Aldrich, Bess Streeter
Simon, Kate Steptoe, Lydia See Barnes, Djuna
Sinclair, Bertha Muzzy Stern, Elizabeth G.
Sinclair, Jo See Seid, Ruth Stewart, Elinore Pruitt
Singer, June K. Stewart, Maria W.
Singleton, Anne See Benedict, Ruth Stockton, Annis Boudinot
Singmaster, Elsie Stoddard, Elizabeth Barstow
Skinner, Constance Lindsay Stone, Ruth
Skinner, Cornelia Otis Story, Sydney A. See Pike, Mary Green
Slade, Caroline Stowe, Harriet Beecher
Slesinger, Tess Stratton-Porter, Gene
Slosson, Annie Trumbull Strong, Anna Louise
Smedley, Agnes Stuart, Ruth McEnery
Smith, Amanda Sture-Vasa, Mary
Smith, Anna Young Suckow, Ruth
Smith, Betty Sui Sin Far See Eaton, Edith Maud
Smith, Eliza Snow Susann, Jacqueline
Smith, Elizabeth Oakes Swenson, May
Smith, Eunice Swett, Sophie
Smith, Hannah Whittal Swisshelm, Jane Grey
Smith, Lee
Smith, Lillian Taber, Gladys Bagg
Smith, Lula Carson See McCullers, Carson Taggard, Genevieve
Smith, Margaret Bayard Talbott, Marion
Smith, Rosamond See Oates, Joyce Carol Tan, Amy
Smith, Sarah Pogson Tandy, Jennette Reid
Smith, Susy Tappan, Eva March
Snedeker, Caroline Dale Tarbell, Ida
Snyder, Zilpha Keatley Taylor, Mildred Delois
Solwoska, Mara See French, Marilyn Taylor, Phoebe Atwood
Somers, Suzanne See Daniels, Dorothy Taylor, Susie King
Song, Cathy Teasdale, Sara
Sontag, Susan Tenney, Tabitha
Sorel, Julia See Drexler, Rosalyn Tepper, Sheri S.
Soule, Caroline White Terhune, Mary Hawes
Southworth, E. D. E. N. Terry, Megan
Souza, E. See Scott, Evelyn Thane, Elswyth
Spacks, Patricia Meyer Thanet, Octave See French, Alice
Speare, Elizabeth George Thaxter, Celia Laighton
Spencer, Anne Thayer, Caroline Warren
Spencer, Cornelia Phillips Thayer, Geraldine See Daniels, Dorothy
Spencer, Elizabeth Thomas, Dorothy Swain
Spewak, Bella Cohen Thompson, Clara M. (b. c. 1830s)
Speyer, Leonora von Stosch Thompson, Clara M. (1893-1958)
Spofford, Harriet Prescott Thompson, Dorothy
Sprague, Rosemary Thorndyke, Helen Louise See Adams, Harriet Stratemeyer
Stabenow, Dana Ticknor, Caroline


Tiernan, Frances Fisher Walker, Margaret

Tietjens, Eunice Walker, Mary Spring
Tilton, Alice See Taylor, Phoebe Atwood Wallace, Michele
Tincker, Mary Agnes Waller, Mary Ella
Todd, Mabel Loomis Walter, Mildred Pitts
Todd, Marion Marsh Walton, Evangeline
Toklas, Alice B. Walworth, Jeannette Hadermann
Tompkins, Jane P. Ward, Mary Jane
Towne, Laura M. Wareld, Catherine Ware
Townsend, Mary Ashley Warner, Anna Bartlett
Treadwell, Sophie Warner, Susan Bogert
Trilling, Diana Warren, Lella
Troubetzkoy, Amlie Rives Warren, Mercy Otis
Truitt, Anne Wasserstein, Wendy
Truman, Margaret Watanabe, Sylvia
Truth, Sojourner Watson, Sukey Vickery
Tuchman, Barbara Watts, Mary Stanbery
Turell, Jane Weber, Sarah Appleton See Appleton-Weber, Sarah
Turnbull, Agnes Sligh Webster, Jean
Turney, Catherine Weeks, Helen C. See Campbell, Helen Stuart
Tuthill, Louisa Huggins Welby, Amelia Coppuck
Tuve, Rosemond Wells, Carolyn
Ty-Casper, Linda Wells, Emmeline Woodward
Tyler, Anne Wells, John J. See Bradley, Marion Zimmer
Tyler, Martha W. Wells-Barnett, Ida B.
Tyler, Mary Palmer Welty, Eudora
West, Dorothy
Uchida, Yoshiko West, Jessamyn
Uhnak, Dorothy West, Lillie
Ulanov, Ann Belford West, Mae
Underwood, Sophie Kerr Wetherall, Elizabeth See Warner, Susan Bogert
Untermeyer, Jean Starr Wharton, Edith
Upton, Harriet Taylor Wheatley, Phillis
Valentine, Jean Wheaton, Campbell See Campbell, Helen Stuart
Valentine, Jo See Armstrong, Charlotte Whipple, Maurine
Van Alstyne, Frances Crosby Whitcher, Frances Berry
Vandegrift, Margaret See Janvier, Margaret Thompson White, Anna
Vanderbilt, Amy White, Anne Terry
Van Duyn, Mona White, Eliza Orne
Van Vorst, Bessie McGinnis White, Elizabeth
Van Vorst, Marie White, Ellen Gould
Vendler, Helen Hennessy White, Helen Constance
Victor, Frances Fuller White, Nelia Gardner
Victor, Metta Fuller White, Rhoda E.
Vining, Elizabeth Gray Whiting, Lillian
Viramontes, Helena Mara Whitman, Narcissa Prentiss
Voigt, Cynthia Whitman, Ruth
Voigt, Ellen Bryant Whitman, Sarah Helen
Vorse, Mary Heaton Whitney, Adeline D. T.
Whitney, Phyllis A.
Wakoski, Diane Wiggin, Kate Douglass
Wald, Lillian D. Wiggins, Bernice Love
Waldman, Anne Wiggins, Marianne
Waldrop, Rosmarie Wilcox, Ella Wheeler
Walker, Alice Wilder, Laura Ingalls


Wilder, Louise Beebe Woods, Katharine Pearson

Wilhelm, Kate Woolsey, Sarah Chauncey
Willard, Emma Woolson, Constance Fenimore
Willard, Frances Wormeley, Katharine Prescott
Willard, Nancy Wright, Frances
Williams, Catharine Arnold Wright, Julia McNair
Williams, Fannie Barrier Wright, Mabel Osgood
Williams, Sherley Anne Wright, Mary Clabaugh
Willis, Connie Wyatt, Edith Franklin
Willis, Lydia Fish Wylie, Elinor Hoyt
Willoughby, Florence Barrett
Wilson, Harriet E. Adams Yamada, Mitsuye
Windle, Mary Jane Yamamoto, Hisaye
Winnemucca, Sarah Yamanaka, Lois-Ann
Winslow, Anna Green Yates, Elizabeth
Winslow, Helen M. Yezierska, Anzia
Winslow, Ola Elizabeth Yglesias, Helen
Winslow, Thyra Samter Youmans, Eliza Ann
Winter, Ella Young, Ann Eliza
Winwar, Frances Young, Ella
Wolf, Naomi Young, Marguerite
Wong, Jade Snow Young, Rida Johnson
Wood, Ann See Douglas, Ann
Wood, S. S. B. K. Zaturenska, Marya
Woodhull, Victoria Zolotow, Charlotte
Woods, Caroline H. Zugsmith, Leane


A style of all or nothing (initials or complete title) has been KR Kirkus Reviews
employed in this new edition; partial abbreviations have been
purged, to limit confusion. In cases where two well-known LATBR Los Angeles Times Book Review
periodicals have the same initials, only one has the initials
and the other is always spelled out in its entirety (i.e. NR is
LJ Library Journal
New Republic, and National Review is spelled out).

APR American Poetry Review MTCW Major TwentiethCentury Writers

CA Contemporary Authors NAW Notable American Women

CAAS Contemporary Authors Autobiography Series NAW:MP Notable American Women: The Modern Period

CANR Contemporary Authors New Revision Series

NBAW Notable Black American Women
CB Current Biography
NR New Republic
CBY Current Biography Yearbook
NYRB New York Review of Books
CLAJ College Literary Association Journal
NYT New York Times
CLC Contemporary Literary Criticism
NYTM New York Times Magazine
CLHUS Cambridge Literary History of the United States
NYTBR New York Times Book Review
CLR Childrens Literature Review

CN Contemporary Novelists PMLA Publication of the Modern Language Association

CP Contemporary Poets PW Publishers Weekly

CPW Contemporary Popular Writers SATA Something About the Author

CWD Contemporary Women Dramatists

SL School Librarian
CWP Contemporary Women Poets
TLS [London] Times Literary Supplement
DAB Dictionary of American Biography
TCCW TwentiethCentury Childrens Writers
DLB Dictionary of Literary Biography
WP Washington Post
DLBY Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook
WPBW Washington Post Book World
DAI Dissertation Abstracts International
VV Village Voice
FC Feminist Companion

FW Feminist Writers WRB Womens Review of Books

GLB Gay & Lesbian Biography WWAW Whos Who of American Women

ABBOTT, Edith Compulsory Education and Child Labor Legislation of Illinois
(1917). Highly committed to the need for education until age
sixteen, the authors examine the many factors leading to school
Born 26 September 1876, Grand Island, Nebraska; died 28 July
absence, such as poverty, mental and physical defects, lack of
1957, Grand Island, Nebraska
knowledge of immigrant parents and children, and delinquency.
Daughter of Othman Ali and Elizabeth Abbott
Documenting the existence and extent of missed school days and
the historical development of compulsory education, remedies are
Edith Abbott was the rst woman dean of a graduate school
suggested. The authors arguments are still timely and the contro-
in an American university and, simultaneously, the rst dean of
versy still lively.
the rst school of social work in the nation. A dedicated social
reformer and scientist, Abbotts signicant contributions are The Tenements of Chicago, 1908-1935 (1936), is a massive
often overshadowed by the fame and writings of her close friends study of housing conditions and poverty in Chicago. The book, a
and colleagues at Hull House in Chicago: Jane Addams, Sophonisba result of 25 years of study, is based on house-to-house canvassing
Breckinridge, and her sister, Grace Abbott. in 151 city blocks, including visits to 18,225 apartments. The
Born into a well-established family that had moved to the problems Abbott and Breckinridge noted, such as lack of enforce-
Nebraska frontier just prior to her birth, Abbott was encouraged to ment of housing regulations, too few city inspectors, high rents for
be independent and intellectual. She graduated from the Universi- substandard housing, large numbers of unemployed suffering
ty of Nebraska in 1901 and, frustrated with the lack of career from the social stresses of broken families, ill health, and lack of
opportunities in Nebraska, moved to Illinois where she began her education, are as relevant today as they were over 40 years ago.
studies at the University of Chicago. The documentation of these problems provides an excellent basis
for their understanding today.
After receiving her Ph.D. in political economy in 1907,
Abbott became an industrious and illustrious faculty member of Abbotts vision of social work as an aggressive, policymaking,
the University of Chicago. When the School of Social Services and controversial profession is clearly specied in Social Welfare
Administration was founded in 1920, she was appointed dean. and Professional Education (1931). Partially written during the
Always interested in womens rights, Abbott fought for high Great Depression, it advocates government-sponsored, guaran-
positions for women, laying a foundation for the female control teed employment, centralized and organized through public
and domination in social work that has continued until today. agencies.
Abbott, her sister Grace, and Sophonisba Breckinridge were
Abbott was a talented, conscientious scholar, educator, and
major leaders in the formation of public policy affecting women,
social reformer who was overshadowed during her life by her
children, industrial relations, and immigration. Furthermore, they
association with famous and more charismatic gures. Today she
helped establish the profession of social work as an academic
remains little known outside of the eld of social work, but her
occupation, raising its prestige and power as a source of social
writings are a witness and a tribute to her talents and contributions.
change. Unfortunately, their tradition of sound research and
political advocacy on behalf of the underprivileged, especially
women, has lost much of its momentum among conservative OTHER WORKS: The Real Jail Problem (1915). The One Hundred
social workers of today. and One County Jails of Illinois and Why They Ought to Be
Abbotts rst book, Women in Industry: A Study in American Abolished (1916). Immigration: Selected Documents and Case
Economic History (1909), is a massive, comprehensive study of Records (1924). Historical Aspects of the Immigration Problem
womens work in the marketplace. Evolving out of earlier work (1926). Some American Pioneers in Social Welfare (1937). Public
done with Breckinridge on census statistics dealing with the Assistance (1940). From Relief to Social Security: The Develop-
employment of women, it developed a complex and thorough ment of the New Public Welfare Services (1941). Twenty-One
analysis of women in various industrial areas, including factories, Years of University Education for Social Service, 1920-1941 (1942).
cotton mills, and the clothing and printing industries. The book
records not only historical antecedents of womens industrial
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Chambers, C. A., Seedtime of Reform: American
labor but also 1909 public opinion. It is an invaluable history of
Social Service and Social Action, 1918-1933 (1963). Costin, L. B.,
the early labor movements and occupational structures, as well as
Edith Abbott and the Chicago Inuence on Social Work Educa-
the more specialized topic of women and industry.
tion in Social Service Review (March 1983). Costin, L. B., Two
Abbott coauthored The Delinquent Child and the Home with Sisters for Social Justice: A Biography of Grace and Edith
Breckinridge in 1912. It elaborates in a systematic and document- Abbott (1983).
ed fashion the problems of urban youth. Abbott and Breckinridge Other references: Survey Graphic (June 1936). ANB (1999).
again collaborated when they wrote Truancy and Non-Attendance
in the Chicago Schools: A Study of the Social Aspects of the MARY JO DEEGAN


ABBOTT, Eleanor Hallowell In spite of critical strictures, Abbotts ction is interesting,

for it reveals a personality resolutely turning away from the
harshness of her New England mental and emotional legacy. In its
Born 22 September 1872, Cambridge, Massachusetts; died 4 June determined gaiety and its triumphant euphoria it is like a backlash
1958, Portsmouth, New Hampshire to the ponderous, doomsounding religiosity of her grandfather
Daughter of Edward and Clara Davis Abbott; married Fordyce Jacob Abbott and his ancestors. Certainly it was popular in its day,
Coburn, 1908 and perhaps no more naive than the so-called romances that ll
the racks of modern drugstores.
The youngest child in her family, Eleanor Hallowell Abbott
grew up surrounded by literary and religious luminaries. Her
fathers father was Jacob Abbott, author of many books for young OTHER WORKS: Molly Make-Believe (1910). The Sick-A-Bed
people, including the famous Rollo series. The family was friend- Lady, and Other Stories (1911). White Linen Nurse (1913). Little
Eve Edgarton (1914). Indiscreet Letter (1915). Stingy Receiver
ly with Longfellow, Lowell, and the like; the atmosphere of the
(1917). Neer-Do-Much (1918). Old-Dad (1919). Rainy Week
home was decidedly religious and scholarly. Abbotts father, a
(1921). Fairy Prince, and Other Stories (1922). Silver Moon
Congregational clergyman, left his church to be ordained an
(1923). Love and the Ladies (1928). But Once a Year (1928).
Episcopal priest; he was also editor of The Outlook for many years.
Minister Who Kicked the Cat (1932). Being Little in Cambridge
Abbott attended private schools in Cambridge, took special When Everyone Else Was Big (1936).
courses at Radcliffe, and later was a secretary and teacher of
English at Lowell State Normal School. She wrote poetry and
short stories for some time, with no success. Just as she was at the BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works:Notable Boston Authors, M.
point of giving up, Harpers Magazine accepted two long poems, Flagg, ed. (1965).
and she won three of the short-story prizes offered by Colliers Other references: Boston Transcript (15 Oct. 1913, 1 Dec.
and The Delineator. 1928). NYT (12 Oct. 1913, 3 Jan. 1937). Springeld Republican
(11 Oct. 1936). TLS (31 May 1928).
In 1908, shortly before her fortune turned, she married Dr.
Fordyce Coburn, who encouraged her literary efforts. The mar- ABIGAIL ANN HAMBLEN
riage, which took her to Wilton, New Hampshire, was a happy
one, though childless.

Until the writing of her autobiography, Abbott published 14

books and about 75 magazine stories. Judging from her own ABEL, Annie Heloise
account, as a child she had been nervous and excitable, and her
ction gives evidence that she never lost the intensity of feeling Born 18 February 1873, Fernhurst, Sussex, England; died 14
which seems to have been her chief characteristic. Her writing is March 1947, Aberdeen, Washington
unblushingly romantic, and although unpleasant occurrences do Daughter of George and Amelia Anne Hogben Abel; married
take place in her ctionpeople do sufferover the whole is a George Cockburn Henderson, 1922
sheen of unreality; each novel and story has a happy ending. Her
principal characters are young girls (much, one suspects, like Annie Abels family emigrated to Salina, Kansas, in 1884,
Abbott herself): audacious, high-strung, terribly talkative, and full and she went on to attain literary prominence as an authority on
of unsettling demands. Her male characters are usually quiet, American Indian history. Her masters thesis was Indian Reser-
strong, sturdy, and inured to patient suffering. vations in Kansas and the Extinguishment of their Title (1902).
Her doctoral dissertation, The History of Events Resulting in
Abbotts unique style gives the effect of breathlessness, as of
Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi, won the Ameri-
a child trying to describe some deeply felt experience. Apparently
can Historical Associations Justin Winsor Prize in 1906 and was
aiming for spontaneity and originality, she too often falls into
published in the Annual Report of that year.
distressing triviality and banality; occasionally the reader feels
that Abbott is lapsing into baby talk. Sometimes she seems almost Abels major work was the three-volume study, The
manic in her hectic gaiety; imagery is often startling, and al- Slaveholding Indians, the rst of which was The American Indian
ways vivid. Though critics spoke of Abbotts work as charm- as Slaveholder and Secessionist: An Omitted Chapter in the
ing, they found the charm often forced, and emphasized the Diplomatic History of the Confederacy (1915). In Abels view,
improbability and unreality of plot and characters. One reviewer though there was slaveholding among Indian tribes, only the
summed up the matter succinctly: Miss Abbott has an original Choctaw and Chickasaw were drawn to the Confederacy because
and sprightly methodbut she overdoes it. Her apparent dislike of concerns about slavery. The South, out of its own needs,
of the conventional and tame lead her to exaggerate her own notably strategic concern for territorial solidarity, offered a num-
virtues into sensationalism. ber of concessions. Most signicant perhaps were Confederate


guarantees of criminal and civil rights. The South also offered to OTHER WORKS: Brief Guide to Points of Historical Interest in
give Indians control of their own trade, but that offer was later Baltimore City (1908). Proposals for an Indian State, 1778-1878
rescinded. Through General Albert Pike, the Confederacy made (1909). The Ofcial Correspondence of James S. Calhoun (ed. by
its approaches to the Western tribes, and his wartime disaffection Abel, 1915). A New Lewis and Clark Map (1916). A Sidelight on
with the Confederacy over its betrayal of promises to the Indians Anglo-American Relations 1839-1858 (ed. by Abel with F. J.
would prove costly to the South. Klingsberg, 1927). Chardons Journal at Fort Clark, 1834-39
(ed. by Abel, 1932). Tabeaus Narrative of Loisels Expedition to
Despite Southern concessions, Abel noted, the Indians ac- the Upper Missouri (ed. by Abel, 1939).
tually fought on both sides and for the same motives and impulses
as whites. In her view, it was the failure of the U.S. government
to provide the promised protection for the Southern Indians which
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: Notable American Women,
led them to ally with the Confederacy. From rst to last, she
1607-1950, E. T. James et al., eds. (article by F. Prucha, 1971).
maintained, military conditions and events determined politi-
Other references: AHR (July 1947). ANB (1999).Mississippi
cal ones.
Valley Historical Review (March 1916, March 1920). Yale Uni-
In the next two volumes, The American Indian as Participant versity Obituary Record of Graduates (1946-47).
in the Civil War (1919) and The American Indian Under Recon-
struction (1925), Abel traced the tragic consequences of Indian INZER BYERS
involvement in the sectional strife. The alliance with the Confed-
eracy proved most unstable as the relatively few well-inten-
tioned men in Richmond were checkmated by the men west of
the Mississippi. After General Pike lost his command, white
abuses proliferated and the grossest corruption ensued. The ACKER, Kathy
North showed no concern for Indian rights whatsoever and the
Unionist mishandling of refugee problems and military operations Born 18 April 1947, New York, New York
proved especially costly. Daughter of Donald and Claire Weill Lehman; married Robert
But the nal tragedy still awaited the Indians in the Recon- Acker, 1966 (divorced); Peter Gordon, 1976 (divorced)
struction era. With the new 1866 boundary settlements, Indians
found their boundaries had ceased to be interdicted lines. First Often referred to as a punk and, later, a postmodern writer,
the non-Southern civilized tribes, then the uncivilized tribes and Kathy Acker is actively involved in the construction of new myths
white settlers breeched the lines, and nally, the Indians could not by which to live. Like many of the artists and writers who have
withstand railroad pressures. The Reconstruction treaties, Abel inuenced her work, she does not draw easy distinctions between
concluded, really meant not amnesty but conscation of rights. life and art, sometimes consciously making up contradicting
Her work also included Proposals for an Indian State, 1778-1878, stories about her past. In this way, Acker becomes as much of
a study published in the 1907 Annual Report of the American a literary construct as any of her characters.
Historical Association. In it Abel traced the history of the idea of
an Indian state from Jeffersons time to the ideas nal demise The daughter of wealthy Jewish parents who disowned her,
with the admission of Oklahoma as a state. She also investigated Acker grew up in Manhattan where she wrote poetry from an early
problems of early-19th-century westward expansion. This work age and read voraciously. She was so attached to her books she
involved primarily the editing of letters and journals. sometimes performed ceremonies in which she married them. She
received a B.A. from the University of California, San Diego in
Throughout her work Abel proves to be both an effective 1968, having transferred there from Brandeis two years earlier.
researcher and a perceptive scholar who wrote sympathetically She also completed two years of graduate work at New York
about problems the Indians encountered. Although she occasion- University and City University of New York, studying English,
ally wrote in a paternalistic or romantic tone, she is essentially an classics, and philosophy. After Blood and Guts in High School
objective historian. Her English background, she noted, freed her (1984) sold well in England, she moved to London for several
from sectional attachments in dealing with Civil War issues. And years, nding it more supportive of writers than New York.
she could likewise appraise with detachment the conict between Subsequently, she moved to San Francisco, where she taught at
Indian claims and American expansionist urges. Her work is the San Francisco Art Institute.
marked with a sense of the tragedy that befell the Indians, but this
sense did not obscure her judgement. If, in her nal view, the fate Ackers inuences are many and include photographers,
of the Indians was determined by white greed and power, she also lmmakers, and artists. Having grown up in New Yorks post-
recognized the part which the Indians inability to learn from Beat art world, it is those writers and poets who had the strongest
experience played in the nal outcome. The breadth of her inuence on the early shaping of her sensibility. The explorations
research and her capacity for informed, detached judgement gave of memory and the madeness of language through formal
her work its strength and power. styles such as repetition, used in the work of Black Mountain


poets like Charles Olson, Jerry Rothenberg, and David Antin, and Book Review noted that, in Pussy, Acker engages in some of
Beats like Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs, appear in much her favorite pastimes: decoding language, debunking culture,
of Ackers writing. deconstructing (if thats the right word) gender (thats not the right
Her rst privately published book, Politics (1972), came out
of her experience working in sex shows on 42nd Streetsome- Publishers Weekly wrote of Pussy: Acker writes a deliber-
thing of a test of the sexual revolution of the 1960s. Since then ately affectless, deadpan prose, rendering both the absurd and the
Ackers work has always had an important political edge. Because disturbing. . .with a declarative nonchalance. Like Ackers other
labels tend to diffuse that edge, she rejects words like experi- work, this campy and enigmatic novel is self-consciously pro-
mental to describe her work. Even so, Acker is an experimental vocative as she detonates her battery of literary and sexual
writer, in what has become the conventional understanding of the references in order to illuminate themes of masochism and rebel-
term. She is perhaps best known, and least understood, for her lionbut its also often funny and invariably intelligent.
extensive formal use of plagiarism. When an interviewer in 1996 asked Acker why she writes so
To call attention to the already appropriated status of their many sex scenes, often graphic enough to be nearly pornographic,
images and to her refusal or inability to partake in similar, she said, Im sure my privileged background has something to
patriarchally determined productions, Acker literally copies from do with it, and the fact that my rst jobs were in the sex industry. I
a number of mostly Western, classic literary texts (Freud, Genet, think I see the world through a sexual lens, like Genet. The idea
de Sade, Cervantes, Twain). Not a response to a Barthian under- that you exist to please menthat is almost relentlessly my
standing of the diminished possibilities of literature in its subject.
postmodern state of exhaustion, instead Ackers plagiarism In 1997 Acker published Bodies of Work, a series of essays
critiques and rewrites Western cultural myths in ways that con- on topics ranging from ne arts, language, and literature to
sciously disclaim any pretension to originality or mastery. In this gender, politics, and postmodernism. In her preface she advises
respect it can also be recognized as a survival strategy in a world her audience to avoid reading the essays in the book. Since ction
where master narratives of freedom and truth have been exposed allows more freedom than this form, she says, she questions this
as such, leaving these appropriated acts the only ones available. volumes content. Yet reviewers called the essaysthe structure
of which range from conventional to pure descriptioncompelling.
Although often criticized by feminists for the violent and
pornographic elements of her novels, Acker is clearly involved in
a project to explore the conditions of living in a society that OTHER WORKS: I Dont Expect Youll Do the Same, by Clay Fear
depends on the economic and sexual dependence of some of its (1974). I Dreamt I Became a Nymphomaniac! Imagining (1974).
members, including women. Her main characters, who are often The Adult Life of Toulouse Lautrec by Henri Toulouse Lautrec
on some sort of quest, are always outside of the mainstream; they (1975). The Childlike Life of the Black Tarantula by the Black
are would-be pirates, cyborgs, or sex-show workers. In this sense, Tarantula (1975). Persian Poems (1978). New York City in 1979
Ackers feminist sensibility is evident in most of her writing. Her (1981). Great Expectations (1982). Hello, Im Erica Jong (1982).
most explicitly feminist novel is probably Don Quixote (1986), in Algeria: A Series of Invocations because Nothing Else Works
which Acker regures the title character as a contemporary (1984). Literal Madness: Kathy Goes to Haiti; My Death My Life
woman on a search for love. The obstacles she encounters are by Pier Paolo Pasolini; Florida (1988). In Memoriam to Identity
historical, mythical, and literary patriarchal gures (Christ, (1990). Hannibal Lecter, My Father (1991). Portrait of the Eye:
Machiavelli, Richard Nixon). Three Novels (reprint, 1992). My Mother: Demonology (1993).

Acker carries out the examinations of power structures and

relations on both thematic and formal levels. Her writing occa- BIBLIOGRAPHY: Dick, L., Feminism, Writing, Postmodernism,
sionally resembles that of Gertrude Stein in its careful and in From My Guy to Sci-: Genre and Womens Writing in the
consistent attention to the material qualities of language and the Postmodern World, H. Carr, ed. (1989). Hulley, K., Transgress-
possibilities they provide. Like Stein too, Acker connects these ing Genre: Kathy Ackers Intertext, in Intertextuality and Con-
with the materiality of the body, going a step further and, as temporary American Fiction, P. ODonnell and R. Davis, eds.
Ellen G. Friedman notes, locating the body itself as a potential (1989). McCaffery, L., The Artists of Hell: Kathy Acker and
site of revolution. In Empire of the Senseless (1988) she looks Punk Aesthetics, in Breaking the Sequence: Womens Experi-
to tattoos, a material writing on the body, as a possibility of mental Fiction, E. G. Friedman and M. Fuchs, eds. (1989).
controlling the means of sign production and self-representation. Reference Works: Benets Readers Encyclopedia of Ameri-
can Literature (1991).
Pussy, King of the Pirates (1995) drew upon the same themes Other references: Booklist (15 Dec. 1997). NYTBR (3 Mar.
evident throughout Ackers previous body of work. Inspired by 1996). PW (16 Oct. 1995, 11 Dec. 1995). Review of Contempo-
Robert Louis Stevensons Treasure Island, the book incorporates rary Fiction 9 (Fall 1989).
references ranging from Antigone to Newt Gingrich, features a
chameleon like-rst-person narrator, and includes graphic de- MONICA DORENKAMP,
scriptions of menstruation, incest, and sex. The New York Times UPDATED BY KAREN RAUGUST


ADAMS, Abigail Smith and vivid sense of life suffer from her grandsons well-meant

Born 11 November 1744, Weymouth, Massachusetts; died 28 The Book of Abigail and John (1975, eds. L. H. Buttereld et
October 1818, Quincy, Massachusetts al.) is limited to what its editors consider the best letters of John
Daughter of William and Elizabeth Quincy Smith; married John and Abigail, spanning the years of their courtship in 1762 and her
Adams, 1764; children: ve arrival in London in 1784. In them, Adams affectionate nature is
expressed freely. Her loneliness and pride in herself and in her
husband is described, too: I miss my partner, and nd myself
Abigail Adams grew up as part of three tightly knit families:
uneaquuil [sic] to the cares which fall upon me; . . . I hope in time
that of her parents, where she acquired her Puritan faith, humor,
to have the Reputation of being as good a Farmeress as my partner
and skills in home and business management; that of her maternal has of being a good Statesman.
grandparents, where she learned social poise and a love of
politics; and that of her paternal uncle, whose wife may have been Adams never hesitated to address herself to political matters.
Adams model as a letter writer. Two issues which drew strong reaction from her were slavery and
womens rights. Writing to John in 1774, she wished most
Adams formal education was virtually nonexistent, due to sincerely there was not a slave in the province. Concerning
her poor health. Fortunately, however, she was surrounded by womens rights, Adams wrote early in 1776 the letter for which
literate adults who guided her studies that ranged from Plato, she is most famous: [A]nd by the way in the new Code of Laws
Locke, and Burke, to the Bible. She and John Adams were married which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you
by her father in Weymouth. In the rst eight years of marriage, would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous to them than
Adams bore ve children: Abigail, John Quincy, Susanna (died at your ancestors. Undaunted by Johns reply denying her petition
fourteen months), Charles, and Thomas Boylston. In 1784, Ad- and charging her with being saucy, she retorted, I can not say
ams and her daughter joined her husband and grandfather in that I think you very generous to the Ladies, for whilst you are
Europe. Horried at rst by the pleasure-seeking life of Paris, she proclaiming peace and good will to Men, Emancipating all
later grew more understanding and even learned to love the Nations, you insist upon retaining absolute power over Wives.
theater, though she wrote: I do not feel myself captivated either
with the Manners or politicks [sic] of Europe. Never dull, always animated, Adams letters are more like
conversations than compositions. Her style is easy, natural, and
John became vice-president in 1789 and president in 1797, very oral in manner. Her spelling is phonetic, underscoring the
but Adams health began to fail in 1790, and she returned to verbal nature of her writing, and her punctuation follows natural
Quincy where she spent most of her time during Johns years as pauses rather than written conventions. Her letters tell us how it
president. She did go to Washington to open the White House, but felt to live through the American Revolution and what it was like
her increasingly poor health forced her back to Quincy shortly to be a New England Puritan in Europe in the late-18th century.
before John completed his presidency. She died in Quincy on 28 More than that, however, they help us understand the creative
October 1818. force we call the Puritan ethic.

Adams claim to literary fame rests upon the hundreds of Adams has long been credited with a unique place in history
letters picturing her times in warmly human terms. John was her as wife of the second president and mother of the sixth, but she
favorite correspondent, but she wrote extensively to her large also deserves attention as a literary and historic gure in her
family and to a wide circle beyond, including such intellectuals as own right.
Mercy Otis Warren and Thomas Jefferson. In New Letters of
Abigail Adams (1947), editor Stewart Mitchell printed her corre-
spondence to her older sister, Mary Cranch. To Mary more than OTHER WORKS: Adams Family Correspondence (eds., L. H.
anyone else, Adams wrote of womens concernssmallpox Buttereld et al., 4 vols. 1963-1973).
and fevers, incompetent servants, ination, poor food, bad weath-
er, and the deplorable state the White House was in when she
arrived to become its rst mistress. BIBLIOGRAPHY: American First Ladies: Their Lives and Legacy
(1996). Bobbe, D., Abigail Adams, the Second First Lady (1929).
Mitchells publication corrects the bowdlerized portrait of Bradford, G., Portraits of American Women (1919). Gordon, L.,
Adams rendered by her Victorian grandson, Charles Francis From Lady Washington to Mrs. Cleveland (1889). Ketcham, R. L.,
Adams. His Letters of Mrs. Adams, the Wife of John Adams (2 The Puritan Ethic in the Revolutionary Era: Abigail Adams and
vols., 1840-41) and Familiar Letters of John Adams and His Wife Thomas Jefferson, in Remember the Ladies: New Perspec-
Abigail Adams During the Revolution (1876) not only censor her tives on Women in American History, George, C. V. R., ed.
passionate declarations of love to John, but also delete much from (1975). Hole, J. and E. Levine, The Adams Letters of Abigail &
her personal accounts of pregnancies and childbirth, the dysentery John AdamsHistorical Precedent: Nineteenth Century Femi-
epidemic of 1775, and smallpox inoculations. Adams personality nists, in Issues in Feminism: An Introduction to Womens


Studies (1995). Minningerode, M., Some American Ladies: Seven (1978) Eliza Quarles attains a sense of freedom as a poet; in Rich
Informal Biographies (1926). Richards, L. E. Abigail Adams and Rewards (1980) Daphne Matthiesen earns respect as a self-sup-
Her Times (1936). Shepherd, J., The Adams Chronicles: Four porting interior decorator; in Superior Women (1985) Megan
Generations of Greatness (1975). Stone, I., Those Who Love Greene, a nancially successful publisher, cosponsors a tempo-
(1965). Whitney, J., Abigail Adams (1949). rary haven for Atlantas homeless women. Second Chances
Other references: ScribM (Jan. 1930). Biography of the First (1988) again explores Adams trademark themes while examining
Ladies of the United States (Phoenix Multimedia, 1998). peoples changing expectations of aging. In Carolines Daugh-
ters (1991) the vicissitudes of the ve daughters lives intrude
BILLIE W. ETHERIDGE into Carolines long-awaited contented space, but Caroline en-
dures and survives.
Adams stories appeared in numerous periodicals, including
ADAMS, Alice the New Yorker, Atlantic Monthly, and Paris Review, and she
published several short-story collections. Beautiful Girl (1979)
contains her rst O. Henry award-winning story A Gift of
Born 14 August 1926, Fredericksburg, Virginia; died 27 May 1999
Grass. The women in the stories in To See You Again (1982)
Daughter of Nicholson Barney and Agatha Erskine Boyd Adams;
abide by an Adams code: She behaves well, even under
married Mark Linenthal, Jr., 1946 (divorced 1958); child-
emotional stress. She does not make scenes, does not cry in public,
ren: Peter Adams Linenthal
rarely cries alone. In Return Trips (1985) as women recall or
revisit people who shaped their lives they recognize the
The only child of Nicholson, a Spanish professor, and Agatha
irreversible and continuing effects of past events. The stories in
Adams, a failed writer, Alice Adams wrote poetry as a child
After Youve Gone (1989) are about loss: some characters are
hoping that if she were a writer, her mother would like her.
devastated by it; most recover from it, and some are even
Raised in a semi-intellectual atmosphere that was materially
freed by it.
comfortable but emotionally unsatisfying, Adams graduated
from high school at the age of fteen and from Radcliffe College Seeing marriage as primarily concerned with propers,
in 1946. Her recurring themes of change, economic indepen- Adams lived in San Francisco with interior designer Robert
dence, and survival, which can often be paralleled to events in her McNie beginning in 1964, and she taught at the University of
life, earn her both praise and criticism. California at Davis as well as at Berkeley and Stanford. The 1982
recipient of the O. Henry Special Award for Continuing Achieve-
At the end of a writing course at Radcliffe, Adams professor
ment, Adams has been anthologized in The Best American Short
advised her to get married and forget writing. Following his
Stories and in all but one edition of Prize Stories: The O. Henry
prescription, she married within a year, spending the next 12 years
Awards from 1971 to 1989.
in the expected 1950s domestic role. For the rst year she lived in
Paris where her husband studied at the Sorbonne (the setting of her In the 1990s Adams continued her prolic output, producing
rst published story, Winter Rain, 1959). In 1948 the couple a book approximately every two years. In A Southern Exposure
moved to California and after the birth of her son, Adams found (1995) Adams travels back to her native South and back in time
little time for writing. 1939to create one of her characteristic group novels. A Con-
necticut family, the Bairds, ee their former lives, settling in
Adams rst novel, Careless Love, appeared in 1966. It
North Carolina. How they change as a result of their move is
satirizes the 1960s San Francisco dating scene in a remotely
somewhat secondary to the social satire Adams has set up, as the
autobiographical tale about a newly divorced woman. Often
Yankees, the outsiders, observe the mores of the prewar, pre-Civil
widowed or divorced, Adams characters not only survive changes
Rights South.
but transcend them, ultimately gaining economic independence
and experiencing growthand this gain becomes an integral part Almost Perfect (1993) and Medicine Men (1997) are set on
of Adams plots. Having been disinherited by her father when he more familiar ground. Novels of manners, they continue Adams
left their family home to her stepmother, and having spent the examination of the afuent, well-educated milieu of San Francis-
years following her divorce in constant struggle with part-time co, focusing on the negotiation of power between men and
secretarial jobs Adams has had rsthand knowledge of the women. Almost Perfects Stella Blake initially believes shes
importance of economic independence. found a dream relationship, her instability and going-nowhere
career buoyed by her alliance with the successful, charismatic
In the novels following Careless Love, Adams maturity and
Richard Fallon. The balance shifts dramatically, however, as
focus as a writer become increasingly evident in the complexity of
Richard experiences a precipitous descent and Stellas fortunes
her female protagonists. Usually well-educated, upper-middle
rise both professionally and emotionally; she not only survives her
class female visual artists who are enacting a journey to woman-
relationship with him, but heals old emotional wounds.
hood, the characters are often developed through the use of
parenthetical comments by an omniscient narrator. In Adams The cards are initially stacked in favor of the men of
second novel, Families and Survivors (1975), Louisa Calloway Medicine Men as well. When Molly Bonner, the protagonist, is
undergoes many changes before nding happiness in a second diagnosed as having a brain tumor she feels compelled to rely on
marriage and realizing her talent as a painter. In Listening to Billie the expertise of her arrogant physicians and her bossy new


doctorlover. The novel portrays the passivity, infantalization, existing works on the subject, and although it contains some
and entrapment of a patient overwhelmed by the medical estab- misinformation due to inaccurate sources, the scope of its cover-
lishment. It also reveals that the conduct expected of a good age is impressive. Edited and retitled for later editions, it includes
patientwell-behaved, uncomplaining, compliantis not much a dictionary listing of the separate Christian sects, a survey of the
different from that expected of a well woman in Adams world. beliefs of non-Christian groups, and a geographical breakdown of
world religions.
Adams remained devoted to the short story. She edited the
Best American Short Stories in 1991 and continued to write and For her Summary History of New England (1799), Adams
publish widely in this form. Another collection, The Last Lovely undertook serious primary research, delving into state archives
City appeared in 1999. Though her characters continue in large and old newspapers, causing serious injury to her eyesight. The
part to be from a privileged, protected class, her stories edged into material, which covers events from the sailing of the Mayower
a darker, melancholy realm as the characters are made vulnerable through the adoption of the Federal Constitution, is presented in a
by age, dealing with the disquieting inevitabilities of loss, dimin- clear, straightforward manner with occasional attempts to recreate
ished beauty, illness, and death. In light of these changes and the particularly affecting scenes such as the farewell of the Pilgrims
precariousness of romantic attachments, friendships are portrayed from Holland.
with increasing signicance; the old friend especially is someone
The Abridgement of the History of New England for the Use
to be treasured.
of Young People (1807) involved a protracted controversy with
Dr. Jedidiah Morse over unfair competition, eventually resolved
OTHER WORKS: Mexico: Some Travels and Some Travelers There in Adams favor. In revising her History, Adams edited it for
(1990). A Very Nice Dog, in Southwest Review (Spring 1997). greater smoothness and clarity, but simplied neither the lan-
After the War (2000). guage nor the thought. She added a paragraph at the end of each
chapter to point up the moral lesson to be learned from the event.
While working on the Abridgement, Adams published The
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bufngton, R., Comedy, Human; Variety, South-
Truth and Excellence of the Christian Religion Exhibited (1804),
ern, in Sewanee Review (Summer 1996). Karamcheti, I., Trou-
surveying the support which laymen had given to their religion
bled in Paradise, in WRB (1 Sept.1997).
since the 17th century. Divided into two parts, it rst presents
Other references: BL (19 Aug.1995). CA 81-84 (1979).
brief biographies of 60 men, showing how their lives exemplied
CANR 26 (1989). CBY (1989). CLC 46 (1988). DLBY (1986).KR
the Christian spirit. The second part provides excerpts listed under
(15 Dec. 1988). MTCW (1991). NYT 27 May 1999. NYTBR (May
various kinds of Evidence in Favor of Revealed Religion.
1988, Apr. 1991, Oct. 1995, Apr. 1997). Time (27 May 1999).
Most of the material was drawn from the writings of those covered
World Literature Today (Spring 1994).
in the rst section, but it also includes selections by the Marchion-
ess de Dillery, Hannah More, and a Mrs. West.
UPDATED BY VALERIE VOGRIN Adams The History of the Jews from the Destruction of
Jerusalem to the Present Time (1812) represented one of the rst
attempts to relate their story sympathetically, a story which
Adams described as a tedious succession of oppression and
ADAMS, Hannah persecution. Written to encourage efforts to convert the Jews,
her discussion of the early period stresses its substantiation of
our Saviors prediction of their fate. Not completely free from
Born 2 October 1755, Medeld, Massachusetts; died 15 Decem-
bias, Adams nevertheless carefully recorded the conscatory
ber 1831, Brookline, Massachusetts
taxes, the mass murders, and the expulsions suffered by the Jews.
Daughter of Thomas and Eleanor Clark Adams
Adams was probably the rst professional woman writer in
The second of ve children, Hannah Adams was considered America, pursuing her career despite the knowledge that the
too frail to attend public school and was educated at home. penalties and discouragements attending authors in general fall
Discovering she was unable to support herself at needlework, upon women with double weight. Although most discussions of
Adams undertook a literary career. Although excessively modest Adams adopt her own designation of herself as a compiler, she
and timid, she was the rst and for many years the only woman was, in fact, a ne historian whose meticulous research included
permitted to use the Boston Atheneum. Her learning was prodi- examination of primary materials when available, extraordinarily
gious, and while her books were successful, poor business ar- wide reading of secondary sources, and a remarkable objectivity.
rangements limited the income she derived from them. Her histories are no longer relevant, but her contributions to
historiography deserve attention.
The research into religious sects that Adams had begun for
her own edication became, in 1784, her rst published volume,
the Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects Which Have OTHER WORKS: A Narrative of the Controversy Between the Rev.
Appeared from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Present Jedidiah Morse, D.D., and the Author (1814). A Concise Account
Day. In its objectivity, it represented a major improvement over of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the


Jews (1816). Letters on the Gospels (1824). Memoir of Hannah A 1914 graduate of Wellesley College, an English major with
Adams (ed. by J. Tuckerman, 1832). deep interests in religion, music, science, and archeology (her
favorite Nancy Drew, The Clue in the Crossword Cipher, is based
on astounding archeological discoveries and deductions among
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Brooks, V. W., The Flowering of New Eng- the Inca ruins), Adams was an active alumna and a 1978 winner of
land (1936). the Alumnae Achievement Award. Wellesleys motto, Non
Other references: The Dedham Historical Register (July Ministrari Sed Ministrare (not to be ministered unto but to
1896). The New England Galaxy (Spring 1971). New England minister), had been Adamss own guiding principle and the lesson
Magazine (May 1894). ANR (1999). she hoped to teach young readers who gathered in schools and
libraries all over the country to hear her speak. Dont be a
CAROL B. SCHOEN gimme, gimme kind of person, she told them in an amusingly
loose translation of the Latin, Do something yourself to help
other people.

ADAMS, Harriet Stratemeyer Adams traveled widely (South America, Hawaii, Africa, the
Orient), using the foreign settings to provide authentic back-
grounds for her stories, especially for the Nancy Drews. Indeed,
Born 3 December 1892, Newark, New Jersey; died 1981
Nancywhom she regarded as a third lovely daughter (in
Wrote under: Victor Appleton II, May Hollis Barton, Frank-
addition to her two real-life daughters) was rarely out of
lin W. Dixon, Laura Lee Hope, Carolyn Keene, Ann Shel-
Adams thoughts when she took a trip.
don, Helen Louise Thorndyke
Daugther of Edward and Magdalene Van Camp Stratemeyer; Adams books have been translated into more than a dozen
married Russell Vroom Adams, 1915; children: two daughters languages and, although considered nonliterary, are now staples
in most childrens libraries. In late 1977 the Hardy Boys and
Better known under a variety of pen names, Harriet Stratemeyer Nancy Drew series were adapted for television (Nancy Drew
Adams may well be the most prolic woman writer of all time. lms had been made in the 1930s), although Adams did not write
Author of the perennially popular Nancy Drew mysteries for the scripts. She did, however, require the television programs to
young girls and the equally popular Hardy Boys and Tom Swift, observe the same high standards as the books: no profanity, no sex
Jr., series for young boys, she also wrote numerous volumes in the (as a concession to the new morality, however, Nancys boyfriend
Bobbsey Twins, Honey Bunch, and Dana Girls series. All of Ned is now allowed to give her a quick goodbye hug and kiss), no
these, along with the famous Rover boys, were originated by her extreme violence (a villains moderately heavy blow on the head
father who founded the Stratemeyer Syndicate in 1901. A writ- which temporarily renders Nancy unconscious is not considered
ing factory located in Maplewood, New Jersey, it still turns out extreme), no racism, and no religious confrontations.
the most successful series books ever written for American
Adams received public recognition in the late 1970s such as
youngsters roughly eight to 14 years of age. The Hardy Boys and
the 1978 Certicate of Appreciation from the New Jersey Con-
Nancy Drew series alone sell 16,000,000 copies a year.
gress of Parents and Teachers and, in the same year, honorary
When he died in 1930, Stratemeyer left to his daughters, doctorate degrees from Kean and Upsala Colleges in New Jersey.
Harriet and Edna, the job of keeping up the 17 sets of series then in To encourage more serious study and writing of childrens books,
print. Edna remained in the business for 12 years; Harriet re- Adams endowed a chair at Wellesley to be known as the Harriet
mained a senior partner well into her 80s, working with three Stratemeyer Adams Professor in Juvenile Literature. Continuing
junior partners to update earlier titles to create new volumes. to work nearly to the end of her life, Adams died in 1981.
Adams herself wrote nearly 200 volumes, including most of the
titles in the Nancy Drew series, along with rewrites of the rst
three originated by her father: the young sleuths blue roadster OTHER WORKS: As Victor Appleton II, The Tom Swift, Jr., Series
with running boards had to be replaced, as well as outdated hair (21 titles, 1935-1972). Including: Tom Swift and His Planet Stone
styles and various dialects which the modern reader would nd (1935), Tom Swift and His Giant Robot (1954), Tom Swift and the
offensive. Spectromarine Selector (1960), Tom Swift and the Visitor from
Planet X (1972).
Characters produced by the Stratemeyer Factory are either As May Hollis Barton, The Barton Books for Girls Series (15
good or bad because, Adams maintained, mixed characters dont titles, 1931-1950). Including: Sallies Test of Skill (1931), Virgin-
interest children. Plots are spun according to a strict formula ias Ventures (1932).
guaranteed to satisfy adolescent fantasy: action and suspense As Franklin W. Dixon, The Hardy Boys Series (20 titles,
packed into 20 cliffhanging chapters. Only eighteen years of age, 1934-1973). Including: The Mark on the Door (1934), The Clue in
Nancy Drew is omniscient and omnipotent, solving mysteries that the Embers (1955), The Mystery of the Aztec Warrior (1964), The
bafe adults, professional detectives, and the well-intentioned Mystery at Devils Paw (1973).
police who, however hard they try, are never as quick-thinking As Laura Lee Hope, The Bobbsey Twins Series (15 titles,
and fast-acting as Nancy. 1940-1967). Including: The Bobbsey Twins in the Land of Cotton


(1940). The Bobbsey Twins on a Bicycle Trip (1955). The Bobbsey including New York University (1930-32, 1951-52), Bennington
Twins and the Cedar Camp Mystery (1967). (1935-37, 1942-45), and Columbia (1947-68). She also received a
As Carolyn Keene, The Dana Girls Series (32 titles, Fulbright Fellowship for teaching in France (1955-56) and from
1934-1978). Including: By the Light of the Study Lamp (1934), 1948-49 was a consultant to the Library of Congress. She has
Secret of the Swiss Chalet (1958), The Phantom Surfer (1968), served on numerous boards and councils for the arts and has
The Curious Coronation (1976), Mountain Peak Mystery (1978). received several awards for her writing.
The Nancy Drew Mystery Series (56 titles, 1930-1978). Including:
Adams rst book of poetry, Those Not Elect (1925), con-
Secret of the Old Clock (1930), The Hidden Staircase (1959), The
tains poems from her undergraduate days at Barnard. For the most
Mystery of the Fire Dragon (1961), The Mysterious Mannequin
part, they optimistically celebrate natural mysteries and joyous
(1970), The Nancy Drew Cookbook: Clues to Good Cooking
life. Most critics see reected in these poems and in Adams later
(1973), The Mystery of Crocodile Island (1978).
work her interest in the Elizabethan and the metaphysical poets.
As Ann Sheldon, The Linda Craig Series (4 titles, 1960-1966).
High Falcon (1929, reprinted in 1983) Adams second volume,
Including: Linda Craig and the Mystery in Mexico (1964).
reveals her special connection with Louise Bogan, with whom she
As Helen Louise Thorndyke, The Honey Bunch Series (7
later shared the Bollingen Prize (1954). Her focus on natural
titles, 1945-1955). Including: Her First Trip to a Lighthouse
imagery is especially sharp in High Falcon and has been fruitfully
(1949), Her First Trip to Reindeer Farm (1953).
compared to poetry of the metaphysics.
Poems: A Selection, appeared in 1954 (reprinted in 1959) and
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Berryman, M. A., Harriet Stratemeyer Adams was described by Wallace Fowlie in Commonweal as a work of
& the Nancy Drew Mystery Stories: Feminist Gender Tales modest proportions but one of high signicance in the history of
1930-1990, The Construction and Destruction of a Heroine, American letters. Poems contains both a sampling from earlier
(thesis, 1990). Keene, C., Nancy Drew in The Great Detec- volumes as well as new poems as rich and full as her earlier work.
tives, Penzler, O., ed. (1978). Prager, A., Rascals at Large, or, The In 1940, Adams had written in Fred B. Milletts Contemporary
Clue in the Old Nostalgia (1971). American Authors, I have been silent a long time because I am
Reference works: ANB (1999). CA (1968). now grappling with the limitations of the lyric. Poems: A
Other references: Boston Globe (6 Jan. 1976). Family Circle Selection, published 14 years later, proved that in the struggle,
(Aug. 1978). NYT (27 March 1977). NYHT (14 April 1946). Adamsand her readerseventually won.
People (14 May 1977). TV Guide (25 June 1977). WSJ (15 Jan.
1975). The Secret of Nancy Drew (lm, 1982).
OTHER WORKS: Midsummer (1929). This Measure (1933). Lyrics
JACQUELINE BERKE of Franois Villon (edited and translated by Adams, 1933). Her
Lullaby (1947). Lonie Adams Reading Her Poems (audio record-
ing, 1947). Lonie Adams Reading Her Poems in the Recording
Laboratory (audio recording, 1949). Lonie Adams Reading Her
ADAMS, Lonie Fuller Poems in the Coolidge Auditorium (audio recording, 1949).
Lonie Adams Reading Her Poems in New York City (audio
recording, 1951). Enjoyment of Poetry: Survival of the Lyric
Born 9 December 1899, Brooklyn, New York; died 27 January 1988 (audio recording, 1963).
Daughter of Charles F. and Henrietta Rozier Adams; married
William Troy, 1933
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bogan, L., Achievement in American Poetry
Lonie Fuller Adams father taught her to be an agnostic and (1950). Bonacci, B. B., Image and Idea in the Poetry of Lonie
to love poetry. From her mother, she inherited a sense of mystery, Adams (dissertation, 1977). Gregory, H., and M. Zaturenska, A
primitivism, and faith that led eventually to her joining the Roman History of American Poetry, 1900-1940 (1969). Ruihley, G. R.,
Catholic church. Her early life, she felt, was lonely, although she ed., An Anthology of Great U.S. Women Poets, 1850-1990:
tended to develop deep, mystical relationships with school friends. Temples and Palaces (1997). Tuthill, S., ed., Laurels: Eight
Both teachers and parents encouraged Adams to write; by a fairly Women Poets (1998). Untermeyer, L., Modern American Poet-
early age she had composed a great deal of poetry. ry (1962).
Reference works: Modern American Literature (1960-1969).
At Barnard College, from which she graduated in 1922, Other references: CW (26 Nov. 1954). Poetry: A Magazine of
Adams continued her study of composition and poetry. Friends Verse (March 1930). Kresh, P., ed., Allen Tate, Lonie Adams,
and professors praised her writing and one, Marian Smith, passed Yvor Winters, Oscar Williams, and Langston Hughes Reading
on some of Adams poems to Louis Untermeyer, who arranged to Their Poems (audio recording, 1970). Muriel Rukeyser, Howard
have them published. For a time after graduation, Adams lived Baker, Lonie Adams, [and] Janet Baker Reading Their Own
and wrote in New York City and, in 1928 she received a two-year Poems (audiocassette, 1969).
Guggenheim fellowship for study in Europe. She then taught in
various capacities at several American colleges and universities, MARY BETH PRINGLE


ADAMS, Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams third memoir is The Adventures of a Nobody began
in 1840. The title of this work aptly sums up her feelings about
herself. The long narrative, in part diary entries, records her
Born 12 February 1775, London, England; died 15 May 1852, married life until 1812. Adams appears here as an appendage to
Washington, D.C. her family who isnt even in control of the domestic arrangements;
Daughter of Joshua and Catherine Nuth Johnson; married John all decisions concerning the upbringing of the children were being
Quincy Adams, 1797 made by John Quincy. In sharp contrast to the picture she gives of
her father, her husband is depicted as a cold and distant man. The
Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams was the second daughter of details of life within the Adams family and at the Russian court are
an Englishwoman and a Maryland merchant residing in London. fascinating, but are unfortunately marred by a querulous tone.
During the American Revolution, Adams father, strongly pro- Adams seems to be trying to erase emotionally distressing epi-
American, moved to Nantes, France, where Adams became sodes from her memory by sheer repetition.
bilingual, a great asset in the diplomatic world in which she later
moved. In 1783 the family returned to London and the Johnson Adams kept a remarkable diary during the years 1818 to 1821
home became a meeting place for many Americans in London. It for her aged father-in-law, whom she dearly loved. During this
was there that John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) met, courted, and time John Adams resided in Massachusetts, while Adams herself
married her in 1797. Much of the Adams life was spent in Europe was in the midst of the Washington political and social scene. Her
at John Quincys diplomatic posts: Prussia (1797-1801), Russia comments show her to have been a keen observer and possessor of
(1809-1814), and Great Britain (1815-1817). John Quincy was a very sharp wit. The endless visitings, the importance of
also a U.S. senator, secretary of state, president, and member of protocol, and the boredom of womens restricted lives in the 19th
the House of Representatives. Throughout her marriage Adams century are vividly portrayed in this diary and Adams underused
played a secondary role to her husbands career, and her writings talents are never more in evidence. In spite of poor health during
express the anger and frustration her subordinate role engendered. this period, she carried out her extensive social duties and coped
Although Adams wrote a number of works, only one has been as best she could with a very difcult family.
published. Her unpublished writings can be read only on the Adams poems in both French and English are derivative and
microlm edition of the Adams Papers. attract the reader by the sensitive feelings they portray rather than
by originality of form or content. Several plays, written for family
The rst of Adams autobiographical works, Record of a Life
amusement, and a few prose compositions complete her works.
or My Story (1825), is a detailed account of her childhood,
None are of more than family interest.
courtship, and experiences in Prussia. Written for her children, the
story is episodic and strongly stresses the idyllic quality of her Adams lived, by her own admission, a tormented and frus-
childhood. Highly dramatic episodes are recounted in the greatest trated life. She ercely resented the self-absorbed, remote man
detail, and Adams is always at the center of attention. The with whom she lived, while at the same time admiring him for his
description of her courtship emphasizes her feelings of inadequa- patriotism. She thought herself a failure as a mother and a wife.
cy as the future wife of John Quincy Adams. Her extreme She wrote, like so many other women in the 19th century, to
sensitivity to events and people, especially to her father, are most relieve feelings too pressing to contain. Her position in the Adams
evident in these recollections. Ill health and struggles with her family is absolutely crucial in understanding the succeeding
husbands small salary made her life at the Prussian court difcult generations of Adamses. Very little has been written about her and
and she sorely missed the domestic warmth she had known as a what was usually glosses over her life with platitudes. Adams
child. Despite her extraordinary memory and talent for descrip- deserves an honest and comprehensive biography.
tion, this is essentially a family memoir. Even events at the court
are written about from a personal point of view; the wider world of
politics and history are not included. OTHER WORKS: Diary (22 Oct. 1812-15 Feb. 1814, The Adams
Papers, Reel #264). Diary (24 Jan. 1819-25 Mar. 1819, Reel
In 1836 Adams wrote a dramatic and compelling history of a #264). Diary (19 Jul. 1821-19 Aug. 1821, Reel #266). Diary (17
trip she and her seven-year-old son took in 1815. The Narrative of Aug. 1821-27 Sept. 1821, Reel #267). Diary (12 Apr. 1843-28
a Journey from St. Petersburg to Paris 1815, was published in Aug. 1843, Reel #270).
1903 by Scribners Magazine. Adams followed the route of Poems, dramatic compositions, prose reections, a common-
Napoleons retreat from Moscow through a countryside still place book, translations of poems and a prose composition can be
recovering from the ravages of war, and as she approached Paris, found in The Adams Papers, Reels #264, 268, 270-74.
Napoleon returned from exile, plunging all of France into further
turmoil. Had it not been for Adams cool head and great courage,
both she and her son might well have been killed. She wrote of the BIBLIOGRAPHY: American First Ladies: Their Lives and Legacy
trip with great intensity and the narrative includes vivid descrip- (1996). Klapthor, M. B., Marylands First Ladies of the White
tions of people and places; the self-centeredness of her other House: Mrs. J. Quincy Adams (1825-1829), Mrs. Zachary Taylor
writings is absent here. Of all Adams works this is the one most (1849-1850) (1987). Minnergerode, M., Some American Ladies:
deserving of a modern publication. Seven Informal Biographies (1926). Whitton, M. O., First First


Ladies 1789-1865: A Study of the Lives of the Early Presi- prostitution, are pioneering contributions to the eld of urban
dents (1926). sociology.
Other references: ANB (1999). Biography of the First Ladies
of the United States (lm,1998). Proceedings of the American Addams best known work is Twenty Years at Hull-House,
Philosophical Society (April 1974). Louisa Catherine Johnson with Autobiographical Notes (1910), the classic autobiography
Adams: The Ambiguous Adventure of a woman who was (disser- she published at age fty. The book describes Hull House and its
tation, 1992). Louisa Katherine Johnson Adams: The Price of cultural, educational, political, and humanitarian activities, but its
Ambition (1982). broader focus is the education of Addams herself. She was
indebted to the thought or moral example of such diverse gures
JOAN R. CHALLINOR as John Ruskin, Abraham Lincoln, Leo Tolstoy, her friend John
Dewey, and to the founders of the settlement house in London,
known as Toynbee Hall. But she also learned from the ideas and
problems of her immigrant neighbors, for she viewed Hull House
ADDAMS, Jane not as a charitable mission to the downtrodden but as a forum
where diverse nationalities and social classes could interact for the
betterment of all.
Born 6 September 1860, Cedarville, Illinois; died 21 May 1935,
Chicago, Illinois Like all autobiographies, Twenty Years at Hull-House is
Daughter of John and Sarah Weber Addams selective and stylized in its presentation of events. Addams writes
lucidly and sometimes movingly, enlivening her narrative with
Jane Addams attended Rockford Female Seminary, and, for anecdotal accounts of the people and situations she met in her Hull
one year, Womans Medical College in Philadelphia. She never House work. She adopts the persona of a seeker rather than
married; the closest emotional ties over her lifetime were to her dispenser of enlightenment, but she writes with moral earnestness
father and to a few women friends. and naive optimism that justice and peace will be made to prevail.
Addams name is most often associated with Hull House, the During the next two decades, Addams passed for a time
renowned settlement she founded in 1889 in the immigrant slums beyond liberal social reform to positions which many regarded as
of Chicago. Her experiences there formed the basis for her efforts, radical and even seditious. She was a pacist during World War I,
carried out on a local, national, and international scale, for social an internationalist in the isolationist 1920s, a supporter of civil
reform. She devoted herself to such causes as child labor legisla- liberties when the prevailing mood was suppressive of dissent.
tion, womens suffrage, educational reform, and world peace. She Addams discusses her peace efforts, and the condemnation and
helped found the Womens International League for Peace and self-doubt she suffered because of her unpopular views in Peace
Freedom (WILPF) and served as its president until her death. In and Bread in Time of War (1922), and in The Second Twenty
1931, she was co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Addams Years at Hull-House, September 1909 to September 1929, with a
wrote ten books, countless articles, and lectured extensively. This Record of a Growing World Consciousness (1930). The latter
presented to a wide audience her conviction that citizens of the book is a disjointed but still interesting account of Addams
new urban-industrial age must move beyond individualism to- continuing reform activities and of her view of the postwar years.
ward a new social ethic. By the time she died in 1935, Addams had It includes one of Addams favorite pieces: an analysis of a rumor
become one of the best known and most respected women of
(spread widely in 1913), that a devil baby resided at Hull House.
her time.
Even before her death, Addams had become a legendary
Her rst book, Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), is a
gure. Unfortunately, the image of her which survives is that of
perceptive analysis of the new industrial American society peo-
the do-gooder Saint Jane, the lady in long skirts who helped the
pled by masses of immigrants and urban poor. In six essays
poor. But Addams was a social reformer of far-ranging breadth
adapted from earlier articles and lectures, Addams suggests that
and inuence, a gifted writer, and a rst-rate intellect. She was not
changes in industrial and household relations, in politics, educa-
so much an original thinker as a perceptive observer of the society
tion and organized charity, and in ways of understanding the role
of women will be necessary if true democracy is to be extended around her, and an able synthesizer and popularizer of the ideas of
successfully into the new age. Her view that womens political the leading social theorists of her time. Addams work and writing
and social roles should be expanded so women could become helped make possible the liberal reforms of the Progressive Era
caretakers of the well-being and morality not just of their families, and of the New Deal and helped arouse the social conscience of
but of society at large, is typical of the viewpoint known as social two generations of Americans.
Newer Ideals of Peace (1907) continues and expands Addams OTHER WORKS: The Women at The Hague (with E. Balch and A.
analysis, suggesting that as a social ethic of morality is put into Hamilton, 1915). The Long Road of Womans Memory (1916).
practice, the need for war will disappear. The Spirit of Youth and The Excellent Becomes the Permanent (1932). My Friend, Julia
the City Streets (1909), Addams own favorite among her books, Lathrop (1935). Jane Addams: A Centennial Reader (ed. E. C.
and A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1912), a study of Johnson, 1960). The Social Thought of Jane Addams (ed. C.


Lasch, 1965). The Social Thought of Jane Addams 1997). Twenty society, and, after marriage, assumed the care of her husbands
Years at Hull-House, with Autobiographical Notes(1999). three children from a previous marriage. Eight days after Louis
death in 1873, one of Agassizs daughters-in-law died, and
Agassiz again became foster mother to three boys, the youngest
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Brown, V., Advocate for Democracy: Jane just three years old.
Addams & The Pullman Strike, in The Pullman Strike & the
To guarantee a regular income, Agassiz opened the Agassiz
Crisis of the 1890s: Essays on Labor & Politics (1999). Bryan, School in 1855, thus providing the opportunity for teenage girls to
M. L. McCree et al, eds., The Jane Addams Papers: A Com- acquire a high school education comparable to that of their
prehensive Guide (1996). Commager, H. S., foreword to Jane brothers. In 1878-79 Agassiz was one of seven women approach-
Addams Twenty Years at Hull-House (1961 ed.). Conway, J., ed by Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Gilman about a program of higher
Jane Addams: An American Heroine, in Daedalus 93 (Spring education for women. When the Harvard Annex became the
1964). Conway, J., Women Reformers and American Culture, Society for the Collegiate Instruction of Women in 1882, Agassiz
1870-1930, in JSocHis 5 (Winter 1971-72). Conway, J. K., ed., became its president. She also played a key role in convincing a
Jane Addams, in Written by Herself: Autobiographies of committee of the Massachusetts legislature to charter the new
American Women (1992). Curti, M., Jane Addams on Human college. Subsequently, she was the rst president of Radcliffe
Nature, in JHI 22 (April-June 1961). Davis, A. F., American (1893-99), and its honorary president from 1899 to 1903.
Heroine, The Life and Legend of Jane Addams (1973). Diliberto, G.,
A Useful Woman: The Early Life of Jane Addams (1999). Harvey, Agassiz joined her husband on scientic expeditions, becom-
B. C., Jane Addams: Nobel Prize Winner and Founder of Hull ing their scribe. She never claimed to be a natural scientist, but she
House (1999). Farrell, J. C., Beloved Lady: A History of Jane developed a remarkable ability to present second-hand knowl-
Addams Ideas on Reform and Peace (1967). Lasch, C., The New edge accurately and with. . .animation and authority. A First
Radicalism in America (1899-1963), The Intellectual as a Social Lesson in Natural History (1859), published under the pseudo-
nym of Actinea, went through nine printings by 1899. Agassizs
Type (1965). Lasch, C., introduction to Jane Addams The Social
achievement is more remarkable because she succeeds in making
Thought of Jane Addams (1965). Levine, D., Jane Addams and the
the structure and beauty of such creatures as sea anemones, corals,
Liberal Tradition (1971). Linn, J. W., Jane Addams, A Biography
and starsh clear and vivid without the color photographs that
(1935). Scott, A. F., introduction to Jane Addams Democracy
would aid a modern teacher.
and Social Ethics (1964 ed.). Stebnor, E. J., The Women of Hull
House: A Study of Spirituality, Vocation and Friendship (1997). Agassiz joined her husband on the Thayer Expedition to
Other references: Commentary (July 1961). American Wom- Brazil (April 1865-August 1866) and kept a journal of the trip.
en of Achievement Video Collection (video, 1995). Jane Addams: Parts of it appeared in Atlantic Monthly and then in A Journey in
A Pilgrims Progress (video, 1997). Brazil (1867, written with her husband). William James, who had
Website: accompanied the expedition was agreeably disappointed in the
addams.index/html (1997). work. According to L. H. Tharp, [James] had feared there would
be too many descriptions of sunsets, but read the whole of it with
PEGGY STINSON interest and found Agassiz had varied the contents very
skillfully. . .to entertain and interest the reader.
For almost 10 years after her husbands death, Agassiz
worked on Louis Agassiz, His Life and Correspondence (1885). A
modern biographer of Agassiz considers it much more than the
ADISA, Giamba usual Victorian Life and Letters written by a devoted relative.
See LORDE, Audre
She brought to this study of her husband the perception and insight
she evidenced in the years of their marriage. In Agassizs
preface she expresses the hope that the story of an intellectual
life, which was marked by such rare coherence and unity of aim,
AGASSIZ, Elizabeth Cabot Cary might have a wider interest and usefulness, and it does. William
James felt it gave a beautiful picture of an energetic nature
impassioned in one pursuit. To this day, the book remains
Born 5 December 1822, Boston, Massachusetts; died 27 June interesting and readable.
1907, Arlington, Massachusetts
Wrote under: Actinea, Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, Mrs. Louis Agassiz
Daughter of Thomas Graves and Mary Ann Cushing Perkins OTHER WORKS: Seaside Studies in Natural History (with Alexan-
Cary; married Louis Agassiz, 1850 der Agassiz, 1865).

Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz grew up in Boston, close to her BIBLIOGRAPHY: Agassiz G. R., ed., Letters and Recollections of
Perkins, Cabot, and Gardiner relatives. She moved in Cambridge Alexander Agassiz (1913). Lurie, E., Louis Agassiz: A Life in


Science (1960). Paton, L. A., Elizabeth Cary Agassiz: A Biogra- the later poems also moved from the rural, smalltown world of her
phy (1919). Reed, E. W., American Women in Science Before the rst two books into the urban arena.
Civil War (1992). Tharp, L. H., Adventurous Alliance: The Story
In Sin, which won an American Book Award from the Before
of the Agassiz Family of Boston (1959).
Columbus Foundation, and Fate, Ai creates the voices, the
Other references: Notable American Women, 1607-1950, E. T.
secret souls, of public gures such as Robert and John F.
James et al., eds. (article by H. Hawkins, 1971).
Kennedy, (Sin) and Mary Jo Kopechne (Fate). Still, the voices of
anonymous Americans are also heard. The persona poems in Sin
and Fate are longer, detailed portraits rather than the snapshots
found in her earlier volumes.
In On Being 1/2 Japanese, 1/8 Choctaw, 1/4 Black and 1/16
AI Irish (1978) and Arrival (1991), Ai discusses her multiracial
heritage, her struggle to forge an identity, the importance of her
true name (Ai means love in Japanese), and her develop-
Born Florence Anthony, 21 October 1947, Albany, Texas
ment as a narrative poet. (Given the name Florence Anthony at
Also written under: Florence Haynes, Pelorhanke Ai Ogawa
birth, she has also used the names Florence Haynes and Pelorhanke
Married Lawrence Kearney, circa 1975 (divorced)
Ai Ogawa; she learned from her mother in 1973 that her fathers
surname was Ogawa.)
Ai is a narrative poet. Her work is intense, her writing
efcient and vivid. Her poems reveal an intimacy between emo- Ais passion for poetry pervades her autobiographical works.
tions and values that traditionally have been viewed as oppositional: As she has explained, I wanted to write poetry with a capital P
love and hate are enmeshed, tenderness and violence intercon- and she continues to do so. Her latest works, including 1999s
nected. The characters who speak through Ais poetry are as Vice: New and Selected Poems, presents a collection of 58
varied as the American, multiracial, multicultural society from monologues from four of Ais earlier booksCruelty, Sin, Fate,
which they, and she, emerged. All voicesof men, women, and Killing Flooralong with 17 new poems. From the past are
teenagers, children; of black, white, red, yellow, brown; famous notable contributions capturing disturbing realities in the lives and
and anonymous, infamous and obscureare heard at equal vol- deaths of such notables as James Dean, Jimmy Hoffa, Lenny
ume. Each speaks of the effort and desire to assert ones will, to Bruce, and J. Edgar Hoover. Ais new subjects rise from more
make an impact, to understand pain. Their voices are clear and recent news headlines (O. J. Simpson, David Koresh, Jon-Benet
even-toned, yet their messages are wrenching and sometimes Ramsey, and Monica Lewinsky) and from behind the headlines,
shocking. including the agony of the police ofcer who commits suicide
before being able to accept a medal for rescuing victims of the
Ai grew up in the Southwest and in San Francisco. She Oklahoma City bombing. Ais desire to examine conicting
earned a B.A. in English/Oriental studies from the University of moral values is alive and well and on display in this volume.
Arizona in 1969. While an undergraduate, she met the poet
Successfully continuing in her quest to push the envelope of
Galway Kinnell, who became a mentor for her, the most
reader emotions, Ai offers yet another glimpse into worlds of
important literary relationship of my life. Through Kinnell, she
human angst, edged with empathy, which moved one reviewer to
went to the University of California at Irvine, where she complet-
observe Vice as rewarding, but not for the squeamish. Authored
ed an M.F.A. in 1971. She taught subsequently at the State
by the foremost poet of urban terror, this mini anthology
University of New York at Binghamton, the University of Massa-
reminds one of the poets explosive earlier works and offers
chusetts at Amherst, and Wayne State University. She received a
shades of things to come.
Guggenheim Foundation fellowship in 1975.

Her rst book of poems, Cruelty (1973), established her as a OTHER WORKS: Nothing But Color (1981). Ai (1988).
new, strong voice in contemporary poetry. Cruelty projects rug- Greed (1993).
ged images of sexuality, death, sensuality, and blood, and chal-
lenges the stereotype of womens poetry. Noted Alice Walker,
If you want nice poems to like, this [ Cruelty ] is not BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: CA (1980). CLC (1975, 1980).
your book. Oxford Companion to Womens Writing in the United States (1995).
Other references: Belles Lettres (Spring 1991). Chicago
Ais Killing Floor (1979) won the 1978 Lamont Poetry Review (Spring 1979). LJ (15 Apr. 1999). Ms. (June 1974).
Selection Award for the best second book by an American poet. NYTBR (17 Feb. 1974, 8 July 1979, 8 June 1986). Poetry (Jan.
The poems in this collection intensify the themes of sexuality and 1987, Nov. 1991). PW (29 Mar. 1999). Virginia Quarterly Review
violence introduced in Cruelty and expand Ais cast of characters (Summer 1991).
to include public gures from history and popular culture. After Web site: catalog/fall98/vice.htm.
winning the Lamont Prize, Ai moved to New York to actual-
ly. . .enter the world of poetry. Since her move, she published DALE A. DOOLEY,
Sin (1986) and Fate (1991), both books of poetry. The settings of UPDATED BY REBECCA C. CONDIT


AKINS, Zo for two straight years at the Empire Theater and on the road, and
by 1936 an English theater company was taking it on tour.

Born 30 October 1886, Humansville, Illinois; died 29 October It would be interesting to know precisely what it was Willa
1958, Los Angeles, California Cather detected in the not-so-good poems of a not-so-good actress
Daughter of Thomas J. and Elizabeth Green Akins; married that suggested playwriting potential. Whatever it was, Akins
Hugo C. Rumbold, 1932 never completely realized her potential as a dramatist of stature.
Except for a thorough dissertation by Ronald Mielech, Akins has
Zo Akins grew up and went to school in Illinois and received almost no scholarly attention.
Missouri, but none of her original plays give prominence to the While it is true that Akins writing is uneven and occasional-
Midwest. Most deal with the sometimes decadent middle and ly suffers from what Mielech calls romantic excesses associat-
upper classes in New York, where she lived for twenty years. ed with postwar American drama, and while many of her other-
Akins early expressed a strong interest in the theater and especial-
wise attractive protagonists periodically engage in a rhetoric that
ly in acting. When she left St. Louis and went to New York in
is uncharacteristic or platitudinous, much of her excellence has
1909, however, with romantic dreams of going on stage and with
gone unappreciated. Some of her efforts at characterization have
the determination and pluck for which she was always admired,
been misconstrued as overindulgence or a lapse in realism. Akins
she encountered her rst defeat. She was told she had no acting
signicance, it seems, lies in her extremely sharp and sympathet-
talent. She decided at this point to stay in New York and write
ic understanding of human foibles in general and of female folly
plays. This decision seems to have been implemented at least in
and frustration in particular.
part by the advice of a soon-to-be-important novelist and lifelong
correspondent and friend, Willa Cather. During the time Akins In a play like Daddys Gone A-Hunting (1921), for example,
was submitting her poetry to the then prestigious McClures Akins insightfully portrays the all too common situation of a
magazine and Cather was its managing editor. woman, Edith, blindly committed to delity to a confused hus-
band who psychologically abuses her, and who manipulates and
Cather, a drama critic in her own right, rejected Akins
keeps her with him largely through the guilt heas well as
poems but told her, prophetically and shrewdly enough, that she
societystirs up in her. When she nally rejects his open
should write for the stage. Cather must have perceived something
marriage ideas and leaves him, she ees to another, kinder man
extraordinary in Akins poems and letters, for she encouraged a
who keeps her sexually and nancially, but whom she refuses
friendship with Akins almost immediately. This was unusual,
to marry because she will not get a divorce. Although the play is
since McClures rather aloof and shy managing editor had already
recognized for its unorthodox focus on a troubled quest for
begun her practice of eschewing personal contact with all but a
personal freedom, it is more powerful for its quiet repudiation of
very special few of the literary hopefuls who approached her.
womens considerable dependence on men and for its unhappy
Although Akins rst published book was a volume of admission that women like Edithmost women for that matter
poetry, Interpretations (1911), and although she eventually wrote nd the world unsafe when their traditional sources of security
a novel, Forever Young (1941), she is best known for her original are taken from them. Neither Ediths initial decision to remain
dramas, comedies, screenplays, and adaptations. She began to true to her adulterous husband nor her later decision to live with
generate attention in 1916 with her vers libre drama, The Magical Greenough in the face of societys censure is completely admira-
City. She went on to write Dclasse (1919), perhaps the best ble. According to Akins her keen irony underscores Ediths
original play of that year. Akins high comedies like Papa (1913) appalling lack of personal identity and purposiveness, and the
and Greatness; A Comedy (1921) demonstrated continued sophis- reader experiences her horror in realizing she cannot expect men
tication and even greatness; but she later turned her art to the more or children to provide meaning and identity for her.
popular situation-type comedies which, on the whole, do not
In general, Akins playswhether serious dramas or high
possess the dramatic quality of her early original work. Her sharp
comediesemphasize the distortions in values, attitudes, and
wit and sense of irony, especially, were quite lost in the shift from
manners which society promulgates. She is simultaneously both
high to situation comedy.
amused and disturbed by the often pathetic efforts of her dramatic
While she herself never really achieved the popular or critical characters to extricate themselves from the web of social behavior
success she often deserved for her original plays which she patterns and thinking they cannot really understand. Akins is
produced steadily after 1919, Akins nally earned a measure of probably not a great playwright, but she is surely worthy of more
fame for her adaptations and screenplays, like Edith Whartons notice and exposure than she has been receiving. If she cannot be
The Old Maid (1935) and Edna Ferbers Showboat (1931). applauded for consistent dramatic excellence, she can be appreci-
ated for her exceptional insights into human nature and society,
Akins won the 1935 Pulitzer Prize for drama for The Old and for her enterprising, delightful sense of humor.
Maid. Her award initially aroused vigorous controversy over the
appropriateness of granting the drama prize for an adaptation
rather than for an original work. Eventually, though, the discov- OTHER WORKS: Such a Charming Young Man (1916). Did it
ery that a precedent had already been established silenced her Really Happen? (1917). Cake Upon the Waters (1919). Foot-
opponents. Both a critical and popular success, The Old Maid ran Loose (dramatization by Akins, 1920). The Varying Shore (1921).


The Texas Nightingale (rst produced 1922). A Royal Fandango Faireld, and scattered throughout her later career were necessi-
(1923). The Moon-Flower (dramatization by Akins, 1924). First ty tales, sometimes lurid and sensational, which were also
Love (dramatization by Akins, 1926). Pardon My Glove (1926). published under pseudonyms. With Hospital Sketches (1863) and
The Crown Prince (dramatization by Akins, 1927). Thou Desper- Little Women (1868), followed by a series of titles between 1870
ate Pilot (1927). The Furies (1928). The Love Duel (1929). The and 1886, Alcott became an institution, a center of public atten-
Greeks Had a Word for It (1930). O Evening Star (1935). The tion. In addition to these well-known volumes, she wrote on
Little Miracle (1936). The Hills Grow Smaller (1937). I Am contemporary problems such as suffrage, temperance, prison
Different (1938). The Happy Days (dramatization by Akins from reform, and child labor.
Les Jours Heureux by Claude-Andr Puget, 1942). Mrs. January
and Mr. Ex (1944). The Human Element by W. Somerset Maugham Driven by the demands of her public, Alcott wrote until ill
(dramatization by Akins, n.d.). health made her unable to continue. Worn out by personal tragedy,
Bradley, J., Zo Atkins & The Age of Excess: Broadway family responsibility, and sickness, she died within hours of the
Melodrama in the 1920s in Modern American Drama: the death of her father.
Female Canon (1990). Demastes, W. W., ed., American Play- Although Alcott is most commonly associated with the
wrights 1880-1945: A Research and Production Scrapbook (1995). juvenile series beginning with Little Women, she wrote in a
Mielech, R.A., The Plays of Zo Akins Rumbold (Disserta- variety of genres. Her rst published book, Flower Fables,
tion, Ohio State University, 1974). represents the charming, imaginative fantasies written for young
Other references: American Mercury (May 1928). SatRL (11 children. A combination of colorful prose and delicate poetry, it
May 1935). WLB (June 1935). not only peopled the childs world with fairies, elves, and small
animals, but taught lessons of compassion, patience, duty, honor,
and above all, the power of love, in terms a child could under-
stand. The scholar can detect the inuence of transcendentalism in
the importance given to all living things, but for the child reader
the fairy songs and the enchanted world from which they come are
ALCOTT, Louisa May enough. Alcott continued to please her young audience in stories
included in Aunt Jos Scrap-Bag (4 vols., 1872-78), and Lulus
Born 29 Nov. 1832, Germantown, Pennsylvania; died 6 March Library (3 vols., 1886-89).
1888, Boston, Massachusetts
Not until the publication of Leona Rostenbergs Some
Also wrote under: L.M.A., A. M. Barnard, Flora Faireld, A.M.
Anonymous and Pseudonymous Thrillers of Louisa May Alcott
Daughter of Amos B. and Abba May Alcott
in 1943 did Alcotts public become aware of her many contribu-
tions under various pen names to the body of sensational ction
Although regarded during much of the 20th century only as
appearing in Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper, The Flag of
the author of Little Women, Louisa May Alcott had a many-
Our Union, and other periodicals. Four of these stories (Behind a
faceted personality. She was the daughter of Amos Bronson
Mask, Paulines Passion and Punishment, The Mysterious
Alcott, the high priest of transcendentalism, friend and admirer of
Key, and The Abbots Ghost) were made available to the
Emerson and Thoreau. She was the pseudonymous author of
general reader in Madeleine Sterns Behind a Mask: The Un-
sensational and sentimental potboilers, as well as the realistic
known Thrillers of Louisa May Alcott (1975). The title story
recorder of her brief career as a Civil War nurse, and she was the
retains its appeal for the modern reader of gothics. In it, Jean Muir,
world-known author of delightful accounts of family life. Person-
an aging but fascinating actress, has been spurned by the man she
ally, she was a child of duty supporting her family, and an early
loves and nds revenge as well as security in her plot to ruin the
advocate of woman suffrage, prison reform, and emancipation.
entire Coventry family. This brooding, passionate woman, deeply
Although the early years of Alcotts life were marked by aware of her sexual power, was perhaps the strongest and best
poverty and uncertainty, as her father sought to establish his developed of many skillfully drawn characters peopling Alcotts
perfect school, they were rewarding years. She had little escapist literature. Madeleine Stern proves Alcott was a very
institutionalized education but her father taught her under his conscious artist, producing these thrillers for a denite audi-
advanced educational theories. She knew and learned from Emer- ence, while writing for economic reasons.
son, Thoreau, and the many books which she read from an early
There is no doubt of the inuence of her own experiences on
age. Her love of drama gave her an awareness of the melodramatic
another group of Alcotts works. The earliest published book
and sensational in everyday life. Her attempts to augment the
based almost completely on her life was Hospital Sketches (1863),
family income by teaching, sewing, working as a servant, and
and its critical reception convinced its author that success lay in
acting as a companion provided raw material for her own crea-
tive works. portraying real life rather than in ights of fancy. The experiences
of Tribulation Periwinkle not only reect the realities of
In 1855 the rst book published under Alcotts own name, Alcotts nursing career but also rank with Whitmans poetic
Flower Fables, was dedicated to Emersons daughter, Ellen. record in its picturing of suffering, gallantly borne, and the
Earlier she had contributed poems under the pseudonym Flora compassion of those who served as nurses.


Throughout her career, Alcott produced poems, essays, and The critical reception of Alcotts works during her life
stories which were obviously autobiographical. Thoreaus Flute ranged widely but was generally favorable. There were few
(1863) reected her hours spent at Walden Pond; Transcenden- reviews of Flower Fables, but Hospital Sketches was praised for
tal Wild Oats (1873) provided a frank, humorous-pathetic its uent and sparkling style. Little Women securely estab-
account of the familys abortive Utopia; while Ralph Waldo lished its author in the favor of critics, who saw it as giving
Emerson (1882) paid tribute to the guardian angel of the pleasure to young and adult readers. An Old-Fashioned Girl
Alcott family. (1870) was particularly well received, but the other six volumes of
the series became more and more identied with a juvenile
In 1867 Alcott initiated a new genre when she rather reluc- audience.
tantly agreed to write a girls book. The result was Little Women,
which succeeded largely because, as Alcott said, We really lived The death of Alcott produced many personal tributes but no
most of it. Using experience as her starting point, she created a critical evaluation until the appearance in 1889 of Edna Cheneys
gallery of characters that entered American literature. Little Louisa May Alcott: Her Life, Letters and Journals. As a personal
Women was an instant success, with multiple editions and transla- friend, Cheney stressed the autobiographical nature of Alcotts
tions in more than 30 languages. The simple everyday events and best work and the effect her sense of duty had upon what might
small crises of Jo, Meg, Beth, and Amy, and the warmth of the have been a greater career. This biography was inuential in
family life provided by Marmee and Mr. March, along with the shaping the criticism which followed. In 1909 the rst biography
friendship of Laurie, Mr. Laurence, and the sharp-tongued Aunt written in the 20th century, Belle Moses Louisa May Alcott,
March have inuenced every generation since 1868. Although Dreamer and Worker, appeared. Moses examination of known
Jos marriage to Professor Bhaer disappointed many readers who details of publication provided the rst attempt at scholarly
hoped she would marry Laurie and disapproved of his eventual examination of Alcott. Jessie Bonstelle and Marian DeForest
marriage to Amy, the Bhaer family soon developed its own collected Little Women Letters from the House of Alcott in 1914,
personality. providing important primary sources. Not until the 1930s, howev-
er, did an important body of Alcott scholarship appear. Louisa
In Little Men (1871) and Jos Boys (1886), Alcott not only May Alcott: A Bibliography (1932) was compiled by Lucile
gave Jo two boys of her own but provided a whole school of boys Gulliver, and it made information available on all editions of
and girls of all ages, races, and levels of wealth, who were loved American, English, and foreign origin. A Newbery Medal was
and educated on the estate bequeathed by Aunt March. The awarded in 1933 to Cornelia L. Meigs for The Story of the Author
freedom of the learning environment is reminiscent of Amos of Little Women: Invincible Louisa, which provided background
Bronson Alcotts avant-garde philosophy; the lessons of love and valuable to an understanding of Alcotts works. In 1936 Kathe-
duty taught to the March girls are transmitted to all. The readers rine S. Anthonys psychoanalytical study, Louisa May Alcott,
interest in the destinies of the 12 boys who lived at Plumeld led aroused controversy but went beyond the usual interpretation of
Alcott to write Jos Boys, set 10 years later than Little Men. Alcott as a writer for children.
Interest continued far longer than Alcott could ever have imagined
with a television series based on Little Men running in 1999. Leona Rostenbergs Some Anonymous and Pseudonymous
Thrillers of Louisa May Alcott provided knowledge of the
Although the destinies of all the characters who peopled sensational ction written under a variety of pen names. Made-
Little Men are traced in Jos Boys, the changes which 15 years leine Stern followed with a number of articles presenting other
brought in the author herself are evident in the ending of the book. facets of Alcott; she climaxed her studies with Louisa May Alcott,
Despite the pleas of young readers, Dans imprisonment as the a sound critical biography in 1950 (a second edition in 1971 made
result of killing a man, even by accident, shuts him off from available a bibliography of 274 items).
marrying Bess, the exquisite daughter of Amy and Laurie. Nan,
Megs daughter, defends her position as a new woman and The 1968 centennial celebration of the rst edition of Little
pursues her career as a doctor, while Bess becomes an artist and Women was marked by the important publication of Louisa May
Josie an actress, before they become wives. Alcott: A Centennial for Little Women, by Judith C. Ullom.
Cornelia Meigss biography was reprinted with a new introduc-
Lesser known but equally delightful are Eight Cousins (1875) tion. She also introduced a Centennial Edition of Little Women
and Rose in Bloom (1876), which trace the adventures of Rose and and edited Glimpses of Louisa: A Centennial Sampling of the Best
her seven cousins, adding more memorable portraits to Alcotts Short Stories by Louisa May Alcott. Her critical overview presents
gallery and providing the author with many opportunities to an excellent nal judgement of this writer whose potential
comment upon the silliness of Victorian societys values and sociohistorical worth has not yet been fully explored. In Meigs
customs. opinion, Alcotts strength lay in her honesty, awareness of the
danger of overmoralizing, and in her ability to present a story with
In Under the Lilacs (1878), Ben and his remarkable perform-
a distinctive pattern and an atmosphere in which the common life,
ing dog, Sancho, join Bab and Betty in a series of happy adven-
its joy or pain or despair, attains a true splendor.
tures on Miss Celias estate, The Lilacs. In this childrens world
and in that of Jack and Jill (1880), many lessons are learned by the
characters and by the readers who follow the everyday crises and OTHER WORKS: Moods (1865). Morning-Glories, and Other
joys so realistically presented. Stories (1868). Kittys Class Day (1868). Aunt Kipp (1868).


Psyches Art (1868). Three Proverb Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth and pupil and teacher at the Oneida seminary, she won a Christian
Amy (1868). My Boys: Aunt Jos Scrap-Bag, I (1872). Shawl- tract societys contest with her didactic novel, Helen Lester,
Straps: Aunt Jos Scrap-Bag, II (1872). Work: A Story of Experi- published in 1866 under Pansy, a childhood pet name given by
ence (1873). Cupid and Chow-Chow: Aunt Jos Scrap-Bag, III her father. That same year she became the wife of Gustavus R.
(1874). Silver Pitchers; and Independence, a Centennial Love Alden, a Presbyterian minister. In 1874, a year after the birth of
Story (1876). A Modern Mephistopheles (1877). My Girls: Aunt their only child, Raymond, she began to edit Pansy, a popular
Jos Scrap-Bag, IV (1878). Proverb Stories (1882). An Old- Sunday-school weekly.
Fashioned Thanksgiving: Aunt Jos Scrap-Bag, V (1882). A
Garland for Girls (1888). Recollections of My Childhoods Days Alden wrote more than 120 books emphasizing private
(1890). Comic Tragedies Written by Jo and Meg and Acted by the religious commitment, Bible study, and a moral duty to improve
Little Women (1893). The Poetry of Louise May Alcott (1997). the lives of the poor. She wrote and edited several Presbyterian
publications, taught and directed Sunday schools, and occasional-
ly lectured on temperance. She served as a teacher and organizer
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Anthony, K. S., Louisa May Alcott (1936). of the Chautauqua movement from its founding in 1874. One of
Auerbach, N., Communities of Women (1978). Bedell, M., The her best novels, Four Girls at Chautauqua (1876), not only
Alcotts: Biography of a Family (1980). Bonstelle, J., and M. promoted the summer resort of Christian education, but intro-
DeForest, eds., Little Women Letters from the House of Alcott duced the four female characters whom Alden developed in a
(1914). Cheney, E., Louisa May Alcott: Her Life, Letters and series of novels closing with Four Mothers at Chautauqua (1913).
Journals (1889). Clark, B. L., and Albergheni, J., eds., Little
Aldens most popular novel, Ester Reid (1870), portrays an
Women and The Feminist Imagination: Criticism, Controversy,
earnest young woman committing her life and good manners to
Personal Essays (1999). Elbert, S., A Hunger for Home: Louisa
Christ, to Sunday school, and to social progress as three facets of
May Alcott and Little Women (1984). Gulliver, L., Louisa May
one work. Sequels expanded the application of Christian princi-
Alcott: A Bibliography (1932). Keyser, E. L., Little Women: A
ples of prayer and social service among middle class urban
Family Romance (1999). MacDonald, R. K., Louisa May Alcott
women. Alden consciously aimed at making religion attractive
(1983). Meigs, C. L., The Story of the Author of Little Women:
through realistic female characters who improve the personalities
Invincible Louisa (1933). Myerson, J. et al eds., The Journals of
around them with good intentions, prayer, and persistent effort.
Louise May Alcott (1989, reprinted 1997). Moses, B., Louisa May
Mrs. Solomon Smith Looking On (1882), an extended complaint
Alcott, Dreamer and Worker: A Story of Achievement (1909).
against dull-witted or fashionably bored church members, empha-
Papashvily, H. W., Louisa May Alcott (1965). Peare, C. O., Louisa
sizes that women are called to moral duty, a responsibility
May Alcott: Her Life (1954). Saxton, M., Louisa May: A Modern
superior to that of men. Alden never explores a domestic clash of
Biography of Louisa May Alcott (1977). Stern, M. B., Louisa May
values, however, and her men support their wives efforts from a
Alcott (1950). Stern, M., Lousie May Alcott: From Blood and
Thunder to Hearth and Home (1998). Ullom, J. C., Louisa May
Alcott: A Centennial for Little Women (1969). Aldens popular series on the life of Christ culminates in
Reference works: Bibliography of American Literature (1955). Yesterday Framed in Today (1898), which places the events of
NAW (1970). Oxford Companion to Womens Writing in the Jesus life in a modern city. Thoughtful readers are asked to
United States (1995). recognize themselves as one prominent character, who abandons
Other references: American Literature Review (Winter 1973). ambitions to join the rabble following the new master, or as
Bibliographical Society of America Papers (2nd Quarter, 1943). another, who plots against him with inuence and intellect.
New England Quarterly (June 1943, Dec. 1949). NYTM (Dec. 1964).
Though Aldens books in English and several translations
ALMA J. PAYNE sold more than 100,000 copies annually, they were rarely re-
viewed, especially in the 1870s and 1880s, when she was doing
her most original work. The little critical attention they received
resigned them to Sunday school use. Whether The Nation con-
demned the goodiness and uncomfortable amount of relig-
ALDEN, Isabella MacDonald ious slang in Ruth Erskines Crosses (1879), or The Chautauquan
praised the wholesome homeliness of Why They Couldnt
Born 3 November 1841, Rochester, New York; died 5 August (1896), each reviewer overlooked Aldens ctional development
1930, Palo Alto, California of the strong American female personality. Her heroines repeated-
Wrote under: Pansy ly overcame male patronizing with courteous intensity and worked
Daughter of Isaac and Myra Spafford MacDonald; married great changes by persistent and thoughtful attention to the effects
Gustavus R. Alden, 1866; children: Raymond of small detail. Though they may overprize the work ethic,
Aldens books are valuable records of cultural values and domes-
The sixth of seven children born to a well-educated mer- tic artifacts. When things went wrong, Alden once claimed, she
chant, Isabella MacDonald Alden was tutored by her father, who righted them in a book; this theory accounts for both the weakness
required from her a daily journal of criticism and stories. While a and the strength of her realistic portrayals of good women.


OTHER WORKS: Tip Lewis and His Lamp (1867). Julia Reid: and the owers of the prairie are well expressed here, as in all of
Listening and Led (1872). The Kings Daughter (1873). The her books.
Chautauqua Girls at Home (1878). Links in Rebeccas Life
A Lantern in Her Hand (1928) is a much better work, perhaps
(1878). A New Graft on the Family Tree (1880). Next Things
because several actual events from her family history form its
(1880). Mrs. Harry Harpers Awakening (1881). Ester Reid Yet
basis. The character of Abbie Deal, who moves from Illinois to
Speaking (1883). Judge Burnhams Daughters (1888). The Prince
Iowa in 1854, then marries and homesteads with her husband in
of Peace: or, The Beautiful Life of Jesus Christ (1890). Ruth
Nebraska, is based on her mother. In spite of sorrow, hardship, and
Erskines Son (1907). An Interrupted Night (1929). Memories of lack of opportunity to develop her talents, Abbie has a happy life.
Yesterdays (completed by G. L. Hill; 1931). The lantern in her hand has lighted her childrens way. The
novel, perhaps Aldrichs best book, was immensely popular and a
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hill, G. L., foreword to Isabella MacDonald bestseller for years. Later works are sometimes variations of its
theme, setting, and events.
Aldens An Interrupted Night (1929). Logan, M. S., The Part
Taken by Women in American History (1912). Aldrichs work is romantic, optimistic, and wholesome.
Reference works: American Women, F. E. Willard and M. A. Her stories usually end happily, her romances join those people
Livermore (1897). National Cyclopedia of Amerian Biography who should be joined; some of them are sentimental. Neverthe-
(1892 et seq.). NAB, 1607-1950 (1971). less, they display certain strengthscharacterization is often
Other references: NYT (6 Aug. 1930, 7 Aug. 1930). excellent, as are her descriptions of nature. The background is
always the Midwest, and she describes it precisely and accurately.
GAYLE GASKILL Although Aldrich is most noted for her stories of the settling of the
Midwest, her short stories give ne details of middle class family
life in the small towns of the 1920s and 1930s. Her stories and
articles were published in many of the leading periodicals.
ALDON, Adair Aldrichs style is not mannered or dated; neither is it remark-
See MEIGS, Cornelia
ably original. The careful attention Aldrich gives to details
dates, clothing styles, food, customsare strong points, creating a
realistic background. The hardships of settling the frontier and of
country living, such as the back-breaking labor, particularly for
ALDRICH, Bess Streeter the women, the lack of renements, the inconvenient kitchens, the
bare and ugly houses, are details such as Hamlin Garland often
Born 17 February 1881, Cedar Falls, Iowa; died 3 August 1954, gives. But whereas Garland points out the hopelessness of the
Lincoln, Nebraska unremitting hard labor in ghting poverty, dirt, and squalor,
Also wrote under: Margaret Dean Stephens Aldrich afrms life, and her characters nd, usually, some reason
Daughter of James Wareham and Mary Anderson Streeter; for happiness, be it through love or belief in honor and duty.
married Charles Aldrich, 1907
OTHER WORKS: Mother Mason (1924). The Cutters (1926). A
Bess Streeter Aldrichs parents emigrated to frontier Iowa in White Bird Flying (1931). Miss Bishop (1933). Spring Came on
the 1850s. The familys experiences there became the basis for Forever (1935). The Man Who Caught the Weather (1936). Song
Aldrichs most successful novels. After graduating from Iowa of Years (1939). The Drum Goes Dead (1941). The Lieutenants
State Teachers College in Cedar Falls in 1901, she wrote articles Lady (1942). Journey into Christmas, and Other Stories (1949).
for teachers magazines and stories for primary school children. The Bess Streeter Aldrich Reader (1950). A Bess Streeter Aldrich
When her husband died suddenly from a heart attack in 1925, Treasury (ed. R. S. Aldrich, 1959).
Aldrich was the sole supporter of her children, and she began
writing professionally.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Aldrich, R., A Bess Streeter Aldrich Treasury
In 1930 Aldrich became book editor of the Christian Herald. (1959). Marble, A. R., A Daughter of Pioneers: Bess Streeter
She was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Literature in 1935 Aldrich and Her Books (n.d.). Martin, A., Bess Streeter Aldrich
from the University of Nebraska, and she was elected to the (1992). Meier, A. M., Bess Streeter Aldrich: Her Life and
Nebraska Hall of Fame in 1973. Works (Masters thesis, Kearney State College, 1968). Peterson,
C. M., Bess Streeter Aldrich: The Dreams Are All Real (1995).
The Rim of the Prairie (1925), Aldrichs rst novel, is a Reinke, M. F., Bess Streeter Aldrich: A Pictoiral History, 1881-1925
contemporary story of Nancy, a farm girl living near a small town (1986). Thomas, J., Bess Streeter Aldrich: Conict Between
remarkably similar to Elmwood, Nebraska. Through the recollec- Home and Career in A Lantern in Her Hand, A White Bird Flying,
tions of the old people, Aunt Biney and Uncle Jud Moore, Aldrich and Miss Bishop (1994). Williams, B.C., Bess Streeter Aldrich,
recounts details of settling in this part of the country, as civiliza- Novelist (n.d.).
tion and modern farming overtake the wild prairie. The authors Other references: Appletons Book Chat (1 Feb. 1930, 21
knowledge and love of nature, her descriptions of the rolling hills Nov. 1931). WLB (April 1929). Women Writers of the Great


Plains, #1: Willa Cather, Mari Sandoz and Bess Streeter Aldrich American opinion towards entrance into World War I and her
(video, 1985). assistance to soldiers and refugees, Aldrich was awarded the
Legion of Honor by the French government in 1922.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Stein, G. The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas

(1932). Mellow, J. R., Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein & Compa-
ny (1973).
ALDRICH, Mildred

Born 16 November 1853, Providence, Rhode Island; died 19

February 1928, Huiry, France
Wrote under: H. Quinn ALEXANDER, Francesca
Daughter of Edwin and Lucy Ayers Baker Aldrich
Born as Esther Frances Alexander, 27 February 1837, Boston,
For 12 years, Mildred Aldrich was secretary to the manager Massachusetts; died 21 January 1917, Florence, Italy
of the Boston Home Journal and a contributor under the pseudo- Daughter of Frances and Lucia Gray Swett Alexander
nym H. Quinn. She also edited The Mahogany Tree, a journal
of ideas, and during 1892 and 1893, submitted three substantial Francesca Alexander was the daughter of a portrait painter
pieces on theater to Arena. She joined the Boston Journal in 1894, who was a member of the Boston intellectual and cultural elite.
and moved the following year to the Boston Herald. There she After moving to Florence in 1853, the family became hosts to
further strengthened her already strong reputation for astute many eminent visitors including Sarah Orne Jewett and James
dramatic criticism. Sometime around the turn of the century, but Russell Lowell (who wrote a sonnet to Francesca). Alexander was
before 1904, Aldrich moved to Paris, where she represented educated at home, and principally by herself; in art, for example,
several American theatrical producers and wrote for American she was not given lessons so that her talent might develop in its
magazines. When she was sixty-one, in 1914, she retired to the own direction. Nor was she allowed to play freely with other
French countryside. Her hilltop home, La Creste, afforded a view children or to read uncensored books. Her mother, who died at the
of the site of the Battle of the Marne. age of 102, dominated Alexander throughout her entire life.

From La Creste, Aldrich wrote four rsthand accounts of life Alexander rst sold her drawings to earn money for works of
in wartime France. A Hilltop on the Marne (1915), her most charity. She began to set down the life stories of the Italian
successful book, rst appeared in the Atlantic Monthly. It treats peasants who served as her models, and also to collect from them
the progress of the battle, and the spirit and commitment of both the traditional songs and legends of their villages. Inspired by
soldiers and villagers. The works strength derives from the medieval manuscripts, Alexander created a large folio volume of
compression of events and Aldrichs expanding understanding, traditional songs with her own English translations, embellished
which the reader shares. On the Edge of the War Zone (1917) by pen-and-ink drawings and elaborate full-page illustrations.
covers the period 16 September 1914 to 28 March 1917, and is The aging John Ruskin, visiting Italy in 1882, was entranced
more diffuse in its approach; of special interest are Aldrichs by Alexanders art, her charity, and her religious faith; he bought
reports on gas warfare and descriptions of soldiers wartime her work and arranged for its publication, praised her in his
entertainments. The Peak of the Load (1918) deals with the lectures, and wrote to her reams of the sort of precious letter with
waiting months on the hilltop from the entrance of the stars and which Ruskin favored young women. Alexanders major work
stripes to the second victory on the Marne. In the following year, was edited by Ruskin and published in ten parts in 1884-85 as
1919, came When Johnny Comes Marching Home, in which Roadside Songs of Tuscany. In this version the book is as much
Aldrich describes how the countryside settled down after the Ruskins as Alexanders; he added introductions, moral homilies,
armistice. She also produced two other wartime books. footnotes, and quotations from Alexanders letters about the
people who modeled for the illustrations. Improved photographic
Told in a French Garden, August, 1914 (1916) is Aldrichs processes made possible a new edition, in 1897, entitled Tuscan
sole work of ction. By a strange irony of Fate, nine people Songs, which reproduces the integrated text and illustration of
nd themselves in provincial France in the darkest days of the Alexanders manuscript and omits the Ruskin material. The verse
war. To raise their spirits, they follow Boccaccios example in The is poor-peoples poetry: obvious, simple, repetitive. Alexander
Decameron, and each relates a story following the days dinner. was sincerely interested in folklore and oral tradition, and respect-
Prologues and epilogues frame the stories and reveal the conicts ed the piety which often represented Christ as a character in a
in value displayed by the participants. contemporary village drama.
Aldrich also wrote the foreword to The Letters of Thomasina The Story of Ida (1883) is a narration of the rather common-
Atkins (W.A.A.C.) on Active Service (1918). This volume recounts place, unhappy love experience of a young woman who posed for
Atkins experiences in the British Womens Auxiliary Army Alexander. Though Alexander tried to reproduce reality without
Corps stationed somewhere in France. For her help in swaying exaggeration or sentimentality, Idas piety, her submission, and


her long decline give the book a texture indistinguishable from changing values during the mid-19th century. These novels por-
religious tracts. Christs Folk in the Apennine (1888) was put tray a vivid picture of American life between 1840 and 1875, and
together by Ruskin, who selected passages from Alexanders they present a multifaceted view of slavery. Allee presents both
letters that told stories about her peasant acquaintances. After her ideological and personal conicts with clarity, restraint, and
sight had failed too much for drawing, Alexander published one impartiality.
book independent of Ruskin: The Hidden Servants (1900), a
collection of longer traditional legends retold in English verse. Three of Allees historical books recount the struggles of
The style is not so simple as her prose; archaic diction, common- widow Charity Lankester and her eight daughters to earn their
place imagery, and the extra words required to ll out convention- own living after freeing their slaves and selling their estate. While
al meters create rather tedious poetry. daughter Judith nurses a neighbors child and slowly masters a
few homemaking skills (Judith Lankester, 1930), her older sister
Alexander is remembered primarily because of the letters Catherine teaches in a one-room school, outwitting unruly boys,
Ruskin wrote to her, and Ruskin scholars now consider his nurturing neglected girls, rescuing a former slave from an angry
infatuation with Alexander to have been one of the embarrassing mob, and establishing a home in a tiny cabin (A House of Her
symptoms of the great mind in its decline. Alexanders one Own, 1934).
important work is, however, of value for preserving verbally and
pictorially details of folklore and rural life from a time now gone. In Susanna and Tristram (1929), orphaned sixteen-year-old
Susanna Cofn assumes responsibility for her younger brother.
She becomes a conductor on the Underground Railroad,
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alexander, C. G., Francesca Alexandra, A Hid- meeting escaping slaves at the boat and driving them northward.
den Servant (1927). Alexander, F. Francesca Alexander: Draw-
ings from Roadside Songs of Tuscany (1981). Ruskin, J., Fran- In reaction against the dormitory dance-drink-drive formula
cescas Book in Works, Cook, E. T., and A. Wedderburn, eds. for the college novel, Allee wrote The Great Tradition (1937).
(Vol. 32, 1907). Swett, L. G., John Ruskins Letters to Francesca Much of this novel takes place in a biology laboratory, and it
and Memoirs of the Alexanders (1931). depicts young women engaged in serious study and research at the
Other references: Dial (16 March 1898). The Magazine of University of Chicago. The Great Tradition and The House
Art (1895). (1944) explore the problems of harmonious relations between
individuals of differing ages, social backgrounds, and races. The
SALLY MITCHELL House received an award from the Child Study Association for the
honesty and courage with which it faces the problems of
young people.

Two of Allees novels take place in settings of unusual

ALLEE, Marjorie Hill interest to the naturalist. Janes Island (1931), a Newberry honor
book, describes the unspoiled beauty of Woods Hole, Massachu-
Born 2 June 1890, Carthage, Indiana; died 30 April 1945, setts, where scientists study marine biology with inadequate
Chicago, Illinois equipment but disciplined dedication. Anns Surprising Summer
Daughter of William and Anna Elliott Hill; married Warder (1933) takes place in the dune country of northern Indiana, where
Clyde Allee, 1912 biologists strive to preserve a portion of the dunes as a natural
Marjorie Hill Allee grew up on an Indiana farm in a commu-
nity of Quakers whose ancestors had migrated northward from the Allees female characters demonstrate a deep sensitivity to
Carolinas to escape the environment of slavery. At the age of the needs of others, and are unusually competent and resourceful
eighteen, having completed high school and two years at Earlham in solving practical problems. They are not restricted to traditional
College, Allee taught all eight grades in the one-room school activities and roles.
which she had attended as a child. The following year she enrolled
at the University of Chicago, determined to become a writer.
OTHER WORKS: The Road to Carolina (1932). Off to Philadelphia
Allees apprentice work includes the publication of numer- (1936). The Little American Girl (1938). Runaway Linda (1939).
ous articles, reviews, and stories, as well as collaboration with her The Camp at Westlands (1941). Winters Mischief (1942). Smoke
husband on Jungle Island (1925), a nonction book for children Jumper (1945).
which describes the plants and animals on Barro Colorado Island
in the Panama Canal. Between 1929 and 1945 Allee published 14
novels for older juvenile readers. Her characters are usually young BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: The Junior Book of Authors, S. J.
women just beginning to confront the personal discords and social Kunitz, and H. Haycraft, eds. (1951).
problems of adult life. Other references: Horn Book (May 1946). Illinois Libraries
(Dec. 1938).
Working from memoirs and personal histories, Allee wrote
six novels depicting Quaker families caught in the turmoil of ALICE BELL SALO


ALLEN, Elizabeth (Ann Chase) Akers and poetic grace is evidenced in the pat rhymes and similarity of
structure and meter throughout her canon.
Born 19 October 1832, Strong, Maine; died 7 August 1911, Allen is at her best when she manages to dissociate herself
Tuckahoe, New York from her personas. Then her poetic narratives, light verse, and
Wrote under: Elizabeth Akers, Florence Percy fables are well handled metrically and display a felicity of
Daughter of John and Mary Barton Chase; married Marshall expression not found in the bulk of her work. Many of these
Taylor, 1851 (divorced); (Benjamin) Paul Akers, 1860; E. M. poems are worthy of collection for their artistic illumination of the
Allen, 1865 plight of the 19th-century woman.

Elizabeth Akers Allen was the daughter of a carpenter and

circuit preacher. Feeling unwelcome at home after her moth- OTHER WORKS: Queen Catherines Rose (1885). The Silver
ers death and fathers remarriage, she sought independence at the Bridge (1886). The Triangular Society (1886). Gold Nails to
age of thirteen through a job in a bookbindery and later as a Hang Memories On (1890). The High-Top Sweeting (1891). The
teacher. In 1856 she became an assistant editor for the Portland Proud Lady of Stavoren (1897). The Ballad of the Bronx (1901).
Transcript and published verse and essays in various magazines.
It was during this time that she was forced to divorce her
husband [Marshall Taylor] or starve, since he was legally BIBLIOGRAPHY: Cary, R., The Misted Prism: Paul Akers and
entitled to her earnings and had already misappropriated payment Elizabeth Akers Allen, in CLQ 7 (1966). Leavenworth, E. W.,
due her. Her rst volume of poetry Forest Buds From the Woods ed., Who Wrote Rock Me To Sleep? (1870). Morse, O. A., A
of Maine (1856) was well received. After her second marriage, to Vindication of the Claim of Alexander M. W. Ball (1867).
Paul Akers, her many volumes of poetry dating from 1866 to 1902 Reference works: A Woman of the Century, F. E. Willard and
were published under the name Elizabeth Akers. M. A. Livermore (1893).
Other references: Colophon (4 Oct. 1933). Northern Monthly
The poem that assures Allen of immortality is Rock Me to
(March 1868).
Sleep, which appeared in the Philadelphia Saturday Evening
Post in May 1860 under her pseudonym. It caught the popular
imagination and was set to music by 30 different composers; it
was also issued as an illustrated Christmas giftbook and incorpo-
rated into novels, plays, and various collections. Until Allen
reprinted it in her Poems (1866) and The Sunset Song, and Other
Verses (1902), her sole remuneration was the $5 she had received ALLEN, Paula Gunn
from the newspaper. Unfortunately, authorship of the poem was
contested by Alexander M. W. Ball, a New Jersey legislator, who Born Paula Marie Francis, 24 October 1939, Albuquerque,
presented sufcient evidence and witnesses to raise serious ques- New Mexico
tions about the poems authorship. The poem, which during the Married (divorced); children: two
Civil War. . . was printed on leaets and scattered by thousands in
the army, is a plaintive cry to a departed mother for relief and
A Native American of Laguna Pueblo and Sioux heritage,
solace. The rst stanza displays the intensity of the verses which
Paula Gunn Allen was raised in Cubero, New Mexico, a Spanish
received public acclaim:
land-grant town 50 miles west of Albuquerque, abutting the
Backward, turn backward, O Time, in your ight, Laguna Reservation. Allens mother is of Laguna Pueblo and
Make me a child again just for to-night! Sioux heritage and her father was Lebanese-American. The
Mother, come back from the echoless shore, writings of her mothers uncle, John Gunn, an anthropologist and
Take me again to your heart as of yore; researcher of Native American cultures, was a major source of
Kiss from my forehead the furrows of care, information for Allens writings. Her sister is poet Carol Lee
Smooth the few silver threads out of my hair; Sanchez and her cousin is writer Leslie Marmon Silko, both of
Over my slumbers your loving watch keep; whom were reared in her community.
Rock me to sleep, mother,rock me to sleep!
After attending mission schools in rural Cubero, San Fidel,
Most of Allens poetry is awed by sentimentality and a rigid and a convent school in Albuquerque, Allen went on to receive
metrical arrangement that often degenerates into a singsong her B.A. in English from the University of Oregon (1966). After
bathos. One narrative voice permeates most of her work, which is college, she married, had two children, and subsequently di-
best described by a contemporary as sweet, sad sick-room vorced. She returned to school and in 1968 received an M.F.A. in
poetry. The lamentations on death and effusive responses to Creative Writing, also from the University of Oregon. Allen
nature contain little philosophical import or melodic composition. returned to New Mexico and in 1975 received a Ph.D. in Ameri-
Her concept of the poet as one who pours the wine of his life for can Studies and Native American Studies from the University of
bread evidently prompted her to try to wring her own most New Mexico. She was a postdoctoral fellow at UCLA in 1981-82.
heartfelt emotions for literary use. However, the lack of control Between 1986 and 1990 she was professor of Ethnic Studies and


Native American Studies at the University of California at Berke- throughout Native American traditional songs and writings. The
ley. Subsequently, Allen has been a professor of English at the stories capture the resistance and continuing hope enduring in
University of California, Los Angeles. Native American cultures that continues to be spoken and written
about by the women of the culture.
Three components central to Native American culture are the
individual, the land, and the spiritual world; the way in which they Grandmothers of the Light: A Medicine Womans Source-
are woven together forms the fabric of life for the community and book (1991) continues the discussion of mythic stories that
the basis for Allens work. She encourages her reader to see the incorporate a polytheistic female-based belief structure with its
multiplicity present in all things. Nature is welcomed and accept- concepts of duty to the larger group, balance in all things, and
ed in all forms. Spirits are continually present and the individual connections to the earth. Substantiating her assertions with exten-
aware of the power present in the world and prepared to walk in sive research in the belief structures of many Native American
balance can move down a path toward spiritual exploration and cultures, Allen stresses the applicability of these stories to the
knowledge. present day, and the necessity of these beliefs in a modern world
that has not only become estranged from the earth, the source of
Allen has written numerous books of poetry, many of which all things, but destroys it as well.
explore the issue of the relationship between the individual and a
mythic space or the spiritual realm. Even as she continues to As a writer, Allen believes it is her responsibility to bring
explore these issues through her poems, they also permeate her forth the visions existing within herself as poet, essayist, novelist,
work as a novelist exploring the depths of the individual; as an activist, teacher, woman, lesbian, and Laguna Pueblo-Sioux. Her
essayist and editor looking at feminist and historical perspectives; work makes a major contribution to the female strength, and the
and as an anthologist of Native American tales and myths looking tribal and native female resistance and hope of Native American
at the works from an anthropological feminist standpoint. cultures. As Allen re-remembers the past of Native American
cultures and history, she embodies her hope that her readers and
Allens novel, The Woman Who Owned the Shadows (1983, the Native communities will walk in balance with the sur-
reprinted 1995), introduces a recurrent theme, depicting a Native rounding world.
American woman struggling both to discover her own place in a
world bent on judging her behavior and restricting her options and
to integrate her sense of herself as a modern woman with the OTHER WORKS: The Blind Lion (1974). Coyotes Daylight Trip
power of ancient spiritual beliefs. The vital healing process and (1978). A Cannon Between My Knees (1981). Shadow Country
reeducation emerging at the end of the novel reappear in the form (1981). Star Child: Poems (1981). Studies in American Indian
of theoretical, feminist historical essays in the nonction collec- Literature: Critical Essays and Course Designs (editor, 1983).
tion The Sacred Hoop (1986, expanded 1992). Here Allen strik- Judy Grahn: Gathering the Tribe (1983). Wyrds (1987). Skins and
ingly reconstructs the gynocratic and gynocentric visions of the Bones: Poems 1979-1987 (1988). Womens Friendship: A Collec-
world as captured in the stories and religions of Native Ameri- tion of Short Stories (1991). Voice of the Turtle: A Century of
cans, examining the traditional and sacred teachings centered American Indian Fiction (editor, 1995). As Long as the River
within the sacred hoop of life in which everything has a place and Flows: The Stories of Nine Native Americans (1996). Life is a
role. Asserting that many of the orally transmitted tales have been Fatal Disease: Collected Poems, 1962-1995 (1997). Off the
inuenced by the encroaching Anglo-American patriarchal sys- Reservation: Reections on Boundary-Busting Border-Crossing
tem of politics and religion, Allen presents the tales in their Canons (1998).
original gynocentric forms. Contributor to many anthologies, including: Talking Leaves:
Contemporary Native American Short Stories (1991); A Circle of
Allens strong commitment to textual restoration also ap- Nations: Voices and Visions of American Indians (1993); No
pears in essays exploring the incompatibilities between female- More Masks! An Anthology of Twentieth-Century American Women
centered traditions and those espoused by individuals raised in Poets, Newly Revised and Expanded (1993); From Different
patriarchal societies; the differences between the European mono- Shores: Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity in America (1994);
theistic and individualist model of society and the community- Growing Up Gay/Growing Up Lesbian: A Literary Anthology
based, multitheistic Native American model; and the impact of (1994); Issues in Feminism: An Introduction to Womens Studies
writing and thinking from a position of tribal-feminism and (1995); The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology
feminist-tribalism that respects the separate natures of men (1996); Classics in Lesbian Studies (1997); The Other Within Us:
and women while stressing the need for both sexes to work in Feminist Explorations of Women and Aging (1997); Recovering
balance with each other. the Word: Essays on Native American Literature (1997); Natives
and Academics: Researching and Writing about American Indi-
Spider Womans Granddaughters (1989) explores 100 years
ans (1998).
of the strong and vital tradition of Native American women in a
collection including traditional tales, biographical writings, and
short stories. Allen feels these are the stories of women at war BIBLIOGRAPHY: Balassi, W., This Is About Vision: Interviews with
who have become captives in their own lands. The major gures Southwestern Writers (1990). Bloom, H., ed., Native American
include Sacred Woman, Grand-mother Spider, and Yel- Women Writers (1998). Bruchac, J., Survival This Way: Inter-
low Corn Woman who appear repeatedly, under various names, views with American Indian Poets (1987). Coltelli, L., Winged


Words: American Indian Writers Speak (1992). Donovan, K. M., Allison is most well known for her novel Bastard Out of
Feminist Readings of Native American Literature: Coming to Carolina (1992), a book with many autobiographical overtones,
Voice (1998). Fleck, R. F., ed., Critical Perspectives on Native although Allison asserts it is not simply an autobiography under
American Fiction (1997). Hanson, E. I., Paula Gunn Allen (1990). another label. Yet much of the plot and many of the details do
Keating, A., Women Reading Women Writing: Self-invention in resemble Allisons life. The protagonist is a young girl named
Paula Gunn Allen, Gloria Anzalda, and Audre Lorde (1996). Ruth Anne Boatwright, known by her nickname, Bone. Bone is
Lang, N. H., Through Landscape Toward Story/Through Story illegitimate, her family is exceptionally poor, and she suffers
Toward Landscape: A Study of Four Native American Women sexual abuse by her mothers current husband, Daddy Glen,
Poets (dissertation, 1991). Rothblum, E. D., ed., Classics in whom her mother had married in part to relieve her family of its
Lesbian Studies (1997). Ruoff, A. L. B., American Indian Litera- poverty. Despite the fact that her mother denies this abuse until
tures (1990). Stauffer, H. W., and S. Rosowski, eds., Women and she can no longer ignore it, Bone achieves some security in her
Western American Literature (1982). Swann, B. and A. Krupat, familys community of women, especially with her Aunt Raylene,
eds., I Tell You Now: Autobiographical Essays by Native Ameri- who had once engaged in a sexual relationship with another
can Writers (1987). Swann, B. and A. Krupat, eds., Recovering woman. While much of Bones experience is marked by a sense of
the Word: Essays on Native American Literature (1987). desperation, she nevertheless is also characterized by the grit of a
Reference works: Benets (1991). FC (1990). Oxford Com- survivor.
panion to Womens Writing in the United States (1995). 20th
Bastard Out of Carolina was both a critical and a popular
Century Western Writers (1991).
success, although some readers found it too blunt in its descrip-
Other references: American Anthropologist (Sept 1990).
tions of poverty and abuse. Allisons writing is consistently direct
American Book Review (Dec 1992, Dec. 1993). American Indian
and never sentimental. Regardless of a readers aesthetic prefer-
Quarterly (Spring 1983, Spring 1991, Spring 1992). Journal of
ences, some of Allisons scenes are painful to read, but this is
Homosexuality (1999). NDQ (interview, Spring 1989). MELUS
precisely her goal. She has stated that individuals of her back-
(interview, Summer 1983).
ground and experience have too often been the objects of writing
by others; her goal, on the other hand, is to tell her own story rather
than be told about, to present her life and the lives of people like
her as fully as possible. Like many ction writers, she claims
stories create what meaning one can nd in life.

ALLISON, Dorothy In addition to Bastard Out of Carolina, Allison has published

poetry, short stories, and essays, as well as a second novel. Her
collection of stories, Trash (1988), received more attention than
Born 11 April 1949, Greenville, South Carolina books published by small presses often do. These stories are
Daughter of Ruth Gibson Allison; children: Wolf Michael characterized by many of the same themes as her longer ction.
More recently, Allison has published a collection of essays and a
When Dorothy Allison was born in 1949, her mother, Ruth memoir, both of which address issues similar to those she raises in
Gibson Allison, was only 15 years old. In addition, she was poor her ction. Skin: Talking About Sex, Class and Literature (1993),
and unmarried. This early experience of dramatic poverty would is provocative both in terms of the ideas it addresses and the style
inuence much of her work. Eventually, Allisons mother married with which it addresses them. Her language, and her style in
a man who was not Allisons father; this stepfather abused her general, is easily accessible; her consistent choice to be direct
sexually for several years, until Allison described the experience precludes any option to participate in jargon that would exclude
to another relative. When Ruth Allison learned of these events, the some of her intended audience. Although Allison is clearly a
abuse stopped, although she remained married to this husband. feminist, she does not avoid some of the current tensions within
This experience of abuse would also inform much of Allisons the mainstream feminist movement, including class differences
writing. and the implications that accompany them. Nor does she shy away
from open acknowledgment of sexuality, sexual preference, and
After high school, Allison attended Florida Presbyterian
desire, even (or especially) when such a direct style may make
College, currently known as Eckerd College; she earned her B.A.
some readers uncomfortable. She is no more willing, in other
in 1971. She was introduced to feminism during her college years,
words, to tone her story down for middle-class feminists than she
an experience she credits with validating her life and feelings. She
would be for conservative men.
later earned an M.A. from the progressive New School for Social
Research in New York City. She currently lives in California. Allisons recent book, Cavedweller (1997), is her second
Unlike many writers who have come of age during the last novel. Cavedweller is less obviously autobiographical. Critics
generation, Allison did not serve an apprenticeship in a creative have found this novel somewhat less stunning than her rst, but
writing program; she did not begin to consider herself a serious that is perhaps inevitable. For the foreseeable future, Allison is
writer until after she earned her masters degree. She has been likely to remain known most as the author of Bastard Out
nominated for a National Book Award and has won a Lambda of Carolina, which was turned into a controversial lm by
Literary award. Anjelica Huston.


OTHER WORKS: The Women Who Hate Me (1983). The Women with all of Althers books, it was highly praised and also strongly
Who Hate Me: Poetry, 1980-1990 (1991). Two or Three Things I condemned. Most critics praised it for its verbal wit and for the
Know for Sure (1995). irony with which the sexual escapades target stereotypes, male
sexual conquest, and adult sanctimoniousness; many recognized
it as serious social criticism. Very few mentioned the serious
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: CANR (1998). Oxford Com- mother-daughter plot or perceived the female bildungsroman
panion to Womens Writing in the United States (1995). structure of the book.
LYNN DOMINA In Original Sins (1981) Alther juggles the stories of ve
protagonists who nd their small-town Southern environment
pernicious. Whereas Kinicks is picaresque in its emphasis on the
journey away, Original Sins focuses on home and its limitations.
ALTHER, Lisa But as the Five mature, their self-awareness, like that of Mrs.
Babcock, offers more hope for them than for their parents. Critics
Born Elisabeth Greene Reed, 23 July 1944, Kingsport, Tennessee agreed the two female characters sexual experiences are the most
Daughter of John S. and Alice Greene Reed; married Richard P. vivid aspects of this book. In Other Women (1984), Alther again
Alther, 1966 (divorced); children: Sara juxtaposes the lives of two women, a confused nurse who has
experimented sexually as had Ginny Babcock in her search for
Though she was born and grew up in the South, Lisa Alther meaning, and an older woman psychotherapist, whose counsel
has spent all of her adult life in the North. She graduated from stems from her own tragic experiences. The book is unusual in
Wellesley College, married in 1966, and has lived for many years focusing equally on patient and therapist and offers their relation-
on the edge of a small town in Vermont. Alther has taught ship as a model of feminist therapy, nonhierarchical and eventuat-
Southern ction at St. Michaels College in Winooski, Vermont. ing in friendship. Though friendship between two women that
She identies herself as a Southern writer, however, because of blossoms into love is central to Bedrock (1990), the focus really is
the inuence of storytelling in her home and her early exposure by on a town in Vermont to which one of them ees in her search for
her English-teacher mother to the works of Eudora Welty, Flannery meaning. The 20-year romantic friendship between the two wom-
OConnor, Katherine Anne Porter, and Carson McCullers. From en in Bedrock is loosely based on the friendship between Virginia
her father, a surgeon, she acquired an interest in science, which Woolf and Vita Sackville-West. We see all the hypocrisy and
was reected in her earliest publications about the environment self-delusion of less than admirable characters, but the tone
and her continuing use of scientic metaphors. Her rst two sometimes almost farcicalis accepting and hopeful. Clea Shawn
novels are set in her native South; the second two in New England. loses her romantic illusions about a small town, remodels a
All of them reect smalltown life and deal with problems of decaying house, and nds happiness when she recognizes that her
community. long friendship with Elka is the basis of a lesbian relationship.

Alther has said she had over 200 rejection slips before her Five Minutes in Heaven (1995) follows its main character
rst ction publication, Kinicks (1976). The novel was so from childhood in Tennessee to adulthood in New York City and
nancially successful Alther has been able to write in her pre- Paris. Along the way, Jude has a number of relationships that force
ferred manner, taking several months between multiple drafts and her to come to terms with her sexuality. First, she has an attraction
a year between books. Though widely admired for her comic tone, to her best friend, Molly. After Molly dies and Jude tries to sort out
Alther is a serious writer who has focused on the ironies involved her feelings about her emerging lesbianism, she begins a relation-
in the search for meaning by characters trying to avoid stereotypical, ship and falls in love with a gay man. After losing Sandy, Jude has
inherited responses to the hostile forces of 20th-century life. a passionate love affair with a married woman. After moving to
Kinicks deals with the 1960s generations agonized conicts Paris, she nally nds comfort in her sexuality.
over sex, religion, education, and the war in Vietnam. In half the Alther explains why she wrote Five Minutes in Heaven:
chapters, Ginny Babcock recapitulates her youthful rebellion Three of my best friends died violent deathsone when we
against her parents life pattern and goals and savagely rejects were teenagers, and the other two when we were in our forties.
religious rationalizations of their greed, racism, and class preju- Five Minutes in Heaven, an extended meditation on graveyard
dices. Adolescent sexual initiation rites furnish ironic views of the love (the kind of love that lasts until youre both dead and buried
older generations hypocrisy about sex, and Ginnys search for in the graveyard), is my memorial to them. The book, Alther
alternatives includes experiments with backseat petting, hetero- says, is an extended meditation on love in all its phasesthe
sexual and homosexual monogamy, and lesbian communes. In longing for it, the contentment of its fulllment, the pain of its
alternate chapters, Alther uses a third person narrator to show loss, the memories of it that can shape a persons life. Though
Ginnys return home at twenty-seven to the bedside of her dying Althers books are lauded for her wit and humor, Five Minutes in
mother and their reconciliation when Ginny realizes her mother Heaven is much more serious and rarely gives the reader a reason
had deliberately played the stereotypical mother role in order to to laugh.
meet her childrens need for meaning. Mrs. Babcocks self-aware-
ness frees Ginny from guilt and the necessity of role playing. Althers works trace the experiences of her generation and
Kinicks has been very popular; in the 1990s it was in print. As continue to be popular. Though critical acceptance of Bedrock


was somewhat grudging, her work is now being seriously consid- With the move to the U.S., lvarez began to realize the
ered by critics and scholars. Althers books have been worldwide power of language in giving one a sense of place and belonging.
bestsellers and have been translated into 17 languages including As an adolescent at the Abbott School, a boarding school north of
French, German, Dutch, Japanese, and Spanish. Her novella Boston, lvarez says she landed in the English language. The
Birdman and the Dancer (1993), is an adult fairy tale based on process of assimilation took her away, however, from the Spanish
monotypes by French artist Franoise Gilot. It has been published of her youth. Writing novels and poetry that center on the
only in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany. immigrant experience is a way for lvarez to reclaim her cultural
Many of Althers reviews and articles have been published in
the New York Times, Art and Antiques, Los Angeles Times, Boston Her rst book-length work of ction, How the Garca Girls
Globe, Washington Post, San Francisco Chronicle, Natural His- Lost Their Accents (1991), was awarded the Pen Oakland/Josephine
tory, New Society, and the Guardian. Miles award. This collection of interconnected short stories
centers around the character of Yolanda Garca, the third child in a
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Abel, E., et al., eds., The Voyage In: Fictions of Dominican family that has ed their homeland and resettled in
Female Development (1983). Prenshaw, P., ed., Women Writers New York City. Yolanda and her three sisters, Carla, Sandra and
of the Contemporary South (1984). Todd, J., ed., Gender and Soa, struggle to be accepted in their new country. As the title
Literary Voice (1980). reveals, this story is one of assimilation and the loss that assimila-
Reference works: CA (1977). CLC (1977, 1987). CANR tion inevitably entails. Arranged in reverse chronology, the
(1984, 1990). FC (1990). MTCW (1991). grown-up Garca girls at the beginning of the work have already
Other references: Appalachia/America (1980). Arizona Quar- lost their accents, but like many immigrants, they have also come
terly (Winter 1982). Booklist (1 Mar. 1995). DIA (1988). Fron- to realize the importance of holding fast to the ties that bind them
tiers 4 (1979). PW (27 Feb. 1995). to Caribbean culture and to the country they were born in. As the
stories work their way backward to the girls childhood in the
MARY ANNE FERGUSON, Dominican Republic, they become increasingly assured and pow-
UPDATED BY NICK ASSENDELFT erful. Donna Rifkind, in a review for the New York Times Book
Review, said that lvarez has beautifully captured the threshold
experience of the new immigrant, where the past is not yet a
memory and the future remains an anxious dream.
In the Time of the Butteries (1994), lvarezs second novel,
takes place in the Dominican Republic during Rafael Lenidas
Born 27 March 1950, New York, New York
Trujillos brutal 31-year regime. The novel weaves historical fact
with ction to tell the story of the coming of age of four sisters:
Julia lvarezs family ed the Trujillo dictatorship in the
Minerva, Patria Mercedes, Ded and Mara Teresa (Mate).
Dominican Republic in 1960, when she was ten years old. They
went to live in New York City, where lvarezs grandfather had Known throughout Latin America by their code name, Las
worked as the Dominican cultural attach to the United Nations. Mariposas, the butteries, Minerva, Patria, and Mara Teresa
By the time she attended Connecticut College, lvarez was Mirabal, were murdered by Trujillos henchmen in 1960 on the
already receiving prizes for her poetry. She transferred to way home from visiting their husbands in jail. The novel traces the
Middlebury College in Vermont, where she graduated summa transformation of these ordinary girls into extraordinary young
cum laude in 1971 and was awarded the colleges creative writing women, revolutionaries who lose their lives in their countrys
prize. In 1975 she received a Masters degree in creative writing struggle for democracy.
from Syracuse University. She has taught writing to students of all As In the Time of the Butteries opens, Ded, the one sister
levels and all ages, from young children to senior citizens. In 1996 who survives, is preparing to be interviewed by a Dominican-
she received a Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, from the American novelist who is writing a book about the Mirabal sisters
City University of New York, John Jay College. She is currently a and the events leading up to their murders. Using rst-person
full professor in the English Department at Middlebury and a narratives, lvarez gives each of the sisters a turn to tell her story.
frequent scholar at the Bread Loaf Writers Conference. The youngest, Mate, condes her secretsmostly the giggly,
It was the emotional upheaval caused by leaving her home- romantic varietyto a diary. The voice of Patria, the pious sister
land and her language behind which led lvarez to become a who as a young girl dreams of becoming a nun, is at times almost
writer. Of her childhood in the Dominican Republic she states: prayer-like, as if her words were meant for the Virgin Marys ears
The power of stories was all around me. lvarez was a or for a hushed confessional. Minerva speaks with authority and
reluctant student, who seized every opportunity to play hooky insight, like the lawyer she studies to become (only to be prevent-
from the Carol Morgan School that she attended with her three ed from practicing by a direct order from Trujillo himself). Deds
sisters, but who relished furtively reading The Thousand and One story, however, alternates between the rst and third person. She
Nights under the bedskirts or hearing legends and stories told by is the one who survives to tell and retell her sisters story, living
her elders, from the aunts and uncles in her extensive family to the out her years in their childhood home, which has been turned into
domestic servants who worked for them. a museum where the curious ock like pilgrims to see the relics of


the Mirabal sisters, martyrs to the cause of democracy, brought to with the poets Alice and Phoebe Cary, to the Utica Morning
life again by Deds words and by lvarezs own skillful writing. Herald and the Springeld (Massachusetts) Republican.

In lvarezs third novel, Yo! (1997), she continues the After her marriage to a minister ended, Ames began a
exploration of multiple narrators that is a hallmark of her ction. Womans Letter from Washington, for the New York Indepen-
Yo, Spanish for I, is also short for Yolanda, but the Yolanda of dent. The column continued from 1866 until her death. She also
How the Garca Girls Lost Their Accents is now a thirty-ve- wrote for the Brooklyn Daily Union and for the Cincinnati
year-old free spirit who has been waylaid from her early promise Commercial. Her literary output from 1870 on included two
as a scholar by hippie boyfriends and bad decisions. Seen only in novels, A Memorial to Alice and Phoebe Cary (1873), two
this novel from without, by family, friends, and others, she is still volumes based on her columns, and a book of poetry. A year
caught between two cultures but manages nally to nd a before she died, she married Edmund Hudson, a Washington
place for herself as a happily married and successful writer. journalist.
Ames literary signicance stems mainly from her column in
Before turning to ction, lvarez focused on poetry. She
the inuential weekly, the Independent. It made her one of the best
received the American Academy of Poetry Prize in 1974 and a
known of a group of post-Civil War women Washington corre-
1987-88 National Endowment for the Arts Poetry Grant. She has
spondents, known as literary ladies. Avoiding social news, she
published three collections of poetry: Housekeeping Book (hand
concentrated on political issues, defending the freed Black and
printed in 1984), Homecoming (rst published in 1984, with a
civil rights, and sharply criticizing the excesses of Gilded-Age
revised, expanded edition appearing in 1996), and The Other Side/ politics. She moved in the same social circles as leading politi-
El Otro Lado (1995). lvarezs poetry and essays have appeared cians and used them as news sources.
in the Kenyon Review, Hispanic magazine, the New Yorker, the
New York Times Magazine, and the Washington Post Magazine. In spite of her participation in the masculine worlds of both
politics and journalism, Ames repeatedly told her readers that she
lvarez has also written nonction. Something to Declare, a modestly shrank from public notice and preferred the domestic
collection of her essays, deals with many of the themes she treats scene to the political arena. Asserting her career had been the
in her ction and poetry: the immigrant experience, the politics of product of nancial necessity, she justied it morally on the
language, the importance of retaining cultural identity. Inasmuch grounds that women journalists had a spiritual duty to purify
as they treat becoming and living as a writer, however, the essays politics, even if their efforts brought them unwelcome personal
in Something to Declare also explore new territory. They are attention. She did not appear publicly to support woman suffrage,
particularly revealing in that they illustrate just how much of although she did advocate it. Considering suffrage less important
lvarezs creative work parallels her own life history: There is than economic gains, she wrote: Women can live nobly without
no such thing as straight-up ction, lvarez declares. In spite voting; but they cannot live without bread.
of our caution and precaution, bits of our lives will get into what
Ames weekly columns bore the hallmark of popular Victori-
we write.
an literatureexcessive sentiment, self-conscious moralizing,
and verbosity. Still, they provided an intriguing picture of a
BIBLIOGRAPHY: American Book Review (Aug. 1992). CLC (1996). woman standing apart from the seamy side of politics and pin-
Hispanic Journal (Spring 1993). Nation (7 Nov. 1994). New pointing politicians guilty of drunkenness and corruption. The
England Review (Summer 1993). NYTBR (6 Oct. 1991). PW (16 books based on her columnsOutlines of Men, Women and
Dec. 1996). WRB (May 1995). Things (1873) and Ten Years in Washington (1873)emphasized
people and places rather than politics. Part guidebook to the
capital, Ten Years in Washington, a subscription book reprinted
three times, was crammed with historical lore. Outlines included
descriptions of scenic spots, biographical sketches of literary and
theatrical gures, and, more importantly, several essays dealing
with relations between the sexes. Ames urged men to subscribe to
AMES, Mary E. Clemmer the pure moral standards of women and exhorted women to
educate themselves. Her most successful work of nonction, A
Born 6 May 1831, Utica, New York; died 18 August 1884, Memorial to Alice and Phoebe Cary, a gushing tribute to the
Washington, D.C. women who had befriended her, drew critical acclaim in a
Wrote under: M.C.A., Mary Clemmer, Mary Clemmer Ames sentimental era.
Daughter of Abraham and Margaret Kneale Clemmer; married Making a virtue of what was obviously a handicap to a
Daniel Ames, 1851; Edmund Hudson, 1883 Washington correspondenther sexshe contended that her
womanhood gave her the right to comment on political issues to
The oldest of seven children, Mary E. Clemmer Ames moved promote reform. Trading on the Victorian mystique that women
with her family to Westeld, Massachusetts, where she attended possessed a higher moral sense than men, she showed that a facile
the Westeld Academy. Her career began in 1859, when she sent woman writer could make a place for herself by pointing a nger
letters from New York City, where she was living temporarily of righteous scorn and indignation at the men who ran the country.


OTHER WORKS: Victoire (1864). Eirene, or, A Womans Right became the rst black diva at the Metropolitan Opera, singing
(1871). His Two Wives (1875). Memorial Sketch of Elizabeth Ulrica in The Masked Ball (1955).
Emerson Atwater (1879). Poems of Life and Nature (1883).
In 1957 Anderson published her autobiography, My Lord
What a Morning. Her writing style is not vivid, but she gives a
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Beasley, M. H., The First Women Washington clear picture of herself as a simple, deeply religious woman who
Correspondents (George Washington University Studies No. 4, feels a strong obligation to use her talent for others benet. She
1976). Beasley, M. H., and S. Silver, Women in Media: A writes of her career in personal terms, omitting many of the honors
Documentary Source Book (1977). Hudson, E., An American that have accrued to her. They are manyover three dozen
Womans Life and Work: A Memorial of Mary Clemmer (1886). honorary degrees from American universities, the Bok Award
Whiting, L., Mary Clemmer, in Our Famous Women (1884). (1940), the Finnish decoration (1940), the Swedish Litteris et
Other references: Arthurs Home Magazine (Dec. 1884). The Artibus medal (1952), the Japanese Yokusho Medal (1953), the
Cottage Hearth (Feb. 1875). The Independent (28 Aug. 1884). Gimbel Award (1958), and the U.S. Institute of Arts and Sciences
gold medal (1958). She became a delegate to the Thirteenth
MAURINE BEASLEY General Assembly of the United Nations (1958) and, in 1963, was
awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest hon-
or an American civilian can attain. In 1965 Anderson retired
from singing and to live quietly in Danbury, Connecticut. She
ANDERSON, Marian died in 1993.

Born 17 February 1902, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; died 1993 OTHER WORKS: Essay featured in Written By Herself: Autobiog-
Daughter of John Berkeley and Anna Anderson; married Orphe- raphy of American Women: An Anthology (1992).
us H. Fisher, 1943

Marian Anderson was the eldest of three daughters. The BIBLIOGRAPHY: Formica, R., Black Americans of Achievement: A
unusual quality of her voice was noted by the time she was six Teachers Guide (1992). Kostman, S., Twentieth Century Women
years old. She began singing in the choir of the Union Baptist of Achievement (1976). Perry, S., Things from the Heart: Marian
Church near her home, and her remarkable range permitted her to Andersons Story (1981). Richardson, B., and W. A. Fahey, Great
substitute for absent sopranos, mezzos, or altos with equal ease. Black Americans (1976). Roosevelt, F. W., Doers and Dowagers
Eventually, her voice developed into a rich contralto, with a (1975). Smallwood, D., Proles of Great African Americans
particularly beautiful middle register. (1998). Smaridge, N., Trailblazers in American Arts (1971).
Spivey, L., Singing Heart: A Story Based on the Life of Marian
Her father died when she was very young, and before she was Anderson. Topplin, E. A., Biographical History of Blacks in
fteen, she began to take singing engagements to help support the America since 1528 (1971). Vehanan, K., Marian Anderson: A
family. She was unable to enroll at the Philadelphia Academy of Portrait (1941). Ware, S., Letter to the World: Seven Women Who
Music, but the black community subscribed funds for her to study Shaped the American Century (1998).
with noted voice teacher Giuseppe Boghetti, who gave her the Other references: AH (Feb. 1977). American Women of
only formal coaching she ever received. For several years she Achievement Video Collection (video, 1995). Marian Anderson
toured in the eastern and southern United States, performing (video, 1998). Marian Anderson Rare and Unpublished Record-
mostly for church groups. In 1925 Boghetti entered her name in a ings, 1936-1952 (audio, 1998).
national competition held in New York; she sang at the Lewisohn
Stadium and won rst prize out of 300 entrants. That was the HELENE KOON
beginning of her career.
In 1930 she studied in Europe, and the following year began
to concertize there. A Scandinavian tour brought favorable recog- ANDREW, Joseph Maree
nition, and by 1932 she was in demand in all the European See BONNER, Marita
capitals. Toscanini called hers The voice that comes once in a
hundred years! Her U.S. tour in 1936 was a triumph, but it was
the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) who made her
name familiar in every American household. In 1939 Anderson ANDREWS, Eliza Frances
was scheduled to sing at Constitution Hall, owned by the DAR in
Washington, but the organization decreed that no black singer Born 10 August 1840, Washington, Georgia; died 21 January
could appear there. Eleanor Roosevelt resigned in protest, and 1931, Rome, Georgia
newspapers carried the story across the country. When Anderson Wrote under: Elzey Hay
was asked to sing at the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday that Daughter of Garnett and Annulet Ball Andrews
year, 15,000 people gathered before the steps, and the incident
marked a turning point for black artists. Anderson married in Eliza Frances Andrews was born at Haywood, the plantation
1943, but she continued to concertize all over the world. She home of her parents. The family was moderately wealthy by


Southern standards, owning about 200 slaves. Andrews attended Two other novels, A Mere Adventurer (1879) and Prince
the Washington Seminary for Girls and graduated in the rst class Hal; or, the Romance of a Rich Young Man (1882), were equally
from the LaGrange Female College in 1857. successful with readers.
When Georgia seceded from the Union in January 1861,
Andrews father achieved notoriety for his uncompromising op- OTHER WORKS: Botany All the Year Round; a Practical Textbook
position to secession and his subsequent refusal to support the new for Schools (1893). Seven Great Battles of the Army of Northern
Confederacy. Although he permitted three of his sons to join the Virginia: A Program of Study and Entertainment (1906). A
Confederate army, he did not tolerate the secessionist views of his Practical Course in Botany, With Especial Reference to Its
daughters, which led to many family arguments. Bearings on Agriculture, Economics, and Sanitation (1911). The
War-time Journals of a Georgia Girl, 1864-1865 (reissued, 1997).
In December 1864, Andrews began her diary, published as The papers of Eliza Frances Andrews are in the Garnett
The War-time Journal of a Georgia Girl (1908), with an account Andrews Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of
of a trip to visit her sister near Albany, Georgia. Andrews and a North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
younger sister had to travel over rough, partially destroyed roads,
with the ever-present fear of ambush by Shermans men. Once at
their sisters, however, the two girls enjoyed a round of visits and BIBLIOGRAPHY: Coulter, E. M., Travels in the Confederate States
parties, strangely gay for a time of political and military disinte- (1948). Hart, B. S., Introduction to Georgia Writers (1929). King,
gration. Andrews ne eye for detail gives the reader a fascinating S. B., Jr., ed., Wartime Journal of a Georgia Girl (1960 ed.).
portrait of social life in the rural Confederacy. Occasionally she Tardy, M. T., ed., The Living Female Writers of the South (1872).
lapses into girlish concerns, reporting all the compliments she Reference works: NAW 1607-1950 (1971). A Woman of the
received on her appearance, but her natural skepticism always Century, F. E. Willard and M. A. Livermore (1893).
rescues her and the diary from silliness. In March 1865 Andrews Other references: NYT (23 Jan. 1931).
returned to Washington, Georgia, to witness the fall of the
Confederacy. There she met Jefferson Davis on his ight from his
After her fathers death in 1873, Andrews began teaching
school. She served as principal of the Girls High School in Yazoo ANDREWS, Jane
City, Mississippi, later became principal of a girls seminary in
Washington, Georgia, and from 1885 to 1896 taught French and Born 1 December 1833, Newburyport, Massachusetts; died 15
literature at the Wesleyan Female College in Macon, Georgia. July 1887, Newburyport, Massachusetts
Andrews then returned home to Washington to teach botany in the Daughter of John and Margaret Demmon Rand Andrews
public high school. After her retirement from teaching, she
published two textbooks on botany. Jane Andrews was born and raised in the midst of the
vigorous nationalism of mid-19th century New England. She
Andrews literary career began in 1865 with an article on inherited from her family a spirit of intellectual concern and
Reconstruction in Georgia published in the New York World. A benevolence which, taken together with a broad outlook, led her to
second article on womens life and fashions appeared in Godeys become one of the earliest proponents of internationalism in
Ladys Book the following year. Her rst novel, A Family Secret education. Andrews school friends at the Newbury Massachu-
(1876), quickly became a bestseller. This mystery, set in the setts Putnam Free School and the State Normal School at West
immediate postwar south, revolves around the romance between Newton, Massachusetts, included a sister-in-law of education
Audley Malvern and Ruth Hareur and their attempts to discover reformer Horace Mann. Mann persuaded Andrews that she would
the secret of Ruths parents and the unusual ring she wears. It is nd the kind of education she wanted at his new college, Antioch,
lled with such typical 19th-century literary conventions as a where, subsequently, she was the rst student to register. Howev-
ghost in a graveyard, mistaken identities, and a last chapter er, the onset of a neurological disorder described as spinal
entitled Everybody Gets Married and Lives Happy Forever affection cut short her education in the middle of the rst year
After. and left her an invalid for the next six years. Nonetheless, Manns
inuence reinforced her commitment to believing in ones re-
A Family Secret is of interest to the modern reader for its
sponsibility to society, a commitment that inuenced the direction
strong statements on the position of women. Audleys sister, Julia
of the teaching and writing she practiced during the remainder of
Malvern, an unsuccessful teacher, writer, and clerk, concludes
her life.
that marriage for money is the only way out of her nancial
dilemma. She is not happy about this, however: Marrying for In 1860, sufciently recovered from her illness to work,
money never makes people better, but it leaves us so poor in our Andrews founded a primary school in her home. This school,
own estimation, so mean in spirit, so hollow, so empty, and, after characterized by advanced educational methods including experi-
all, so unsatised, that sometimes I almost doubt whether it ments, plays, games, and stories, was extremely successful and
pays. A few pages later she exclaims, Oh, the slavery it is to be continued to be Andrews focus for the next 25 years. In her
a woman and not a fool! school she cultivated observation, individual responsibility, and


creative expression in the hope of molding responsible citizens for most of her married life in Syracuse, New York, spending her
life in a society where all people were equal. summers in the familys wilderness camp in Quebec, which
provided the setting for much of her ction. Her only son, Paul
Andrews rst book, Seven Little Sisters Who Live on the
Shipman Andrews, became dean of the College of Law of
Round Ball That Floats in the Air (1861), grew out of stories she
Syracuse University.
created to supplement the geography lessons in her school. Each
story focuses on a little girl in a different culture and emphasizes Andrews rst published story, Crowned with Glory and
that although the external circumstances of life are very different Honor (1902), appeared in Scribners Magazine, and it was in
for each child, each is happy and is one of Gods family. The same the short story genre that she was to achieve distinction. From
motive held for the sequel, Each and All: Seven Little Sisters
1902 until 1929 her many stories appeared, chiey in Scribners,
Prove Their Sisterhood (1877) and for a historical counterpart,
but also in other leading journals. Most of these stories were later
Ten Boys Who Lived on the Road From Long Ago to Now (1886),
published in book form, in such collections as The Militants
which traces our race from its Aryan sources to the present.
(1907), The Eternal Masculine (1913), and The Eternal Feminine
Through these books, all of which emphasize the kinship of
(1916). Some of her best known stories, such as The Perfect
children throughout the world, Andrews hoped to offset the effect
of books like Peter Parleys, in which children from other lands Tribute (1906), appeared rst in Scribners and were later pub-
were characteristically made to look strange and unlike the lished as separate books. She also wrote novels, notably The
children for whom the books were intended. The books also Marshal (1912), a historical novel set in Napoleonic times; a book
provided an alternative morality to that of the McGuffey readers of World War I poetry, Crosses of War (1918); and a biography of
which depicted virtue as being of personal rather than of social Florence Nightingale, A Lost Commander (1929). However, it is
concern. her short tales which are of interest to the literary historian.

The Stories Mother Nature Told Her Children (1889) empha- Andrews bestselling book The Perfect Tribute, illustrates
sizes the wonder of nature, and although Andrews tends at times the qualities of her writing that accounted for her popularity with
to humanize nature and to moralize (Mother Nature. . . is she to her contemporaries but which have resulted in her obscurity
whom God has given the care of the earth. . . just as he has given to today. This ctional account of Abraham Lincolns disappoint-
your mother the care of her family of boys and girls), the stories ment over the reception of his Gettysburg Address was the rst of
in this volume and those collected in Only a Year and What It several Lincoln stories written by Andrews. The tale is embel-
Brought (1888) and The Stories of My Four Friends (1900) reect lished with Andrews own historical facts and is a sentimental
her close observation of nature and her excitement at its processes. tale of Lincolns aid to a dying young Confederate soldier,
through whom Lincoln learns of the true greatness of his speech.
OTHER WORKS: Geographical Plays for Young Folks at Home Bathos, didacticism, and superpatriotism characterize this story,
and School (1880). The Childs Health Primer (1885). whose hero, Captain Blair, is virtually interchangeable with the
young, handsome, perfect heroes of many of Andrews other
works. Yet, the authors instinct for drama, her sincerity, and her
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Green, N. K., A Forgotten Chapter in American vivid description of Lincoln caused contemporary critics to over-
Education: Jane Andrews of Newburyport (1961). Hopkins, L. P., look the storys faults. The book went into many printings,
foreword to Jane Andrews Seven Little Sisters Who Live on the eventually selling more than 600,000 copies. It has been often
Round Ball That Floats in the Air (1897 ed.). Spofford, H. P., A anthologized, and its version of Lincoln has been read by thou-
Little Book of Friends (1916). sands of American schoolchildren.
Other references: EngElemR (May 1936).
In addition to her successful Lincoln tales, Andrews wrote a
KATHARYN F. CRABBE variety of stories which exemplify the types of magazine ction
popular with the American reader of the early 1900s. Whereas the
stories varied in content from love stories to adventure yarns to
patriotic war tales, they shared the common traits of superciality,
ANDREWS, Mary (Raymond) Shipman sentimentality, and melodramaalong with the ability to enter-
tain the reader. The best of them were her outdoor stories, many of
Born 2 April 1860, Mobile, Alabama; died 2 August 1936, which appeared in two collections, Bob and the Guides (1906),
Syracuse, New York written for and about young boys, and The Eternal Masculine, for
Daughter of Jacob Shaw and Ann Louise Gold Johns Shipman; adults. These stories of hunting, shing, and camping adventures
married William Shankland Andrews, 1884; children: Paul have a vitality which stems from Andrews own love of the
Shipman Andrews outdoors; in them, melodrama is kept to a minimum.

Mary Shipman Andrews, a popular ction writer of the early Although most of Andrews ction features male protago-
20th century, was raised and educated in Lexington, Kentucky, nists and takes place in the so-called masculine worlds of the
the oldest child of an Episcopalian minister. Her husband was a courtroom, the battleeld, and the wilderness, she wrote several
lawyer who later became a distinguished judge. Andrews lived stories from a womans point of view. Most of them are collected


in The Eternal Feminine, and vary in quality from the simplistic Andrews was conned at home partly due to an accident she
title story to the moving A Play to the Gallery. had as a teenager. She fell down the stairs at school, causing back
pain and spinal spurs, and it was years before the problem was
In her last years, Andrews realized that the audience for her accepted and treated by physicians. She spent her teenage years on
type of writing was declining and tried, unsuccessfully, to develop crutches and her adult life in a wheelchair because walking was so
a more modern approach. In themselves the stories have little painful. Giving up her dream of becoming an actress, she turned to
appeal for the modern reader; their interest lies primarily in their writing so that she could become many different characters in her
reection of popular literary taste of the early 20th century. imagination.

For seven years Andrews stayed up late writing, either by

OTHER WORKS: Vive LEmpereur (1902). A Kidnapped Colony sitting up in bed with a typewriter, or standing to write while
(1903). A Good Samaritan (1906). The Enchanted Forest (1909). wearing a back brace. By writing obsessively, sometimes as many
Counsel Assigned (1912). August First (with R. I. Murray, 1915). as 40 pages a night, Andrews produced 9 books and 20 short
Three Things (1915). Old Glory (1916). Joy in the Morning stories. She marketed them all but sold only a ctional piece for a
(1919). His Soul Goes Marching On (1922). Pontifex Maximus confessional magazine.
(1925). White Satin Dress (1930).
Andrews big break came in 1979 when Pocket Books
encouraged her to edit and then resubmit her 290,000-word novel,
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hopkins, J. G. E., The Scribner Treasury (1953). The Obsessed. After she had trimmed it down to 98 pages, she was
Reference works: The Junior Book of Authors, S. J. Kunitz, then asked to expand the novel by making it more sexually explicit
and H. Haycraft, eds. (1934). NAW, 1607-1950 (1971). Twentieth and grotesque. Renamed Flowers in the Attic, the novel became a
Century Authors, S. J. Kunitz, and H. Haycraft, eds. (1942). bestseller in two weeks. Detailing the lives of four children,
Other references: Newsweek (17 Oct. 1936). NYT (3 Cathy, Chris, Carrie, and Cory Dollanganger, who must live
Aug. 1936). hidden away in an attic, the novel was classied as horror. All the
children are products of incest, and their mother imprisons them
MARLENE KONDELIK because their grandfather might learn of their existence and cut
her out of his will. Incest between the older son and daughter is
also hinted at.

Andrews immediately began a sequel, and in 1980 Flowers

ANDREWS, V(irginia) C(leo) in the Attic was released as a hardcover and its sequel, Petals on
the Wind, was released as a paperback. Both appeared on the
bestseller lists that year, selling over seven million copies in two
Born 6 June 1924, Portsmouth, Virginia; died 19 December 1986,
years. Andrews advances surged from $7,500 to $35,000 to
Virginia Beach, Virginia
$75,000 for the third book in the series, If There Be Thorns,
Wrote under: V. C. Andrews
published in 1981. Again within two weeks, Andrews third novel
Daughter of Lillian Lilnora (Parker) and William Henry Andrews
appeared on the bestseller lists.

V. C. Andrews series of horror/gothic novels made her a In 1982 Andrews took a break from the Dollanganger series
worldwide bestselling author over her seven-year writing career. to write My Sweet Audrina. Despite its status as a stand-alone
Catering mainly to adolescent females, Andrews stories deal novel, it made sales comparable to those of her rst three books,
with young, frustrated, imprisoned, desperate characters who perhaps because of name recognition. My Sweet Audrina deals
manage to overcome their tragic situations and obtain revenge with a girls bizarre childhood in which she is forced by her family
against their oppressors. The novels tend to revolve around to forego her own identity for that of her dead sister. In 1984
forbidden love (particularly incest), rape, and child abuse. Their Andrews completed the saga of the Dollangangers with Seeds of
popularity has been attributed to Andrews ability to capture the Yesterday. She went on to begin another saga, this one concerning
feelings of adolescents who simultaneously feel the helplessness the Casteel family of West Virginia. Heaven (1985) was followed
of childhood and the negative side of adulthood. by Dark Angel (1986), which went to number one on the best
sellers chart two days after its release. Andrews was declared the
Andrews spent almost her entire childhood in Portsmouth, top bestselling author by the American Booksellers Association.
Virginia, with a brief sojourn in Rochester, New York. The
youngest of three children and the only daughter, Andrews Andrews died of breast cancer in 1986, but her name contin-
secured her rst library card and the opportunity to take art classes ues to be placed on the covers of new family sagas. Shortly before
at the local junior college at the age of seven. She later completed her death, Andrews stated that she had written down 63 synopses
a correspondence course in art over four years, going on to of novels she planned to write. Four books published after 1986
become a successful commercial artist and selling every piece she may have been completed by Andrew Neiderman, who continues
painted. to publish novels under her name.


OTHER WORKS: Garden of Shadows (1987). Fallen Hearts (1988). Gather Together in My Name (1974) is the second of
Gates of Paradise (1989). Web of Dreams (1990). Angelous autobiographical novels, and continues the story of her
search for meaning and security in an unstable world. Singin and
Swingin and Gettin Merry Like Christmas (1976) is the third
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Huntley, E. D., V. C. Andrews: A Critical Com-
autobiographical novel, and it traces Angelous rise to promi-
panion (1996). Winter, D., Faces of Fear (1985).
nence as a performer.
Reference works: CA 97-100 (1981). CANR 21 (1987).
Other references: LAT (obituary, 21 Dec. 1986). NYT (obitu- Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water Fore I Diiie (1971) is a
ary, 21 Dec. 1986). collection of 39 poems, divided into two parts: one group gentle
and personal, the other much more militant. Though this poetry
ROSE SECREST collection, her rst, received less critical attention than her novels,
it was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize.
Angelous career as poet, writer of autobiographical narra-
ANGELOU, Maya tives, dramatist, and teacher continued in the 1980s and 1990s in
much the same energetic vein as her earlier career. Appointed to a
Born Marguerite Johnson, 4 April 1928, St. Louis, Missouri lifetime chair as Z. Smith Reynolds Professor of American
Daughter of Bailey and Vivian Baxter Johnson; married Tosh Studies at Wake Forest University in 1981, Angelou has since
Angelou (divorced); Paul Du Feu, 1973 published more autobiographical narratives, volumes of poetry,
and a book-length poem for children entitled Life Doesnt Fright-
Upon the breakup of her parents marriage, Angelou and her en Me (1993). She has also authored the screenplay for a televi-
older brother were sent to live with their paternal grandmother, sion drama and hosted and written a series of documentaries,
Annie Henderson, in Stamps, Arkansas. She lived there until Maya Angelou: A Journey of the Heart. During the 1993 inaugural
her graduation with honors from Lafayette County Training ceremony of President Clinton, Angelou read her celebratory poem.
School in 1940. The Heart of a Woman (1981), Angelous fourth autobio-
Angelou then moved to San Francisco to live with her graphical narrative, describes her beginnings as a serious writer
mother. In 1944, after graduation from Mission High School, she and her involvement with the Harlem Writers Guild. It also traces
gave birth to a son, Guy, the product of an affair with a neighbors her career as a performer during the period of the Civil Rights and
son. As a teenager Angelou studied dance and drama in San Black Power movements of the 1950s and 1960s and her move to
Francisco. In the 1950s she performed in nightclubs in San Egypt with her husband, a South African revolutionary. Becom-
Francisco and New York, and appeared in Porgy and Bess as part ing increasingly active politically, she shifted away from the
of a 22-country tour of Europe and Africa. In 1966, Angelou pacist politics of Martin Luther King towards the nationalist
joined the Theatre of Being in Hollywood, and by 1970 she was a philosophy of Malcolm X. Much of the book is concerned with the
writer-in-residence at the University of Kansas and lecturer at question of gender roles in her relationships to her son, Guy
Yale University. In this year she published the rst of her Johnson (born 1944), and to her husband. The book ends with the
autobiographical works. breakup of her marriage and her decision to take a job at the
University of Ghana.
Angelous rst autobiographical novel, I Know Why the
Caged Bird Sings (1970), is an account of her childhood in Angelous fourth collection of poetry, Shaker, Why Dont
Stamps, a year in St. Louis when at the age of seven she was raped You Sing? (1983), consists primarily of short lyrics marking
by her mothers boyfriend, her return to Stamps, and nally a personal and broader social losses. The poems often strike a
move to San Francisco. The novel records the growth of Angelou muted blues tone, describing the effects of racism and disap-
from an awkward, insecure young girl to a teenage mother. pointed, betrayed, or faded love. A number of poems as well as the
Although essentially a novel of afrmation and hope, I Know Why titletaken from the song John Henryinvoke the culture
excellently portrays Angelous plight. If growing up is painful and history of African Americans in the South.
for the Southern black girl, being aware of her displacement is the All Gods Children Need Traveling Shoes (1986) continues
rust on the razor that threatens the throat. Against the insecurity the story of Angelous life in Ghana, describing her search for and
stemming from blackness, however, Angelou counters the securi- encounters with an African heritage as well as with the patriarchal
ty provided by her grandmothers general store and her grand- aspects of postcolonial African society and her difculties in
mothers hope of salvation as promised by her church. In these raising her son. Concluding the book with a description of African
two settingsstore and churchare placed some of the graphic oral memory of the slave trade and its losses, Angelou reafrms
images which are the real strength of this book, and it is here that her African inheritance as she returns to the United States.
some of Angelous ne humorous scenes appear. I Know Why the
Caged Bird Sings has been cited as a signicant work in the black Now Sheba Sings the Song (1987), a single long poem
autobiographical tradition. It has received numerous honors, been illustrated by Tom Feeling, is an answer to the biblical Song of
reprinted many times, and stayed on the New York Times paper- Solomon, praising the beauty of all women from the womans
back nonction bestseller list for over two years. It is generally point of view. The moods of Angelous fth collection of poetry, I
considered Angelous best work. Shall Not Be Moved (1990), vary considerably from poem to


poem. Some are celebratory chronicling personal and general OTHER WORKS: Georgia, Georgia (1972). Oh Pray My Wings Are
African American survival in the face of racism and the decay of Gonna Fit Me Well (1975). And Still I Rise (1978). Lessons in
urban America; others are elegiac. A number reect the legacy of Living (1993). The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou
colonialism and the international slave trade and what she sees as (1994). Phenomenal Woman: Four Poems for Women (1995). A
continuing American neocolonialism. As elsewhere, Angelou Brave and Startling Truth (1995).
seeks to establish the continuity of African American culture and Plays: Cabaret for Freedom (1960), The Least of These
the struggles for freedom on the part of black women from slavery (1966), Gettin Up Stayed on my Mind (1967), Ajax (1974).
to the present, most notably in Our Grandmothers. Screenplays: Georgia, Georgia (1972), All Day Long (1974).
The papers of Maya Angelou are housed in the Z. Smith
While Angelous poetry and prose writings are arguably Reynolds Library of Wake Forest University.
uneven, her autobiographical narrative, viewed in its entirety,
forms a moving chronicle of a black womans very personal
engagement with the great movements and moments of African BIBLIOGRAPHY: Davis, T. and T. Harris, eds., Afro-American
American history since the 1940s. It is also perhaps the most Writers After 1955: Dramatists and Prose Writers (1985). Elliott,
important modern extension of the tradition of African American J. M., ed., Conversations with Maya Angelou (1989). Evans, M.,
autobiography that reaches back to the 18th century. ed., Black Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation
(1984). Gates, H. L., ed., Reading Black, Reading Feminist
Collections of short autobiographical essays still are a staple (1990). McPherson, D., Order Out of Chaos: The Autobiographi-
of Angelous art. Wouldnt Take Nothing for My Journey Now cal Works of Maya Angelou (1990). Tate, C., ed., Black Women
(1993) discusses in 24 pieces her faith and spirituality as they Writers at Work (1983). Thompson, K., Black Women in America
relate to death of loved ones, her personal style, racism, and (1993). Weixlmann, J., ed., Belief vs. Theory in Black American
pregnancy. In it she inspires her readers with her sense that life is a Literary Criticism (1986).
neverending adventure. The sister volume to this work Even the Reference works: ANR (1998). CA (Online, 1999). CANR
Stars Look Lonesome (1997) examines the mixed blessings of (1987). CB (1974, 1994). FC (1990). Modern American Women
success in 20 brief commentaries. It is intellectually provocative Writers (1991). NBAW (1992). Oxford Companion to Womens
and presented with humor and humility. Writing in the United States (1995).
Other references: America (7 Feb. 1976). Atlantic Monthly
Angelous writing for children, which was prompted by (Sept. 1990). Black American Literature Forum (1988). Booklist
childrens responses to her appearance on Sesame Street, resulted (1 Oct. 1994, 1 Mar. 1997, Aug. 1997). Ebony (Feb. 1982).
in My Painted House, My Friendly Chicken, and Me (1994) and Kansas Quarterly (1975). Massachusetts Review (1989). Macleans
Ko and His Magic (1996). The rst is the story of a young (9 Oct.1995). America (7 Feb. 1976). National Review (29 Nov.
Ndebele girls favorite things in her South African village; the 1993). NR (23 Aug.1993). NYT (15 Nov. 1998, 25 Dec. 1998).
second is about a seven-year-old West African boy who uses the NYTBR (24 March 1972). Poetry (June 1976). PW (27 Sept. 1993,
magic of closing his eyes and opening his mind to move from 4 Aug. 1997). SR (30 Oct. 1976). SHR (1973). Writers Digest
place to place. Both works combine photographs of Africa with (Jan. 1997).
the stories and show Angelous propensity for incorporating vivid
visual images with her work. ANNE ROWE,
Her interest in images has led her to become involved with
various media projects. The most important of these was her rst
lm directing experience with Down in the Delta (1998). This
lm, about a Chicago-based African American family moving ANGIER, Natalie
back to the strength and security of their ancestral home in
Mississippi, gave Angelou an opportunity to focus on presenting Born 1958, Bronx, New York
her familiar themes of self-sacrice and love in a new way. Other Married Rick Weiss; children: Katherine
undertakings she participated in included writing for Oprah Winfrey,
writing poetry for and appearing in John Singletons lm Poetic Natalie Angier is a Pulitzer Prize-winning science writer for
Justice (1993) as well as appearing as the master quilter in Jocelyn the New York Times and the author of three books about scientists
Moorhouses movie How to Make an American Quilt (1995). and scientic discovery. She is known for making complicated
subjects understandable and interesting to the lay reader, often
Angelous work reects her interest in the inexhaustible
adding her own personal slant.
capacity of African Americans and human beings in general to
survive injustice, hardship, and defeat and to go on with renewed Bronx, New York-born Angier was one of four brothers and
hope and love. She infuses a needy world with this positive sisters in a working-class family. She rst attended the University
message in as many forms and to as many age groups and types of of Michigan and then Barnard, where her work in literature,
people as she can. As a result, she remains one of Americas physics, and astronomy foreshadowed her future multidisciplinary
leading African American female spokespersons. interests. She received her B.A. degree in 1978 and embarked on


two years of graduate studies in medieval literature before accept- ever, we need good interpreters, and Natalie Angier is one who is
ing her rst writing job as a technical writer at Texas Instruments. constitutionally incapable of writing a boring sentence.

In 1980 she became a researcher at Discover, a magazine Angiers latest book, Woman: An Intimate Geography (1999),
being launched by Time Inc., where she was soon promoted to is a feminist work that tears down many tenets of evolutionary
writer and began specializing in evolutionary biology. Angier left psychology dealing with male-female relationships and is supple-
Discover for a brief tenure at a womens magazine before becom- mented by Angiers personal experiences. Sharon Begley of
ing Times science writer from 1984 to 1990. Newsweek called the book a treasure chest of did-you-knows.

When the New York Times molecular biology writer retired In Discover, Polly Shulman wrote, [Woman] combines
in 1990, Angier assumed that position and, within a year, had won lyrical descriptions of the female body with a spirited defense of
the 1991 Pulitzer Prize for science reporting. She has also re- science done right. She added, Linguistic puritans who believe
ceived a science journalism award from the American Association that the only scientically valid description is a dry one will nd
for the Advancement of Science and a Lewis Thomas Award. plenty of lush, metaphoric language to cringe at, but they will have
a harder time nding aws in the reasoning. Schulman echoes
Angiers rst book, Natural Obsessions: The Search for the the views of other critics who nd Angiers writing style occa-
Oncogene (1988), examines the work of two teams of molecular sionally over the top, although they consistently praise her scien-
biologists competing to be rst to isolate the gene for retinoblastoma, tic arguments.
a juvenile eye cancer. Angiers approach, analogous to that of an
anthropologist, resulted in a book as much about the scientists Marilyn Yalom, on the other hand, is one of the many
personal traits, good and bad, as it was about the discovery itself. observers who enjoy Angiers way with prose. Writing in the New
York Times Book Review, Yalom found Angiers ights into
Reviewer Anthony Van Niel, M.D., writing in the New poetic rapture to be one of the books strengths, adding, The
England Journal of Medicine, took issue with her fast-paced book is a rollicking celebration of womanhood. In Publishers
portrayal of science, which ignores the painstaking tedium so Weekly, Ann Darby wrote of Angier, Tackling unusual, some-
much a part of the discipline, as well as with her denition of times even repugnant topics in vivid, playful and acrobatic prose,
success in the world of science. The signicance of can- she has developed a style and an approach to stories that are
cer-ghting discoveries tends to get lost here amid soul-search- distinctly hers. Gifted with a voracious and wide-ranging curiosi-
ing, petty rivalries and tentative experiments, he wrote. He ty, she is always on the watch for exotic and sometimes whimsical
continued, however, by saying, She does a superb job of subjects.
educating the reader in the basics of molecular biology pertinent
In interviews, Angier has commented on her tendency to
to oncogenes (a formidable task!), so that it is easy to follow the
personalize the topics about which she writes, noting that she
sequence of investigations and share in the highs and lows of
approaches her subject idiosyncratically, with my biases, im-
difcult experiments. What she seems to enjoy even more is
pressions and desires apping out like the tongue of an untucked
populating the laboratory with an assortment of the most uncom-
mon characters. All have a story, perhaps only remotely related to
their work, that serves to make them human.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Other references: Discover (May 1999). News-
Angiers second book, The Beauty of the Beastly: New Views
week (12 Apr. 1999). New England Journal of Medicine (6 Apr.
on the Nature of Life (1995), is a collection of essays, many of
1989). NYTBR (10 Jul. 1988, 18 June 1995, 8 Apr. 1999). PW (22
which rst appeared in the New York Times, offered there in a
Apr. 1988, 8 May 1995, 22 Mar. 1999).
revised and more personal form. She offers an evolutionary view
of subjects, including parental and sexual behavior of various KAREN RAUGUST
species, among other issues. One primary theme, which appears
throughout much of her writing, is that the ugly can be beautiful,
and vice versa. A reviewer for Publishers Weekly wrote, Not
afraid to anthropomorphize, she even sees molecules as characters ANNEKE, Mathilde Franziska Giesler
in little plays; the decadence of orchids, she says, would make
Oscar Wilde wilt. . . .From cockroaches to cheetahs, DNA to
elephant dung, Angier gives us intimate and dramatic portraits of Born 3 April 1817, Lerchenhausen, Westphalia; died 25 Novem-
nature that readers will nd rewarding. ber 1884, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Also wrote under: Mathilde Franziska
The New York Times Book Review praised Angiers knowl- Daughter of Karl and Elizabeth Hulswitt Giesler; married Alfred
edge of science and her ability to put forth new theories rather than von Tabouillet, 1836; Fritz Anneke, 1847
simply summarize others. Graphic description and colorful
simile, traditional tools of natural history popularizers, are not The oldest of 12 children, Mathilde Franziska Giesler Anneke
found wanting. . . . But the touch of urbane irony, the ever-present received a strict Roman Catholic education. Her marriage, at age
smile in the fold of the phrasethese are rare gifts that shine with nineteen, to a loose-living and autocratic French wine merchant
unaccustomed splendor in this most engaging writer. More than ended soon in divorce. Anneke spent the next 10 years writing and


translating poetry, and writing a drama and two prayer books for Home Cemetery simply reads: We have never bent the knee
Catholic women. before false Gods; / We have never cowered in strong weather.

Annekes second marriage was to a discharged Prussian

artillery ofcer with revolutionary ideals. During the political OTHER WORKS: Deutsche Frauenzeitung (1852-1855).
activity of 1848, Anneke published Neue Klnische Zeitung, a
revolutionary journal, and Deutsche Frauen Zeitung, the rst BIBLIOGRAPHY: Heinzen, H. M. et al, Biographical Notes in
womens publication in western Europe. Both journals were Commemoration of Fritz Anneke and M.F. Anneke (manuscript
quickly suppressed, the rst because it advocated the rights of the in the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 2 vols. 1940).
people over the aristocracy, and the second because it championed Krueger, L., Madame Anneke: An Early Wisconsin Journalist,
the social emancipation and equality of women. Fritz Anneke led in WMH 21 (1937).
a force of soldiers in the German Palatinate during the Revolution Reference works: National Cyclopedia of American Biogra-
of 1848, and Anneke rode by his side into battle. After defeat, phy (1892 et seq.). NAW, 1607-1950 (1971).
however, the two ed Germany and eventually settled in Milwau- Other references: Milwaukee Historical Messenger (1967).
kee, Wisconsin, in 1849.
Annekes rst writings, published under the name Mathilde
Franziska, reveal her strict Catholic upbringing. Her poems in
Heimatsgruss (1840) display the dreams and longings of a woman
reared in an oppressive atmosphere. Anneke left the Catholic ANPETU WATE
church after her divorce in 1839, but it was not until 1847, the year See DELORIA, Ella Cara
of her marriage and her fathers death, that she became a free-
thinker. That year saw the publication of her pamphlet Das Weib
in Konikt mit den sozialen Verhltnissen (Women in Conict
with Social Conditions), a pamphlet advocating suffrage ANTHONY, Susan B(rownell)
for women.
Born 15 February 1820, Adams, Massachusetts; died 13 March
After settling in Milwaukee with her husband and their six 1906, Rochester, New York
children, Anneke founded Deutsche Frauenzeitung, a feminist Daughter of Lucy (Read) and Daniel Anthony
journal published monthly at a press that utilized women as
printers. In an effort to sabotage the journal, a German typographi- Susan B. Anthony was the daughter of a Quaker father and
cal union formed and demanded that printing rms re any Baptist mother. She received a thoroughly Quaker education,
women who worked as printers and compositors. Although Anneke which inuenced her belief in equality between men and women
attempted to ght the union, she and her husband decided to move as well as her interest in other social issues. She began her
east, settling in Newark, New Jersey, where she published her professional life as a schoolteacher, discovering rsthand the
journal weekly for two-and-a-half years. effects of disproportionate wages. In 1849 she decided to quit
teaching and returned to her familys farm.
Anneke also furthered the issue of womens rights by public
speaking. She addressed more than 500 Milwaukeeans in 1850, Although she is strongly linked with Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
the two women did not meet until 1850, two years after the famous
and spoke at the womans rights convention held in New York in
Seneca Falls convention during which Stanton introduced a
1853. After separating from her husband in 1861, Anneke spent
woman suffrage amendment. From the moment of their meeting,
the Civil War years in Switzerland with a friend, Mary Booth, to
however, the women were friends and colleagues. Anthony had
whom she dedicated one of her best known poems, The
already been drawn to other reform movements, especially tem-
Last Song. perance and abolition, in part because her familys household was
Anneke returned to Milwaukee in 1865 as a correspondent frequently populated by noted agitators such as Frederick Doug-
lass and William Lloyd Garrison. One of the most dramatic
for German newspapers, but she quickly dedicated herself again
moments in her conversion to the womens rights movement, in
to womens activities by cofounding with Cecilia Kapp and
fact, came through her participation in other reform work; in 1852
Amalia von Ende the Tchter Institut in 1865. Anneke not only
she was prohibited from speaking, by virtue of her sex, at a
acted as principal, she also taught courses in every area of the
temperance meeting. Her response was to form the Womans New
curriculumsocial problems, economics, and languages. York State Temperance Society. Within another year, she had
committed herself wholeheartedly to womens rights, especially
Anneke remained active in suffrage activities by helping to
suffrage, and this cause was to occupy her for the rest of her life.
found the Wisconsin woman suffrage association in 1869. Two
years before her death in 1884 she saw her drama, Othone, oder As a reformer, she was frequently held up to parody and
die Tempelweihe (1844, The Dedication of the Temple), per- scorn. She was ridiculed because of her physical appearance, her
formed at the Milwaukee Stadt Theater. Her headstone in Forest dressshe adopted for a time the Bloomer outtand her


status as an unmarried woman. In part because of this response, as heir to her savings of $10,000. She is buried in Mount Hope
she did not enjoy appearing on stage as a public speaker, but she Cemetery in Rochester, New York.
remained relentless in her work for justice.
During the decade preceding and during the Civil War,
Anthony became increasingly committed to abolition; beginning OTHER WORKS: The personal papers of Susan B. Anthony are
in 1856, she served as a New York agent for the American housed in a number of institutions, including the Library of
Anti-Slavery Society. Contemporary critics frequently cite her for Congress, Radcliffe College, and the Susan B. Anthony Memorial
failing to wholeheartedly support the 14th amendment to the in Rochester, New York
Constitution, providing black men the right to vote, though she
had supported the 13th, which abolished slavery. Anthonys goal,
however, was universal suffrage, and she was severely disap- BIBLIOGRAPHY: Anthony, K. S., Susan B. Anthony: Her Personal
pointed a suffrage amendment would pass that did not include History and Her Era (1954). Barry, K., Susan B. Anthony (1988).
women. She did argue that if achievement of the right to vote Dorr, P. C., Susan B. Anthony, The Woman Who Changed the
should be staggered among various groups, white women should Mind of a Nation (1928). DuBois, E. C., Feminism and Suffrage:
receive it before black men, because white women of the time The Emergence of the Independent Womens Movement in Ameri-
tended to be more highly educated than black men. She also ca, 1848-1869 (1978). DuBois, E. C., ed., Elizabeth Cady Stanton
predicted antagonism to woman suffrage would grow if more men and Susan B. Anthony: Correspondence, Writings, Speeches
were allowed to vote and that black male suffrage would be a (1981). Harper, I. H., The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony (3
roadblock rather than a step on the way to woman suffrage. vols., 1898-1908). Lutz, A., Susan B. Anthony (1959).
Through the funding of George Francis Train, Anthony Reference works: Appletons Cyclopedia of American Biog-
helped to establish the suffrage newspaper Revolution. Its rst raphy (1888). DAB (1929, 1957). NAW (1971). Oxford Compan-
issue was published in January 1868. Anthony was listed as ion to Womens Writing in the United States (1995).
publisher, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Parker Pillsbury
serving as editors. Unfortunately for Anthonys enduring reputa- LYNN DOMINA
tion, the paper strongly opposed the 14th amendment because it
did not include women. The amendment, in other words, was not
radical enough, and the paper supported additional radical ideas,
especially as they related to issues of gender, such as equal pay for
men and women, better education for girls, more professional ANTHONY, Susanna
options for women, and easier access to divorce. The paper
quickly ran into nancial difculties, however, especially after
Train withdrew his support. By 1870 the paper had acquired Born 25 October 1726, Newport, Rhode Island; died 23 June
$10,000 of debt, which Anthony retained in selling the paper to 1791, Newport, Rhode Island
Laura Curtis Bullard. Daughter of Isaac and Mercy Chamberlin Anthony

In 1869 Anthony and Stanton had formed the National

Woman Suffrage Association. Later that year, other suffragists Susanna Anthony was the sixth of seven daughters in a
who opposed some of the tactics and philosophies of Anthony and goldsmiths family. Her life was devoted to God. She left Newport
Stanton formed the American Woman Suffrage Association; the only during the revolutionary war, when she taught school in the
two groups would not reunite for 20 years. To urge the suffrage countryside, and for brief periods of time to regain her health.
issue forward, Anthony voted illegally in the 1872 presidential
election. She was arrested and pronounced guilty in a highly Anthonys only writings are published excerpts from her
questionable decision by a judge who refused to acknowledge the diaries and her personal correspondence, both published posthu-
role of the jury. Anthony refused to pay her ne but was mously by prominent gures in the Congregationalist church in
prohibited from carrying the case to the Supreme Court, which she the hope that her thorough commitment to Christ would inspire
had hoped would exonerate her. piety in others. The noted Samuel Hopkins, D.D., found a
remarkable example of devotion in Anthonys writings, which
Anthonys primary publication is the History of Woman
consist mainly of self-examination of her sinful nature and
Suffrage (1881-1902), which she coauthored with Stanton and
pleas to God to forgive her for her sins.
Matilda Joslyn Gage. The complete edition of this work continues
to function as a crucial historical document for scholars working Although Anthonys writing is not sophisticated, her philo-
in this area. sophical arguments areif not formidableprecocious, espe-
In 1892 Anthony moved in with her sister in Rochester, New cially in view of her lack of schooling. Permeated with religious
York, where she remained for the rest of her life, though she fervor, her work tends toward the monotonous and didactic,
remained active in local, state, and national politics. By the time of appealing to emotion rather than intellect. Before Anthony had
her death in 1906, she had become more of a national heroine than committed herself to religion, however, she tried to arrive at the
an object of ridicule. In her will she named the suffrage movement truth in a rational manner. It is in these questioning passages of her


diary that her writing is most interesting and most intellectual. In ANTIN, Mary
attempting to discern the benets of a religious life, Anthony
postulated a dialogue between her soul and an objector. The soul
argued for a religious life; the objector warned that if she were to Born 1881, Polotzk, Russia; died 15 May 1949, Suffern, New York
choose a strictly holy life, she would be disdained by society. The Daughter of Israel and Esther Weltman Antin; married Amadeus
soul concluded the discussion, stating, I value the approbation of William Grabau, 1901
the most high God before the esteem of poor mortals.
Mary Antins father, frustrated by czarist restrictions and
Anthonys choice of a devoutly religious life involved more
Jewish orthodoxy, immigrated to Boston in 1891. Antins educa-
than simply embracing the Christian faith with renewed ardor; it
tion progressed spectacularly in America and her teachers encour-
required a break with her parents religion, for they were Quakers
aged the prodigy; her family, despite worsening poverty, support-
and she was about to be baptized in the Congregationalist church.
ed her continued education at the Girls Latin School. As a
In her diaries, Anthony has recorded her agitation over telling her
member of the Natural History Club, she met and later married
parents of her choice and employed logical arguments in support
of the Congregationalist faith to assuage her feelings of guilt. Her geologist Amadeus William Grabau, a descendant of Lutheran
parents, however, were quite content to let Anthony make up her pastors. Moving to New York in 1901 Antin attended Teachers
own mind and she broke with the Quakers at the age of fteen. College, Columbia and Barnard (1901-1904), though without
taking a degree. In these years Antin was introduced to transcen-
Her intellectual dialogue was written when she was seven- dentalism, liberal Jewish thought, and sympathy with wom-
teen, a time at which her arguments for religion were rational and ens issues.
appeal to the intellect, while her arguments for abandoning
religion and embracing society appeal to the emotions. Once In The Promised Land (1912, reissued 1997), rst serialized
Anthony had accepted religion as a way of life, her writing in the Atlantic Monthly, Antin argued against the growing clamor
became less intellectual, consisting mainly of exhortations to God for restrictive immigration laws (which she later explicitly op-
to keep her from sinning and castigations of herself for not being posed in her polemical essay, They Who Knock at Our Gates,
truly faithful to God, despite her devout behavior and reputation 1914). Praising American democracy and its institutions as con-
for piety. ducive to individual development and expression, Antin charac-
terized her assimilation as a journey from medieval to modern
In publishing her memoirs, Reverend Hopkins stated that thought. She included material from her girlhood narrative, From
Anthonys writings were proof of the truth of the Christian Polotzk to Boston (1899, reissued 1986), which was based on
religion. Anthonys letters, however, give a better insight into her letters to her Russian uncle.
life than do the diaries, for they contain comments on daily living,
and explore her relationships with her friends. They are less Describing conditions in Russia, the passage to America, and
self-concerned than the diaries, and clearly less self-conscious. subsequent acculturation, Antin speaks to a gentile, native-born
American audience, while reproducing her childhood emotions
Anthonys writing is neither elegant nor profound, but it and psychology. Successful as a chronicler, she often fails to
serves a greater purpose than merely exemplifying Christianity in acknowledge or adequately analyze the problems of marginality
its most devout aspect; it illustrates graphically the role of religion evidenced in her autobiography. Though speaking for past gen-
in the life of a single woman in 18th-century New England. erations as well as contemporary fellow immigrants, Antin views
the act of narration as a release from her clinging past. She
deals with the disintegration of family life, threats to moral
OTHER WORKS: The Life and Character of Miss Susanna An- education and religious integrity in slum conditions, and assimila-
thony, who died in Newport (R.I.) June 23, MDCCXCI, in the tion; but such problems are drowned in her paean to American
sixty-fth year of her age consisting chiey in Extracts from Her opportunities. With some self-irony, Antin depicts her girlhood
Writings, with some Brief Observations on them (ed. S. Hopkins, rejection of Judaism for Americanism, but concludes she values
1769). Familiar Letters, written by Mrs. Sarah Osborn, and Miss the living seed of her religion when freed from its prickly
Susanna Anthony, late of Newport, Rhode-Island (1807). Mem- husk of orthodoxy.
oirs of Miss Susanna Anthony consisting chiey in extracts from
her writings and observations respecting them (ed. E. Pond, 1844). Antins work, though not presenting incisive social criticism,
provides a sensitive and idealistic chronicle of immigrant experi-
ence in the early 20th century.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: A Critical Dictionary of Eng-
lish Literature and British and American Authors (1858-1871).
American Biographical Dictionary (1857). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Handlin, O., foreword to M. Antins The Prom-
ised Land (1969). Lindenberg, K., The Effects of Gender on the
RISA GERSON Americanization of Jewish Immigrants: A Case Study of Mary


Antin (honors thesis, 1995). Salz, E., The Letters of Mary Racism, contains several earlier pieces, an unfortunate indicator
Antin: A Life Divided (thesis, 1995). the problems identied in Bridge persist. More recent essays
Reference works: Dictionary of American Biography, Na- focus on new forms of racism and the appropriation of discourse
tional Cyclopedia of American Biography (1892 et seq.). NAW on difference. Anzaldas introduction addresses the continuing
1607-1950 (1971). marginalization of women of color and the silencing of their
Other references: The Independent (22 Aug. 1912). NYT (14 voices, and her essay, En rapport, in Opposition: Cobrando
Apr. 1912, 18 May 1949). Outlook (June 1912). Yale Review cuentas a las nuestras contributes to the signicant debate on
(Oct. 1912). colorism and cross-racial hostility.

HELEN J. SCHWARTZ The rst six essays on Borderlands/La Frontera introduce

the concept of mestizaje, or hybridity, and inscribe a serpentine
movement through different kinds of mestizaje of races, genders,
languages, and the mind/body dichotomy. These mestizajes break
ANZALDA, Gloria down dualisms in the production of a third thing that is neither the
one nor the other but something else: the mestiza, Chicano
Born 26 September 1942, Jesus Maria of the Valley, Texas language, the lesbian and gay, the animal soul, the writing that
Daughter of Urbano and Amalia Garca Anzalda makes face.
Homeland relates the history of the border between the U.S.
Gloria Anzalda , a seventh-generation American, grew up in and Mexico. Problematizing the concept of home in the second
the Ro Grande Valley of South Texas. In the hardship of essay, Anzalda records her rebellion against her cultures betray-
eldwork, Anzalda found a love and respect for the land and the
al of women and rejection of the Indian side of Mexican cultural
people who work it. She received her B.A. from Pan American
identity. To remain within the safe boundaries of home re-
University (1969) and an M.A. in English and Education from the
quired the repression of her gender, her dark-skinned self, and her
University of Texas at Austin (1972). She has done further study
lesbian identity. Paradoxically, she must leave home to nd home.
at the University of California at Santa Cruz. Anzalda has been a
contributing editor of the journal Sinister Wisdom since 1984. In her next two essays, Anzalda formulates her project as
self-writing subject: to create a new home, a new mythology, a
As a working-class Chicana lesbian, Anzalda experiences
new mestiza culture, to fashion my own gods out of my
multiple sources of oppression; her writing traces the complex
entrails. Firstly, How to Tame a Wild Tongue recounts both
interrelations among them in texts that blend poetry and theory,
Anzaldas refusal to remain silent and the ways in which her
analysis and visceral engagement, Spanish and English. Besides
language is not appropriate according to dominant norms. The
her collections of essays and poems, Borderlands: La Frontera
The New Mestiza (1987; second edition forthcoming October language of the border transgresses the boundaries between
1999), Anzalda has edited two anthologies of writing by U.S. Spanish and English, high and low decorum, insider and outsider
women of color, both of which commonly appear as required speech, forming another kind of homeland. Using the Nahuatl
reading on Womens Studies syllabi. notion of writing as creating face, heart, and soul, Anzalda
elaborates the notion that it is only through the body that the soul
This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of can be transformed. In her last essay, Anzalda denes mestiza
Color (1981), is coedited with Cherre Moraga. The book grew or border consciousness: not relativism or pluralism, not
out of the experiences of women of color active in the womens repositioning of the subject as Other or Different in binary
movement who were politicized by the need to develop a feminist relationship to the Same or Dominant, but rather the tolerance
analysis of all structures of domination, including race, class, for contradictions. The new mestiza is the site or point of
culture, and sexual practice as well as gender. Besides calling conuence of conicting subject positions.
attention to the absence of gender and sexuality in Ethnic Studies
research paradigms, Bridge has also played a crucial role in the Images in Anzaldas poetry in Borderlands show the mestiza
shift of white feminist theory from an exclusive focus on gender consciousness in the esh. In Letting Go, the female
oppression and sexual difference to differences among and subjectpart sh, part woman, is produced through the transgres-
within women. In Speaking in Tongues: A Letter to Third World sion of bodys borders. The mestiza survivors of the nuclear
Women Writers, Anzalda writes of the need for women of holocaust have newly evolved double eyelids that give them the
color to legitimize the voice that emerges from their specic power to look at the sun with naked eyes in No se raje,
experiences, rather than imitating dominant literary models. La Chicanita, and the border crossing between the alien and the
Prieta (the dark girl or woman) foreshadows Borderlands in its human occurs in Interface.
focus on her relationship to the dark, Indian part of her self and the
Up to now Anzaldas Borderlands has been her most
place of the indigenous in her culture and her sexuality.
powerful published work. With minor exceptions, this difcult to
In 1990, Anzalda edited Making Face/Making Soul/Haciendo classify and quite bold work that uses the metaphor of the
Caras: Creating and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color, borderlands well, has received very favorable reviews by its
intended to continue where This Bridge Called My Back left critics. The text as a whole is rich, quite potent at times, and
off. The rst section, Still Trembles Our Rage in the Face of thought-provoking to the point of posing an intellectual and


emotional challenge to the reader, to revise, re-identify with, Third Woman (1989). Trivia (Spring 1989). Women and Lan-
rethink concepts of race, sexuality and relationships, to better guage (1989).
understand language itself, myths and religion, sexuality, ethnici-
ty and cultures. At the same time, it is accessible even if at times YVONNE YARBRO-BEJARANO,
the style appears somewhat unpolished from an academic point of UPDATED BY ANA ROCA
view and can use some editing. This is also her particular
imaginative rhetoric, her eclectic way of communicating, of
writing and crossing the borders of genre, her way of deconstructing
cultural systems and visions, giving the us the readers a stronger
taste of her authenticity and her perspectives as we connect with APPLETON, Sarah
her multiple voices documenting her own experiences as: a See APPLETON-WEBER, Sarah
woman, a Chicana of indigenous and multilingual roots, and as a
lesbian writerall selves struggling and redening her selves and
her roles in an antagonistic culture in a postcolonial era. Her
borders, our borders are clearly not just geographic, but are
spiritual while ever-present whenever cultures, races, different APPLETON, Victor, II
economic classes and languages inhabit the same environments See ADAMS, Harriet Stratemeyer
and come into natural contact.
Anchoring the sense of fragmented identity in the specic
historical experience of the borderlands, Anzaldas writing makes a
crucial contribution to the development of theories of gender, APPLETON-WEBER, Sarah
diversity and subjectivity. Her books are read widely and are
pretty standard readings in Womens Studies and Chicana/o
Born 14 April 1930, New York, New York
Studies courses.
Also writes under: Sarah Appleton
Anzaldas Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Daughter of William C. and Ellen S. Merriman Appleton;
Creative and Critical Perspectives by Feminists of Color (Aunt married Joseph G. Weber, 1965; children: Elizabeth, David
Lute Books, 1990), won the Lambda Literary Best Small Book
Press Award. Anzalda has also received many other awards and Sarah Appleton-Weber is a poet, scholar, and translator
recognitions, such as the NEA Fiction Award, the Before Colum-
whose work is unied by a transforming movement into poetry,
bus Foundation American Book Award for Making Face, Making
plant and animal life, and evolutionary forms. Preparation for this
Soul/Haciendo Caras the 1991 Lesbian Rights Award, and the
work has involved the study of poetry and sacred history, analogy
Sapho Award of Distinction. She was also a Rockefeller Visiting
and symbolism, and the natural sciences, as well as training in
Scholar in 1991 while at the University of Arizona. Today she
cosmic forms through making a new edition and translation of
continues teaching, giving invited lectures, and writing about
Teilhard de Chardins Le Phnomne humain.
culture, politics and interconnectedness.
Appleton-Webers poetry (published under the name Sarah
OTHER WORKS: Prietita and the Ghost Woman: Prietita y la Appleton) is marked by the utter attentiveness, heart delicacy
Llorona (1986). Friends from the Other Side (also as Friends from with which we need to listen to and read the book of the Earth.
the Other Side/Side/Amigos del otro lado, 1993). Her rst sequence of poems, A Plenitude We Cry For (1972),
written in the rhetoric of a small horse chestnut tree outside her
window in Northampton, Massachusetts, records the transforma-
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Caldern, H., et al., eds., Criticism in the Border- tions of the tree and her own life through a seasons growth.
lands, Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture, and Ideology Ladder of the Worlds Joy (1977) was born from the energy and
(1991). Garcia, M., and E. McCracken, eds., Rearticulations: The joy of reading Teilhard de Chardins Le Phnomne humain,
Practice of Chicano Cultural Studies (1994). Gmez Hernndez, A., recording the stages, as she read, of human cosmic birth and
Gloria Anzalda: Enfrentando el desafo in Cuadernos transformation.
americanos (1996). Gonzlez, A., et al., eds., Mujer y literatura
mexicana y chicana: Culturas en contacto (1990). Sims, N., ed., After completing Ladder of the Worlds Joy, Appleton-
Literary Journalism in the Twentieth Century (1990). Trimmer, J., Weber returned to Teilhards book, translating it word by word, to
and T. Warnock, eds., Understanding Others: Cultural and discover the secret of its energy. Out of this came a third sequence
Cross-Cultural Studies and the Teaching of Literature (1992). of poems, Book of My Hunger, Book of the Earth (unpublished;
Reference works: Oxford Companion to Womens Writing in though many portions have appeared in poetry journals). This is
the United States (1995). an autobiographical sequence reecting the work of the poet and
Other references: Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies the voice of the earth, the precariousness of ever bringing a work
(1993). Gender and Society (Sept. 1992). Matrix (May 1988). together, and the continuity of the call and the grace to do so. In


her writing, Appleton-Weber explores the transforming corre- ARENDT, Hannah

spondence between herself as a woman and poetbarren, fecund,
nurturing, evolvingand the earth.
Born 14 October 1906, Hanover, Germany; died 4 December 1975
Appleton-Weber was raised in a small hunting lodge in rural Daughter of Paul and Martha Cohn Arendt; married Heinrich
Rhode Island, where her life was nurtured by the pond, woods, Bleucher, 1940
and living things around her. She was educated at the Old Field
School and received her B.A. from Vassar College (1952). She The only child of nonreligious, German-Jewish parents,
studied ction writing at Vassar and spent a semester at the Iowa Hannah Arendt received her formal education in Germany. She
Writers Workshop, leaving to join Dorothy Day at the Catholic studied philosophy under Karl Jaspers at Heidelberg and took her
Workers Maryfarm in Newburgh, New York. At the same time doctorate in 1928, after completing a dissertation on St. Augus-
she began her growth as a poet under the guidance of Elizabeth tine. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, she ed to France
Sewell. In 1953 she was received into the Roman Catholic church. then emigrated to the United States. Arendt made her greatest
She studied analogy and symbolism at Fordham University with mark on the American academic community; an innovative and
William Lynch, S.J. (1955-56) and worked at a childrens shelter, forceful political theorist, she taught at various universities across
then at the magazines Thought and Jubilee. the country.
Appleton-Weber received her M.A. (1957) and Ph.D. (1961) Arendts best known work, The Origins of Totalitarianism
from Ohio State University and wrote her dissertation on medici- (1951, 1958), deals with the rise of totalitarianism in Germany and
nal liturgy and the relationship between sacred history and poetic Russia. It offers a description of the fundamental structure of a
form, as a way of integrating Christianity and her work of poetry. totalitarian regime and presents an account of social and political
This study was published as Theology and Poetry in the Middle conditionssuch as the growth of imperialism and anti-Semitism
English Lyric (1969). She taught for three years at Smith College on which they were built. Above all, Arendt attributed the success
and from 1965-68 she was poetry editor of Literature East and of totalitarian movements to what she termed organized loneli-
West. Along with poetry readings and workshops at colleges and ness. Loneliness, for Arendt, is not merely solitude; it is a
universities, Appleton-Weber has read poetry on tree walks condition in which individuals have lost contact with the world as
sponsored by the Academy of American Poets in the New well as with one another. Worldless people do not understand
York area. themselves as belonging to the world because they no longer have
Appleton-Weber has received grants and fellowships from the ability to add anything of their own to that world. Without a
Smith College (1964), the John Anson Kitteredge Educational world shared between them, such people lack a common sense
Fund (1968-70), and the Creative Arts Public Service Program they cannot differentiate between reality and ctionand are
(1975-76). She was a Bunting Institute Fellow at Radcliffe easily manipulated by the logic of totalitarian ideology. To
College (1970-72) and has had residencies at Yaddo and Blue Arendt, the rise of Nazism and Stalinism epitomized the crisis of
Mountain Center. the modern age. She treated totalitarianism as a radically new
form of government, a form that was the outgrowth of experiences
In France from 1981-83 Appleton-Weber studied Chardins peculiar to modernity. Such experiences must be countered by a
essays, correspondence, journal, and earlier texts of Le Phnomne new political principle capable of upholding human dignity.
humain. On her return to the U.S. she began a new edition and
translation of the work for an American publisher, to make the In The Human Condition (1958), Arendt drew a picture of the
coherence and synthesis of the book available to readers, and also classical polis, arguing that Periclean Athens made a sharp
as a deeper training and tuning to the movements of cosmic distinction between the public and the private realms: the private
evolutionary forms. realm of the household was dominated by necessity, whereas
human beings could be free in public. The separation of these two
spheres signied to Arendt that certain activities thrive on con-
OTHER WORKS: Contributor to anthologies and periodicals, in- cealment, while others demand a public audience. Delineating
cluding: Literature and the West (June 1966); Hand Book (1978); three basic modes of human activitylabor, work, and action
studia mystica (Fall 1979); Teilhard Perspective (Dec. 1985, Dec. she suggested that only the last is a truly political activity. (In
1987); Le Christ universal et levolution selon Teilhard de Between Past and Future, 1954, she held that the raison dtre
Chardin (Dec. 1990, Dec. 1991). of politics is freedom, and its eld of experience is action.) Only
action is free, for it is the spontaneous beginning of something
new, the capacity to initiate.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Appleton, S., Poetry Reading, 5 Feb. 1981,
Hamilton College (recording, 1981). Commonweal (24 June In contrast, neither work nor labor belong in the public realm.
1977). Modern Philology (May 1971). NYTBR (11 Nov. 1973). Workthe creation of durable objects as opposed to articles of
North American Review (Spring 1977). Review of English Studies consumptionis dominated by a politically destructive means-
(Aug. 1971). ends mentality. Laborthe ceaseless process in which we engage
in order to insure our physical survivalis an activity to which we
DARIA DONNELLY are driven by necessity. Arendt criticized the modern state that, in


its preoccupation with matters such as the allocation of economic the spirit of this tradition, Arendt may be controversial and
goods, gives public status to labor. This failure to distinguish frustrating, but she is never dull.
between public and private has permitted the political sphere to be
conquered by the forces of necessity and has deprived citizens of a
public realm in which action is possible. Action requires an OTHER WORKS: Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin (1930). Rahel
audience, for only through the presenceand the memoryof Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewess (1947). Men in Dark Times
other people can individuals leave their personal marks in the (1968). On Violence (1969). Crises of the Republic (1969). Rahel
world. To Arendt, only by appearing in the world in this manner Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewish Woman (1974).
can human beings guarantee the reality of their identities as
separate and unique individuals. Thus human dignity is secured
through the creation and maintenance of a public space. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Barnouw, D., Visible Spaces: Hannah Arendt and
the German-Jewish Experience (1990). Benhabib, S., The Reluc-
In On Revolution (1963), Arendt analyzed the character of
tant Modernism of Hannah Arendt (1996). Bergen, B. J., The
revolutionary movements of the modern age. She was attracted to
Banality of Evil: Hannah Arendt and The Final Solution
the American Revolution because she believed it had to do not just
(1998). Bowen-Moore, P., Hannah Arendts Philosophy of Natality
with liberation from oppression but with the foundation of politi-
(1989). Burks, V. C., A Speculative History of Freedom: Thoughts
cal freedom. Limited government, Arendt insisted, was not the
Inspired by a Reading of Hannah Arendts Theory (dissertation,
aim of the American founders: in order to forge a unity between 13
1994). Canovan, M., Hannah Arendt: A Reinterpretation of Her
separate states, they had to create new power. In guaranteeing the
Political Thought (1992). Canovan, M., The Political Thought of
space in which action could take place, the Constitution became
Hannah Arendt (1977). Clarke, J. P., Hannah Arendt: Revisioning
the foundation of freedom. Arendt considered it unfortunate
a Politics of Action Through a Politics of Judgement (dissertation,
that revolutionary thought of the 19th and 20th centuries address-
1993). Corvo, A., The World In-between: Hannah Arendts
ed the French Revolution rather than the American. The French
Philosophy of Education (dissertation, 1989). Curtis, K., Our
Revolution was dominated by the need to alleviate mass poverty;
Sense of the Real: Aesthetic Experience and Arendtian Politics
it failed because no true political entity can be built where the
(1999). Disch, L. J., Hannah Arendt and the Limits of Philosophy
citizenry lives in such destitution. While applauding the American
(1994, 1996). Dossa, S., The Public Realm and the Public Self:
Revolution as a political movement, Arendt deplored modern
The Political Theory of Hannah Arendt (1989). Ettinger, E.,
revolutions focusing on the amelioration of social ills rather than
Hannah Arendt/Martin Heidegger (1995). Felder, D. G., The 100
on the creation of a public realm.
Most Inuential Women of All Time: A Ranking Past and Present
Although the concept of action plays a major role in Arendts (1996). Gottsegen, M. G., The Political Thought of Hannah
work, she does not ignore the relationship between thought and Arendt (1994). Hansen, P. B., Hannah Arendt: Politics, History
action. Toward the end of her life, Arendt turned her attention and Citizenship (1993). Hinchman, L. P. and S. Hinchman, eds.,
increasingly to the phenomenon of thought. The New Yorker sent Hannah Arendt: Critical Essays (1994). Honig, B., ed., Feminist
her to Jerusalem in 1961 to cover the trial of Adolf Eichmann. Her Interpretations of Hannah Arendt (1995). Kateb, G., Hannah
report, which appeared rst as a series of articles and then as Arendt: Politics, Conscience, Evil (1984). Kielmansegg, P. et al,
Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963), aroused considerable and bitter eds., Hannah Arendt and Leo Strauss: German Emigres and
controversy. Arendt shocked her readers by asserting that while American Political Thought After World War II (1997). Kuracina,
Eichmanns behavior had been monstrous, his character was not. S. J., Hannah Arendts Phenomenology of Politics (dissertation,
What struck Arendt most about the Nazi war criminal was his 1983). Lloyd, M. J., Liberalism and Republicanism and the
banality. The Life of the Mind (1977), suggests that Eichmanns Thought of Hannah Arendt (dissertation, 1993). May, D., Hannah
ability to commit monstrous crimes was related to his lack of Arendt (1986). May, L. and J. Kohn, eds., Hannah Arendt: Twenty
thought. The capacity to judge between good and evil, in other Years Later (1996). McGowan, J., Hannah Arendt: An Introduc-
words, is related to thought. In Thinking, the rst volume of this tion (1998). McGowan, J. P. and C. J. Calhoun, eds., Hannah
two-part posthumously published work, Arendt maintained a Arendt and the Meaning of Politics (1997). Nordquist, J., Hannah
distinction between reason and intellect, thinking and knowing. It Arendt (1989). Nordquist, J., Hannah Arendt (II): A Bibliography
is through thinking that human beings attempt to satisfy their (1997). Parekh, B. C., Hannah Arendt and the Search for a New
quest for meaning. Political Philosophy (1981). Passerin dEntreves, M., The Politi-
cal Philosophy of Hannah Arendt (1994). Pateman, C. and M. L.
To some, Arendt was an elitist who cared little about the Shanley, eds., Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory
suffering masses around the world. To others, her sensitive (1991). Ring, J., The Political Consequences of Thinking: Gender
writings on political action and the public arena, authority, tradi- and Judaism in the Work of Hannah Arendt (1997). Stone-
tion, violence, and truth provide insight into some of the most Mediatore, S. R., Hannah Arendt, Experience, and Political
perplexing dilemmas of the modern era. It is in the nature of Thinking: Storytelling as Critical Praxis (1997). Villa, D. R.,
political theory to challenge old ways of thinking and to force its Politics, Philosophy, Terror: Essays on the Thought of Hannah
audience to think about political things from a new perspective. In Arendt (1999). Washington, J., Hannah Arendts Conception of


the Political Realm (dissertation, 1978). Waterman, R. D., Politi- Along with family relationships, Armstrong was especially
cal Action: Dialogues with Hannah Arendt (dissertation, 1983). interested in children and old people. A recurring motif in her
Watson, D., Arendt (1992). Young-Bruehl, E., Hannah Arendt: work is that of an innocent child thought to be responsible for a
For Love of the World (1982). death. Concern over the impact of the accusation on the child
Other references: NR (15 June 1963). NYTBR (19 May 1963, leads others to seek out the truth, and an adult murderer is
28 May 1978). Political Theory 5 (May 1977). Review of Politics unmasked (The Innocent Flower, 1945, and The Mark of the
(Jan. 1953). Prins, B., Hannah Arendt: Totalitarianism, Domina- Hand, 1963).
tion, and Personal Responsibility (video, 1988). The Holocaust:
Judgment in Jerusalem (video, 1987, 1998). Another recurrent theme in Armstrongs novels is that of our
responsibility toward one another. Characters are shown involv-
LAURA GREYSON ing themselves in others problems because they know that if they
do not help, no one else will. The title character in The One-Faced
Girl (1963) denes good guys as those who dont want other
people hurt. They feel it, themselves. So if any one is in pain or
trouble, then they not only want to help, they are obliged. They
ARMSTRONG, Charlotte just about have to. This concept underlies much of Armstrongs
ction; combined with her skill in handling complex plots and her
Born 2 May 1905, Vulcan, Michigan; died 18 July 1969, Glen- interest in motivation and character, it helps to account for the
dale, California consistent popularity her work has had.
Also wrote under: Jo Valentine
Armstrongs novels have attracted lmmakers of three na-
Daughter of Frank Hall and Clara Pascoe Armstrong; married
tions. The Case of the Three Weird Sisters was lmed by British
Jack Lewi, 1928
National Films in 1948. Warner Brothers made The Unsuspected
(1946) in 1947, and Twentieth Century-Fox lmed Mischief
Having begun as poet (several poems appeared in the New (1950) in 1952, under the title Dont Bother to Knock. The latter is
Yorker) and playwright (two plays ran briey on Broadway), noteworthy for Marilyn Monroes portrayal of a deranged babysitter.
Charlotte Armstrong soon turned to writing suspense novels, her More recently, French writer-director Claude Chabrol based his
rst three being conventional detective stories. The detective, La Rupture (1970) on Armstrongs The Balloon Man (1968).
MacDougal (Mac) Duff is a former history professor who has
discovered he prefers real-life puzzles to academic ones. In Lay
On, Mac Duff! (1942), and in The Case of the Weird Sisters OTHER WORKS: Ring Around Elizabeth, a Comedy in Three Acts
(1943), he is the conventional outsider who solves other peoples (1942). The Chocolate Cobweb (1948). The Black-Eyed Stranger
mysteries and then moves on. In The Innocent Flower (1945), (1951). Catch-As-Catch-Can (1952). The Trouble in Thor (1953).
however, he becomes involved with a divorcee and her six The Better to Eat You (1954). Walk Out on Death (1954). The
children; with his commitment to them, Armstrongs use of Dream Walker (1955). Murders Nest (1955). Alibi for Murder
him ends. (1956). Duo: The Girl with a Secret and Incident at a Corner
(1959). The Seventeen Widows of Sans Souci (1959). Something
A number of Armstrongs stories are inverted mysteries in
Blue (1959). The Mark of the Hand and Then Came Two Women
which the identity of the criminal is revealed early. In other
(1963). Dream of Fair Woman (1966). The Gift Shop (1966). I See
novels, suspense is created by a race against time. Sometimes,
You (1966). Lemon in the Basket (1967). Seven Seats to the Moon
terror is evoked when an innocent person is trapped in an enclosed
(1969). The Protg (1970). The Charlotte Armstrong Reader (ed.
space with several people, at least one of whom poses a threat. The
A. Cromie, 1970). The Charlotte Armstrong Treasury (ed. A.
Case of the Weird Sisters, a Mac Duff mystery, falls into this
Cromie, 1972). The Charlotte Armstrong Festival (ed. A.
group, as does The Albatross (1957), in which, ironically, the
Cromie, 1975).
threatening characters are invited into the home of the victims.
Other variants are The Girl with a Secret (1959), The Witchs
House (1963), and The Turret Room (1965).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Cromie, A., preface to The Charlotte Armstrong
Another novel of particular interest is A Little Less Than Kind Festival (1975). Cromie, A., preface to The Charlotte Armstrong
(1963), the Hamlet story reset in contemporary California. Using Reader (1970). Cromie, A., preface to The Charlotte Armstrong
the Shakespearean situation, Armstrong examines motivations Treasury (1972).
and relationships, and although her dnouement is quite different Other references: NYHTB (13 Sept. 1959). NYTBR (25 June
from Shakespeares, it develops logically from the situation and 1950, 15 July 1951, 28 March 1954, 16 Jan. 1955, 5 Aug. 1956, 10
characters. A Dram of Poison (1956), despite its serious central Nov. 1957, 12 April 1959, 10 Nov. 1963, 11 April 1965, 7 May
situation, is a comic novel, with an unlikely set of characters 1967, 29 Oct. 1967).
uniting in a common purpose and discovering in the process much
that is admirable in each other. MARY JEAN DEMARR


ARNOW, Harriette (Louisa) Simpson her to the plow. Compelling characters and uid prose, de-
scribed by Malcolm Cowley as poetry of earth, make this
novel exceptional.
Born 7 July 1908, Wayne County, Kentucky; died 22 March
1986, Ann Arbor, Michigan Arnows third novel, The Dollmaker, is a masterwork. An-
Also wrote under: H. Arnow, Harriette Simpson, H. L. Simpson other bestseller, it earned critical accolades, coming in second to
Daughter of Elias and Mollie Jane Denney Simpson; married Faulkners The Fable for the National Book Award. Gertie
Harold Arnow, 1939; children: Marcella, Thomas Nevels, the hulking heroine who tries to preserve her integrity and
her familys unity after their migration from the Kentucky hills to
Harriette Simpson Arnows best ction is rooted in Ken- a wartime housing project in Detroit, is Arnows most arresting
tucky, her native ground. With both parents being descendants of character. Arnows chronicle of Gertie grappling with religious
original Kentucky settlers, Arnow grew up hearing family stories and social prejudice, labor strikes, economic insecurity, family
dating from the American Revolution. These kindled her de- strife, and her own faintheartedness is a profound rendering of
sire to write ction, and tell stories herself. She attended Berea hope, disappointment, and anguish. A novel rich on many levels,
College for two years, taught school for a year, then studied at the The Dollmaker mirrors Gerties struggle in its primary symbol,
University of Louisville, where she received a B.S. degree in the cherrywood man Gertie carves. The novel won Arnow the
1930. In an act her family viewed as scandalous, Arnow quit her Friends of American Literature Award and was voted best novel
job in 1934 and moved to a furnished room in downtown Cincin- of the year in the Saturday Reviews national critics poll. Para-
nati near the city library, resolving to read the great novels and mount Pictures bought the lm rights and Jane Fonda played
to write. She supported herself with odd jobs and worked for the Gertie in a made-for-television movie in 1983.
Federal Writers Project. After her marriage to newspaperman
Two social histories were the result of 20 years of research on
Harold Arnow, she moved with him to a farm in southern
the settlers in southern Kentucky and northern Tennessee from
Kentucky. They later settled in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1950.
1780 to 1803. Seedtime on the Cumberland (1960), which won an
Arnow received national attention in 1935 with two short Award of Merit from the American Association of State and Local
stories published in little magazines. Both demonstrate her skill at History and a citation from the Tennessee Historical Commission,
characterization and at depicting shocking violence. In 1936, she celebrates the settlers resourcefulness in conquering a hostile
published the novel Mountain Path. It is based on Arnows environmentgetting food, clothing, and shelter, and struggling
experience of boarding with a hill family in a remote Kentucky to hold the land against Indians and governments. A companion
hollow and teaching in a one-room schoolhouse; her year there piece, Flowering of the Cumberland (1963) focuses on the activi-
was her rst prolonged stay with the people who were to become ties requiring social intercourse and an exchange of goods and
the primary subjects of her ction. The novel received apprecia- serviceslanguage, education, household life, agriculture, indus-
tive reviews from such respected critics as Alfred Kazin, who try, and trade. Besides demonstrating a command of several elds
decried Arnows inclusion of Kentucky ctions stock material of learning, these volumes, containing vivid reenactments of the
a mountain feudbut praised the novels most notable accom- settlers everyday crises, are often as gripping as Arnows best
plishments: its realistic, uncondescending portraits of the hill poor ction.
and its intimate revelation and occasional power. Although in
Arnows more recent novels, The Weedkillers Daughter
this novel, as in her subsequent ones, Arnow accuratelyat times
excessivelydocuments hill customs and dialect, her primary (1970) and The Kentucky Trace: A Novel of the American Revolu-
concern is moral choice and responsibility. tion (1974), lack the full-bodied characters and the narrative drive
that propel her earlier novels. The former has a new setting
The Washerwomans Day, published in Southern Review suburbiaand the latter a different time from that of her distin-
(Winter, 1936), is Arnows best and most anthologized short guished ction. Although Arnows work enjoyed a reassessment
story. She movingly depicts the self-righteousness and the arro- in the 1980s, it has still not achieved the stature her talent merits.
gance church members feel toward the poor white trash who Too often writers whose work is rmly rooted in one locale are
violate their notions of decency. This story anticipates Arnows relegated to a minor status by the term regional, which can
fuller treatment of narrow piousness in Hunters Horn (1949) and suggest a limited appeal. Arnows regional association can be
The Dollmaker (1954). doubly damaging to her reputation. Since Kentucky is often
excluded from southern literature, and Appalachian litera-
Hunters Horn, Arnows second novel, was a critically ture has only recently become a separate category, Arnows books
acclaimed bestseller. The story of a hill farmers obsessive chase are frequently not on lists of ction demarcated by region.
after an elusive red fox, the book dramatizes the cost of a
compulsion as maniacal and as mythic as Ahabs stalking of Far outdistancing other writers treating hill people from the
Moby Dick. Its riveting subplot centers on the fox hunters southern Appalachian region, Arnow is the rst and only Ameri-
daughter, Suse, who yearns to escape mountain provinciality and can novelist to describe them with delity and justice and to place
impoverishment. The inability of her father to defy ingrained them in a setting authentic to the last detail. But Arnow does more
community values causes her to be bound to a life that will break than evoke an area no other writer has captured. Like Twain and


Faulkner, she creates a private world whose inhabitants face Frontiers, Mountain Life and Work, Nation, Wilson Library
dilemmas reaching beyond geographical boundaries. Her best Bulletin, Writers Digest.
ction depicts the conict between an individual conscience and Unpublished novels, short stories, journal, drafts of pub-
societywhether it be family, community, or the wider world. If lished works, and correspondence are in the Special Collection at
Arnows novels at times need streamlining, they contain worlds as the University of Kentucky in Lexington.
palpable and as real as the readers own. If her hardy combatants
fail to achieve their goals, they nonetheless take responsibility for
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ballard, S. L., Harriette Simpson Arnows Cen-
the outcome of their lives, and endure.
tral Novel: Hunters Horn (dissertation, 1987). Brooks, C., Ap-
By the 1990s Arnow had been called a regionalist, an proaches to Literature (1939). Chung, H. K., ed., Harriette
Appalachian writer, naturalist, realist, and transcendentalistyet Simpson Arnow: Critical Essays on Her Work (1995). Chung, H. K.,
she resisted categorization. As she commented in an interview, Harriette Simpson Arnows Authorial Testimony: Toward of
she thought of Appalachia as a chain of mountains and didnt The Dollmaker in Critique (Spring 1995). Eckley, W., H. Arnow
like the appellation, woman writer. (Well, whats so unusual (1974). Groover, K. K., The Wilderness Within: American Women
about a woman writer? she has said. Theyve been around Writers and Spiritual Quest (dissertation, 1996). Haines, C. H., To
since Sappho and before.) Additionally, she wasnt concerned Sing Her Own Song: The Literary Work of Harriette Simpson
about posterity. Nonetheless, she realized her place in Ameri- Arnow (dissertation, 1993). Hobbs, G., Harriette Arnows Liter-
can literature with The Dollmaker which was reprinted in 1999, ary Journey: From the Parish to the World (dissertation, 1975).
while critical attention since the 1970s had inuenced the reprint- Hobbs, G. Harriette Arnows Kentucky Novels: Beyond Local
Color, in KCN, (Fall 1976). Hobbs, G., Starting Out in the
ing of another of her ve published novels, Hunters Horn
Thirties: Harriette Arnows Literary Genesis in Literature at the
(reprinted 1997), as well as her three nonction works. Her short
Barricades: The American Writer in the 1930s (1982). Oates,
stories and essays remain uncollected. In her later years, Arnow
J. C., afterword to Arnows The Dollmaker (1972). Turner, M. B.,
led writing workshops at the Hindman Settlement School Writers
Agrarianism and Loss: the Kentucky Novels of Harriette Simpson
Workshop in Kentucky (1978-85) and other sites and was invited
Arnow (dissertation, 1997).
as a speaker on several occasions.
Reference works: Bulletin of Bibliography (March 1989).
From the interviews conducted in her later years, we learn CA. DLB.
about Arnows writing process. She always wanted to be a poet Other references: MELUS (interview, Summer 1982). MQR
and wasted a lot of time, as she puts it, imitating the style of (Spring 1990). Nation (31 Jan. 1976). NYHTB (6 Sept. 1936).
Robert Browning and John Milton. Unable to write poetry, she Harriette Simpson Arnow, 1908-1986 (video, 1987).
turned to Miltons prose: Reading (him) was like watching an
incoming tide on a rocky beach. . . The whole sea carrying the
burden of the tide, came crashing near me. So did Miltons
sentences. Besides Milton, Arnow also admired Thomas Hardy
and Mark Twain, and among her contemporaries Wilma Dykeman,
Jim Wayne Miller, David H. Looff, and James Still. One of her
concerns in her writing was that she was often aficted by too
See SEIFERT, Elizabeth
many words, like my characters. As an example, she cited that it
took 13 years to write Hunters Horn and 17 rewritings of the rst
chapter in order to hone a style not exactly bleak, but not wordy,
a narrative with no adverbs and few adjectives, a style of self.
ATHERTON, Gertrude (Franklin Horn)
Most of Arnows critical attention still focuses on The
Dollmaker and the complexity of Gertie Nevels. In a critical text Born 30 October 1857, San Francisco, California; died 15 June
edited by Haeja K. Chung (Critique Spring 1995), Arnows short 1948, San Francisco, California
stories, a journal, her social histories, and her other novels, Also wrote under: Asmodeus, Frank Lin
including the unpublished Between the Flowers, are thorough- Daughter of Thomas and Gertrude Franklin Horn; married
ly examined. George H. Bowen Atherton, 1876, children: two

The daughter of a Yankee businessman from California and a

OTHER WORKS: Old Burnside (1977, reprint 1996). Southern belle, Gertrude Atherton spent the rst 30 years of her
Short stories include: Marigolds and Mules in Kosmos life in and around San Francisco, a city whose history and destiny
(Feb.-March 1935), A Mess of Pork in The New Talent (Oct.- she utilized as subject and background for her favorite character, a
Dec. 1935), The Two Hunters in Esquire (Jul. 1942), Love? new Western woman. She sporadically attended private schools,
in Twigs (Fall 1971), Fra Lippi and Me in Georgia Review eloped at seventeen with a suitor of her mothers, bore two
(Winter 1979); articles and essays in Appalachian Heritage, children, and rebelled against the conventions of domestic life.


Only after the death of her husband did she begin her serious OTHER WORKS: What Dreams May Come (1888). Hermia Suydam
writing career in New York in 1888. (1889). Los Cerritos, A Romance of the Modern Time (1890). A
Question of Time (1891). Before the Gringo Came (1894, en-
Athertons rst signicant novel was Patience Sparhawk
larged in The Splendid Idle Forties, 1902). A Whirl Asunder
and Her Times (1897), published in London where her novels at (1895). His Fortunate Grace (1897). A Daughter of the Vine
rst attracted more critical attention than in the U.S. This novel (1899). Senator North (1900). The Aristocrats (1901). The Con-
introduced the new Western woman, who in three subsequent queror (1902). A Few of Hamiltons Letters (1903). Mrs. Pendle-
novels symbolized the evolution of Western civilization at the tons Four-in-Hand (1903). Rulers of Kings (1904). The Bell in
turn of the century. In Patience Sparhawk and Her Times, the Fog, and Other Stories (1905). The Traveling Thirds (1905).
Atherton offered an ironic appraisal of American self-reliance and Reznov (1906). The Gorgeous Isle (1908). Tower of Ivory
society in the 1890s from the point of view of an aspiring Western (1910). Julia France and Her Times (1912). Perch of the Devil
woman. Through her characterization of the heroine as an idealis- (1914). California, an Intimate History (1914). Mrs. Balfame
tic, self-reliant, but passionate woman, born into lowly, isolated (1916). Life in the War Zone (1916). The Living Present (1917).
circumstances in California, Atherton narrated a romantic-realis- The White Morning (1918). The Avalanche (1919). Transplanted
tic and psychological version of the 19th century argument over (1919). The Sisters-in-Law (1921). Sleeping Fires (1922). Black
the effect of heredity and environment on the development of the Oxen (1923). The Crystal Cup (1925). The Immortal Marriage
individual. (1927). The Jealous Gods (1928). Dido, Queen of Hearts (1929).
In American Wives and English Husbands (1898), Athertons The Sophisticates (1931). Adventures of a Novelist (1932, reprint-
independent-spirited heroine, Lee Tarleton, proud of her Creole ed 1980). The Foghorn (1934). Golden Peacock (1936). Reznov
heritage and aristocratic California upbringing, is confronted with and Doa Concha (1937). Can Women Be Gentlemen? (1938).
the solid fact of English tradition and convention, personied The House of Lee (1940). The Horn of Life (1942). Golden Gate
by Cecil Maundrell, scion of a landed English family, whom she Country (1945). My San Francisco (1946).
marries and who expects her to become his second self. Their
marriage tests the past and present values of the two civilizations
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bradley, J., Valedictory Performances of Three
in regard to the relationship between man and woman and to the American Women Novelists (dissertation, 1981). Bryant, B., Late
perpetuation of the race. In this novel and also in The Doomswoman California Writers (audio cassette, 1960, 1969). Christensen, L. E.,
(1893), The Californians (1898), and Ancestors (1907), Atherton Gertrude Atherton: The Novelist as Historian (audio cassette,
penetrated the facade of civilization that organizes the basic 1982). Courtney, W. L., The Feminine Note in Fiction (1904).
relationship between man and woman and between individuals Dickey, F.A., Gertrude Atherton, Family, and Celebrated Friends
and nature. She displayed a continually ironic stance toward the (archive manuscript, 1981). Forman, H. J. A Brilliant California
argument on heredity and environment by labeling as a fools Novelist: Gertrude Atherton in California Historical Society
paradise an individuals excessive and illusory dependence on Quarterly (March, 1961). Forrey, C. D., Gertrude Atherton and
either inherited characteristics or a given environment as a path to the New Woman, in CHSQ 55 (Fall 1976). Jackson, J. H.,
happiness. Her independent and self-conicted heroine chal- Gertrude Atherton (1940). Knight, G. C., The Strenuous Age in
lenges the assumption that a woman unthinkingly accepts a American Literature (1954). Leider, E. W., Californias Daugh-
passive, procreative function as a denition of herself and of the ter: Gertrude Atherton and Her Times (1991). McClure, C. S.,
relationship between herself and nature and between herself and Gertrude Atherton, 1857-1948, in ALR 9 (Spring 1976).
civilization. McClure, C. S., Gertrude Atherton (Boise State University West-
Atherton enacted her criticism of Howells dull realism ern Writers Series, 1976). Parker, G. T., William Dean Howells:
by a call for originality and imagination in American literature. Realism and Feminism (Harvard English Studies, 1973). Phillips,
From Hippolyte Taine, she borrowed the technique of lifting a N. P.,The Womans Tournament: Men and Marriage in Six
type of character out of the commonplace conditions to which he Novels by Gertrude Atherton (thesis, 1981). Shumate, A., A
or she was apparently doomed and transferring him or her to an San Francisco Scandal: The California of George Gordon, 49er,
environment, replete with change and opportunity, where latent Pioneer, and Builder of South Park in San Francisco (1976,
potentialities could be developed. 1994). Starr, K. Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915
(1973). Underwood, J. C., Literature and Insurgency (1914).
From her rst novel to her last, Athertons genius lay in her Weir, S., Gertrude Atherton: The Limits of Feminism, in SJS
ability to tell an exciting story about a character or characters 1 (1975).
worthy of attention as they confronted the environmental and Other references: The American West (July 1974). The
psychological circumstances of their lives, the fools paradise Bookman (July 1929).
which they could or could not manage. She believed an author was
obligated to extend the knowledge of readers beyond their provin- CHARLOTTE S. MCCLURE
cial existence. Not always successful in style and form according
to current critical tastes, Atherton nonetheless told stories in the
form of the novel according to the logic of sometimes invisible
patterns of cause-and-effect and yesterday-today and expected her ATOM, Ann
readers to apprehend and participate in them. See WALWORTH, Jeannette Hadermann


AUERBACH, Hilda Giving prominence to Pilgrim mothers, Austin skillfully

See MORLEY, Hilda retells such stories as the wooing of Patricia Molines, the treach-
ery of Oldhame and Lyford, and the ousting of Morton from
Merry Mount. Details of geography, weaponry, dress, tableware,
diet, and genealogy are carefully researched. The speech, particu-
larly of those characters who are soldiers, sailors, or children,
AUSTIN, Jane Goodwin often seems unduly formal or literary.

Born 25 January 1831, Worcester, Massachusetts; died 30 March Although Austins works, like those of her friend Louisa
1894, Roxbury, Massachusetts May Alcott, show a decided split between edifying books for
Daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth Hammatt Goodwin; married young people and sensational shockers, she signed her real name
Loring Henry Austin, circa 1850 to all and seems always to delight in her story, whether contempo-
rary or historical, probable or improbable.
Austins father died during her childhood and her mother
moved to Boston, where Austin was educated in private schools. OTHER WORKS: Fairy Dreams; or, Wanderings in Elf-land (1859).
When her own three children were grown, she wrote novels, as Kinahs Curse (1864). The Novice; or, Mother Church Thwarted
well as ction for such periodicals as Harpers, the Atlantic (1865). The Tailor Boy (1865). Outpost (1866). The Shadow of
Monthly, Putnams, Lippincotts, and the Galaxy. Austin lived for Moloch Mountain (1870). Moonfolk (1874). Mrs. Beauchamp
a short time (circa 1869) in Concord, where she knew Louisa May Brown (1880). The Desmond Hundred (1882). Nantucket Scraps
Alcott, Emerson, and the Hawthornes. (1882). It Never Did Run Smooth (1892). Queen Tempest (1892).
Dora Darling; or, The Daughter of the Regiment (1864) is in The Twelve Great Diamonds (1892). The Cedar Swamp Mys-
many ways Austins most charming novel. Mrs. Darley, the tery (1901).
mother of twelve-year-old Dora, sympathizes with the Union and
hides a Union soldier even though she is dying. Doras selsh
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Blanck, J., Bibliography of American Literature
and depraved father and her brother support the Confederacy,
(1955). Cameron, K. W., Emerson, Thoreau and Concord in
and Dora is sent, after her mothers death, to live with a cruel aunt.
Early Newspapers (1958).
With the aid of an aged freedman, she escapes and joins the Union
Reference works: American Authors: 1600-1900 (1938).
army as a vivandire. She is befriended by the soldier her mother
Dictionary of American Biography (1928).
had aided (who turns out to be her cousin from Massachusetts) and
by the chaplain, who undertakes her education. Doras initiative SUSAN SUTTON SMITH
and sterling character contrast sharply with the treachery of the
villains in the novel.

None of Austins novels involves more coincidences than

Cipher (1869), on which Louisa May Alcott is supposed to have AUSTIN, Mary Hunter
collaborated. It features bastardy and miscegenation, a doctor who
poisons his wife, long-lost heirs, a poisoned Italian bracelet, a Born 9 September 1868, Carlinville, Illinois; died 13 August
Spanish gypsy, voodoo, and more happenings that strain the 1934, Santa Fe, New Mexico
readers credence. Inspired by William Bradfords newly redis- Daughter of George and Savilla Graham Hunter; married Stafford
covered history, Of Plymouth Plantation, printed in 1856, and by Austin, 1891
traditions handed down from her own Mayower ancestors,
Austin wrote several books about the Pilgrims: Standish of
Mary Hunter Austin was born into a family that had little
Standish (1889), Betty Alden (1891), A Nameless Nobleman
understanding of her unusual talents. Her father died from a
(1881), David Aldens Daughter (1892), and Dr. LeBaron and His
malarial infection contracted during the Civil War, and with his
Daughters (1890). In Standish of Standish, she is content to esh
death, Austin lost her one source of literary encouragement. In
out Bradfords narrative with dialogue and characterization, mak-
1888 Austin graduated from Blackborn College and the family
ing Myles Standish the hero and foreshadowing John Billingtons led homestead claims in the Tejon district of Joaquin Valley,
bad end by depicting the entire Billington family as coarse or California. This landscape and way of life were to form the most
troublesome. Standishs two marriages are romanticized here and important inuence on Austins writing.
in the other books. The Love Life of William Bradford, in
David Aldens Daughter, is entirely fabricated and supported by Her rst important book was The Land of Little Rain (1903),
ctitious documentation. Bradfords one-sentence dismissal of a study which drew heavily upon her experiences with nature. The
Governor Carvers wifeAnd his wife, being a weak woman, Land of Little Rain is a collection of essays dealing with the
died within ve or six weeks after himbecomes a tear-soaked Southwestits people and its religion. A lover of the land, Austin
34-page saga, The Wife of John Carver, in David Aldens writes: One must summer and winter with the land and wait its
Daughter. occasions. Austin does not like the term desert, which to her


indicates a land which will support no man. The desert is full of write about it. Her love for the Indian people and her efforts to
that which will support life, although it is up to man to nd this preserve their life and culture are given an important place in her
support, and the white man has not been blessed with this facility. history.
Much of the collection is taken up with the struggle between life
and death. It is not the land alone that interests Austin, but the
OTHER WORKS: Isidro (1905). Santa Lucia (1908). Lost Borders
people who inhabit it as well. Austins style reects an intimacy (1909). The Basket Woman, A Book of Fanciful Tales for Children
with the earth itself. She uses Indian names to describe nature, and (1910). Outland (1910). The Arrow Maker (1911). Christ in Italy
her descriptions are lyrical with an instinct for the precise word to (1912). Fire (1912). The Green Bough (1913). The Lovely Lady
convey natural phenomena. (1913). California, Land of the Sun (1914). Love and the Soul
The Flock (1906) deals with the history of sheep-raising in Maker (1914). The Ford (1917). The Trail Book (1918). The
the Southwest. Austin introduces into the work the allegorical Young Woman Citizen (1918). No. 26 Jayne St. (1920). The
idea of man being like sheep in possessing the instincts of the American Rhythm (1923). The Land of Journeys Ending (1924).
social ock mind. Of the ock mind Austin observes, I Everymans Genius (1925). The Man Jesus (1925). The Children
cannot say very well what it is, except that it is less than the sum of Sing in the Far West (1928). Taos Pueblo (1930). Starry Adven-
all their intelligences. Ecology is one of the major concerns of ture (1931). Experiences Facing Death (1931). Indian Pottery of
this work, and Austin is sympathetic to a land brutally abused by the Rio Grande (1934). Can Prayer Be Answered? (1934). One
humans in their attempts to survive. Smoke Stories (1934).

Austin also wrote on the feminist concerns of the day,

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Brooks, V. W., The Condent Years: 1815-1915
and her novels reect the problems women face in both mar-
(1932). Campbell, J. L., From Self to Earth and Back Again in
riage and career. A Woman of Genius (1912) contains both
the Fiction of Mary Austin (thesis, 1997). Carew-Miller, A.,
semiautobiographical material and Austins strongest statement
Telling the Truth About Herself: Mary Austin and the Autobio-
on the feminist choice between career and marriage. It has been graphical Voice of Feminist Theory (dissertation, 1994). Church,
compared favorably with Sinclair Lewis Main Street. Critic P. P., Winds Trail: The Early Life of Mary Austin (1990).
Edward Wagenknecht believes the work covers everything that Dickson, C. E., Nature and Nation: Mary Austin and Cultural
is important in womans rebellion against man, for on its deepest Negotiations of the American West,1900-1914 (dissertation,
level the book is a study of creative power, of its connection with 1996). Luhan, D., and A. C. Henderson, Search for Revolution-
sexual power, and of the conict between art and love. The ary Change in the Desert Southwest (thesis, 1998). Farrar, J. C.,
childhood background of its heroine, Olivia Lattimore, is obvi- ed., The Literary Spotlight (1924). Fink, A., Mary, a Biography of
ously based on Austins own childhood. Olivia triumphs over Mary Austin (1983). Ford, T. W., The American Rhythm: Mary
hardship through her genius and becomes a success on the New Austins Poetic Principle, in Western American Literature 5.
York stage. The crisis of the novel is Olivias decision whether to Hart, T. J., Tender Horizons: The American Landscapes of Austin
marry and fulll the conventions or to follow her genius. When and Stein (dissertation, 1996). Hoyer, M. T., Dancing Ghosts:
her lover telegrams Will you marry me? Olivia can only reply, Native American and Christian Syncretism in Mary Austins Work
If you marry my work. He cannot accept this situation and (1998). Jones, L. A., Uncovering the Rest of Herstory in the
marries another woman. Olivia faces a breakdown and eventually Frontier Myth: Mary Austin, Mabel Graulich. Klimasmith, M.
marries a playwright she has known for some time. She expects a & E., eds., Exploring Lost Borders: Critical Essays on Mary
good marriage between people of similar interests, but one Austin (1999). Kircher, C. L., Women in/on Nature: Mary Austin,
lacking in the excitement of her early love. Gretel Ehrlich, Terry Tempest Williams, and Ann Zwinger (dis-
sertation, 1995, 1998). Langlois, K. S., A Search for Signicance:
Earth Horizon (1932) chronicles the life of Austin and is
Mary Austin, the New York Years (dissertation, 1987). Lanigan,
written in third person, as was Austins style in nonction writing.
E. F., Mary Austin: Song of a Maverick (1989). Lyday, J. W.,
The book describes the life of a gifted woman in a conventional
Mary Austin: The Southwest Works (1968). Milowski, C. P.,
world, and Austin makes a convincing case for the oppression of
Revisioning the American Frontier: Mary Hallock Foote, Mary
women through the examples of prejudice she personally experi- Austin, Willa Cather, and the Western Narrative (dissertation,
enced. Austin reports mystical experiences with God and nature 1996). Nelson, B. J. D., Mary Austins Domestic Wildness: An
that made her feel there was a particular pattern to her existence, a Ecocritical Investigation of Animals (dissertation, 1997). Pearce,
pattern which would make its shape known to her over the years. T. M., Mary Hunter Austin (1965). Stineman, E.,Mary Hunter
She concludes her story, It is not that we work upon the Cosmos, Austin: An American Woman of Letters (dissertation, 1989 1987).
but it works in us. The feminist bias of the work is particularly Van Doren, C., in Contemporary American Novelists (1931).
strong in her observations on marriage. She works from knowl- Wagenknecht, E., in Cavalcade of the American Novel (1952).
edge of both her mothers attitude toward marriage and her own Webster, B., Owens Valleys Mary Austin in Album (Oct.
unhappy experience. She deals with the struggle of women for 1992). White, W. A., The Autobiography (1946). Wynn, D., A
equality in the Midwest of her own time, and speaks frankly of the Critical Study of the Writings of Mary Hunter Austin (abridged
instinctual sexual desire in women. The book also portrays dissertation; 1941).
Austins love for the Southwest, and her feelings that she had to
come into a mystical rapport with the region before she could LOIS BURNS


AVERY, Martha Moore OTHER WORKS: The papers of Martha Moore Avery are collected
at Xavier College, Sydney, Nova Scotia.
Born 6 April 1851, Steuben, Maine; died 8 August 1929, Medford,
Daughter of Albion King Paris and Katherine Leighton Moore; BIBLIOGRAPHY: Carrigan, D. O., A Forgotten Yankee Marxist,
married Millard Filmore Avery, 1880 (died 1890) in NEQ (March 1969). Carrigan, D. O., M. M. Avery: Crusader
for Social Justice, in Cath-HistRev (April 1968). Goldstein, D.,
After her mothers death in 1864, Martha Moore Avery, the Autobiography of a Campaigner for Christ (1936).
fourth of eight children, lived with her grandfather, Samuel Reference works: James, E. T. et all, eds., Notable American
Moore, a Maine politician, instead of with her father, a house Women, 1607-1950 (article by J. P. Shenton, 1971).
builder. She attended the village school and a private girls school.
In 1880 she joined the Unitarian church where she met her SUZANNE ALLEN
husband. When her husband left home to become a traveling
salesman in 1886, she and her daughter moved to Boston. Her
husband died in 1890.
In Boston, inuenced mainly by Dr. Charles D. Sherman, a
Master in Cosmic Law, Avery became much involved with
AYER, Harriet Hubbard
political ideas and movements. In 1891 she joined the Socialist
Labor Party, quickly attaining some importance in its ranks. Born 27 June 1849, Chicago, Illinois; died 23 November 1903,
During the 1890s, Avery became associated with another social- New York, New York
ist, David Goldstein, a cigarmaker born in England. She founded Daughter of Henry George and Juliet Smith Hubbard; married
the Karl Marx Class in 1898 (which in 1901 became the Boston Herbert Copeland Ayer, 1865 (divorced)
School of Political Economy) with Goldstein as secretary. How-
ever, both Avery and Goldstein became increasingly disenchant-
ed with socialism and, simultaneously, drawn to Catholicism. Businesswoman, journalist, and popular writer of beauty
manuals, Harriet Hubbard Ayer was born to a prominent Chicago
After her daughters conversion to Catholicism and entrance family, the third of four children. Considered shy and sickly as a
into the Congrgation de Notre Dame, as Sister St. Mary Martha child, minimally educated at a Catholic convent, married at
in 1900, as a result of the girls Quebec convent education, Avery
sixteen to the conventional son of a Chicago industrialist, she
herself became a Catholic in 1904, totally renouncing Marxism.
astonished her society by developing within a few years into one
Goldstein converted a year later. However, even before their
of the citys leading hostesses, renowned for her beauty and for
conversions, they collaborated on Socialism: The Nation of Fa-
her individuality in aunting conventions by, for example, invit-
therless Children (1903), a critical exposition of the social and
moral implications of socialism. Although the tone is strident in ing actors to her home. Largely self-taught, she early displayed a
its Catholic bias, the content of the book reects Averys and driving will, a creative personality, and a air for the dramatic that
Goldsteins intimate knowledge of the history and tactics of would enable her later to triumph over a series of severe reversals.
socialism. The authors use of quotations from Marx and Engels,
In the early 1880s, left in nancial straits by the bankruptcy
followed by refutations, works effectively. They take a strong
of her husband and angered by his drinking and indelities, Ayer
stand against many socialist credos; in particular, they charge that
the result of irresponsible sexual unions would be homeless deed Victorian conventions by divorcing her husband and,
children who would become wards of the state. following the example of the many self-made men she had known
in Chicago society, establishing her own New York City business,
The result of Averys second collaboration with Goldstein, a cosmetic rm. Her chief product was a cream whose formula,
Bolshevism: Its Cure (1919), is dedicated to the Knights of she contended, she had bought from a Parisian chemist whose
Columbus; it launches not only an assault against socialism but grandfather had originally invented it for the famed Napoleonic
also a campaign for Catholicism and patriotism. Working from beauty, Juliet Rcamier. Largely because of her advertising gen-
the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum Novarum, ius in connecting her products with glamourous French traditions
the authors elaborate on the basic differences between Marxism
of beauty, with her own socialite background, and with stage
and Catholicism; advocate support of trade unions and collective
favorites like Lily Langtry who endorsed her products, for a time
bargaining; and try to promote reform, but reform through faith in
her company ourished.
God and love of country rather than through socialism.
Avery turned more and more toward political activism. She Of mercurial temperament, Ayer was subject to periodic
and Goldstein took to the streets using the very tactics of the emotional disordersa condition which led to a probable mor-
socialists. They founded the Catholic Truth Guild, a lay apostolate phine addiction. In the early 1890s disagreements with family
that preached Catholicism from auto vans, rst in New England members and especially with a vindictive male business associate
and then in other parts of the country. Avery was an active apostle were climaxed by her involuntary commitment for 14 months to a
on the streets of Boston until only a few days before her death. mental institution. Although her business and personal life were in


shambles, in 1895 she persuaded the editor of the New York AYSCOUGH, Florence Wheelock
World to hire her to write a weekly column of beauty advice.
Before long she also joined the reportorial staff, covering murder
Born 1878, Shanghai, China; died 24 April 1942, Chicago,
trials as well as writing exposs of city life, with a primary focus
on women.
Daughter of Thomas Reed and Edith Haswell Clark Wheelock;
In her books and columns on beauty, Ayer preached a married Harley Farnsworth MacNair, 1935
protofeminist doctrine of attention to health, exercise, and mental
discipline as the key to beauty. In an age of feminism and Florence Wheelock Ayscough lived with her parents in
increasing freedom for women, she dened beauty as accessible China until she was nine years old, and then made her rst trip to
to any woman who took proper care of her body. Responding to America to attend school in Boston. Subsequently she returned to
her own psychological difculties and to the tenets of the 19th China, delved into a study of Chinas history and civilization and
century natural health movement, she criticized tight-lacing and learned the Chinese language.
other articial aids to beauty and often rejected the use of the One of Ayscoughs earliest publications, Fir-Flower Tablets
commercial products she once had marketed. She wrote that she (1921), is a translation of the Chinese poetry she so much admired.
was known world over as a physical culture crank. As a The polished translation was done with the help of her cherished
professional woman she wore shortened skirts, masculine suits, friend, Amy Lowell. Friendly Books on Far Cathay (1921) is
and was a member of the Rainy Daisy moderate-dress reform basically a compiled bibliography for young students but it also
group in New York City. She identied with the working women includes a brief summary of Chinese history. Most of Ayscoughs
to whom her columns in the mass circulation World were directed. later writings were similarly devoted to young readers. A Chinese
Mirror: Being Reections of the Reality Behind Appearance
Yet Ayer never joined the suffrage movement. She protested (1925), gives an informal and easy-to-read description of Chinas
that she was not really a dress reformer; she counselled women to topography, social life, and customs. More specically, it dis-
wear corsets; and she advocated that older women use cosmetics cusses the signicance and symbolism of the Yellow and Yangtze
to disguise their age, thereby furthering modern Americas xa- rivers; of Tien Shan, the Great Mountain; and of the Purple
tion with youth as the epitome of beauty. She cautioned against Forbidden City. In addition to these descriptions, which may seem
tanned skin and vigorous exercise for women which might exotic to young American readers, Ayscough also describes such
produce well-developed muscles. The beautiful arm, she wrote, common sights as the gardens, city walls, and moats.
should be round, white, and plump, and should taper gently
to the hand with an adorable curve at the small delicate wrist. One of Ayscoughs most thoroughly reviewed books is
Ayer consistently advocated the conservative position that beauty Chinese Women, Yesterday and Today (1937). Here she contrasts
was a womans greatest power. She argued that wives needed to the women of old China with those of the 1930s. Again she gives
an informal and charming description of Chinese culture; her
pay attention to their looks to keep their husbands and working
intent, she explains, is to create for American readers a sense of
women to advance in their jobs. These attitudes were the ultimate
identication and appreciation for peoples of other lands. Another
rationale behind her columns on beauty.
important work is Firecracker Land: Pictures of the Chinese
Ayer is an example both of the widespread inuence of World for Young Readers (1932), in which Ayscough shares her
feminism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and of the personal experiences of China as well as the wealth of information
enduring power of traditional attitudes about women, even among that she has acquired. She expresses the hope that by telling of
articulate, successful women who had experienced substantial Chinas great traditions and modern way of life she would
cultivate a feeling of friendship between China and America.
discrimination in their own lives. Her life was unexpectedly cut
short in 1903, when she died of pneumonia after a brief illness. After Ayscoughs death, letters of tribute and other memora-
bilia were compiled in The Incomparable Lady, edited lovingly by
Harley Farnsworth MacNair.
OTHER WORKS: Harriet Hubbard Ayers Book: A Complete and
Authentic Treatise on the Law of Health and Beauty (1899).
Womans Guide to Health and Beauty (1904). OTHER WORKS: Liu, Sung Fu: Catalogue of Chinese Paintings
Ancient and Modern by Famous Masters (1915). The Autobiogra-
phy of a Chinese Dog Edited by His Missus (1927). Tu Fu, the
Autobiography of a Chinese Poet, A.D. 712-770 (edited and
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ayer, M., and I. Taves, The Three Lives of Harriet
translated by Ayscough, 1929-1934).
Hubbard Ayer (1957). Bird, C., Enterprising Women (1976).
Hamilton, H., Harriet Hubbard Ayer (ms., Chicago Histori-
cal Society, n.d.). Kirkland, C., Chicago Yesterdays (1919). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Damon, S. F., Amy Lowell. MacNair, H. F., The
Terhune, A., To the Best of My Memory (1930). Incomparable Lady (1946).


BABB, Sanora American Literature (1945, 1948) and American Childhoods
(1987). The Wild Flower and The Santa Ana appeared in
Best American Short Stories (1950, 1960). Babb received a
Born 21 April 1907, Leavenworth, Kansas
Borestone Mountain Poetry Award in 1967 and served as the
Writes under: Sylvester Davis
editor of the Clipper from 1940 to 1941 and the California
Daughter of Walter and Jennie Parks Babb; married James W.
Quarterly from 1951 to 1952.
Howe, 1949
Prominent in all Babbs writing is a respect and love for all
During Sanora Babbs early years, her family lived in Okla- people and their differing needs. She is sympathetic to their
homa, where Babb spent much time among the Oto tribe. Her problems, regardless of racial and cultural backgrounds; her main
father was at various times a farmer, baker, baseball player, and characters are those who are in some way prevented from reaching
professional gambler. After Babbs early years, the family led a their full potential. She is critical of any relationship that subordi-
nomadic life among the small towns and farms of Oklahoma, nates one person to another, including a marriage in which the
Kansas, and eastern Colorado. Babb attended the University of husband dominates the family. It is the oldest daughter in her rst
Kansas and Garden City (Kansas) Junior College. From 1925 to two published books who represents this critical view. A recurring
1929 she worked on smalltown newspapers and a farm journal. image of freedom is the great bowl of the sky, always luring those
After moving to California in 1929, Babb held various who love independence away from life-stiing relationships.
writing jobs and began publishing short stories. During the
Consistent with Babbs regard for all life is her regard for art.
Depression, she hitchhiked across the country, lived for a while in
Her books are carefully wrought, written with simplicity and
Harlem, and traveled in Europe. After returning to California, she
directness. They give a detailed picture of some vanishing ways of
wrote articles about the dust-bowl families who were arriving in
life and may be read as historical as well as literary documents.
great numbers, and helped set up camps in the elds for them.
Babbs experiences with the migratory workers provided the
substance of her rst novel, Whose Names Are Unknown, written BIBLIOGRAPHY: Saroyan, W., Letters to Sonora Babb (1932, 1941).
in 1939. She describes the uprooted farmers who became a cheap Reference works: CA (1975).
source of labor for the large industrialized farms. Women, too, Other references: London Sunday Times (28 Nov. 1971). LAT
bore the brunt of suffering; Babb describes half-starved women (31 Mar. 1958). Madison (Wisconsin) Capital Times (22 Apr.
giving birth to dead infants on the oors of tents. Drawing on 1971). NYHT (23 Mar. 1958). NYT (20 Mar. 1958). PW (22 Sept.
these same experiences with migrant workers in the Depression 1997). TLS (9 May 1958, 12 Nov. 1971).
decades later, Babb wrote The Dark Earth and Other Stories from
the Great Depression (1987). ANN STANFORD,
Babbs second novel, The Lost Traveler (1958, reissued
1995), tells the tale of a smalltime gambler. Des Tannehill, based
in part on Babbs father, disdains working for others and tries to
maintain his erce independence through gambling. His choice of
a trade prevents his family from being respected members of the BABBITT, Natalie
community, a matter quite important to them. The story ends with
the disintegration of a close family. Born 28 July 1932, Dayton, Ohio
Daughter of Ralph Z. and Genevieve Converse Moore; married
An Owl on Every Post (1970, reissued 1994) is a memoir of
Samuel F. Babbitt, 1954; children: Christopher, Thomas, Lucy
Babbs family and their relocation from smalltown Oklahoma to
rural eastern Colorado. Told from a childs perspective, the book
recounts the familys loss of nearly everything they owned and Despite its intimacy, all of Natalie Babbitts work for young
captures life on the Great Plains in the early 20th century. Cry of readers has a dramatic scope and is celebratory in nature. Her
the Tinamou (1997) is a collection of 14 stories, some of which verbal pageantry, often accompanied by prologues and epilogues,
were previously published in magazines as diverse as the Satur- imparts a sense of theatricality. The roots of theater go back to her
day Evening Post and Seventeen. The tales are set in the West earlier history. In high school, Babbitt coauthored a musical
with strong female protagonists and characters of diverse racial comedy; at Smith College, she began her studies as a theater
and ethnic backgrounds. major, although she soon changed her major to art, claiming she
was a wooden actress.
Babbs recent work, Told in the Seed: Poems (1998), is her
rst published collection of poetry. Her poems and short stories That Babbitt should venture into drawing as well as writing is
have appeared in many anthologies, including CrossSection of consistent with her life history. Her mother, an amateur artist,


encouraged Babbitts early painting efforts. Babbitt began her for her illustrations. The book took her four years to complete.
career illustrating books written by her husband, Sam. Eventually, After Bub, Babbitt became absorbed in smaller projects, such as
he became too busy with his job as a president of Kirkland College composing acrostics for the childrens magazine, Horn Book. She
to work with her, and she moved into illustrating her own works also wrote another picture book published in 1999, Ouch! This
and then to writing longer prose. Even when her books provide no adaptation of a story from Grimms fairytales was illustrated by
visuals, her imagistic language creates the landscape and brings Fred Marcellino.
substance and believability to the characters. Her settings have the
majesty and sweep of the air, the sea, the forest, the woods; her
characters have the dignity of individuals and the power of OTHER WORKS: The Forty-Ninth Magician (with S. Babbitt,
archetypes. The ritualistic quality inherent in place and person 1966). Dick Foote and the Shark (1967). Phoebes Revolt (1968).
pervades her work; a mythic lyricism serves both to quiet and Goody Hall (1971). Curlicues (1980).
excite the reader. Illustrator for V. Worth titles: Small Poems (1972). More
Small Poems (1976). Still More Small Poems (1978). Small
With her mastery of tone and mood, Babbitts stories resonate Poems Again (1986). All the Small Poems and Fourteen
beyond their particulars to embrace the universal and to speak of More (1987).
broad truths. In her well-loved Tuck Everlasting (1975) the highly
credible eleven-year-old Winnie faces ultimate questions about
the meaning of life and death, and the novel speaks poignantly BIBLIOGRAPHY: Harrison, B. and G. Maguire, eds., Innocence and
about the place of death in the life cycle. The books gentle and Experience: Essays and Conversations on Childrens Literature
poetic wisdom places it among the classics in childrens literature. (1987). Haviland, V., ed., Children and Literature (1973).
Silvey, A., ed., Childrens Books and Their Creators (1995).
Despite the importance of her themes, Babbitt infuses her Ward, M. E., et al., Authors of Books for Young People (1990).
work with genuine levity, and her wry, humorous perspective Reference works: CA (1975). CANR (1987). CLR (1976).
attracts younger readers. Her early The Search for Delicious DLB (1986). SATA (1987). TCCW (1989).
(1969), Kneeknock Rise (1970), a Newbery honor book, and The Other references: Horn Book (Nov./Dec. 1984, March/April
Something (1970) are the stages for her homey tales with levels of 1986, Sept./Oct. 1988, Nov./Dec. 1989, Nov./Dec. 1990). NYTBR
meaning beyond their apparent lightheartedness. Twice, in The (14 Mar. 1999). PW (21 Feb. 1994).
Devils Storybook (1976) and The Devils Other Storybook (1987),
Babbitt claims the devil as her protagonist. He is a comic SUSAN P. BLOOM,
earthbound fellow victimized by his mischievous pranks as he UPDATED BY ANGELA WOODWARD
plots against others. Babbitts restrained satire renders him an
endearing character.

Babbitt enjoys providing her readers with characters outside

the mainstream of childrens literature. In Eyes of the Amaryllis BACON, Alice (Mabel)
(1977) Jennys Gran, an irascible woman who has not made
loving her easy, must grow in ways more expected of her young Born 26 February 1858, New Haven, Connecticut; died 1 May
granddaughter. Reality and illusion crash up against one another 1918, New Haven, Connecticut
along the stormy shoreline of the novel to challenge the readers Daughter of Leonard and Catherine Bacon
belief in things they cannot explain. Her quirky Herbert Rowbarge
(1982), Babbitts personal favorite, does not have an appealing Alice Bacon wrote almost exclusively about Japan. This
character with whom young readers can identify. Even as a child, special interest began when she was only fourteen years old, when
Herbert is distant and inaccessible. The novels philosophic truth her father took under his guardianship one of a pioneering group
about sense and self, and loss of self, remains more ambiguous, of ve young girls sent by the Japanese government to be
less tangible, though no less wise than her other writings. Al- educated in the U.S. Bacon soon became best friends with her
though Babbitts canon has wide appeal to adults as well as adopted sister.
children, the characters and theme of Herbert Rowbarge presume
adult experience. Publishers Weekly proclaimed it her crowning In 1883 Bacon began teaching at Hampton Institute. In 1888
achievement. she was invited to teach at the Peeresses School in Tokyo,
conducted by the Imperial Household Department for daughters
In 1989 Babbitt returned to her painterly antecedents and of the nobility. While residing in Japan, she spent most of her time
produced her rst full-color picture book since The Something in Japanese society, experiencing many aspects of Japanese life
(1970), Nellie: A Cat on Her Own. She says she ran out of ideas for rarely seen by Western visitors.
longer works around this time, and she went on to publish another
picture book in 1994, Bub: Or the Very Best Thing. The story of a In 1889 Bacon returned to her work at Hampton, where she
king and queens search for the best thing for their child, Bub is set concerned herself with the status of the black man. She founded
in medieval times, and Babbitt painstakingly hand-sewed cos- the Dixie Hospital to provide nursing education and better medi-
tumes for her models in order to achieve the precision she wanted cal care for the community, and expressed her views on racial


problems in an article entitled The Negro and the Atlanta OTHER WORKS: Human Bullets, a Soldiers Story of Port Ar-
Exposition. thur (1907).

Japanese Girls and Women (1891) is based upon Bacons

many years of living in Japan. She felt the book was needed BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baldwin, T. W., Bacon Genealogy: Michael
because, While Japan as a whole has been closely studied, and Bacon of Dedham, 1640, and His Descendants (1915). Peabody,
while much and varied information has been gathered about the F. G., Education for Life: The Story of Hampton Institute (1918).
country and its people, one half of the population has been left Reference works: DAB. NAW, 1607-1950 (1971).
entirely unnoticed, passed over with brief mention, or altogether Other references: Independent (30 Jan. 1896). New Haven
misunderstood. The information she gathered and the observa- Journal Courier (3 May 1918). New Haven Register (3 May
tions she made were not those of a casual supercial traveler, but 1918). Southern Workman (March 1926).
are based upon the intimate friendships she developed with many
native Japanese women. Bacon became acquainted with people of
all classes and carefully noted the similarities and differences in
their ideas and customs.
Her rst chapter deals with childhood and tells of the various
BACON, Delia Salter
ceremonies and traditions connected with infancy and child
rearing. The author tells how children are dressed and treated, and Born 2 February 1811, Tallmadge, Ohio Territory; died 2 Sep-
particularly emphasizes their training in good manners. In tember 1859, Hartford, Connecticut
another chapter, Bacon discusses the formal education of a Daughter of David and Alice Parks Bacon
Japanese girl. The reader learns of the high value placed upon
Daughter of Congregationalist missionaries, Delia Salter
education in general, as well as the details of the instruction which
Bacon was born in a model community her father had established
virtually all girls receive.
in the wilderness. Bankrupt in 1812, he returned to Connecticut
In later chapters Bacon treats such topics as marriage, di- and died in 1817, leaving his wife and seven children. After one
vorce, motherhood, old age, court life, samurai and peasant year (1825-26) at Catharine Beechers Hartford school, where she
women, city life, and domestic service. The reader learns the was a classmate and literary rival of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Baker
details of arranged marriages and the standards of a beautiful taught (1826-32) at schools in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New
and accomplished maiden. One also learns how after marriage, a York. In 1833 she began a series of classes in the home of her
young upper-class woman becomes almost a servant to her brother Leonard, pastor of the First Church (Congregational) in
mother-in-law. The life of a countrymans wife offers an interest- New Haven. Her Historical Lessons proved successful in New
ing contrast to the life of the upper-class woman. Although the Haven, New York, Albany, Boston, and Cambridge.
peasant woman undoubtedly works harder and grows older earli- Bacons eloquence and charm brought large audiences to her
er, she is freer and more independent than her city sister. literary and historical surveys thirty years before female lecturers
In discussing elderly women, Bacon emphasizes the respect became common, and won her friends and admirers such as
given to the aged. She explains that an elderly woman proudly Elizabeth Peabody and Caroline W. H. Dall. The rst fruit of
Bacons intense literary ambition, Tales of the Puritans (1831)
dresses as such and does not try to make herself appear younger.
consists of three stories, The Regicides, The Fair Pilgrim,
An aged mother is treated with love and tenderness and never
and Castine. All are based on historical events in 17th-century
regarded as a burden. When times are hard, children deprive
New England. The Regicides, about the escape to New Eng-
themselves in order to give extra to their parents.
land of Puritan judges who had sentenced Charles I, is the most
Court life is the center of Japans nest drama, music, art, and effective.
literature. Similarly the city lies at the center of popular folk In 1832 Bacons sentimental romance Loves Martyr was
culture, and Bacon describes the various festivals of the common published in the Philadelphia Sunday Courier. It won rst prize
people. One of the most interesting occupations to be found in the and was chosen over ve stories by Poe. Based on the scalping of
city is that of the geisha. The Geisha ya are establishments where Jane McCrea by the Indians in 1776, the story, like those in Tales
little girls are taken to be taught dance and song, the etiquette of of the Puritans, makes a beautiful, romantic heroine the center of
entertaining guests, and whatever else goes to make a girl the action.
charming to the opposite sex. Sometimes geisha will leave the
dancing in the teahouses to become the concubine of some Beginning in 1845, Bacon became more and more absorbed
wealthy Japanese or foreigner. in her belief that the plays attributed to Shakespeare had been
written by Sir Walter Raleigh or Francis Bacon, or by a group
Although Japanese Girls and Women is Bacons major work, headed by these men. Family and friends, including Eliza Ware
she also published a collection of letters related to her experiences Rotch Farrar, attempted to dissuade her from this pursuit. But
teaching in Tokyo (A Japanese Interior, 1893), and a collection of Charles Butler, a New York lawyer, gave her the rst fellowship
stories (In the Land of the Gods: Some Stories of Japan, 1905). on record to an American woman for advanced study abroad
Both books provide a rare insight into Japanese daily life. (Hopkins), and she sailed for England in May 1853 to do research.


In England she became increasingly isolated, obsessed with her became one of its three-person publishing committee. While
theory and her attempts to publish it. editing the Voice of Industry and contributing to its pages, Bagley
also organized branches of the Female Labor Reform Associa-
In May 1856 Bacon appealed in despair to Elizabeth Peabodys
tion in other mill towns. She gathered more than 2,000 signa-
brother-in-law, Nathaniel Hawthorne, American consul at Liver-
tures on petitions to the Massachusetts legislature that described
pool. He could not believe in her theory, but he not only became
the adverse effects of mill conditions on the health and minds of
her unpaid literary agent, secured English and American publish-
the workers and called for laws limiting the working day to 10
ers for her book, wrote its preface, but spent over $1,100 of his
hours. The petition of the mill workers was rejected.
own money on printing and editorial costs. The Philosophy of the
Plays of Shakspere Unfolded (1857) was ignored or ridiculed by In 1847 Bagley became the Lowell agent for The Covenant, a
contemporary reviewers, but Bacon was followed by numerous Baltimore monthly devoted to Odd Fellowship and General
Baconians, and she is blamed for stirring up the biggest Literature. Bagleys writings fall into two distinct groups: her
mares nest in the history of the English-speaking world. In early, genteel contributions to the Lowell Offering and her later
1858, completely insane, she was brought back to America from militant articles in the Voice of Industry. She wrote Pleasures of
England to die at the Hartford Retreat for the Insane. Factory Life for the Offering (Dec. 1840), describing the joys of
conversation, contemplation, plants, the power to assist ones
family, opportunities to meet new people from different parts of
OTHER WORKS: The Bride of Fort Edward: A Dialogue (1839).
the country. Two short tales also written for the Offering, Tales
of Factory Life, No. 1 (1841) and Tales of Factory Life, No. 2:
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Altick, R. D., Delia Bacon, in Ohio Authors The Orphan Sisters (1841), present the stories of Sarah T.
and Their Books (1962). Bacon, T., Delia Bacon: A Biographical and Catherine Bagley, who are able to improve themselves and
Sketch (1888). Beecher, C., Truth Stranger Than Fiction (1850). assist their needy families by working in the mills. The rst story
Dall, C. W. H., What We Really Know about Shakespeare (1886). makes it plain the factory girls lot is far superior to that of the
Emerson, R. W., The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks hired girl. In her reported speeches and writings as a labor
(1960). Farrar, E. W. R., Recollections of Seventy Years (1866). organizer and editor, Bagley claimed the authority of 10 years
Hopkins, V. C., Prodigal Puritan; a Life of Delia Bacon (1959) experience in the mills, and the reported success of her speeches
Pares, M., A Pioneer: In Memory of Delia Bacon, 2 Feb. 1811 to 2 probably depended in part on their ring of sincerity and conviction.
Sept. 1859 (1959).
Reference works: American Authors 1600-1900 (1938). NAW,
1607-1950 (1971). OTHER WORKS: Selections of Bagleys work can be found in:
History of the Labor Movement in the United States (P.S. Foner,
SUSAN SUTTON SMITH ed., 1947). The Lowell Offering: Writings by New England Mill
Women (ed. B. Eisler, 1977).

BAGLEY, Sarah G. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Eisler, B., ed., The Lowell Offering: Writings by
New England Mill Women (1977). Foner, P. S., The Factory Girls
(1977). Foner, P. S., History of the Labor Movement in the United
Born circa 1820 in Meredith, New Hampshire; death date unknown
States (1947). Josephson, H., The Golden Threads: New Eng-
lands Mill Girls and Magnates (1949). Lunardini, C. A., Wom-
Sarah G. Bagley received a common school education and, if
ens Rights (1996). Selden, B., The Mill Girls: Lucy Larcom,
her sketch, Tales of Factory Life, No. 1 is autobiographical,
Harriet Hanson Robinson, Sarah G. Bagley (1983). Stern, M. B.,
she may have been in domestic service before arriving in Lowell,
We, the Women: Career Firsts of Nineteenth Century Ameri-
Massachusetts. She may also have taught school. She worked at
ca (1963).
the Hamilton Manufacturing Company for over six years and for
Reference works: NAW, 1607-1950 (1971).
two years at the Middlesex Factory. For four of the years she
worked in the mills, she conducted a free evening class for her SUSAN SUTTON SMITH
fellow workers. She joined an Improvement Circle held in a
Lowell Universalist church and contributed articles to the Lowell
Offering, edited by Harriet Farley. When she became critical of
the deteriorating working conditions and low wages in the mills, BAILEY, Carolyn Sherwin
her articles were rejected. In a speech before 2,000 workingmen at
an 1845 Independence Day rally in Woburn, Massachusetts,
Born 1875 in Hoosick Falls, New York; died 24 December 1961,
Bagley attacked the Offering, and later called Farley a mouth-
Concord, Massachusetts
piece of the corporations. The popularity of the Offering de-
Daughter of Charles H. and Emma F. Blanchard Bailey; married
clined after these attacks, and it ceased publication late in 1845.
Eben C. Hill, 1936
Bagley helped to found and became the rst president of the
Lowell Female Labor Reform Association, and when the Voice of Carolyn Sherwin Bailey was educated at home by her moth-
Industry, a labor weekly, moved to Lowell in October 1845, she er, herself a teacher and writer of childrens books, and at


Lansingburg Academy, near Albany, New York. After graduating Children (ed. by Bailey, 1921). The Torch of Courage (1921).
from Teachers College, Columbia, Bailey studied at the Montessori Flint, The Story of a Trail (1922). Baileys In-and Out-Door
School in Rome. Returning to New York City, she began a career Playgames (1923). Friendly Tales (1923). Reading Time Stories
of writing, editing, teaching, and traveling. (1923). Surprise Stories (1923). When Grandfather Was a Boy
(1923). All the Year Playgames (1924). Boys and Girls of Pioneer
At the age of nineteen, Bailey began publishing poetry and Days (1924). In the Animal World (1924). Lincoln Time Stories
short ction in St. Nicholas and Youths Companion. Her early (1924). Little Men and Women Stories (1924). Stories from an
books were collections of short stories and poems that grew out of Indian Cave (1924). The Wonderful Tree and Golden Day Stories
her work at the Warren Goddard House in New York. Bailey later (1925). Boys and Girls of Discovery Days (1926). The Wonderful
dismissed these early works as sentimental, but one collection, Window (1926). Untold History Stories (1927). Boys and Girls of
For the Childrens Hour (1906), remained in print for more than Today (1928). Forest, Field and Stream Stories (1928). Sixty
40 years. Bailey also began writing nonction at an early age: Games and Pastimes for All Occasions (1928). Boys and Girls of
such books as Boys Make-at-Home Things (1912) and Boy Heroes Modern Days (1929). Garden, Orchard and Meadow Stories
in Making America (1919) demonstrate her predilection for com- (1929). Read Aloud Stories (1929). The Wonderful Days (1929).
bining instruction and entertainment in books for children. Plays for the Childrens Hour (1931). Stories Children Want (ed.
This duality of purpose is particularly apparent in Baileys by Bailey, 1931). Our Friends at the Zoo (1934). Tell Me a
works on Americana. In the years between 1935 and 1944, Bailey Birthday Story (1935). From Moccasins to Wings (1938). Lil
wrote four books about early American arts and handcrafts: Hannibal (1938). Country Stop (1942). The Little Rabbit Who
Children of the Handcrafts (1935), Tops and Whistles, Stories of Wanted Red Wings (1945). Merry Christmas Book (1948). Old
Early American Toys and Children (1937), Homespun Playdays Man Rabbits Dinner Party (1949). Enchanted Village (1950). A
(1940), and Pioneer Art in America (1944). Some critics consider Candle for Your Cake (1952). Finnegan II (1953). The Little Red
these to be her greatest achievement. In preparing these books, Schoolhouse (1957). Flickertail (1962).
Bailey used original research into genealogical records, person-
al letters and diaries, rare village and county records, and. . .old BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bailey, C. S., The Hundred Dresses in A
maps. Though the life of those early times is perhaps romanti- Newbery Christmas: Fourteen Stories of Christmas by Newbery
cized, Bailey has a keen eye for detail. She creates a feeling of Award-winning Authors (1998, 1991). Davis, D. R., Carolyn
immediacy and evokes a sensitive appreciation for the achieve- Sherwin Bailey, 1875-1961: Prole and Bibliography (1967).
ments of the artists and artisans whose stories she tells. Miller, B. M., and E. W. Field, eds., Newbery Medal Books,
1922-1955 (1955).
Important as the books on American art were in establishing
Reference works: Junior Book of Authors, S. J. Kunitz,
her reputation, Bailey is best known for a quite different work.
and H. Haycraft, eds. (1951).
The book that graces nearly every childrens library is Baileys
Other references: NYT (25 Dec. 1961). PW (8 Jan. 1962).
1947 Newbery award-winner, Miss Hickory (1946). The books
greatest strength is Miss Hickory herself, an acerbic, ironic New KATHARYN F. CRABBE
England spinster whose body is a twig of applewood and whose
head is a hickory nut. Baileys use of detail in evoking the New
Hampshire countryside is so powerful, however, that her descrip-
tions of Temple Mountain, the apple orchard, and the old place BAILEY, Florence (Augusta) Merriam
very nearly bring them alive.
Born 8 August 1863, Locust Grove, New York; died 22 Septem-
OTHER WORKS: Daily Program of Gift and Occupation Work ber 1948, Washington, D.C.
(1904). Peter Newells Mother Goose (1905). The Jungle Primer Also wrote under: Florence Merriam
Daughter of Clinton and Caroline Hart Merriam; married Vernon
(1906). Firelight Stories (1907). Stories and Rhymes for a Child
Bailey, 1899
(1909). Girls Make-at-Home Things (1912). The Childrens Book
of Games and Parties (1913). For the Story Teller (1913). Every
Daughter of a Republican congressman, Florence Merriam
Childs Folk Songs and Games (1914). Montessori Children
Bailey grew up in a country home in northern New York.
(1915). Everyday Play for Children (1916). Letting in the Gang
Interested in nature and particularly bird life at an early age, she
(1916). Stories Children Need (ed. by Bailey, 1916). Stories for
began to publish papers about birds while still a student at Smith
Sunday Telling (1916). Boys and Girls of Colonial Days (1917).
College. She married Vernon Bailey, a naturalist, in 1899. There
The Way of the Gate (with Sheath, Hodges, and Tweedy, 1917).
were no children. Bailey and her husband traveled and worked
Once Upon a Time Animal Stories (1918). The Outdoor Story
together, writing about the natural history of the West. In 1931 she
Book (1918). Stories for Every Holiday (1918). Tell Me Another
received the Brewster Medal of the American Ornithologists
Story (1918). What to Do for Uncle Sam (1918). Broad Stripes
Union, and in 1933 the University of New Mexico awarded
and Bright Stars (1919). Everyday Stories (1919). Folk Tales and
her an LL.D.
Fables (1919). Hero Stories (1919). Legends from Many Lands
(1919). Stories of Great Adventures (1919). The Enchanted Bugle Throughout her life Bailey published many papers about
and Other Stories (1920). Wonder Stories (1920). Merry Tales for birds in such periodicals as Audubon Magazine, and her rst book,


Birds Through an Opera Glass (1889), is based on her early sciences out of the 19th century parlors into the outdoors, creating
papers. It tells of her experiences as a bird watcher and gives some an easy transition for many readers.
advice on how to recognize birds. It was quite popular, appearing
in various editions throughout the 1890s, during the period when
OTHER WORKS: A-Birding on a Bronco (1896). Birds of Village
publishers were trying to satisfy the rising national passion for the
and Field (1898). Cave Life in Kentucky (1933).
outdoor life. Bird watching, plant identication, and rock study
were popular pastimes of a new class of American amateurs. The
outdoor life in all its healthy aspects, especially when associated BIBLIOGRAPHY: Stille, D. R., Extraordinary Women Scien-
with the American West, took the place in popular fancy of earlier tists (1995).
nature study which was seen as an extension of religious piety or Reference works: Dictionary of American Biography, Na-
simply aesthetic appreciation. tional Cyclopedia of American Biography (1892 et seq.). NAW,
1607-1950 (1971).
In 1902, after extensive travel with her husband in the West,
Bailey published The Handbook of Birds of the Western United BEVERLY SEATON
States, which remained the standard handbook in its eld for
about 25 years. A handsome book, organized by genus, this work
is illustrated by the famous nature illustrator Louis Agassiz
Fuertes. Perhaps her most signicant work in ornithology, Birds BAILEY, (Irene) Temple
of New Mexico (1928), was also illustrated by Fuertes. Bailey
wrote about Western birds for some of her husbands books, such Born circa 1869, Petersburg, Virginia; died 6 July 1953, Wash-
as Wild Animals of Glacier National Park (1918), and also ington, D.C.
published Birds of the Santa Rita Mountains in Southern Arizona Daughter of Milo Varnum and Emma Sprague Bailey
(1923) and Among the Birds in Grand Canyon Country (1939).
While Bailey was not a professional ornithologist who made Many of Temple Baileys short stories and essays appeared
specic contributions to the science, she was a highly competent in magazines, and her novels came out at regular intervals for
writer on birds for both popular and professional audiences. several decades. All of her writing was amazingly popular.
Several years before her death it was estimated that 3,000,000
But Baileys career was not limited to ornithology. Her copies of her books had been sold. She was also one of the highest-
interest in social welfare and her love of nature and concern for the paid writers in the world; for one serial she received $60,000 from
conditions of her fellow humans are especially revealed in a short McCalls magazine, and from Cosmopolitan $325,000 for three
book she wrote while in Utah in the summer of 1893. My Summer serials and several short stories.
in a Mormon Village (1894) describes the town as a haven of
rest, where she spent many delightful days listening to the Reasons for her popularity can be surmised from the com-
reminiscences of the old pioneer Mormon women whom she ments of critics and reviewers: she gave her readers the relaxation
characterized as good but suffering sisters. The intellectual pover- and pleasure of entering a delightful world where everything
ty of their lives depressed her, although she knew they were not comes out right for the good and the true. Bailey upholds all the
different in this respect from their female counterparts on back conventional standards of morality, and dramatizes, over and over
again, her thesis that the rewards of virtue are many, lavish, and
country farms.
sure. She writes of life as she would like to have it, rather than
I recalled with a shudder the statistics I had known about the life as it is, says one critic, and another characterizes one of her
number of farmers wives who go insane, she wrote. Although, novels as high-own romance with a bland disregard for realities.
at the time she visited, polygamy had been outlawed, it was still
It is tempting to speculate as to the cause of her absorption in
practiced and taught in the area. She had a chance to observe the
a bright Never-Never Land. We might nd it in the fact that she
effects of polygamy on the women, and she felt these were almost herself was, from her birth, protected from the grimmer aspects of
always negative. Polygamy had brought great suffering to the life. She may on the other hand have been shrewd enough to
women, yet most of them continued to believe in it. As she put it, recognize that the average schoolgirl and housewife hunger for
The spirit that is nest and best in womanher power of self- glamour, romance, gaiety, and a satisfying solution to every
sacrice in the face of abstract righthas been used as a tool of problem. Setting herself to provide these, she found a goal
torture, and it will be used successfully until education teaches her for a long and lucrative career. A successful business woman,
that there is a higher light for her to follow. She was little more she retained her solid background of Presbyterianism and
sympathetic when writing about other aspects of Mormon belief, Republicanism.
presenting the prophets as some clever men who took advantage
of the immigrant mentality for their own material and physi- Reviews of her novels combine weak praise and outright
cal gain. disparagement, with certain words recurring many times: whole-
some, sweet, sentimental, and, perhaps most devastating
Bailey belongs to the rst generation of writers who wrote of all, harmless and innocuous. On the plus side, Bailey is
about the life sciences for the popular audience. Her graceful credited with skill in characterization and in devising of plots.
writing style and practical knowledge combined to bring the life Most of her ction is concerned with young love, but at times she


wrote of children, or of lonely people. Her style is clear and and marries Amy North, a medical student and a complicated
smooth, and she was fond of describing nature, elegantly fur- woman, the kind who knows how to strip the nerves and kick the
nished rooms, and beautiful clothes. She is to be respected for her will around. Characters similar to Amy recur in Bakers work,
careful craftsmanship. but this is the types most vivid incarnation. When Young Man
with a Horn (1938) was lmed (1950), scriptwriters turned most
of the heros black friends white, including the singer Jo Jordan,
OTHER WORKS: Judy (1907). Glory of Youth (1913). Contrary played by Doris Day. Romance with Doris gives the lm its happy
Mary (1915). Mistress Anne (1917). Adventures in Girlhood ending. Amy North, played by Lauren Bacall, suffers from the
(1917). The Tin Soldier (1919). The Trumpeter Swan (1920). The self-conscious Freudianism sweeping Hollywood at that time.
Gay Cockade (1921). The Dim Lantern (1923). Peacock Feathers
Trio (1943), Bakers second novel, presents the conict
(1924). The Holly Hedge (1925). The Blue Window (1926).
experienced by Janet Logan when a young man evoking hetero-
Wallowers (1927). Silver Slippers (1928). Burning Beauty (1929).
sexual love enters her life. Hitherto, shed had a long-standing
Wild Wind (1930). So This is Christmas (1931). Little Girl Lost
relationship with a domineering woman professor, whom she
(1932). Enchanted Ground (1933). The Radiant Tree (1934). Fair
assisted while doing graduate work. Reviewers faulted it as
As the Moon (1935). Ive Been to London (1937). Tomorrows
overworked and lacking in humanity. Nevertheless, it won the
Promise (1938). The Blue Cloak (1941). The Pink Camellia
Commonwealth Club of California medal for literature. The novel
(1942). Red Fruit (1945).
was developed out of an earlier story Romance (Harpers
Bazaar, 1941), which achieves a compelling tension the longer
novel lacks.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: Notable Boston Authors,
Flagg, M., ed. (1960). Baker and her husband rewrote Trio as a stage play, which
Other references: Newsweek (20 July 1953). NYT (8 July opened in Philadelphia in 1944. A run on Broadway was dogged
1953). PW (24 June 1933). Time (20 July 1953). WLB (Sept. 1953). by censorship that triggered industry-wide protest and also attract-
ed many reviewers. Most found it moral to the point of moralizing
ABIGAIL ANN HAMBLEN (the lesbian villain is disgraced and shoots herself), but dull. The
controversy over its forced closing outlived the play by sever-
al years.

Cassandra at the Wedding (1962), Bakers last novel, recalls

BAKER, Dorothy Dodds Trio in its triangular conict between a dominant woman, a
compliant woman, and a man; but the failures of the earlier work
are recouped in this recasting. In Cassandra, the dominant woman
Born 21 April 1907, Missoula, Montana; died 17 June 1968, overcomes her dependency on her supportive twin sister; her
Terra Bella, California suicide attempt is thwarted. The novel ends with a gesture, not a
Daughter of Raymond Branson and Alice Grady Dodds; married debacle. The mastery of technique here, said a New York Times
Howard Baker, 1930 reviewer, is just about absolute.

Dorothy Dodds Baker is best remembered for her ability to Baker published many excellent short stories. Her vivid,
describe the excitement of music, especially jazz. She grew up in precise style and knack for capturing human gesture became her
California, studying violin until she went to college. While hallmark. Her characters are often bent on some singleminded
obsession: classical music in The Jazz Sonata (Coronet, 1937),
studying in Paris in 1930, she began writing Triopublished as
boxing in Private Lesson (Yale Review, 1940), and gambling in
her second noveland met and married poet Howard Baker. She
Grasshoppers Field Day (Harpers, 1941). Though she re-
earned an M.A. in French at UCLA and taught languages in a
ceived a National Institute of Letters Fellowship in 1964, Baker
private school until her rst short story was published; then she
published little after Cassandra.
began writing full-time. All her early stories portray women in
career situations.

In 1937, Baker won a Houghton Mifin Literary Fellowship OTHER WORKS: Keeley Street Blues in O. Henry Memorial
to complete Young Man with a Horn. This widely acclaimed novel Award Prize Stories (1939). Our Gifted Son (1948). The Ninth
follows the career of jazz musician Rick Martin, from the time he Day (with H. Baker, 1967).
rst cuts school in order to practice piano at an abandoned Los
Angeles mission, till he dies at the peak of his fame in a quack
drying-out hospital in New York. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rule, J., Lesbian Images (1975).
Other references: NYT (18 June 1968).
The hero overcomes his racial prejudice in order to learn
from black musicians who befriend him. In New York he meets FRIEDA L. WERDEN


BALCH, Emily Greene and their ways of life in Europe and the United States. Accompa-
nied by a variety of appendices with many statistical tables, the
book is an outstanding example of early sociology. Predating and
Born 8 January 1867, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; died 9
in many ways complementing the highly lauded volumes, The
January 1961, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918-20) by W. I.
Daughter of Francis Vergnies and Ellen Maria Noyes Balch
Thomas and Florian Znaniecki, the lack of recognition received
by this and other of Balchs works on sociological topics is hard to
Emily Greene Balch is one of the two American women
(Jane Addams was the other recipient in 1931) to be awarded the
Nobel Peace Prize (in 1946), yet her life and writings remain The remainder of Balchs writings revolved around the topic
relatively obscure. Graduating in 1889 from Bryn Mawr in its rst of international peace, a particularly controversial subject imme-
matriculated class, Balch was given its highest honor, the Bryn diately prior to and during World War I. In 1915 Balch, Jane
Mawr Fellowship for European Study. Her subsequent training in Addams, and Alice Hamilton came to national prominence as
Europe, which brought her in contact with Emile Levasseur in delegates to the International Congress of Women at The Hague
Paris, resulted in a technical treatise on relief for the poor in (which later evolved into the Womens International League for
France. Returning in 1890, Balch became one of the early social Peace and Freedom) and as members of peace envoys to countries
workers and two years later, with Vida Scudder and Helena around the world. Their joint publication of The Women at The
Dudley, founded one of the rst settlement houses, Denison Hague (1915) brought the meetings to worldwide attention and
House in Boston. Further European training in Germany in 1895 subsequently subjected the women to frequent personal ostracism
was concluded with Balchs attendance at the International So- and attack. Following a sabbatical from 1915 to 1917, when Balch
cialist Workers and Trade Union Congress in London. Katherine gained national prominence as a pacist, the Board of Trustees of
Coman, a well-known economist and historian, returned to the U.S. Wellesley College failed to appoint her, terminating her academic
on the same ship with Balch and offered her an academic position career at fty-two years of age after 20 years of service.
at Wellesley College, which Balch accepted.
Continuing her ght for a peaceful settlement to World War
From 1897 until 1918, Balch was an outstanding member of I, Balch edited Approaches to the Great Settlement (1918), a
the Wellesley faculty, working in the newly formed discipline of comprehensive volume containing major statements by various
sociology as well as in economics. Around 1905 she undertook a spokespersons and groups on ways to end the war. In 1919 the
Slavic journey which resulted in her major research book, Our newly established Womens International League for Peace and
Slavic Fellow Citizens. During these years she was an active Freedom (W.I.L.P.F.) elected Balch as international secretary-
supporter of many social reforms and changes, but from 1915 treasurer. This organization became the anchor for her future
until her death, Balchs most radical and absorbing social concern career as an international arbiter for peace. As a leader of a
was pacism. committee selected by the W.I.L.P.F., Balch edited and largely
Balchs rst publication, Public Assistance of the Poor in wrote Occupied Haiti (1927). The forcefulness and reasonable-
France (1893), is a study of the historical development of care for ness of the committees arguments led to the adoption of their
the poor as well as an organizational study of the bureaucracy that recommendations by President Hoover in 1930.
administered the welfare programs. The types of services offered, In addition to these formal, abstract writings, Balch wrote a
the disabilities covered by the state programs, and the types of short book of verse, The Miracle of Living (1941), which provides
social pathologies found are all discussed. Combining cost with an insight into some of her philosophy and the simplicity of her
statistical and demographic information, the thesis was one of the world view.
earliest sociological studies of care for the poor and disabled.
Balch wrote voluminously in newsletters, academic journals,
In 1895 Balch published a technical manuscript, Manual for
and popular magazines. Many of these writings are difcult to
Use in Cases of Juvenile Offenders and Other Minors in Massa-
obtain and cover diverse topics. An excellent compilation of some
chusetts, that would be primarily of interest to historians of social
of these works is available in Beyond Nationalism (1972), edited
welfare. In 1903 she published A Study of Conditions of City Life,
by Mercedes Randall, Balchs biographer.
a bibliography on urban areas. This extensive listing of writings
on the city clearly anticipated much of the concern on the same Balchs role as an academic, theorist, and international leader
topic which later emerged at the famous Chicago School of has yet to be systematically analyzed and evaluated. Nonetheless,
sociology. recognition of her signicance, work, and writings for world
peace is evident in her status as a Nobel laureate.
Balchs most signicant book was Our Slavic Fellow Citi-
zens (1910). Convinced of the need to know her subject well, she
spent the greater part of the year 1905 in Austria-Hungary, OTHER WORKS: The Papers of Emily Greene Balch, 1875-1961
studying emigration on the spot, and over a year in visiting Slavic (microlm archives in Wilmington, Delaware, 1988)
colonies in the United States. . . . One autumn was spent as a
boarder in the family of a Bohemian working man in New York
City. In this rst major sociological work on immigration, she BIBLIOGRAPHY: Cavanaugh, B., The Earth is My Home: A Com-
discusses the Slovenians, Croatians, Austrian Poles, and Ruthenians, parison of Two Women Pacists, Emily Greene Balch and Jeannette


Rankin (thesis, 1989). Kaufman, P.W., The Simplest of New (including those with congenital defects) were stillborn, no wom-
England Spinsters: Becoming Emily Greene Balch 1875-1961 en died at birth, and only ve women died of infection afterward
in Women of the Commonwealth: Work, Family, and Social (often during epidemics).
Change in Nineteenth-century Massachusetts (1996).
Kenworthy, L.S., Emily Greene Balch in Living in the Light: Ballard began her diary to record births, midwifery pay-
Some Quaker Pioneers of the 20th Century (1984). Meinecke, M.F., ments, and other economic activitiespeas planted, cloth taken
Emily Greene Balch: An Overlooked Leader in the International off the loom, and the gifts of food and home-produced goods that
Peace Movement and Her Travails for Peace from 1914 to 1929 sustained a barter economy. Her early entries were short and noted
(thesis, 1994). Hardy, G. J., American Women Civil Rights little except the weather and the days production and exchanges.
Activists: Biobibliographies of 68 Leaders, 1825-1992 (1993). As the years went by, she wrote more, creating a remarkable
Randall, M. M., Improper Bostonian: Emily Greene Balch (1964). record of her life: the days she did laundry or planted ax, braved
Shane, M.P., Papers of Emily Greene Balch, 1875-1961: Guide to river-crossings or blizzards or unpredictable horses to get to a
the Scholarly Resources Microlm Edition (1988). Thomas, W. I., woman in labor, treated a childs illness or tried to help her
and Znaniecki, F., The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (2 neighbors survive a scarlet fever epidemic, testied in a rape trial
vols., 1918-20). or witnessed the aftermath of a murder/suicide, or coped with her
husbands imprisonment for debt or her grown sons rages.
Ballards writing remained remarkably matter-of-fact. Few
adjectives interfered with her account of tasks accomplished and
actions taken. In the early years she might punctuate her descrip-
BALLARD, Martha (Moore) tions of especially stressful events with acknowledgments of a
merciful divine Providence. Later she was more likely to inter-
Born 9 February 1735, Oxford, Massachusetts; died early June sperse expressions of exhaustion or helplessness. In both eras,
[before 9 June] 1812, Hallowell, Maine however, the drama of her writing is to be found in its understate-
Daughter of Elijah and Doratha Larned Moore Ballard; married ment and unremitting dailiness.
Ephriam Ballard, 1754; children: nine
Like most diarists, Ballard is widely known only because one
historian took an interest in her writing and made it accessible to a
Little is known of Martha Ballards life before 1785, when
larger audience. Many scholars have used Ballards diary in their
she began writing the diary that would bring her into the historical
studies of New England farm life, and some have quoted it at
record. Evidence suggests that she was a fairly typical goodwife.
Although she came from a relatively educated family (her uncle length. For the most part, however, they dismissed it as an
was the rst person from Oxford, Massachusetts, to graduate from exhausting account of the trivial details of domestic work. In her
college), her mother signed her name with a mark. Someone prize-winning book A Midwifes Tale (1990), Laurel Thatcher
taught young Martha to write, but her spelling and orthography Ulrich showed that Ballards concerns were not trivial at all, but
remained erratic even by the standards of her time. She had nine the warp and woof of life in her time. Ulrich excerpted selections
children, three of whom died in a diphtheria epidemic shortly from the diary, and the full diary was published for the rst time
before the seventh was born. Like other married women, she two years later.
produced foods and textiles for neighborhood trade, nursed the
sick, and attended births. A family story described her, during the Ballards life was in many ways typical for a woman of her
pre-revolutionary tea boycotts, secretly preparing tea for a sick time and place. She participated in a household and neighborhood
woman. Both she and her husband seem to have had little interest economy in which almost everything people needed was pro-
in revolutionary politics. duced locally. She had more medical and herbal knowledge than
most of her (younger) neighbors, but there were plenty of other
In 1777 Ballard moved to Hallowell, Maine, and less than a midwives/herbalists with similar expertise. She grew old and
year later acted as a midwife for the rst time. At the time, fought against her increasing dependence on her son and daugh-
childbirth was a social event. Ideally, a midwife arrived rst and ter-in-law. What made her remarkable is that she left a record of
then three or more women gathered to assistbut of course things her experience.
didnt always go as planned. Hallowell, unlike Oxford, was near
the frontier of European settlement, so after her move Ballard was
one of the older women in the community. Her youngest child was
OTHER WORKS: The Diary of Martha Ballard, 1785-1812 (1992).
eight, and her daughters were old enough to do the cooking,
laundry, and weaving in her absence, so she was somewhat freed
from the responsibilities of running a home. It was not surprising,
therefore, that her younger neighbors called on her to help them BIBLIOGRAPHY: Nash, C., The History of Augusta (1961). Ulrich, L.,
with their births. Within a few years, Ballard was widely recog- A Midwifes Tale (1990).
nized as a midwife, and between 1778 and 1812 she would deliver
998 babies. Her success rates were impressive: only 14 babies LORI KENSCHAFT


BAMBARA, Toni Cade praised by critics, particularly for its lyric and dreamlike experi-
mental narration, which created complex webs of communal
Born 25 March 1939, New York, New York; died 9 December
1995, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Bambaras interest in experimental narration led her into lm
Wrote under: Toni Cade (prior to 1971) work. She wrote historical scripts on gures such as Zora Neale
Daughter of Walter and Helen Brent HendersonCade II; child- Hurston, W. E. B. Du Bois, and activist Cecil B. Moore, as well as
ren: Karma renditions of her own and others ctions. Bambara was also an
active teacher and organizer. She taught and served as a consultant
For Toni Cade Bambara, writing is one means of celebrating in a range of settings, from colleges and universities such as City
movements toward personal and political change. The issue, College, Rutgers, Emory, and Spelman, to community centers,
she has explained, is salvation. I write to save our lives. In her prisons, libraries, and museums. She conducted workshops on
work as a writer of stories, a novel, essays, and lm scripts, as well writing and community organizing and was an instructor at Scribe
as a teacher and community organizer, Bambara transmits an Video Center in Philadelphia, a media access facility, training
African-American cultural heritage, records the strong communi- community groups in the use of video as a tool for social change.
ties and characters who struggle with the effects of racism, and
envisions new and more humane conditions for our lives. Its a tremendous responsibility. . .to be a writer, an artist, a
cultural worker, said Bambara. In her later years, she focused on
Bambara began writing as a child, encouraged by her mother lmmaking and community organization in fullling what she
and inspired by visits to the Apollo Theater with her father. saw as her most important role, cultural worker. She wrote,
Listening to impassioned trade unionists, Pan-Africans, Father
acted in, and directed television documentaries; taught lmmaking;
Divinists, Muslims, and Ida B. Wells supporters at Speakers
and had three lm adaptations made of her short stories. As a
Corner in Harlem, she learned the power of words to shape and
mentor she founded Image Weavers, a collective of women
share visions. Bambara earned a B.A. at Queens College and
media makers of color.
an M.A. at the City College of New York. She completed further
graduate work in American Studies and studied commedia dellarte, In a posthumous collection, Deep Sightings and Rescue
mime, linguistics, dance, and lmmaking at various institutions in Missions: Fiction, Essays, and Conversations(1996), Toni
Europe and the United States. Morrison, her friend and original editor at Random House, gath-
Bambaras early writing and editing redened African Ameri- ered the stories that reveal the heart cling of her ction.
can identities, particularly black womens complex and varied Going Critical and Babys Breath, one narrated from the
selves, beyond the connes of racist and sexist stereotypes. The perspective of the parent and the other from that of the adult child,
Black Woman (1970, as Toni Cade) is a groundbreaking antholo- play out the disparate expectations that mar the possibilities for
gy of essays, poems, and ction that grapples with the intersec- intimacy and understanding.
tions of race and gender in womens lives. Tales and Stories for Essays such as Language and the Writer express her
Black Folks (1971) offers children contemporary African Ameri- desire to change the world through the medium of lm by
can stories and black renditions of fairy tales reset in 20th-century connecting with communities and advancing her activism. How
America. She Came By Her Name is an interview with Louis Massiah,
The stories in Bambaras rst collection, Gorilla, My Love with whom she collaborated on some documentaries. Her last
(1977), are primarily rst-person vignettes of urban life narrated novel, titled Those Bones Are Not My Child was published in
by an array of black girls and women in rhythmic, pointed, poetic, 1999. Bambaras lms, however, received little critical attention.
black-inected language. Critics praised the depth and range of
Bambaras characters, and her nonpolemical emphasis on the
strength of African American community in the face of racist OTHER WORKS: Black Utterances Today (editor, 1975). Zora
patriarchal conditions. They also acclaimed Bambaras language (lm, 1971). The Johnson Girls (lm, 1972). Transactions (lm,
as sounding the musical improvisations of bop and the raptures of 1979). The Long Night (lm, 1981). Epitaph for Willie (lm,
gospel throughout her stories. 1982). Tar Baby (lm, 1984). Raymonds Run (lm, 1985). The
Bombing of Osage (lm, 1986). Cecil B. Moore: Master Tactician
The collection Sea Birds Are Still Alive (1977) moves out- of Direct Action (lm, 1987). More Than Property (lm, n.d.).
ward in scope to address other cultures, and focuses upon charac- The KKK Boutique Aint Just Rednecks (n.d.). Black Theater
ters committed to more directly political struggles such as revolu- (1969). What It is I Think Im Doing Anyhow (1980). Beauty
tions in Southeast Asia, and the civil rights and Black Power is Just Care. . .Like Ugliness is Carelessness (1981). Thinking
movements. Bambaras novel, The Salt Eaters (1980), which won About My Mother (1981).
the American Book award from the Before Columbus Founda-
tion, expands this vision of cultural and social transformation,
portraying the intertwined lives of culture workers, political BIBLIOGRAPHY: Evans, M., ed., Black Women Writers (1950-1980):
activists, and healers within a Southern community. The novel A Critical Evaluation (1984). Flora, J. M., and R. Bain, eds.,
develops the interconnections between personal well being, spiri- Contemporary Fiction Writers of the South: A Bio-Bibliographi-
tual growth, and political commitment. The Salt Eaters was highly cal Sourcebook (1993). Pearlman, M., ed., American Women


Writing Fiction: Memory, Identity, Family, Space (1989). Tate, C., for women. Since the 1950s, Banning has returned to earlier
ed., Black Women Writers at Work (1983). themes, investigating their many facets. The Will of Magda
Reference works: Black Writers (1989). CA (1978). CANR Townsend (1973) is a ctionalized autobiography in which all her
(1988). CLC (1981). DLB (1985). Encyclopedia of Black Women earlier themes reappear and take on different meanings in the new
in America: Literature (1996). FC (1990). MTCW (1991). context of youth in conict with age.
Other references: Booklist (15 Sept.1996). Callaloo (Spring
1996). KR (1996). Quarterly Black Review (1996). Bannings ction spans more than half a century. Taken
together, her work presents an accurate picture of middle-class,
RACHEL STEIN, white American women that serves as a social history.

OTHER WORKS: This Marrying (1920). Half Loaves (1921).

Country Club People (1923). A Handmaid of the Lord (1924). The
Women of the Family (1926). Pressure (1927). Money of Her Own
BANNING, Margaret Culkin (1928). Prelude to Love (1929). Mixed Marriage (1930). The
Towns Too Small (1931). Path of True Love (1932). The Third
Born 18 March 1891, Buffalo, Minnesota; died 4 January 1982 Son (1933). The First Woman (1934). The Iron Will (1935).
Daughter of William Edgar and Hannah Young Culkin; married Letters to Susan (1936). You Havent Changed (1937). The Case
Archibald Tanner Banning, 1914 (divorced); LeRoy Salsich, for Chastity (1937). Too Young to Marry (1938). Enough to Live
1944; children: four (two died in early childhood) On (1939). Out in Society (1940). Salud: A South American
Journal (1941). A Week in New York (1941). Letters from England
Raised in a Roman Catholic family, Margaret Culkin Ban- (1942). Women for Defense (1942). Conduct Yourself According-
ning spent most of her life in the Midwest. After graduation from ly (1944). The Clever Sister (1947). Give Us Our Years (1949).
Vassar College in 1912, she moved to Chicago, where she earned Fallen Away (1951). A New Design for the Defense Decade
a certicate from the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy (1951). The Dowry (1955). The Convert (1957). Echo Answers
in 1913. Her rst marriage ended in divorce. She gave birth to four (1960). The Quality of Mercy (1963). The Vine and the Olive
children, two of whom died in early childhood. As a popular and (1964). I Took My Love to the Country (1966). Mesabi (1969).
nancially successful writer, Banning raised her surviving two Lifeboat Number Two (1971). The Splendid Torments (1976).
children alone. Such Interesting People (1979)

In the 1940s, most of Bannings efforts reected war issues

and she devoted her talents primarily to nonction, offering BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: CB (1940). Twentieth Century
studies of womens participation in war and defense. Her novels Authors, First Supplement (1955).
reect both a personal and a social history, as well as most of the Other references: Margaret (1966). Margaret Culkin Ban-
major ethical and domestic issues which confront women. Her ning (lm, 1958).
major characters are women. In her early novels, they face
conicts between marriage and career, social need and personal MARCIA HOLLY
desire for birth control versus the churchs anticontraception
stance, and the restrictions of the church on remarriage.

From the mid-1940s on, her most frequent character is a

middle-aged Catholic woman who, after an unhappy rst mar-
BARKER, Shirley
riage, successfully pursues a career and eventually marries her
former lover. These circumstances offer Banning latitude to Born 4 April 1911, Farmington, New Hampshire; died 18 No-
develop a variety of themes: women and work, divorce, delity, vember 1965, Penacook, New Hampshire
religious convictions, nature of love, sexuality, birth control, and
two of her late favorites: difference of youth and age, and youth in A descendant of Massachusettss earliest settlers, Shirley
different periods in history. In every novel, Banning explores Barker has spent most of her life in New England, the setting for
serious social and personal issues, generally without moral nearly all of her novels. Educated at the University of New
judgements and from a perspective that suggests the complexities Hampshire, Radcliffe College, and the Pratt Institute, she has
of those issues. advanced degrees in English and library science. Her rst book of
poetry, The Dark Hills Under (1933), was selected for the Yale
In Spellbinders (1922), Banning presents another aspect of Younger Poets series.
the theme: womens participation in political affairs and its
inuence on sexual relations. The four spellbinders are women All of Barkers novels are historical, and most of them are set
who undertake to organize other women to participate in politics. in New Hampshire, where her family has lived since the 1670s.
She portrays the conicts of childbirth and Catholicism realisti- Peace My Daughters (1949) focuses on the Salem witch trials;
cally and presents marriage primarily as an economic necessity Rivers Parting (1950) moves between an ancestral home in


Nottingham and a newly established one in colonial New Hamp- BARNARD, A. M.

shire; Fire and the Hammer (1953) involves Tory Quakers in See ALCOTT, Louisa May
revolutionary Bucks County, Pennsylvania; Tomorrow the New
Moon (1955) traces the life of a Puritan minister and his cousins;
Liza Bowe (1956) is set in Elizabethan England and is Barkers
only attempt at rst person narrative; Swear by Apollo (1958) BARNES, Carman Dee
concerns a medical student who moves from revolutionary New
Hampshire to the Hebrides; The Last Gentleman (1960) is the
governor of New Hampshire during the American Revolution; Born Carman Jackson, 20 November 1912, Chattanooga, Tennessee
Daughter of James N. and Diantha Mills Jackson; married
Corner of the Moon (1961) is set in England at the time of the
Hamilton F. Armstrong, 1945 (divorced)
French Revolution; and Strange Wives (1963) traces the Jewish
settlement of Newport, Rhode Island.
Carman Dee Barnes took her name from her rst stepfather,
Barker writes formula historical novels. The characters are Wellington Barnes. Her mother, Diantha Barnes, was well known
subservient to the settings, which are rife with war, plagues, in the South for her poetry and folklore. Educated at private
epidemics, spiritual crises, and historical personages such as schools, Barnes was forced to leave the Gardner School in New
Shakespeare and Washington. Almost every novel has an obliga- York City after the principal read her successful but scandalous
tory bastard, a smattering of occultism, and incipient madness. rst novel, Schoolgirl (1929), published when the author was
Although Barker varies the pattern, each novel contains a trian- sixteen. This was the end of Barnes formal education.
gleeither the hero must choose between the undyingly faithful
With dramatist A. W. Pezet, Barnes adapted Schoolgirl for
but commonplace woman and the exciting but capricious one
Broadway, where it opened on her eighteenth birthday. She also
(Rivers Parting, Tomorrow the New Moon, Swear by Apollo,
sold the lm rights for a substantial sum. Schoolgirl had been an
Corner of the Moon) or the heroine must choose between the dull
indictment of school practices, and thus Barnes was taken up in
but dependable male and the dangerous, independent one (Peace
liberal circles as exemplifying a new realistic approach to Ameri-
My Daughters, Fire and the Hammer, Liza Bowe, The Last
can education.
Gentleman, Strange Wives).
Based on Barnes experiences at a girls boarding school,
The hero invariably chooses the faithful woman, but only
Schoolgirl follows boy-crazy Naomi Bradshaw through her real-
after a little ing with the other, who usually turns up pregnant.
istically described experiences with crushes, petting, and sexual
After some harrowing moments while the hero wonders if the
experimentation. Sent away to school after she has tried to elope,
child is his and the faithful heroine threatens to reject him for
Naomi matures from a spoiled, oversophisticated child to a
fathering the child, the paternity is placed elsewhere and all is
slightly less spoiled, still cynical, but sadder and wiser young
forgiven. In the other triangle, the heroine always chooses the
woman of almost sixteen.
dangerous man, who loves her but nds her too saucy and
independent to make a good wife. Only after the heroine is Language and technique are remarkable for a sixteen-year-old
subjected to Psyche-like trials of delity and endurance does the author, who combines sophistication with an air of innocence.
hero relent. Barnes occasional irony reveals she has so outdistanced Naomi
she can no longer take her heroine seriously, but the book is
Although Barkers novels are not original, they are, as
mainly honest narrative, as a critic described it, portraying
popular novels, a good indication of the moral attitudes still genuine emotions and real problems.
prevalent in the 1950s and early 1960s. Naughty girls are pun-
ished: they bear bastards, occasionally go mad, and never get their The dramatization simplied and romanticized the plot, not
man. Good girls are rewarded for their morality and their delity. only making the elopement partner and boyfriend at school one
Men can have the naughty girls and marry the good girls providing person, but having him still around at the end, anxious to marry
they dont father any bastards. Barker has reafrmed that despite Naomi. Brooks Atkinsons New York Times review commented
plagues, wars, and tyranny, a mans life has always been more on the plays grim determination to explain the younger
exciting. generation sympathetically, no matter what the scandal. He com-
plained that questions of right and wrong were left obscure.

OTHER WORKS: A Land and a People (1952). Beau Lover (1930) describes Gloria, a Southern girl search-
ing for her ideal lover while determinedly remaining a virgin, no
matter what the provocation. In this book, Barnes introduces the
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: TCA, First Supplement (1955). issue of a womans career versus marriage. She maintains women
Other references: Newsweek (1 Jan. 1951). NYHTB (7 Jan. should not sacrice themselves to men, but suggests the ideal man
1951). NYT (27 Feb. 1949, 22 Nov. 1953, 9 Jan. 1955, 24 Aug. would be strong enough not to demand sacrice. Barnes experi-
1958). SatRL (16 April 1949). ments with technique and point of view, telling the story as if
Gloria were talking to herself in the second person. Critics
CYNTHIA L. WALKER complained of emotion without genuine impulse.


In 1945 Barnes became the second wife of Hamilton Fish Taken from a real-life incident in Kentucky (which was later
Armstrong, writer on international politics and editor of the to become William G. Simms novel, Beauchampe), Octavia
journal Foreign Affairs. Together they wrote A Passionate Victo- Bragaldi employed the format of the enormously popular roman-
rian, a play about English actress Fanny Kemble. The next year, tic plays and recast the events in 15th century Italy. It won
1946, Barnes published Time Lay Asleep, a novel based on her immediate success, played in almost every city in the U.S., and
family history and childhood. Radically different from her previ- was later produced in London and Liverpool. The play offered a
ous work, it begins with a prologue introducing Barnes concept superb leading role which Barnes acted herself to great praise.
that if one could remember ones whole past plus the past of ones After her marriage to the popular actor, E. S. Conner, the couple
ancestors, there might be a way to cheat Fate of her toll of cause appeared together in Octavia Bragaldi many times.
and effect. Moving beyond the slick simplicity of earlier books,
Barnes published La Fitte, or, The Pirate of the Gulf in 1838.
Barnes attempts, like Faulkner, to create settings with intertwined
The Forest Princess (1844), a version of the Pocahontas and
physical, psychological, and symbolic elements, and to integrate
Captain John Smith story, capitalized on a current interest in
different timelines.
Indian dramas. Toward the end of her career Barnes adapted two
All Barnes novels show her ability to mold materials from French melodramas, A Night of Expectations (1848) and Char-
her own background into technically procient, engaging novels lotte Corday (1851). The Captive (1850), which has come down in
with social implications. With four novels published before she title only, may have been based on a monodrama entitled The
was twenty-two, one regrets Barnes did not continue her develop- CaptiveA Scene in a Madhouse, which Barnes often performed
ment as a writer. in the early days of her acting career when she was appearing with
her parents.

OTHER WORKS: Mother, Be Careful! (1932). Young Woman (1934). In 1848 Barnes published a collection, Plays, Prose and
Poetry, which included the popular Octavia Bragaldi.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: Warfel, H. R., ed., American

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Durang, C., The Philadelphia Stage: From the
Novelists of Today (1951).
Year 1749 to the Year 1855 (1855). Ireland, J. N., Records of the
Web sites: Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers, available on-
New York Stage from 1750 to 1860 (1866-67). Kritzer, A.H., ed.,
line at
Plays by Early American Women: 1775-1850 (1995).
rbsc/ndi. Women Playwrights, 1900-1950, online at http:// JOANN PECK KRIEG



BARNES, Charlotte Mary Sanford Born 12 June 1892, Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York; died 19
June 1982, Doylestown, Pennsylvania
Wrote under: A Lady of Fashion, Lydia Steptoe
Born 1818; died 14 April 1863 Daughter of Wald and Elizabeth Chappell Barnes
Daughter of John and Mary Creenbill Barnes; married Edmond S.
Connor, 1846 Best known for her enigmatic and stylistically dazzling novel
Nightwood (1936), Djuna Barnes is regarded as a totemic gure of
Charlotte Mary Sanford Barnes success as a woman drama- literary modernism and a forceful if challenging poet of the female
tist in the early days of the American theater was second only to consciousness. Nightwoods nonlinear form, its pessimistic out-
that of Anna Cora Mowatt Ritchie. It was a success that can be look on love and redemption, and its abundance of disturbing
seen as the by-product of her parents ambitions for her theatri- images have frustrated some readers and critics, while others have
cal career. found the same qualities to be the source of the novels uncommon
emotional impact. T.S. Eliot was an early champion of Nightwood
The daughter of the well known and much admired acting
who celebrated its poetic language and appreciated its gloomy
pair, Mr. and Mrs. John Barnes, Charlotte was introduced to the
philosophy. He wrote in his 1937 introduction, It seems to me
public by her parents in her early teens. Thereafter she played with
that all of us, so far as we attach ourselves to created objects and
them often but received notices of the type that usually referred to
surrender our wills to temporal ends, are eaten by the same worm.
her acting as uninteresting and tedious. Her thorough
training in the theater, however, brought her success as a play- Brought up in modest circumstances in Huntington, Long
wright and her earliest attempt, the Last Days of Pompeii (1835), Island, and subjected to sexual abuse (possibly of an incestuous
based on the novel by Bulwer Lytton, was followed two years nature), Barnes went on to become a prominent gure in interna-
later by the best of her plays, Octavia Bragaldi, or, The Confession. tional literary circles, befriending James Joyce and artists such as


Berenice Abbott, Marsden Hartley, and Marcel Duchamp, as well title character in Maggie of the Saints (1917; published in the
as Eliot. Because her life story includes so many colorful person- New York Morning Telegraph Sunday Magazine), remarks, If
alities, and because the traumas of her early life directly inu- one lives long enough it is as good as being a child again. A later
enced most of her literary output, Barnes offers ripe material for play, The Antiphon (published in 1958 and premiered three years
literary biography. Phillip Herring wrote, Djuna Barnes artistic later), returned to the family themes of Ryder and transposed them
genius, like that of many writers, normally required adversity to to a setting reminiscent of Eliots The Family Reunion.
produce work of artistic merit. Indeed, Robin Vote, the central
character of Nightwood, is generally acknowledged to be a Although her writing never achieved the same degree of
ctional version of Thelma Wood, the longtime love interest of renown enjoyed by some of her contemporaries, Barnes was
Barnes. Like Wood, Vote inspires the obsessive devotion of men considered a great beauty as well as an exceptional raconteur, and
and women alike, apparently without trying, and she always on those merits she did become fairly well known in her time. The
leaves her admirers in a state of inconsolable grief, apparently passing of literary modernism and most of its central gures made
without feeling any remorse herself. During writing and revision, her something of a living relic, a status she neither enjoyed nor
Barnes continued to nurse the emotional wounds inicted by encouraged. Paraphrasing Thomas Hobbes, she is recorded as
Wood, and her bitter conclusions about love determine every saying, Life is painful, nasty and short . . . in my case it has only
relationship in the novel. been painful and nastya line which became the lengthy title of
Hank ONeals 1990 biography. Her reclusiveness only enhanced
In Nightwood the idea that love is a disguised form of her reputation as a feminist maverick, and by the time of her death
delusion or narcissism gets articulated by Dr. Matthew OConnor, in 1982, the amount of reverence for Nightwood and curiosity
a transvestite who spends most of his time in bedand one of the about the raw material on which it was based showed no signs of
oddest characters in all modern literature. The middle chapters of subsiding.
the novel are largely made up of the rambling monologues of this
ctionalized version of the Irish-American abortionist and drug
dealer, Dan Mahoney. OTHER WORKS: The Book of Repulsive Women (1915). A Book
(1923). Selected Works (1962). Creatures in the Alphabet (1982).
Nightwood is far and away Barnes best known work as well Interviews (1985). At the Roots of the Stars (1995).
as her most powerful and original, but over the course of her
45-year literary career, though far from prolic, she wrote a wide
variety of work consistent with Nightwoods satirical and doom-rid- BIBLIOGRAPHY: ONeal, H., Life Is Painful, Nasty and Short . . . In
den character. These secondary works include Ryder (1928), an My Case Only Painful and Nasty (1990). Herring, P., Djuna: The
early novel loosely based on Barnes childhood; a group of Life and Works of Djuna Barnes (1995).
one-act plays; and a series of interviews with the famous and
nearly famous, which appeared in popular newspapers and MARK SWARTZ
Barnes undertook the interviews to supplement the small
annuity she received from her friend and patron, Peggy
Guggenheim. Her choice of subjects was typically eccentric and
BARNES, Linda J.
ambitious. In 1915 she dutifully transcribed the haunting words of
the controversial radio evangelist Billy Sunday: War has been Born 6 June 1949, Detroit, Michigan
the best thing for religion in the last century; it has lled the Daughter of Irving and Hilda Grodman Appleblatt; married
churches, it has brought men to their knees in the trenches. Richard Allen Barnes, 1970; children: Samuel
Barnes also held conversations with James Joyce, boxer Jess
Willard, and others, publishing the results in popular publications Best known for her mystery series featuring Carlotta Carlyle,
like McCalls and the New York Press. Linda Barnes also wrote a previous series of four mystery novels
starring Michael Spraggue. Her rst Spraggue novel, Blood Will
Ryder ctionalizes members of Barnes own family, in Have Blood, was published in 1982 (written under Linda J.
particular her grandmother Zadel Barnes, a journalist and activist. Barnes). It introduced readers to the independently wealthy actor
Barnes illustrated Ladies Almanack herself and published it
and amateur detective. Three more Spraggue books followed:
anonymously the same year as Ryder. A mock biography focusing
Bitter Finish (1983), Dead Act, (1984) and Cities of the Dead
on the lesbian exploits of Evangeline Musset, it ends with the
(1986). Barnes ended the series because Spraggue was getting too
heroines death, at age 99, and the ritualistic cremation of every-
depressing: since he was an amateur sleuth, and the only way to
thing but her tongue. Herring writes that the work rivals Joyces
legitimately get him involved in a murder mystery was for the
Finnegans Wake for both obscurity and bawdiness.
victim to be someone he knew. To keep him supplied with cases,
Barnes plays show the inuence of Oscar Wilde, especially everyone around him would eventually have to die. In addition, as
his revisionist biblical fable Salom, as well as John Millington the series continued, his involvement in the various cases was
Synge. The idiosyncratic dialect of Synges Irish peasants made becoming more unbelievable. But the character was popular
an uneasy pairing with Barnes penchant for satire. The incongrui- enough to spawn a made-for-television movie in 1984 loosely
ty was in all probability intentional. Mary OBrian, mother of the based on Blood Will Have Blood.


Barnes calls the Spraggue novels her apprentice work. She Carlotta grow, shell continue the series. Barnes currently resides
always wanted to write a detective novel with a female lead, but near Boston with her husband and son.
the powers that be in publishing, who said such a semitough
character would never sell, deterred her. But Barnes was deter-
mined, and between the second and third Spraggue novels she OTHER WORKS: Coyote (1990) Steel Guitar (1991) Snapshot
created Carlotta Carlyle. The six-foot-one, redheaded ex-cop, (1993) Hardware (1995) Flashpoint (1999)
who is a part-time Boston cab driver and licensed private detec-
tive, came to life in Lucky Penny (1985). Written in 1983,
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Book Review Digest 1996 (1997). CA (1997).
Barnes sold the short story to several magazines that folded before
Heising, W., Detecting Women 2 (1996). Swanson, J., and D.
ever publishing her piece, which means she was never paid. After
James, By A Womans Hand (1994).
Lucky Penny was nally published in the New Black Mask
(which folded after ve issues), it immediately earned critical
acclaim. Nominated for all the major mystery honors, it won the
1986 Anthony award. This success proved to Barnes and her
editor that a female character wasnt such a bad idea after all.

A Trouble of Fools (1987), the rst Carlotta novel, enjoyed BARNES, Margaret Ayer
the same success as its short-story predecessor. It was nominated
for the Edgar and Shamus awards and won the 1988 American
Born 8 April 1886, Chicago, Illinois; died 26 October 1967,
Mystery award. The Snake Tattoo (1989), Barnes second outing
Cambridge, Massachusetts
with Carlotta, was named outstanding book of 1990 by the
Daughter of Benjamin F. and Janet Hopkins Ayer; married Cecil
London Times.
Barnes, 1910; children: three sons.
Critics praise Carlottas character for her sense of humor and
wry outlook on life. While Barnes plots are strong and intriguing, Descended on both sides from colonial English families who
the true strength of the successful series is Carlotta, who has been settled in America in the middle 1600s, Margaret Ayer Barnes
described as memorable, and her strong supporting cast. The attended the University School for Girls in Chicago and majored
secondary characters in the novels are as interesting in their own in English and philosophy at Bryn Mawr College, where she was
right: Carlottas tenant, Roz, an eccentric artist; Carlottas some- inuenced by the feminist president, M. Carey Thomas. While
times boyfriend, Sam Gianelli, son of the local mob leader; and raising three sons, she appeared in performances of the Aldis
Paolina, her young sister (through the Big Sisters organization). It Players in Lake Forest, Illinois, and of the North Shore Theater in
is Carlottas strong emotional relationship with Paolina that Winnetka, Illinois. Her stories, published by the Pictorial Review,
stands out in the series and has led to a frequent underlying theme were later collected and published in book form as Prevailing
in the books of a concern for children. Winds (1928). Barnes wrote three plays (two in collaboration with
Edward Sheldon, a dramatist and personal friend) and ve novels,
Barnes was born and raised in Detroit, Michigan. Her father winning the Pulitzer Prize in 1931 for Years of Grace (1930).
was a mechanical engineer and her mother was a teacher and After the publication of her last novel, Wisdoms Gate (1938),
homemaker. When she was seventeen, Barnes won the National Barnes returned to writing occasional short stories and lecturing.
Council of Teachers of English Writing Award. She soon gave up
writing, believing that something so easily mastered at such an Prevailing Winds shows evidence of the skills that would
age must not be worth much, so she decided to pursue acting. bring her critical acclaim, but the narrow focus that would cause
Barnes graduated from Boston Universitys School of Fine and her ultimate neglect by most literary critics can also be seen. From
Applied Arts in 1971 with degrees in acting, English, and theater her theatrical experience she had learned to dene character
education. But when it came time to pursue her acting career, she through conversations; her careful observations of character,
opted to teach high school drama rather than starve in New York. however, were limited to the upper-middle-class society of Chica-
While at Chelmsford High School in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, go in the rst third of the 20th century.
Barnes got back into writing when she penned a one-act play for
the Massachusetts High School Drama Festival. This play, Wings, Distracted by the element of social history in Barness
(1973) is still performed around the country. She wrote one other ction, many critics overlooked important underlying themes.
play, Prometheus, in 1974. Feminism, a major theme which grew out of her education at Bryn
Mawr, appeared in early short stories through the portrayals of
Again unwilling to starve in New York, this time as a Martha Cavendish in The Dinner Party and of Kate Dalton in
playwright, Barnes began writing mystery novels, never imagin- Perpetual Care. Both are women prominent in Chicago society
ing they would be a series. Cold Case, her seventh novel in the who have chosen marriage and socially conventional lives, but
Carlotta Carlyle series, was published in 1997. She says there will each is confronted with a situation that leads her to question those
be at least one more because she tends to view the novels in sets of choices and seek an opportunity to break with convention. Each
four and she intends to reevaluate the series after the eighth book. resolves that the choice has come too late: Martha has learned to
If she still has an interest in the character and feels she can make live in her thoughts and let the world go as it will; Kate in the end


settles for memories to avoid upsetting her children by changing BARNES, Mary (Downing) Sheldon
her life.
Most of the women in Barness novels follow the examples Born 15 September 1850, Oswego, New York; died 27 August
of these two women, but in each succeeding novel they seem less 1898, London, England
satised with the choice. In Years of Grace, which traces the life Daughter of Edward Austin and Frances Bradford Stiles Shel-
of Jane Ward Carver to the eve of the Great Depression, Jane don; married Earl Barnes, 1885
abandons early adherence to the feminist principles instilled in her
at Bryn Mawr and elects to ll the traditional roles of wife and An educator and historian, Mary Sheldon Barnes made her
mother. Already before her marriage, she had admitted she lacked major contribution as a pioneer in the use of the source method of
the courage of her convictions: She who thinks and runs away, teaching history. Her rst book was the innovative Studies in
lives to think another day. . . . I dont act at all. . . . I just drift. General History (1885). In this pioneering work, Barnes dealt
When she is offered an opportunity to defy convention and marry with the period 1000 B.C. to 476 A.D. Her primary purpose was to
Jimmy Trent, she chooses to remain with her responsibilities. teach the reader how to develop critical ability and to demonstrate
Only when her daughter Cicily breaks the pattern by divorcing her how the essence of a culture could best be apprehended by the use
husband to marry Albert Lancaster, does Jane wonder if her of its documents and its art. To achieve this, she offered extracts
struggle to live with dignity and decency and decorum had from historical sources; presentation of basic events and person-
been a worthy goal. alities; and use of illustrative extracts, including literary works,
art, architecture, and philosophy. She provided questions to guide
Olivia Van Tyne Ottendorf in Westward Passage (1931)
the students development in critical judgment, for she was
temporarily accepts her second chance at an artistic life with Nick
concerned primarily with the students self-learning.
Allen, but soon returns gratefully to her husband and the limited
society she had known. She has been educated only for such a role, In later editions Barnes expanded her scope to include rst
and the reader recognizes her, as the critic Lloyd C. Taylor, Jr., the barbarian age, then the empire of Charlemagne, and, in more
points out, as a victim of an intricately structured social system condensed form, the history of Europe up to the late 19th century.
that securely, if deceptively, deprives the woman of any training For the Carolingian era, she provided illustrations not only of
that does not contribute to the creation of the lady and the European but also of Islamic life and culture. As for the more
socialite. modern history, she dealt rather briey with the French Revolu-
tion and Napoleonic era, but gave a more comprehensive account
In Within This Present (1933), Barnes explores Chicago
of the spread of Prussian power.
society once again, this time through the character of Sally Sewall.
From World War I through the Depression years, Sally struggles In 1891 Barnes and her husband applied the same source
to maintain a failing marriage just as those around her struggle to approach in their joint work, Studies in American History (1891).
preserve a disintegrating social structure. Studies in American History followed the same principles of
training the student to think for himself and also to enter into
Barnes resolves her interest in feminist themes in her nal
living sympathy with others. (It was, however, designed for
novel, Wisdoms Gate. She returns to the Carver family from
younger students than Studies in General History.) The author
Years of Grace and chronicles Cicilys life after her marriage to
used primary accounts, arguing the drama of life is in the
Albert Lancaster. Cicily has broken the pattern of her past, and
sources. Barnes laid out the basis of her method in Studies in
although she does not achieve greater fulllment, she gains
Historical Method (1896). She was concerned not merely with the
uncompromising clarity. The topics of divorce and adultery are
understanding of the past but with developing qualities of mind
examined objectively and honestly. While lacking the unity and
that would allow citizens to form independent, unprejudiced
scope of Barness earlier novels, Wisdoms Gate portrays a
judgments as to mens actions, opinions, acts, and social process-
marriage based on the honesty of a woman who has the courage of
es of their own day. In American history she did raise some
her convictions.
contemporary issues, such as the problem of immigrant adjust-
ment to America and how to change them into Americans. But
OTHER WORKS: Age of Innocence (1928). Jenny (with E. Shelton, on other issues such as woman suffrage she did not provide
1929). Dishonored Lady (with E. Shelton, 1930). Edna His information; she only raised questions.
Wife (1935).
As a proponent of the source method, Barnes made her
impact both through the histories she wrote, the accompanying
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Barnes, E. W., The Man Who Lived Twice: The separate teachers and students manuals, and her works on
Biography of Edward Sheldon (1956). Lawrence, M., The School historical methodology. Her major educational work, however,
of Femininity (1936). Stuckey, W. J., The Pulitzer Prize Novels: A probably occurred through the histories themselves. Through her
Critical Backward Look (1966). Taylor, L. C., Jr., Margaret Ayer organization and format, as well as the questions and explanatory
Barnes (1974). Wagenknecht, E. C., Chicago (1964). comments, she communicated directly to the student that the
Other references: North American Review (Jan. 1934). responsibility for learning was primarily ones own. The results of
mastery of her method, Barnes argued, would be felt not only in
THELMA J. SHINN the classrooms but in judgements which the student as citizen


would bring to bear on contemporary questions. She sought to incredulous at his grief over his wifes death: There were men on
promote informed inquiry into public issues and intelligent, the mountain who had lost four wives and had never dreamed of
critical judgments. With her works Barnes did play an important such a thing as letting the light afiction of the moment work
pioneering role in the methodology of history teaching. permanent injury to such graver interests as pigs, and potatoes,
and wheat. . . . Unfortunately, these gems are lost in the often
pedantic or sentimental ramblings.
OTHER WORKS: Studies in Greek and Roman History; or Studies
in General History from 1000 B.C. to 476 A.D. (1886). Aids for Worth preserving, however, are the memorable characters of
Teaching General History (1888). General History in the High much of Barnums ction. The young Juan and Juanita charm
School (circa 1889). Proposal for the Study of Local History (circa children and adults alike as they nd their way home to Mexico
1889). Studies in American History: Teachers Manual (1892). alone; Claudia Hyde reects the strength and natural aristocracy a
Autobiography of Edward Austin Sheldon (edited by Barnes, 1911). Southern lady could display after the war had ravaged her home
and her homeland; Miss Nina Barrow exemplies the way not to
raise a child; the Withers reveal that progress up the ladder of
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: American Women (1897). Dic-
fortune often leads to emptiness. Because of her humor and
tionary of American Biography. National Cyclopedia of Ameri-
insight, Barnums ction remains eminently readable.
can Biography (1892 et seq.). NAW 1607-1950 (1971).
Other references: AH (Oct. 1948, Nov. 1948). Journal of
Education (15 Sept. 1898). Sequoia (30 Sept. 1898). Wellesley OTHER WORKS: Behind the Blue Ridge (1887). Juan and Juanita
College Magazine (Oct. 1898). (1888). A Shocking Example, and Other Sketches (1889). Claudia
Hyde (1894). Miss Nina Barrow (1897). The Ladder of Fortune
(1899). A Georgian Bungalow (1900).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gordon, C. A., Jr., Virginia Writers of Fugitive

BARNUM, Frances Courtenay Baylor Verse.
Reference works: American Authors 1600-1900 (1938). Li-
Born 20 January 1848, Fort Smith, Arkansas; died 19 October brary of Southern Literature (1909). A Woman of the Centu-
1920, Winchester, Virginia ry, F. E. Willard, and M. A. Livermore (1893).
Wrote under: Frances Courtenay Baylor
Daughter of James and Sophie Baylor Dawson; married George THELMA J. SHINN
Sherman Barnum, 1896

Frances Courtenay Baylor Barnum carried her mothers

maiden name from her teen years on and wrote under that name BARR, Amelia E(dith Huddleston)
even after her marriage. Her father was an army ofcer, so her
childhood years were spent in such army posts as San Antonio and Born 29 March 1831, Ulverton, Lancashire, England; died 10
New Orleans. Barnum was educated by her mother, and after the March 1919, New York, New York
Civil War she moved to her mothers family home in Winchester, Wrote under: Amelia E. Barr
Virginia. The following several years were spent in England and Daughter of William Henry and Mary Singleton Huddleston;
on the continent with her sisters family, which provided the married Robert Barr, 1850; children: six (three died young)
background for Barnums international novels. After they re-
turned to Virginia, Barnum began publishing with a play, Petruchio Amelia E. Barr was the second daughter of a Methodist
Tamed, which was put out anonymously. Closely following were clergyman. The family moved several times during her childhood,
articles in such newspapers as the Louisville Courier-Journal,
and she attended various small private schools. When she was just
Boston Globe, New Orleans Times-Democrat, and the London
sixteen she felt the need to help the family nancially, and after
Truth. Her poetry, though never collected independently, was
two years of teaching she entered a normal school in Glasgow.
well known, especially Kind Words to Virginia and The Last
Here she fell in love with a prosperous young merchant and
married him.
Barnums ction, mostly directed at young people, reected
In 1853 her husband was forced to declare bankruptcy, and a
the aristocratic attitudes of her mother. Her earliest novel, On Both
little later, in an effort to establish himself again, brought his wife
Sides (1885), reects the lives of the best people of England
and growing family to the United States. After living in several
and America and reveals Barnums true gift of realistic portrai-
cities, the Barrs settled in Galveston, Texas, which appeared to her
ture. Her situations, however, are idealized, and plot is almost
to be the promised land, as she extolled it in several of her works.
nonexistent in most of her ction.
In 1867 her husband and three sons died of yellow fever, and in
Barnum is at her best when her not-always-gentle humor 1868, with the three surviving children, all daughters, Barr moved
reveals social and individual character, as when Johns friends are to New York City. For 19 months she was a governess in New


Jersey, where she began her writing career. For the rest of her life Ribbon (1886). The Squire of Sandal-Side (1886). The Household
she wrote steadily and became quite successful. of McNeil (1886). A Border Shepherdess (1887). Paul and Christina
(1887). Christopher, and Other Stories (1887). In Spite of Himself
Her industry was remarkable. It is said that at the end of her (1888). Master of His Fate (1888). The Novels of Besant and Rice
life she herself had lost count of how many books she had (1888). Remember the Alamo (1888). Between Two Loves (1889).
produced. The National Union Catalog lists more than 75 works. Feet of Clay (1889). The Last of the McAllisters (1889). Friend
In addition, she contributed a large number of short stories and Olivia (1889). The Beads of Tasmer (1890). The Household of
essays to such periodicals as the Christian Union, the Illustrated McNeil (1890). She Loved a Sailor (1890). Woven of Love and
Christian Weekly, Harpers Weekly, Harpers Bazaar, Frank Glory (1890). Sister to Esau (1891). Love for an Hour is Love
Leslies Magazine, and the Advance. Her verses alone netted her a Forever (1891). A Rose of a Hundred Leaves (1891). The Preach-
$1,000 a year for 15 years and were reprinted widely in periodi- ers Daughter (1892). Michael and Theodora (1892). Mrs. Barrs
cals. Most amazing, perhaps, is her endurance. Up to the time of Short Stories (1892). Girls of a Feather (1893). The Lone House
her death at eighty-eight she was writing ction not perceptibly (1893). A Singer from the Sea (1893). Bernicia (1895). The
inferior to what she had done in her prime. Flower of Gala Water (1893). A Knight of the Nets (1896). Winter
Barr was a woman of rm character and decided opinions. Evening Tales (1896). The Kings Highway (1897). Prisoners of
An extremely religious person, from her earliest years she be- Consciences (1897). Stories of Life and Love (1897). Maids,
lieved she had psychic powers and was convinced her dreams Wives, and Bachelors (1898). I, Thou and the Other One (1899).
foretold the future. Later she became an ardent believer in Trinity Bells (1899). Was It Right to Forgive? (1899). The Maid of
reincarnation. Additionally, she had strong convictions about the Maiden Lane (1900). Souls of Passage (1901). The Lions Whelp
position of women. Her views on this occur again and again in her (1901). A Song of a Single Note (1902). The Black Shilling (1903).
autobiography, All the Days of My Life (1913). All my life Thyra Varrick (1903). The Belle of Bowling Green (1904). Ce-
long, she says, I have been sensible of the injustice constantly cilias Lovers (1905). The Man Between (1906). The Heart of
done to women. In one place she remarks caustically that to a Jessy Laurie (1907). The Strawberry Handkerchief (1908). The
man his children are much more valuable than his wife; the former Hands of Compulsion (1909). The House on Cherry Street (1909).
are of his esh, but the latter is not, and can easily be replaced. It A Reconstructed Marriage (1910). A Maid of Old New York
was a matter of course that she would applaud the efforts of the (1911). Sheila Vedder (1911). Three Score and Ten: A Book for
suffragettes, for whom she had nothing but praise. the Aged (1913). Playing with Fire (1914). The Measure of a Man
(1915). The Winning of Lucia (1915). Prot & Loss (1916).
She was genuinely interested in history, and many of her Christine, A Fife Fisher Girl (1917). Joan (1917). An Orkney
novels have carefully researched historical backgrounds. One Maid (1918). The Paper Cap: A Story of Love and Labor (1918).
reviewer praised her use of historical data: Mrs. Barr is very Songs in the Common Chord (1919).
skillful in correlating the interests of the past and present. Not only
do the incidents presage the situation of today, but the characters
blend in themselves the quaintness of the long ago and the BIBLIOGRAPHY: Barr, A. E., All the Days of My Life (1913).
universality of all peoples. Another critic said that her ction Reference works: American Authors: 1600-1900, S. J. Kunitz
may be read for its historical data alone. and H. Haycraft, eds., (1938).
Other references: Bookman (May 1920). Nation (14 Aug.
In spite of her use of historical facts, however, Barrs work 1913). NYT (12 March 1919). Review of Reviews (May 1919).
was not destined to lastit is too oridly romantic, too sentimen-
tal. One critic called it extremely supercial, and Barrs own ABIGAIL ANN HAMBLEN
theory of ction seems to bear him out: I have always found
myself unable to make evil triumphant. Truly, in real life it is
apparently so, but if ction does not show us a better life than
reality, what is the good of it? BARR, Nevada
Barrs personality, high-strung and fanatical though it was, is
of more interest than her writings. Her existence was one of Born 1952, in Nevada
exhausting labor, many trials, and many sorrows (of her six Married and divorced
children, only three lived to grow up, and one of these was
mentally unbalanced). Yet she retained an eager enthusiasm for Nevada Barr writes mysteries set in the unusual landscape of
living up to the very end. the National Park Service. Born in Nevada and raised in Susanville,
California, 80 miles outside Reno, Barr received her B.A. from
California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo and
OTHER WORKS: Romances and Realities: Tales of Truth and her M.A. from the University of California at Irvine. Her father
Fancy (1876). The Young People of Shakespeares Dramas was a pilot and her mother a pilot, mechanic, and carpenter.
(1882). Cluny MacPherson; A Tale of Brotherly Love (1883).
Scottish Sketches (1883). Jan Vedders Wife (1885). The Hallam After her education ended, Barr pursued an acting career. She
Succession (1885). A Daughter of Fife (1886). The Bow of Orange performed in the Classic Stage Company in New York City and


appeared in off-Broadway shows. She also acted in television In Firestorm (1996), Barr creates a locked-room mystery in
commercials and in corporate and industrial lms. In 1978, during which a crime occurs among a nite group of people. She creates
her acting career, Barr became serious about writing ction. Her this situation in the context of a forest re in Northern Californias
husband at the time, also an actor, eventually decided to quit the Lassen Volcanic National Park. Each of a group of rangers hides
theater for the park service, and Barr joined him, ending her 18- in a personal reproof tent to escape the onslaught of re. When
year foray into acting. She assumed a position as a law enforce- the inferno passes after 12 minutes, one of the characters has been
ment ranger at Guadalupe Mountains National Park in Texas. She stabbed to death.
subsequently worked as a ranger at Michigans Isle Royale,
Colorados Mesa Verde, and Mississippis Natchez Trace Park- Endangered Species (1997) takes place in Cumberland Na-
way National Parks, among others. Many of these were later tional Seashore off the coast of Georgia. Barr possesses that rare
featured in her mysteries. She continued as a ranger long after she combination of talents: she can write a beautiful sentence and
had become a successful novelist. create a rst-rate mystery, wrote Publishers Weekly. [She]
evokes the minimally developed islands shimmering beauty
Barrs rst published book, Bittersweet (1984), is not a while spinning an absorbing tale of danger and deceit that em-
mystery but a historical novel, one of several she wrote but the braces a realistic description of conservation work and a diverse,
only one released. It is about a Pennsylvania woman in the 1870s engaging cast.
who is accused of having an affair with a young girl. She leaves
her town and meets an abused wife with whom she begins a Barrs next novel, Blind Descent (1998) is set in New
relationship. The two move to Nevada and set up an independent Mexicos Carlsbad Caverns and is emblematic of the power of the
but difcult life as innkeepers. Although some reviewers felt the authors descriptions of nature. In the New York Times Book
characters were at, most praised the historical details and unusu- Review, Marilyn Stasio commented on Annas claustrophobic
al premise. excursion into an underground cave: Barrs descriptions of this
Stygian underworldso beautiful, so mysterious and so treacher-
Nine years passed before the publication of Barrs next book, oushave a stunning visceral quality, largely because of her
Track of the Cat (1993), which marked the debut of her series heroines afnity with the natural world.
protagonist, park ranger Anna Pigeon. The novel earned the
Anthony and Agatha awards for best rst mystery. Barr and Anna Anna visits New York in Barrs 1999 novel, Liberty Falling.
are similar in some waysboth are National Park Service rang- While supporting her hospitalized sister, Molly, and staying with
ers; both have a sister Molly (who becomes a beloved character in a ranger friend at the Statue of Liberty, Anna is faced with a crime
the series through her phone conversations with Anna), although to solve. Like Barrs other books, Liberty Falling is replete with
Annas Molly is a New York psychiatrist while Barrs sister is a vivid descriptions of a park rangers job and the surrounding
pilot; and both are single women, with Anna losing her husband in environment, as well as a page-turning plot featuring a realistic
an accident and Barr being divorced. female character.

Some reviewers cited Track of the Cat for its overripe

language and uneven writing, but all praised it for its realistic, BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference Works: CA 161 (1998).
beautiful, and sometimes activist descriptions of nature. The New Other references: National Parks (Sept./Oct. 1995); NYTBR
York Times Book Review noted, Although her human characters (18 Apr. 1993, 17 Apr. 1994, 2 Apr. 1995, 13 Apr. 1997, 5 Apr.
could use some stufng, Ms. Barr describes plant and animal life 1998); Outside (Apr. 1996); PW (6 July 1984, 4 Jan. 1993, 14 Feb.
with a naturalists eye for detail and with an environmentalists 1994, 30 Jan. 1995, 6 Jan. 1996, 5 Feb. 1996, 24 Mar. 1997, 2 Feb.
fury at the destruction of the wilderness and its creatures. 1998); Southern Living (1999).

Barr is known for her colorful secondary characters and KAREN RAUGUST
exciting endings, and for allowing her readers to share the
experiences and point of view of the strong yet vulnerable Anna.
Barr develops a complex, credible, and capable heroine who
believes in truth and justice while remaining conscious of the BARTON, Clara (Harlowe)
ambiguities of human existence, a Publishers Weekly review-
er wrote.
Born Clarisse Harlowe Barton on 25 December 1821, North
Barrs second Anna Pigeon book is A Superior Death (1994), Oxford, Massachusetts; died 12 April 1912, Glen Echo,
which takes place at Isle Royale. Ill Wind (1995) takes Anna to Maryland
Mesa Verde, where she assists FBI Agent Frederick Stanton in Daughter of Stephen and Sarah Stone Barton
solving a crime in the park and with whom she starts to develop a
relationship, marking the beginning of Barrs increasing focus on Best known as founder of the American Red Cross, Clara
human interaction. Anna is noted for being a three-dimensional Barton had several careers in her long life. Extended periods of
character with human foibles; this is demonstrated in Ill Wind by intense activity and endurance alternated with severe physical and
her struggle with remembrances of her husband and her tendency emotional exhaustion. She taught school for 18 years, then be-
to drink too much. came the rst full-time woman clerk in the U.S. Patent Ofce.


During the Civil War she became a living legend as the Angel of hurricane-swept Sea Islands, the ragged survivors who creep out
the Battleeld. of the ruins of war-gutted cities, the bloated and mangled corpses
piled high on funeral pyres after a tidal wave in Galveston.
In deance of the military prejudice against female nurses on
the battleeld, Barton gathered vital supplies on her own initiative Her style is occasionally sentimental, and perhaps offensive
and followed the troops. Survival of wounded men often depend- to some modern readers, as in her remarks about the Sea Islanders:
ed not so much upon skilled doctors as upon immediate rst aid, The tender memory of the childlike condence and obedience of
food, and shelter for the stricken. In long battles, the wounded this ebony-faced population is something that time cannot ef-
might lie neglected on the ground for two or three days before face. . . . On occasion, she has a gift for understated pathos. Four
evacuation to a hospital. Barton learned to make campres in Sea Island blacks whose wounds she had dressed in the Civil War
drenching rain, cook huge pots of gruel and coffee, go without approached her one day, One by one they showed their scars.
sleep for days while she and a few helpers fed each soldier, There was very little clothing to hide thembullet wound and
bandaged his wounds, and protected him if possible from the sabre stroke.
elements. She was never a hospital nurse like her famous contem-
In formal exposition, such as the rst part of the longer
poraries Dorothea Dix and Florence Nightingale. She was on
volume, The Red Cross in Peace and War, her style is sometimes
hand, however, in the most desperate situations with exactly what
ponderous. Yet it soon moves into more personal narrative and
was needed most, such as kerosene lanterns for a distraught
acquires more vitality, covering the same territory as A Story of
frontline doctor operating at night by the uncertain light of
the Red Cross (1904), with additional details and photographs, as
one candle.
well as the formal reports and correspondence, and some of
She was close to fty years old when she rst heard of the Bartons inspirational but undistinguished poetry.
Geneva Convention and the International Red Cross. Isolationist
The diaries, however, expose an element in Barton not
America was one of the few modern nations that had not ratied
apparent in her published works. Outwardly, even to close friends
the Geneva Treaty. When the Franco-Prussian War broke out, she
and relatives, she seemed always calm, efcient, good-natured,
joined the Red Cross in the rehabilitation of the ruined Alsatian
blessed with humor and wit. Inwardly, when not engrossed in her
city of Strasbourg. When Barton returned home she launched a
work, she suffered from depression and feelings of uselessness.
long and frustrating campaign for the ratication of the Geneva
This personal melancholy haunted her even when she was most
Treaty, which occurred nally in 1882. The rst president of the
honored at home and abroad. The demands made by her idealism
American Red Cross (organized in 1881), she acted in that
and zeal for service seem to approach the pathological, driving her
capacity for 23 years and served not only in Cuba during the
beyond physical endurance, making the necessary recuperative
Spanish-American War but also during great oods, res, fam-
period unhappy and fretful.
ines, and hurricanes. She is credited with expanding the functions
of the International Red Cross to serve after natural disasters as The writings of Clara Barton will remain a primary source of
well as on the battleeld. information on the development of the American Red Cross. They
will also provide a more personal insight into the motivations and
Except in periods of acute depression and illness, Barton
style of one of the most dynamic women of the 19th century.
recorded her experiences in diaries that contain a vivid account of
her life and times, and provide a rich source for subsequent
biographers and historians. These diaries, as well as letters and OTHER WORKS: The Red Cross (1898; reprinted as The Red Cross
other papers, are in the Library of Congress, and are widely quoted in Peace and War). Papers, 1834-1918 (microlm, 1986).
in published works. William E. Bartons biography reprints many The papers of Clara Barton are in the Library of Congress.
of her letters. One of the best introductions to her prose is the last
100 pages of Illustrious Americans: Clara Barton, written by
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Barton, W. E., The Life of Clara Barton (1922).
Barton, but with commentaries that put each excerpt in the context
Buckingham, C. E., Clara Barton, a Broad Humanity: Philan-
of her thought and action at that time. They include passages from
thropic Efforts on Behalf of the Armed Forces and Disaster
The Story of My Childhood (1907), a small volume intended for
Victims, 1860-1900 (1980, 1997). Burton, D. H., Clara Barton: In
young peoplethe extent of Bartons efforts at writing an autobi-
the Service of Humanity (1995). Downey, F., Disaster Fighters
ography. Bartons other two books, objective histories of the Red
(1938). Dulles, F. R., The American Red Cross (1950). Epler, P. H.,
Cross, lean heavily on her personal experiences in disaster situa-
The Life of Clara Barton (1941). Marko, E., Clara Barton and the
tions, described as she lived through them and recorded them in
American Red Cross (1996). McCaslin, N., Angel of the Battle-
her diaries.
eld (1993). Oates, S. B., A Woman of Valor: Clara Barton and
Although her actions are, no doubt, more important than her the Civil War (1995). Poor, S. R., Herstory (1990). Pryor, E. B.,
words, effective action often depended on her powers of persua- Clara Barton: Professional Angel (1988). Rogers, G. N., Clara
sion and skill in diplomacy, both in speaking and in writing. Barton and Hightstown (1994). Ross, I., Angel of the Battleeld
Moreover, even now her accounts are moving documents about (1956). Welles, S., Illustrious Americans: Clara Barton (1966).
human suffering among the people history soon forgets: the Williams, B. C., Clara Barton, Daughter of Destiny (1941).
common soldier quietly bleeding to death in the mud, the home- Other references: American Women of Achievement Video
less family on the ooded bayou, the destitute blacks of the Collection (video, 1995). Clara Barton (video, 1988). Clara


Barton (video, 1995). Clara Barton: Eyewitness to the Civil War strong feeling for poetry, Geraldine; or, Loves Victory, originally
(video, 1997). Great Women in American History: Volume 1 produced in Philadelphia in 1859 and at Wallacks Theater, New
(video, 1996). York, is in blank verse. In 1865, with the alternate title changed to
The Master Passion, it played the London Adelphi. Evangeline
KATHERINE SNIPES (1860), a dramatization of Longfellows poem, was written for
Batemans daughter Kate. In 1871 Fanchette; or, The Will o the
Wisp, adapted from Die Grille, a German version of George
Sands La Petite Fadette, opened at the Theater Royal, Edin-
BARTON, May Hollis burgh, with Batemans daughter Isabel in the title role; later it
See ADAMS, Harriet Stratemeyer played the Lyceum in London with Henry Irving in the cast. The
Dead Secret (1877) was adapted by permission of Wilkie Collins.

Sidney Cowell, niece of Bateman, wrote in her youth [my

aunt] was a delightful actress and a beautiful woman. She was
BATEMAN, Sidney (Frances) Cowell gentle and retiring, but of very fair judgement and executive
ability. She was always the power behind the throne in all the
Born 29 March 1823, New Jersey; died 13 January 1881, Lon- elaborate productions credited to her husband and daughter.
don, England Clement Scott in The Drama of Yesterday and Today states that
Daughter of Joseph and Frances Sheppard Witchett Cowell; Bateman thought his good wife was the best writer and judge of
married Hezekiah L. Bateman, 1839 plays in existence. . . . She certainly was a very clever and
charming woman. She was much honored by the theatrical
The daughter of Joseph Cowell, English low comedian and profession at her death.
well-known American-theater manager in the south and west, and
of Frances Sheppard, Sidney Cowell Bateman was reared on a
farm in Ohio and educated in Cincinnati. At the age of fourteen, BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hewitt, B., Theatre U.S.A.: 1665 to 1957 (1959).
she began her acting career in New Orleans. In St. Louis in 1839, Hutton, L., Curiosities of the American Stage (1899). Meserve,
she married Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman, actor and manager. W. J., An Outline History of American Drama (1965). Mo-
ses, A. J., Representative Plays by American Dramatists: From
In 1869 Bateman and her husband moved to London where 1765 to the Present Day (1925). Scott, C., The Drama of Yester-
they managed the Lyceum from 1871 until Mr. Batemans death. day and Today (1899).
Henry Irving, whose distinguished career they helped launch, Reference works: Dictionary of National Biography, L.
took over the management in 1878; and Bateman, having leased Stephen, ed.
Sadlers Wells, restored its prestige. To this theater she brought Other references: London Academy 455. London
Joaquin Millers The Danites, the rst all-American production Athenaeum 2779.
in London.
Self, written and produced by Bateman in St. Louis at the
Peoples Theater in 1856, is one of the rst three society plays
written by a woman for the American stage. During its run in New
York at Burtons Chambers Street Theater, a critic for the New
York Times wrote: Whether it will obtain a permanent place in BATES, Katherine Lee
the limited repertoire of the native drama admits of some doubt.
Later, the outstandingly creative performance of John E. Owens in Born 29 August 1859, Falmouth, Massachusetts; died 28 March
the star role of John Unit, a true-blue Yankee banker, made a great 1929, Wellesley, Massachusetts
success of the long and sometimes dull play. Daughter of William and Cornelia Lee Bates
A social satire, Self employs local allusions, such as referenc-
Katherine Lee Bates, best known for her lyric poem Ameri-
es to patent medicines, wildcat banks, slavery, daguerreotypes,
ca the Beautiful, attended Wellesley College and received
and stereotyped characters, such as the New York merchant, the
her A.B. in 1880. After a years study at Oxford University, she
parvenus, and the faithful black servant. Melodrama, even farce,
was awarded an A.M. by Wellesley in 1881. After a brief career as
malapropisms, tag names, and a deus ex machina ending make
this play less than great dramatic literature. Edgar Allan Poe, in a high school teacher, Bates joined the faculty of Wellesley, where
the role of critic, spoke of its lack of originality and inventive- she taught until her retirement in 1925. As an educator, she was a
ness, theatricality, dependence on opulent settings, and almost signicant force in the movement toward liberalizing American
burlesque upon the arrant conventionality of stage incidents. pedagogy. In contrast to the philological approach that dominated
literary study of the 1880s and 1890s, Bates approach was based
The Golden Calf; or, Marriage la Mode was published in on the assumption that the chief aim of a literature teacher should
1857 by the St. Louis Republican Ofce. Because of Batemans be to awaken in the student a genuine love and enthusiasm for


the higher forms of prose, and more especially for poetry. She Yellow Clover (1922). Little Robin Stay-Behind and Other Plays
wanted her students to experience literature as dynamic, powerful, in Verse for Children (1923). America the Dream (1930).
and relevant to all people. Her sprightly and anecdotal text,
American Literature (1898), widely used as a high school and
introductory college text, spread this philosophy, as did her BIBLIOGRAPHY: Burgess, D., Dream and Deed (1952). Con-
anthology, Old English Ballads (1890), and the many other verse, F., The Story of Wellesley (1915). Converse, F., Wellesley
classics of English and American literature she edited, mostly for College: A Chronicle (1939).
student use. Other references: Boston Transcript (28 March 1929). SR
(June 1952).
Bates creative work, produced despite heavy teaching and
administrative duties, comprises poetry, verse drama for children, KATHARYN F. CRABBE
and travel books. Those who defend her poetry describe it as
characterized by grace and dignity and in the Longfellow tradi-
tion. Her detractors, on the other hand, point out that she shows a
good eye for natural phenomena but tends toward a lush expan- BAYARD, Elise Justine
siveness rather than sparse, tightly controlled use of images and
intellectual rigor.
Born circa 1815, Fishkill, New York; died circa 1850
Bates juvenile ctionsRose and Thorn, which won rst Wrote under: E. B.C., E. J. B.
prize in the 1889 juvenile ction competition sponsored by the Daughter of Robert Bayard; married Fulton Cutting
Congregational Publishing Society, and Hermit Island (1890)
are moralistic in intent, sentimental in outlook, and realistic in Evidently of French extraction, Elise Justine Bayard attained
presentation. Though their moralizing makes them unsuited to a brief local reputation through poems published in the New York
modern taste, they have good pace and feature young heroes who Knickerbocker magazine. Little seemed to be known of her life,
are both educated and fun-loving, delighting in making puns and but she appeared a promising new writer to Sarah Josepha Hale,
deploring them. The structure of the stories is comic romance, as who included her in a section of comments on young authors in
is evident in Bates tendency to bring about rapid and complete Womans Record (1853). Hale admired Bayards poems and
conversions of antagonists in order to provide the necessary happy implied that although there was no collection of Bayards works,
ending. In her travel books, both for adults and for children, and in her writing warranted one.
her verse dramas for children, as in her ction, Bates aim was
always to combine instruction and enjoyment. A reviewer of In Bayards poetry seems unremarkable today. She generally
Sunny Spain (1913), which appeared in the Little Schoolmates treats common subjectsmothers, children, lovers, time, history,
series, wrote: No child can read it without absorbing not only its deathbut her techniques produce either standard, formal, even
spirit of patriotism and of gentle courtesy, but a really extraordi- mechanical verse (as in Funeral Chant for the Old Year,
nary amount of information regarding manners and customs of reprinted in the Duyckincks Cyclopedia of American Literature),
Spain. or startlingly raw efforts in simple rhymed couplets distributed in
irregular stanzas (as in Henri de la Roche Jacqueline, one of
Although Bates thought of herself as a poet and although her her earliest poems, which appeared in the Knickerbocker in
poetry was always her greatest love, her teaching and administra- September 1834).
tive duties kept her from devoting as much time and energy to it as
she wished. Thus with the exception of her patriotic lyric, America The quantity of Bayards work is difcult to assess; much of
the Beautiful, her poetry is unread, and her reputation rests on it is apparently unsigned or merely initialed. She seems to have
her achievements as an educator. married early, for many poems almost denitely attributable to
her are signed E. B. C. one of which is Henri, but because of
its reference to the chevalier Bayard in stanza 1, we can guess its
OTHER WORKS: The Wedding Day Book (edited by Bates, 1881). author with some safety. Other poems similar in subjectthe
The College Beautiful and Other Poems (1887). Goody Santa romantic heroes and heroines of the pastare probably hers, as
Claus on a Sleigh Ride (1889). Sunshine and Other Verses for well, such as Maria da Gloria (Knickerbocker, September
Children (1890). English Religious Drama (1893). The Chap 1835) and Napoleon (Knickerbocker, Oct. 1837). Bayard also
Book (ed. by Bates, 1896). Spanish Highways and Byways (1900). continued to use her maiden initials, however; for example,
English History as Told by English Poets (ed. by Bates and K. Error, a late poem published in the weekly Literary World (16
Coman, 1902). From Gretna Green to Lands End (1907). The October 1847), is signed E. J. Bayard.
Story of Chaucers Canterbury Pilgrims (1909). America the
Beautiful and Other Poems (1911). Sophie Jewetts The Heart of a The nature of the periodicals in which her only known works
Boy (ed. by Bates, 1912). Shakespeare: Selective Bibliography appear suggests why such a relatively minor gure should receive
and Biographical Notes (1913). Sophie Jewetts Folk-Ballads of attention. A short and vague biography is included in the
Southern Europe (ed. by Bates, 1913). Fairy Gold (1916). Sigurd Duyckincks Cyclopedia probably because the Duyckinck broth-
Our Golden Collie and Other Comrades of the Road (1919). ers also edited Literary World (1847-53). The Knickerbocker


(1833-65), a more signicant magazine, similarly dedicated to Adriennes bookshop, in the summer of 1921. On this quiet little
literature and to the ne arts, must also have valued Bayards street, says Cyril Connelly, the bookshop was hidden like a
works, for it was one of the few magazines of the day to cache of dynamite in a solemn crypt.
compensate writers. It published substantial critical essays as well
Beach published for the rst time the complete edition of
as contemporary verse; for example, Thomas Cole was among its
James Joyces Ulysses, the rst copy of which she delivered to
contributors of both poems and prose. And since the artistic
Joyce on his birthday, 2 February 1922. Her intercession with the
circles of New York before the Civil War included few women
printer allowed Joyce to write a third of the novel on the page
(among them Susan Fenimore Cooper and Mary E. Field), Bayards
proofs. She promoted the book, mailed it all over the world, and
presence seems worth noting.
arranged for copies to be smuggled from Canada into the United
States. She named 16 June Bloomsday in honor of Leopold
OTHER WORKS: Miscellaneous poems attributable to Elise Justine Bloom, the hero of Ulysses, whose life on that date is presented in
Bayard may be found in the Knickerbocker (1834-1850) and the novel. In May 1930 she issued the 11th and her nal edition of
Literary World (1847-1855). Ulysses. After the novel was cleared by the U.S. court of Judge
John M. Woolsey, it was published by Random House in 1934.
She also published Joyces Pomes Penyeach (1927) and Our
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: Cyclopedia of American Lit- Exagmination Round His Factication for Incamination of Work
erature, E. A. and G. L. Duyckinck (1875). Womans Record, S. J. in Progress (1929), a collection of critical articles on Joyces
Hale (1853). Finnegans Wake, edited and introduced by Beach.
Although her fame is often associated with her publication of
Joyces work, Beachs genius lay in her ability to stimulate the
interaction among the American, English, and French writers of
Paris between the wars. With a sense of the genuine in literature
and a devotion to literary talent, this young New Jersey ministers
BEACH, Sylvia daughter became the hub of Parisian literary activity. And she
maintained her own identity in a crowd of dominant personalities.
Born 14 March 1887, Baltimore, Maryland; died 6 October 1962, Her bookshop and lending library was a post ofce, bank, and
Paris, France meeting center for the great and soon-to-be-great artists of the
Daughter of Sylvester Woodbridge and Eleanor Orbison Beach 20th century.
She encouraged them to write critical articles, inuenced
The second of three daughters born to a long line of ministers their reading, found them publishers, translators, rooms, and
and missionaries, Sylvia Beach was reared in the First Presbyteri- benefactors. She helped organize the English and French little
an parsonage of Bridgeton, New Jersey. From 1902 to 1905, while magazines, in which the most distinguished writers of this century
she was a teenager, the family lived in Paris, where her father was got their start, and distributed the magazines in her shop. In her
an associate pastor of the American Church. She attended school rooms T. S. Eliot, Edith Sitwell, Andr Gide, Ernest Hemingway,
briey in Lausanne, but was largely self-taught. Stephen Spender, Paul Valry, and numerous others read their
works. Beach occasionally translated the work of her French
After her family settled permanently in Princeton, Beach friends into English and of her English-speaking friends into
made several extended trips to Spain, Italy, and France without French. She and Adrienne Monnier were the rst to translate T. S.
her parents. In 1919 she returned to Paris to stay. On 19 November Eliots Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.
of that year she opened her bookshop, Shakespeare and Company,
at No. 8 rue Dupuytren. Here she assembled the best in English Although her bookshop was closed by the Nazis in December
and American literature. She established herself with the aid of of 1941, she refused to leave Paris, for she was as much a
Adrienne Monnier, owner of a bookshop and lending library Parisienne as an American. She was interned for six months in a
frequented by Andr Gide, Paul Valry, Valery Larbaud, Lon- detention camp at Vittel. After the war she did not reopen the
Paul Fargue, Jules Romains, and other eminent French writers. bookshop; she did, however, continue her literary activities,
Beach and Adrienne Monnier were devoted friends; for many writing, speaking, and lending books from her rue de lOdon
years they shared an apartment on the rue de lOdon. apartment. In 1950 she received the Denyse Clairouin Award for
her translation of Henri Michauxs Barbarian in Asia. In 1959 she
Shakespeare and Company, the rst American bookshop in helped organize and contributed most of the materials for an
Paris, soon became the center of French and Anglo-American outstanding exhibition of the Paris 1920s. The exhibition was
literary activities on the continent as Americans gravitated in shown in Paris and London. For her contribution to the exchange
increasing numbers to Paris. Early patrons of the lending library of literature between America and France, she was awarded the
included Stephen Vincent Bent, Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, Doctor of Letters by the University of Buffalo (1959) and the
Archibald MacLeish, Robert McAlmon, James Joyce, Thornton French Legion of Honor (1938). When Beach died alone of a heart
Wilder, and Ernest Hemingway. The bookshop moved to its attack in 1962, Archibald MacLeish declared, She is not alone,
permanent address at No. 12 rue de lOdon, across the street from then or ever. She had that Company around her.


OTHER WORKS: Beowulf (translated by Beach and Monnier, ideal, abstract way. The particular economic interpretation of the
1948). Shakespeare and Company (1959, reissued 1991). Writers Revolution which pitted agrarian democrats against capitalist
of the Left Bank (cassette tape, 1962). aristocrats, and the view of the Civil War as a second revolution,
were widely accepted until after World War II, when Charles A.
Beard came under attack for viewing earlier American history
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bryher, The Heart to Artemis: A Writers Mem-
from the perspective of the progressive ght for reform against an
oirs (1962). Fitch, N. R., An American Bookshop in Paris: The
entrenched capitalism. Indeed, the Beards modied their econom-
Inuence of Sylvia Beachs Shakespeare and Company on Ameri-
ic determinism in the 1940s and gave greater play to the force of
can Literature (dissertation, 1970). Fitch, N. R., Sylvia Beach and
ideas and ideals than they had before. But their most signicant
the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties
contribution was their salutory reminder that ideals do not exist
and Thirties (1983, 1985). Ford, H., Published in Paris (1975).
outside of social contexts.
Hemingway, E., A Moveable Feast (1963). Hoffman, A., Private
Presses and Literary Patrons as Symbols of Modernism: A Study While the great collaborative effort with her husband has
of Contact Editions, Three Mountains Press and Shakespeare and now largely entered the realm of intellectual history, Beards
Company (thesis, 1998). Hutchinson, A. S., Nancy Cunard and pioneering work in womens studies, notably in On Understand-
Sylvia Beach: Contrasting Expatriates (thesis, 1987). Joyce, J., ing Women (1931) and Woman as Force in History (1946),
James Joyce to Sylvia Beach, 1921-1940 (1987, 1990). Monnier, A., remains generative today. Encouraged by the nascent eld of
Rue de lOdon (1960). Monnier, A., The Very Rich Hours anthropology, which was producing work showing women as the
(translated by R. McDougall, 1976). Parker, A.T., The Unveil- originator of agriculture and the domestic arts, Beard studied
ing of a Genius: Sylvia Beach and James Joyce (thesis, 1990). social realities as disparate as womens legal status in England and
Rogers, W. G., Ladies Bountiful (1968). Van Gessel, N. H., Re- womens contribution to Pythagorean philosophy in ancient Greece,
casting the Midwives of Modernism: Autobiographies of Ameri- in order to discover their true status and achievement. Such a
can Expatriate Women Publishers and Editors (dissertation, vision was obscured, she argued, not only by male bias and social
1996). Wright, C. M., Novel Women: Literary Expatriates of the mythology, but by feminists who themselves promulgated a false
1920s (thesis, 1988). view of women as a subject sex. The fullest and most important
Other references: Mercure de France (Aug.-Sept. 1963). treatment of these views appears in Woman as Force in History.

NOEL R. FITCH The questions she raises there remain with us, but her
answers are sometimes problematic. While her argument against
the idea of equality as the touchstone for womans relation to
man points out the difculties it engenders, the argument remains
BEARD, Mary Ritter inconclusive. Nor does the book resolve a contradiction in her
view of womens contribution. While Beard sometimes seems to
be saying women are a peculiarly civilizing force, at other times
Born 5 August 1876, Indianapolis, Indiana; died 14 August 1958,
she seems to be saying only that they have been more of a force
Phoenix, Arizona
both for good and for bad than we have realized. Still, the book
Daughter of Eli Foster and Marassa Lockwood Ritter; married
leaves us two important lines of thought: one is the denition of
Charles Austin Beard, 1900
womans just role. Beard believed that the early imitation of men
by feminists was in part a function of the individualism of 19th-
Educated at DePauw University, then a rather conservative
century America, and that as society moved toward more collectivist
Methodist institution, Mary Ritter Beard received her Ph.D. in
forms, alternatives for women would emerge. The other line of
1897. She spent her early married years in England in the circle
thought is that history is not simply the account of the politician,
around Ruskin Hall, a center for new economic thought, then
the banker, and the general. Until history describes events on the
moved to New York City and studied at Columbia University,
level of domestic economy and family relationship as well,
where her husband, the most vital intellectual inuence in her life,
womans true force, Beard believes, will not be understood, nor
was to join the faculty.
will the true causes and effects of history.
Beards earliest books, American Citizenship (1914, in col-
laboration with her husband), Womans Work in Municipalities
OTHER WORKS: A History of the United States (with C. A. Beard,
(1915), and A Short History of the American Labor Movement
1921). The American Labor Movement: A Short History (1931).
(1920), reect her lifelong interests: labor, sociology, and wom-
America Through Womens Eyes (edited by Beard, 1933). A
ens studies.
Changing Political Economy as it Affects Women (1934). Laugh-
The books she wrote with her husband in the 1920s and ing Their Way (ed. by Beard with M. B. Bruere, 1934). The
1930s, both the school texts and the enormously successful four- Making of American Civilization (with C. A. Beard, 1937).
volume The Rise of American Civilization (1927-1942), were America in Mid Passage (Vol. 3, The Rise of American Civiliza-
highly inuential. The rst two volumes of The Rise of American tion, with C. A. Beard, 1939). The American Spirit: A Study of the
Civilization were the product of two decades of progressive Idea of Civilization in the United States (Vol. 4, The Rise of
intellectual attack on the formalism of 19th-century American American Civilization, with C. A. Beard, 1942). A Basic History
historical writing, which tended to see American institutions in an of the United States (with C. A. Beard, 1944). The Force of


Women in Japanese History (1953). The Making of Charles A. further study in English literature. In 1973 she married musician
Beard (1955). and fellow graduate student David Gates. From 1975-77 Beattie
was visiting writer and lecturer at the University of Virginia, and
in 1977-78 she was the Briggs-Copeland Lecturer at Harvard
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Carroll, B. A., Mary Beards Woman as a Force University.
in History: A Critique in Liberating Womens History, Theoreti-
cal and Critical Essays (1976). Cott, N. F., ed., A Woman While still a graduate student, Beattie began submitting her
Making History: Mary Ritter Beard Through Her Letters (1991). short stories for publication. In April 1974 the New Yorker
Hofstadter, R., The Progressive Historians (1968). Lane, A. J., accepted A Platonic Relationship, her 20th submission. Her
Mary Ritter Beard: A Sourcebook (1997, 1999). Steadman, B. J., rst collection of 19 stories, Distortions, and her rst novel,
Womans Role in History: An Examination of the Life and Chilly Scenes of Winter, both appeared in 1976. The novel, which
Thought of Mary Ritter Beard with Special Consideration of her she claims to have written in three weeks, is perhaps her best
Theory of Womans Contribution to the Human Past (thesis, known work. Its main characters oat through the book, incapable
1981). Trigg, M. K., Four American Feminists, 1910-1940: Inez of decisive action that would change their unrewarding lives.
Haynes Irwin, Mary Ritter Beard, Doris Stevens, and Lorine Charles, mired in a dull job, longs to reestablish his broken
Pruette (dissertation, 1989). Turoff, B. K., Mary Beard as a Force relationship with Laura who left him to marry someone else. He is
in History (1979). Turoff, B. K., An Introduction to Mary Beard: surrounded by his mentally unbalanced mother, by Sam, his best
Feminist and Historian (thesis, 1978). friend and Phi Beta Kappa graduate who cannot afford law school
Other references: NR (1946). NYT (27 Dec. 1931). PSQ and so must settle for selling mens jackets, and by Pete, his well-
(Sept. 1927). World Center for Womens Archives [1913-1934] meaning but tactless stepfather. The novel became a lm entitled
(microlm, 1987). Head Over Heels (1979), with Beattie playing a minor role as a
waitress. The recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship in 1977,
LOIS HUGHSON Beattie moved to Redding, Connecticut, and became a full-time
writer. She published Secrets and Surprises, a collection of 15
stories in 1979. The idea for her next novel, Falling in Place
(1980), came to her while she was contemplating a peach tree
outside her Redding home. It chronicles a disconnected and
BEATTIE, Ann disintegrating suburban Connecticut family. At the end of the
novel, the family faces a crisis when John Joel, their ten-year-old
son, accidentally shoots his sister with a gun belonging to his only
Born 8 September 1947, Washington, D.C.
friend. The novel received a literature award from the American
Daughter of James A. and Charlotte Crosby Beattie; married
Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1980.
David Gates, 1973 (divorced); Lincoln Perry, 1988
Beatties marriage to Gates ended in May 1982. She later told
Novelist and short story writer Ann Beattie has earned her Kim Hubbard of People magazine, that Getting divorced affect-
critical reputation as a storyteller of the 1960s generation. While ed everything, my writing included. It affected the way I walked
her work includes both a childrens book, Spectacles (1985), and a the dog. I did not recover from it quickly. The Burning House,,
collection of essays in art criticism, Alex Katz (1987), her primary 16 short stories published in 1982, was seen as evidence of
preoccupation is with ctional characters who came of age during Beatties growing artistic maturity and conrmation of the fact
the turbulent 1960s and are struggling with that legacy. Beatties that the short story seemed the form that best suited her talents.
spare and direct prose style, which has been linked to the social After her divorce, Beattie lived in New York City until 1984 when
realism tradition of Hemingway and John Updike, is marked by she moved to Vermont for the summer and wrote her second
pop culture references, quotidian details, spiritually lost charac- novel, Love Always (1985), which chronicles the life of Lucy
ters, and deliberately open endings. Although generally praised as Spenser, editor of the humorous magazine Country Daze. It was
a skillful writer, she has been faulted for the apparent lack of followed in 1986 by Where Youll Find Me and Other Stories.
purpose in her characters lives. Beattie notes that If I knew what
it was that was missing [in her characters lives], Id certainly Beattie met her second husband, painter Lincoln Perry, in
write about it. Id write for Hallmark cards. Charlottesville, Virginia, where she had moved following her
brief sojourn in Vermont. He provided her with the title to her
A self-described artsy little thing and only child of a fourth novel, Picturing Will (1989), the story of ve-year-old Will
housewife and a federal government administrator, Beattie grew and his mother who moves him from Charlottesville to New York
up in suburban Washington, D.C. In 1968, while a student at City to pursue her photography career, her boyfriend Mel, and
American University (B.A., 1969), she was invited to serve as one Wills neer-do-well father. Unlike many of her previous works,
of several student guest editors for Mademoiselle magazine. this novel took Beattie three years to complete and was the
Beattie completed an M.A. in English at the University of Con- single hardest thing Ive ever worked on. What Was Mine,
necticut at Storrs (1970) and remained there until 1972 to do another collection of short stories, appeared in 1991. It received


praise for its honest introspection and greater sympathy and BEECHER, Catharine Esther
tenderness. While she continues to remain reticent about offer-
ing answers in her ction to lifes most puzzling questions, in
these stories Beattie again demonstrates her remarkable ability to Born 6 September 1800, East Hampton, New York; died 12 May
recreate the anxiety and angst inherent in white, middle class 1878, Elvira, New York
20th-century America. Daughter of Lyman and Roxanne Foote Beecher

Another You (1995) features an emotionally distant, mid- Sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Catharine Esther Beecher
dle-aged New England professor in a humdrum marriage. The was an educator and writer who attempted to expand the domestic
book received largely negative notices, with critics pointing out power of women. Following the death of her mother, Beecher, age
that the main characters boredom permeated the book and that the sixteen and the eldest of 13 children, assumed the family and
labeling and naming of pop culture icons, for which Beattie is household responsibilities.
known, was not enough to drive the story or characterization. The
novel features a secondary narrative involving the revelation, After the death of her anc, Alexander Metcalf Fisher,
through letters, of a story from the past. It was embraced by Beecher established the Hartford Female Seminary in May 1823
Publishers Weekly, however, which wrote, Successfully avoid- with the money inherited from him. She also organized the
ing the one-note, affectless deadpan to which her work was in Western Female Institute in Cincinnati (1832-1837) and the
danger of succumbing, Beattie provides plenty of dramatic ten- Ladies Society for Promoting Education in the West, and helped
sion in this absorbing narrative of a man emotionally distanced to establish three female colleges (in Burlington, Iowa, in Quincy,
from his life. Illinois, and in Milwaukee, Wisconsin). Although Beecher left the
Hartford Female Seminary in 1831, it was considered one of the
The novel My Life, Starring Dara Falcon (1997) departed most signicant advances made in early-19th-century education
from earlier Beattie works in structure and tone. Yale Reviews for women. It marked Beechers rst attempt to redene a new
Lorin Stein wrote, Not only is it her most difcult novel, it is her relationship with American culture for herself and for other women.
most intriguing: a tissue of autobiography spun by a woman
whose life eludes her. With Park City: New and Selected Stories The author of over 30 books, Beecher expanded the senti-
(1998) Beattie returned to her preferred medium. The title con- mental view of women as saintly and moral creatures, comple-
tained 36 short stories, eight of which were new. The new pieces ments of their immoral and competitive mates. She maintained
returned to many of the themes of her earlier writing, with the that the American woman had difcult and peculiar duties which
addition of the comic sensibility on view in her last two novels. derived mainly from the crudeness and disorder of an expanding
All of what Beattie does well is here on brilliant display, wrote nation. She asserted in Letters on Health and Happiness (1855)
Lorrie Moore in the New York Times Book Review. The theatri- that it is obvious that Providence designed that the chief respon-
cal ensemble act of her characters; the cultural paraphernalia as sibility of sustaining the family state, in all its sacred and varied
historical record; the not quite grown up grown-ups playing relations and duties, should rest mainly on the female sex.
house; the charming, boyish men with their knifelike utterances. Beechers most popular volumes were A Treatise on Domestic
Economy (1841) and Domestic Receipts (1846). The former had
three editions and 17 printings between 1841 and 1856, while the
OTHER WORKS: Flesh and Blood: Photographers Images of latter had ten editions and 17 printings. They were published for
Their Own Families (includes an essay by Beattie, 1992). the use of young wives and reect both the need for practical
Convergences (1998). advice and the social milieu of mid-19th-century America.
In The Elements of Mental and Moral Philosophy (1831),
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Murphy, C., Ann Beattie (1986). Beecher asserted that woman was the moral guardian of her
Reference works: CA 81-84 (1979). CANR 53 (1997). CLC 8 culture. Common sense must be used to determine morality, and
(1978), 13 (1980), 18 (1981), 40 (1986), 63 (1991). DLBY (1982). personal conscience must dominate over doctrine. This position
CBY (1985). FC (1990). moved theology to social grounds and placed Beecher in direct
Other references: America (12 Oct. 1991). Entertainment conict with her father, the Reverend Lyman Beecher, a Calvinist.
Weekly (29 Sept. 1995, 20 June 1997). NYRB (15 Aug. 1991, 5
Nov. 1998). NYTBR (26 May 1991, 24 Sept. 1995, 11 May 1997, The major characteristic of Beechers Christianity, however,
28 June 1998). People (5 Feb. 1990, 2 Oct. 1995). PW (28 Sept. was passivity, not social activity. She spoke against active aboli-
1992, 31 July 1995). Time (25 Sept. 1995), Yale Review (Oct. tionism, asserting in An Essay on Slavery (1837) that Christiani-
1997, July 1998). ty is a system of persuasion, tending, by kind and gentle inuence,
to make men willing to leave their sins. Beecher maintained
LISA STEPANSKI, women had a proper place, a proper sphere, and that place was out
UPDATED BY KAREN RAUGUST of politics and within the home, inuencing men through quiet,
proper petition and through the education of their children.
One of Beechers concerns was the ill health of American
BEEBE, Mary Blair women. She described reported symptoms of female invalidism in
See NILES, Blair Rice Woman Suffrage and Womans Profession (1871), frequently


using the term delicate. She surveys women in various Ameri- (1852). Physiology and Calisthenics (1856). Common Sense
can cities, listing such symptoms as sick headaches, pelvic disor- Applied to Religion (1857). Calisthenic Exercises (1860). An
der, consumption, dyspepsia, asthma, bronchitis, liver disorder, Appeal to the People (1860). Religious Training of Children in the
palsy, scrofula, and chills, adding with alarming frequency: Do School (1864). Principles of Domestic Science (with H. B. Stowe,
not know one perfectly healthy woman in the place. Because of 1870). Work for All, and Other Tales (1871). Womans Profession
Beechers conviction that the illness of American women was as Mother and Educator (1872). Miss B.s Housekeeper and
both symptom and cause of the disorder in American society, she Healthkeeper (1873). The New Housekeepers Manual (1873).
wrote The American Womans Home (1869) with her sister, Educational Reminiscences and Suggestions (1874).
Harriet Beecher Stowe, as coauthor. The home and the guardian of
its healthful state, woman, was intertwined in Beechers mind
with the state of American society. Thus she elevated the impor- BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bruland, E. B., Great Debates: Ethical Reasoning
tance of womens health and role to national importance. She and Social Change in Antebellum America: the Exchange Be-
asserted that women, like men who must be trained for profes- tween Angelina Grimke and Catherine Beecher (1990, 1991).
sions, must be fully trained for their roles in the classroom and the Cross, B. M., The Educated Woman in America (1965).
family. Her religious language was a conscious attempt to invoke Douglas, A., The Feminization of American Culture (1977).
religious sanction of her assertion of the importance of womans Grimke, A. E., Letters to Catherine E. Beecher: In Reply to an
role in the home. She perceived the family state as the earthly Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism, Addressed to A. E. Grimke
illustration of the heavenly kingdom, and in it woman is its chief (1978, 1883). Harveson, E. M., Catharine E. Beecher (1932).
minister. Lindley, S. H.,Womans Profession in the Life and Thought of
Catherine Beecher: A Study of Religion and Reform (1974).
In this haven of secularized religion, the home, Beecher Sklar, K. K., Household Divinity: A Life of Catherine Beecher,
demanded better ventilation, the introduction of green plants, (dissertation, 1969). Sklar, K. K., Catharine Beecher: A Study in
dress reform, proper food, and the avoidance of too much intel- American Domesticity (1973). Woody, T., A History of Womens
lectual taxation. She and her sister provided many practical Education in the United States (1966).
suggestions for yards and gardens, for infant care, for earth closets Other references: AQ (Summer 1966). Civil War History
(commodes), for everything necessary for the maintenance of (June 1971).
the home.
As might be expected, Beecher was an avid opponent of
womans suffrage, attempting instead to expand the womans
base of domestic power. Although she advocated democracy, she
did not feel it led to womens active participation in politics and to BENEDICT, Ruth (Fulton)
furthering social change. Instead she asserted there was a social
order based on age, health, and the most important distinction,
gender; thus there was still hierarchy in the American democracy. Born 5 June 1887, New York, New York; died 17 September
1948, New York, New York
Beecher is a transitional gure whose writings inuenced Wrote under: Ruth Benedict, Anne Singleton
women to move from a state of subordination to one in which they Daughter of Frederick Samuel and Beatrice J. Shattuck Fulton;
attempted to secure a greater role in their changing, shifting married Stanley Rossiter Benedict, 1914
society. She was confronted by a competitive society in which
men aggressively sought wealth and position, and she perceived Ruth Benedicts father, a surgeon and cancer researcher, died
this activity as unworthy of women. Women, unlike men, could before she was two, leaving her mother to bring up Benedict and
effect change only by inuence and passivity. Aggression and her younger sister on their maternal grandparents farm in central
force were male prerogatives. Beechers solution was to create a New York. An attack of measles when she was a child left
quiet eye of the storm and to call it the American Home. There Benedict partially deaf, an inrmity from which she suffered
women could rule supreme and men could return for moral personally and professionally throughout her life. Her fathers
refreshment and rest. In this quiet haven, the American Home, premature death and her mothers ts of weeping traumatized her
Beecher placed her sentimentalized version of the American childhood, so that her mother came to personify fear and confu-
woman. She herself never married. sion, while the memory of her fathers translucent dead face
became a symbol of calmness and beauty. Thus she yearned for
the serenity of the world of death. As a child, she often played at
OTHER WORKS: Suggestions Respecting Improvements in Educa-
being dead in a grave she built herself in the hay. This conict of
tion (1829). Arithmetic Simplied (1832). Primary Geography
having to live in one world, while longing for the other, made her
(1833). The Lyceum Arithmetic (1835). An Essay on the Educa-
fabricate a world in which she kept to herself everything that
tion of Female Teachers (1835). Lectures on the Difculty of
mattered most.
Religion (1836). The Moral Instructor (1838). Letters to Persons
Who Are Engaged in Domestic Service (1842). The Duty of An outstanding student, Benedict won a scholarship to Vassar
American Women to Their Country (1845). Truths Stranger Than College, where she graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1909. After
Fiction (1850). The True Remedy for the Wrongs of Women graduation, she worked for charities and taught in girls schools.


When she married, she discovered a womans power in her love another. Benedicts comparison of cultures and her application of
for her husband and her desire to bear children, and she lived with clinical terms to them results in her realization that abnormality in
a new zest for life; but she soon became disillusioned, espe- any culture is simply an individual deviation from that cultures
cially when the longed-for children never came. Her sense of norms. Thus cultures cannot be compared on an ethical basis but
loneliness and meaninglessness returned, and when her desire for only on the relativity of their integrating principles.
a job of her own met with her husbands discouragement, she
slowly withdrew from him. In 1919 Benedict enrolled in the New In 1935, Benedict published two volumes of Zuni Mythology,
School for Social Research where she studied anthropology under a collection of her most massive eldwork. It includes texts
Elsie Clews Parsons and Alexander Goldenweiser. From there she gathered by her and earlier eldworkers, as well as a careful
went to Columbia and received her doctorate under Franz Boas in comparison of these texts. She concerns herself with themes in
1923, a time when cultural traits and their diffusion, rather than Zuni folklore, the relationship of these themes to the culture, and
individuals, were the interest of anthropological study. the literary problems of the Zuni narrator.

Benedict started her teaching career in 1922 as an assistant to The war years brought a shift in her interests away from
Boas in his undergraduate class at Barnard and began teaching at American Indians to one in humanism. In 1940 Benedict pub-
Columbia the following year. Her rst anthropological interest lished Race: Science and Politics, a popular, relatively unacademic
was in American Indian religion, and her dissertation, The Con- book, in which she presents theories and philosophies of race
cept of the Guardian Spirit in North America, was published in along with her own point of view on the subject of racism. She
1923. In it, Benedict deals with the variety of disparate cultural feels racism is a form of crude provincialism, and in order to
elements that are found juxtaposed within one culturealready understand it, one must rst understand persecution as a whole,
forecasting her later concern with the integrating principles of the with all its economic and social causes. The Races of Mankind,
rags and tatters that make up culture. Her rst eldwork, done written with Gene Weltsh, was published in 1943 and sold
in 1922, was among the Serrano Indians of southern California. millions of copies. Translated into lm and cartoon forms, it has
During the summers of 1924 and 1925, she collected folklore proved to be one of the most popular educational materials on
among the Pueblo Indians of Zuni and Cochiti, and the following racial differences based on anthropological data.
summer among their neighbors, the Pima. Her partial deafness From 1943 to 1945, Benedict worked in Washington in the
and extreme shyness made teaching an ordeal for her, and while Ofce of War Information, concentrating on Romania, Thailand,
doing eldwork, she had to rely entirely on English-speaking and Japan. This led to her pioneering work with literate inform-
informants and interpreters. ants from urban centers and a new shift in anthropology to the
Throughout these early years of anthropological apprentice- analysis of complex modern societies. Benedicts most gracefully
ship, Benedict remained a sensitive and solitary person, express- and cogently written book is The Chrysanthemum and the Sword
ing her inner battles with loneliness and the painful relationship (1946). It expresses the nal harmony of her two selves, the
with her husband in verse, some of which she published in Poetry anthropologist concerned with the integrity of pattern, and the
and Nation under the pseudonym of Anne Singleton. In 1930 she humanist who knows the suffering of the human spirit when it is
and husband Stanley separated, and at that time Boas appointed trapped and limited. Based on an intensive analysis of interviews
her assistant professor at Columbia. Soon thereafter, her depres- and literary material, it concerns itself with themes in Japanese
sions lifted, the need for Anne Singleton faded, and slowly the culture, stressing primarily those that have to do with reciprocal
separate lives she led became fused together in her work. relations between people. She deals with the hierarchical organi-
zation of Japanese life, portrays the structure of obligations to
In 1934 Patterns of Culture, her most famous book, was emperor, family, and self, and examines the strong sense of shame
published. It has since been translated into 14 languages and is so dominant in the culture. The underlying humanist message of
still regarded as one of the best introductions to anthropology. the book is that the only way Japan could be reintegrated into the
Combining problems of psychology and the individual with those world is by using the favorable Japanese patterns of culture as the
of anthropology and culture, she evolved a theory stating that building blocks rather than by imposing European values from
culture was not only the condition within which personality without. The book had a tremendous impact in the U.S. In 1947,
developed, but was itself a personality writ large. All culture, following its great success, the Ofce of Naval Research gave
she postulated, is structured into patterns which impose a harmo- Columbia University an extensive grant to establish under Bene-
ny upon the disparate components of life; for any one culture there dicts direction a program of Research in Contemporary Cul-
is a dominant pattern, an overriding cultural temperament. Inu- tures, the most ambitious program of anthropological research
enced by her reading of Nietzsche, and taking her data from her the U.S. had yet seen.
own work and that done by Boas and Reo Fortune, she compared
three cultures and applied psychological terms to them. The Zuni In 1948, when she was 61, Columbia nally named Benedict
of New Mexico she labeled as Apollonian in their sobriety, a full professor. In the fall of that year she died of a coronary
moderation, and self-possession. The Kwakiutl of Vancouver thrombosis. After Boass death, six years prior to her own,
Island she saw as Dionysian in their commitment to a life of Benedict was the leading American anthropologist as well as the
intoxicated frenzy and self-annihilation. They had paranoid delu- rst American woman to become a prominent social scientist and
sions of grandeur, whereas the Dobu of Melanesia had a schizo- leader in her profession. Her great contribution was her integra-
phrenic fear of their environment and a morbid suspicion of one tion of the idea of patterns, which she slowly pieced together in


her own life and applied to her work. In so doing, she gave her mother, a close companion whose death devastated her. Comple-
profession a theoretical orientation at a time when science for the tion of Come Slowly, Eden (1942), a novel about Emily Dickin-
rst time was trying to deal with total cultures. Benedicts critics son, saved her from a nervous breakdown. After that, she lived
accuse her of never having written a full ethnography and of alone in New York City.
having done eldwork, either among people living in disintegrat-
Bent received a medal from the National Poetry Center in
ing cultures, or among literate informants from cultures far away.
1936, had her poems recorded at the Library of Congress in 1958,
Some have criticized her patterns as overly simplistic. However,
and in 1967 received an honorary degree from Moravian College
her deafness, shyness, and childhood traumas that cut her personal
in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. In 1978, the Empire State Chapter of
life off from others were probably not only responsible for her
the National Society of Arts and Letters gave her special recognition.
anthropological weaknesses, but are possibly what gave her both
the ability to view cultures at a distance and the tolerance for Bents six slim books of poetry are only a small part of her
deviance that led to her very great contributions. output, but she considered herself a poet rst. In Fairy Bread
(1921), the poems are lyrical, light, and fanciful; several, like the
riddle-poem Circles, accurately reect a childs world. Touch-
OTHER WORKS: Tales of the Cochiti Indians (1931). Rumanian es of her later depth and versatility appear, as in The Dragons
Culture and Behavior (1946). Thai Culture and Behavior (1946). Grandmother, with its thoughtfully realistic portrait of an old
An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict (edited woman. In Noahs Dove (1929) there are wryly amusing animal
by M. Mead, 1959). portraits, humanistic insights into ordinary events, and striking
images, like church bells described as hypodermics pricking the
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mead, M., ed., An Anthropologist at Work: Writ- dulled stuff of thought.
ings of Ruth Benedict (1959). Mead, M., Ruth Benedict (1974). Impressionism and understated humor continue in Basket for
Modell, J. S., A Biographical Study of Ruth Fulton Benedict a Fair (1934), but formal aspects like rhyme seem forced, and the
(dissertation, 1980). personal note is missing. Bents sharpest insights again occur in
Reference works: National Cyclopedia of American Biogra- animal poems, where sly amusement toughens the rhymes. The
phy (1892 et seq.). NAW 1607-1950 (1971). poems in Is Morning Sure? (1947) are more solid, yet still
Other references: AA (1949, 1957). Minzokugaku Kenkyu characteristically delicate. Bent considered In Love with Time
(Japanese Journal of Ethnology, 1949). Ruth Fulton Benedict: A (1959), a Wake-Brook Foundation Award Book, the best example
Memorial (Viking Fund, 1949). of her work. Many poems have a personal base, and some
comment directly on her career and role as a woman. Two
MARIAM KAHN particularly effective poems are blank verse portraits of Bents
grandmothers, with acute commentary on their ways of life.
Bridge of a Single Hair (1974), published when Bent was
BENT, Laura 90, has quiet and simple poems that range widely, linking every-
day life with deeper meanings and emotions, and otherworldly
presences. There are still disturbing off-rhymes and inconsistent
Born 13 June 1884, Brooklyn, New York; died 17 February 1979, rhythms, but most of the poems transcend them with an evocative
New York, New York strangeness or strong lyrical statement.
Daughter of James and Frances Rose Bent
Bent also wrote full-length biographies of Poe, Stanley, and
The oldest child of an army family, Laura Bent moved others. Although originally published as books for young people,
often, from Brooklyn, New York, to Springeld, Massachusetts, Bent rightly felt they can be enjoyed by anyone. Except for
to Washington, D.C., and other posts. She went to private schools, occasional preciousness and sentimentality, these full-length works
including the Emma Willard School in Troy, and graduated from contain a wealth of specic detail, sharp characterization, and
Vassar College in 1907. lively dramatized incident. Reviewers commented on the thor-
ough research and skillful writing, one calling Thackeray: Of the
At rst working at a settlement house, Bent was also Great Heart and Humorous Pen (1947) an astonishingly satisfy-
employed as a placement worker for the Childrens Aid Society in ing book with character analysis and descriptions so de-
New York, a sanitary inspector for the Red Cross in Georgia tailed. . .that the reader feels that he would recognize Thackeray at
during World War I, and an editorial assistant for the book pages any party.
of the New York Evening Post, the New York Evening Sun, and the
New York Times. A freelance writer since 1930, she published 28 Bent rst wrote about Emily Dickinson in the novel Come
books, mostly biographies and ction primarily intended for Slowly, Eden (1942), a well-researched and imaginative recrea-
young people. The Boy Shelley (1937), one of nine of Bents tion of Dickinsons love affairs. The Mystery of Emily Dickinson
books that had remained in print into the 1980s, was her favorite. (1974) was a response to her publishers request for a documented
biography. Bent also wrote six collections of short biographies,
Bent never married, although she said she was in love twice of which Famous American Poets (1950) was best received. They
but lost out. After her fathers death, she remained with her are good for reference or quick but sympathetic characterizations.


When William Rose, Stephen Vincent and I Were Young 1994 she won the Minnesota Book award for her rst novel, A
(1976) is a visit with Bent and her brothers during their child- Place Where the Sea Remembers (1994), which is based in a small
hood. She vividly recreates characters and incidents ranging from village on the Mexican coast. Three years later she published her
their nurses objection to her Spanish eyes to the serious second novel, Bitter Grounds (1997), which spans three genera-
illnesses of brothers William, eighteen months younger, and tions of womens lives in El Salvador.
Stephen, born 12 years later.
Reviewers note Bentezs talent in describing the lives and
Bent has the gift of fantasy. As a New York Times reviewer telling the stories of native people and small-town life in Mexico
wrote of the stories in Goods and Chattels (1930), she has a and El Salvador. Chicana novelist Denise Chvez said the world
childs imagination and a childs faith along with an adults of Bentez rst novel is poignant, passionate, bittersweet. There
comprehension of human happiness and misery. These qualities are no small lives. Her characters are magnicent, merciful,
keep biographies and novels engrossing and moving, and make soul-rooted creatures clinging to the shore. The Boston Sunday
her poetry worth repeated reading. Bent herself knew her limits. Globe called the novel tender and gripping. Cuban-American
I am a good poet, she said, not a great one like my brothers. writer Cristina Garca added that A Place Where the Sea Remem-
She wrote of her grandmother words that can be applied to herself: bers is a quietly stunning book that leaves soft tracks in the heart.
It was a grief to her that she had talent /Yet never that rare jewel
The rst novel weaves several characters lives through the
known as genius. Bent had a life of considerable accomplish-
possibilities of work and life in a small coastal village. Love and
ment and modest recognition, but personally and professionally
anger, on the order of a Gabriel Garca Mrquez story, inuence
lived in the shadows of two famous brothers.
the decisions of three principal characters, while each moves
through the aspirations and disillusionments of their limited
OTHER WORKS: The Hidden Valley (1938). Enchanting Jenny options. Candelario Marroqun is lled with pride and respect for
Lind (1939). Roxana Rampant (1940). Young Edgar Allan Poe his role when he is promoted to salad maker at the tourist-stop
(1941). Calebs Luck (1942). Washington Irving, Explorer of restaurant where he works. He feels he can nally provide well for
American Legend (1944). Barnums First Circus and Other his wife and the family they have always desired; since they have
Stories (1949). Coleridge, Poet of Wild Enchantment (1952). been unable to have their own child, they plan to adopt the baby
Stanley, Invincible Explorer (1955). Famous American Humor- his wifes younger sister will have. She was raped and now wants
ists (1959). In Love with Time (1959). Famous Poets for Young to leave the baby behind in good hands and go to the U.S., where
People (1964). Horseshoe Nails (1965). Famous English and she can earn good money. When Candelario is red because of his
American Essayists (1966). Famous Storytellers for Young Peo- boss own error and embarrassment, he returns home to discover
ple (1968). Famous New England Authors (1970). that his wife is now pregnant. He will have to return to a life of
The papers of Laura Bent are at the Lockwood Memorial shing and selling each days catch to the restaurants in order to
Library, State University of New York at Buffalo, and in the provide for his family. He and his wife know he cannot provide for
Brooklyn College Manuscripts Collection. two children. A quarrel ensues between the sisters, triggering a
series of events that affect the lives of many members of their
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Modern Maturity (Feb.-March 1978). Vassar
Quarterly (Winter 1977). The lyrical quality of this short (160-page) novel is reminis-
cent of Latin American literature of the 1950s and 1960s. Bentez
CAROL B. GARTNER writes only in English, but the essence of her stories is Latin
American. She aptly paints descriptions of peasants, small-town
life, and a peoples rootedness to their land and their region,
whether coastal Mexico or the small country of El Salvador. In her
second novel, she contrasts the lives of wealthy women with their
BENTEZ, Sandra (Ables) maids, but it is the servant women and their families whose
portraits come alive, as well as their connection to their land. The
Born 26 March 1941, Washington D.C. 1930s uprising and the revolution of the 1970s are only the
Daughter of James Q. and Marta A. Bentez Ables; married backdrop to this story of the people. New Mexican writer Demetria
James F. Kondrick, 1980; children: Christopher, Jonathan Martnez called Bentezs second novel a beautiful story and a
major contribution to the literature of the Americas. Isabel
Sandra Bentez may be little known because she only began Allende found it a story of passion, politics, death, and love
writing at age thirty-nine. She did not participate in a national written with suspense; a countrys tragic story seen by four strong
writers workshop; her stories just came out at one point in her life women. This is the kind of book that lls your dreams for weeks.
as she reached back to her varied childhood experiences. She is of And Chris Bohjalian, a reviewer for the New York Times Book
Puerto Rican descent through her mother and Midwestern descent Review, found Bitter Grounds like a recipe for a novel by Laura
through her father. She was born in Washington, D.C., where her Esquivel, the rhythms reminiscent of Sandra Cisneros. Ms. Bentez
father worked as a diplomat, then grew up in Mexico, El Salvador, certainly merits placement beside some of the mesmerizing new
Puerto Rico, and Missouri. She now lives in Edina, Minnesota. In literature with its roots in Latin America. Her 445-page second


novel is an epic that celebrates the Salvadoran people of the 20th poems utilize a blues-spiritual format; they are chant-songs
century in their history, their land, and their beauty. rhythmic and repetitious. Musical instruments in her poems are
the piano and the banjo, of African origins.
While Bentez seems difcult to categorize ethnically, she is
truly a Latina writer: she writes in English and her themes are Almost all of Bennetts poems are imagistic word paintings:
often of womens issues and Latin American origin. She has said Brushes and paints are all I have / To speak the music in my soul
that being an avid reader in her childhood helped lead her to story . . . / A copper jar beside a pale green bowl. Similarly, Heri-
writing, and she seems to be collecting her Latin American tage simulates an etching: I want to see lithe Negro girls /
experiences to share with a North American audience. Bentez has Etched dark against the sky / While sunset lingers. Bennetts
written several short stories, which have appeared in various run-on lines simulate a brush-stroke-on-canvas effect: I want to
anthologies, including Do You Know Me Now?, edited by Eliza- see the slim palm-trees, / Pulling at the clouds. Sonnet-2 is
beth Rosenberg (1992), and Speaking in Tongues, edited by evocative of a watercolor: . . .owers bathed by rain / . . .pat-
Carolyn Holbrook-Montgomery (1993). Her awards and honors terns traced upon the sea. Bennett creates a luminous dream
include the Loft Mentor award for ction, 1987; Loft-McKnight world as in Fantasy: A slim-necked peacock. . . / In a garden
award for ction, 1988; Jerome Foundation Travel and Study of lavender hues.
Grant for literature, 1989; Minnesota State Arts Board Fellowship
Her poems are terse, compact, and vivid. The militant 20-line
for ction, 1991; Minnesota Hispanic Heritage Month award,
Hatred is the best example: I shall hate you / Like a dart of
1992; Loft-McKnight award of Distinction for prose, 1993;
singing steel. It has all the collective sensory elements of
Barnes & Noble Discover Great New Writers award, 1993; and
Bennetts poems. To a Dark Girl is openly sensual, inviting an
Minnesota Book award for ction, 1994. Bentez is also a teacher
appreciation of the female body: I love you for your brownness /
of creative writing.
And the rounded darkness of your breast. Bennett saw beauty
and mystery in blackness, celebrating a glorious black present
OTHER WORKS: Womens Voices from the Borderlands (ed. by based on an idealized African past, symbolized by the female:
Lillian Castillo-Speed,1995). Something of old forgotten queens / Lurks in the lithe abandon
of your walk. In Song she comes close to romanticizing the
primitive: . . .heads thrown back in irreverent mirth. But
BIBLIOGRAPHY: CA 144; WRB15 (June 1998); PW (19 July 1993). Song is never sentimental or maudlin; it penetrates the mask of
Other references: Boston Globe (19 Dec. 1993). minstrelsy: Abandon tells you / That I sing the heart of a race;
Gac-Artigas, P., ed., Reexiones: 60 Essays on Spanish American to arrive at the essence: While sadness whispers / That I am the
Women Writers (1999). NYTBR (31 Oct. 1993). WPBW (5 cry of the soul.
Sept. 1993).
Web page: Of strong, independent voice and reective mind, Bennett
has to be considered vis--vis the development of a methodology
ELIZABETH COONROD MARTINEZ explaining the philosophical and artistic meaning of similarly
oriented poetry in dening the Harlem Renaissance and its mythic
reverberations. Her poetry suggests that she is aware of psychosocial
and political relevance, and historical realities, both as determi-
BENNETT, Gwendolyn B. nants and as results of her work. She has a richly mature voice that
goes beyond that of a mere cultist. Her dispassionate poetic
intellect gives her protest poems resonance, depth, and complexity.
Born 8 July 1902, Giddings, Texas; died 1891

Gwendolyn B. Bennetts writing career spans the years 1922 OTHER WORKS: Selections of Bennetts work can be found in: The
to 1934. Although she studied at Columbia University and in Book of American Negro Poetry (1922). The New Negro (1925).
France, Bennett graduated from Pratt Institute, then taught water- Anthology of Magazine Verse for 1926 (1926). Caroling Dusk
color and design at Howard University. Author of The Ebony (1927). Ebony and Topaz (1927). Anthology of American Negro
Flute, a literary column in Opportunity, and also a frequent Literature (1929). American Negro Poetry (1963). An Introduc-
contributor to Crisis and The Messenger, Bennett has no collected tion to Black Literature in America from 1746 to the Present
volume of her verse. Her poems, dealing with nature, love, race, (1969). Afro-American Literature (1970). The Poetry of the
death, and romance, vary in length from six lines to her 39-line Negro, 1946-1970 (1970). The Poetry of Black America (1973).
free verse Song. Although she is overly identied with her Black and Unknown Bards (n.d.). The Sleeper Wakes: Harlem
often anthologized lyric, To a Dark Girl, she wrote ballads, Renaissance Stories by Women (1993). Women, Men, and the
sonnets, and protest poetry. Her poemswhether racial, expres- Great War: An Anthology of Stories (1995). The Soul of a
sionistic, or impressionisticare characterized by a heavy reli- Woman (1998).
ance on visual imagery.
Bennetts racial poems reect an African tradition: I want BIBLIOGRAPHY: Beckner, C., 100 African-Americans Who Shaped
to hear the chanting / Around a heathen re. Signicantly, these American History (1995). Eleazer, R. B., ed., Singers in the


Dawn: A Brief Supplement to the Study of American Literature this obviously autobiographical work in which she appears as
(1934). Govan, S. Y., Gwendolyn Bennett: Portrait of an Artist Tootie, age six. The collection focuses on an older sister and her
Lost (dissertation, 1989). Lewis, D. L., The Portable Harlem determinedly sophisticated friends. It was made into a popular
Renaissance Reader (1995). movie starring Judy Garland.

ERLENE STETSON Benson published Women and Children FIRST in 1943. The
title originally proposed for the volume, Danger: Women at
Work, accurately describes the focus on women frittering away
their lives, manipulating each other and men. The stories center-
BENSON, Sally ing around male central characters are equally bleak in their
portrayal of human selshness and pettiness. The book exposes a
Born 3 September 1900, St. Louis, Missouri; died 21 July 1972, society which fosters useless lives by its role expectations.
Woodland Hills, California Bensons stories are slices of life in which characters,
Daughter of Alonzo Redway and Anna Prophater Smith; mar- through stream-of-consciousness or dialogue, reveal foolish pre-
ried Reynolds Benson, 1919 (divorced) tenses; swift narration and irony preclude sentimentality but
sometimes result in cruel revelations. Cumulatively her women
After Sally Bensons family had moved to New York, she are stereotypes of frivolous, stupid, and wasteful upper-middle-
attended the Horace Mann School, started working at seventeen, class New Yorkers. But Benson also described the male self-
married at nineteen, had a daughter, and later divorced her deception and use of power that compel women to utilize manipu-
husband. She wrote newspaper interviews and movie reviews and lative strategies. Her portraits of young girls reveal the anguish of
in 1929 contributed the rst of her 108 stories to the New Yorker. their socialization.
Benson also edited a volume of myths, wrote mystery reviews for
the New Yorker and more than 20 screenplays.
OTHER WORKS: Stories of the Gods and Heroes (1940). Shadow
People are Fascinating (1936) includes almost all the stories of a Doubt (1943). Experiment Perilous (1944). National Velvet
Benson had published in the New Yorker and four from American (1944). Anna and the King of Siam (1946). Come to the Stable
Mercury. The Overcoat and Suite 2049 were O. Henry (1949). No Man of Her Own (1950). Conspirator (1950). The
prize stories for 1935 and 1936. The title story offers an ironic Belle of New York (1952). The Farmer Takes a Wife (1953).
perspective on the volume: a woman dramatist reads drama into Seventeen by B. Tarkington (dramatization by Benson, 1954). The
mundane lives. Benson reveals the mediocrity of self-deluded and Young and the Beautiful by F. S. Fitzgerald (dramatization by
self-indulgent characters but is compassionate about their at- Benson, 1956). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1960). Bus
tempts to deal with their own mediocrity, with poverty and aging, Stop (1961). Summer Magic (1962). Viva Las Vegas (1963).
with meaningless lives. Signpost to Murder (1963). The Singing Nun (1966).
In Emily (1938) Benson writes somewhat longer stories that
allow for character development and elicit compassion for those BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ferguson, M.A., ed., Images of Women in Litera-
caught in dilemmas, particularly those of growing up. Profes- ture (1991). Writers and Writing (22 July 1972). NYT (22 Ju-
sional Housewife scathingly reveals the emptiness of the role, as ly 1972).
well as that of a door-to-door salesman. When scattered in the
New Yorker these stories seem witty; in this collection they seem MARY ANNE FERGUSON
Despite libraries classication, Junior Miss (1941) is not a
childrens book. Each story humorously shows a young girls BERG, Gertrude
attempt to learn about herself and the world; collectively, the
stories reveal the human condition. Bensons light touch does not
Born 3 October 1899, New York, New York; died 14 September
hide the seriousness of Judys problems and the inadequacies of
1966, New York, New York
most adult strategies for coping with them. The dramatization by
Daughter of Jacob and Diana Goldstein Edelstein; married
Jerome Chodorov and Joseph Fields (1942) achieved success by
Lewis W. Berg, 1918
hardening the delicacy gained by Bensons stream-of-conscious-
ness technique; it has the rounded ends and climaxes
A second-generation American raised in New York City,
Benson disliked, and creates a popular stereotype. Readers of the
Gertrude Berg drew observations of Jewish family life from her
stories will perceive Junior Miss as a rare account of female rites
own childhood as well as from exhaustive research into urban
of passage.
Jewish folkways. Berg attended New York City public schools
Bensons Meet Me in St. Louis (1942) is a collection of 12 and took extension courses in playwriting at Columbia University
stories published in the New Yorker as 5135 Kensington. They from 1916 to 1918. She spent her childhood summers in the
deal with family life and are based on the diaries of Bensons sister Catskill Mountains of New York, where she wrote and performed
at the time of the Worlds Fair in St. Louis at the turn of the sketches to amuse the guests at her fathers hotel. For three years
century. Benson has ironically used her family name of Smith for after her marriage, Berg lived on a sugar plantation in Louisiana,


spending most of her time reading and writing. She began writing events. The most interesting characters are menwaiters, guests,
for radio after her return to New York. storekeepers, relatives. Though the women characters generally
are less sympathetically drawn, their strength and power are
Bergs rst attempt at a radio series was Efe and Laura unmistakable.
(1927), a story about two worldly young women who worked in a
ve-and-ten and talked about everything from economics to the Bergs works, however, pose two major problems for critics.
meaning of life. Bergs rst success was The Rise of the Goldbergs Almost every story Berg wrote is about the Goldbergs, and the
(1929-1931), renamed The Goldbergs in 1931. Over the years, Goldbergs are Bergs family. Accordingly, the distinction be-
The Goldbergs included over two hundred characters, though tween Berg and Molly is elusive. A second problem compounds
only ve characters sustained the series. The central character, the rst, namely, that Bergs writing relies heavily on the actors
Molly Goldberg (played by Berg), was a powerful and benevolent skill in bringing characters to life. The realization of Mollys
Jewish mother absorbed with nding sensible solutions for her character, for example, depends upon Bergs performance as
familys problems. She was an amalgam of characteristics drawn much as upon Bergs writings. Therefore, the greatness of Bergs
from Bergs mother, grandmother, and various hotel guests. Her achievement cannot rest solely upon the strength of her writing.
humor, derived from malapropisms and Yiddish dialect, was The ultimate critical and commercial success of Molly and her
lovingly authentic and never patronizing or condescending. family is the result of Bergs command of the total creative
processfrom writing, to production, to performance.
The Goldberg children, Rosalie and Sammy, typied rst-
generation Americans trying to make sense of their dual heritage.
Though always devoted to their parents, Sammy and Rosie also OTHER WORKS: House of Glass (radio drama, 1935). Make a Wish
were dedicated to modernizing them and to correcting their (lm, released 1937). Kate Hopkins (radio drama, 1941-1942).
pronunciation. Their zeal was seldom appreciated by the elder The Molly Goldberg Cookbook (1955). Let God Worry a Little
Goldbergs. Bit in From the Wise Women of Israel: Folklore and Mem-
oirs (1993).
Berg wrote ve 12-and-a-half-minute scripts per week. Each
weeks scripts worked toward a climax designed to arouse enough
curiosity on Friday to make listeners tune in on the following BIBLIOGRAPHY: Barnouw, E., A Tower in Babel: A History of
Monday. In addition to its durable humor, The Goldbergs is noted Broadcasting in the United States to 1933 (1966). Barnouw, E.,
for its realism. The program eschewed sound effects in favor The Golden Web: A History of Broadcasting in the United States
of real eggs frying or real water running in the studio. Programs 1933-1953 (1968). Edmondson, M. and D. Rounds, From Mary
requiring sounds too complicated for the studio were broadcast Noble to Mary Hartman: The Complete Soap Opera Book (1976).
from appropriate external locations. When Sammy was called to ODell, C., Women Pioneers in Television: Biographies of Fifteen
active duty in World War II, his departure was broadcast from Industry Leaders (1997). Weber, D., The Jewish-American
Pennsylvania Station. The troop train he boarded was genuine, as World of Gertrude Berg: The Goldergs on Radio and Television,
was his departure for duty. Such use of events from the actors 1930-1950 in Talking Back: Images of Jewish Women in Ameri-
lives contributed realism of the highest dramatic value. can Popular Culture (1998). Weber, D. Memory and Repres-
sion in Early Ethnic Television: The Example of Gertrude Berg
Except for a few brief interruptions, The Goldbergs remained and the Goldbergs in The Other Fifties: Interrogating Midcentury
on the air until 1950, through more than 5,000 scripts. Then the American Icons (1997).
show moved to television, where some three million viewers Reference works: CBY (1960). National Cyclopedia of Ameri-
assured the success of the program for nearly 10 years. Berg wrote can Biography (1892 et seq.).
several versions of The Goldbergs for various media: a book, The Other references: Commentary (April 1956). NYT (15 Feb.
Rise of the Goldbergs (1931), a play, Me and Molly (1948), and a 1959, 15 Sept. 1966). Newsweek (11 April 1949). SR (26 May
lm, Molly (1950), written with N. Richard Nash. 1956). Time (26 April 1943, 26 Sept. 1949, 8 March 1948).
Throughout her works, Berg asserts the importance of do- Theatre Arts (Spring 1948, Spring 1951).
mestic life for both men and women. To Molly Goldberg a
home, full of hearts and faces dats yours and you is deirs is
paramount. Her husband also acknowledges his need for mar-
riage: You got right, Molly. I vouldnt be notting but a shadow; I
vouldnt be a real man. I cant even picture to mineself dat I should BERGMAN, Susan H.
be a single man. The Goldberg family adjusts to changing times,
but its integrity as a family never falters. Though The Goldbergs is
ethnic comedy at its nest, the programs warmth and authenticity Born5 May 1957, Bloomington, Indiana
give it universal appeal. Daughter of Donald and Nancy Pricket Heche; married Judson
Bergman, 1979; children: Elliot, Elise (Elizabeth), Nata-
Molly and Me (1961), a memoir written with Bergs son lie, Bennet
Cherney, is a straightforward account of the people important
in Bergs life and, ultimately, in her writings. The book re- In two different years, the Pushcart Prize (Best of Small
veals Bergs penchant for glib generalizations about people and Presses) essay award went to Susan Bergman for her short pieces


destined to be parts of a longer one: these short essays, chapters in Schooner, Ploughshares, Poetry Northwest, and Indiana Review.
fact, were Anonymity, honored in 1991-92, and Estivation, She speaks frankly and regularly about writing and about AIDS,
honored in 1993-94. These are not the only awards Bergman has not always at the same time but always with the same courtesy and
won for her writing: her work was included among Best American attention to her audiences need to understand. In an interview
Essays in both 1987 and 1992 as a winner of Tri-Quarterlys essay with Richard Ford, broadcast by National Public Radio in 1998,
prize in 1990; moreover, her poems were recognized by the Bergman talked about her dedication to writing, its importance to
American Academy of Poets (1987-88) and Discovery/The Na- her life. Ford praised her work for its clarity, its integrity, its subtle
tion Contest (where she was a nalist in 1990). yet strong grip on what really matters about languageits power
to communicate.
The two Pushcart Prize essays evolved into Anonymity: The
Secret Life of An American Family (1994), where Bergman Bergman is on the board of directors of the Modern Poetry
reveals in memoir form the shattering experience her family Association, and a contributing editor for Books and Culture and
suffered when, upon the death of Susans father, Donald Heche, at North American Review. She has written and developed liturgical
the age of forty-ve, they learned he was one of the earliest materialstextual, visual, and musicalfor church performance.
victims of the AIDS epidemic that swept homosexual communi- Her meditation on the life and death of Saint Perpetua, Called by
ties between 1983 and 1989. Anonymity is not a long book, but its Name, appears in a volume of essays, A Tremor of Bliss (1994),
power is deeply felt by reader and author alike. Bergman has a celebrating the way that the idea and the ideal of sanctity, as it
mature style and serenity that is comforting given the plain awful has been lived in certain lives over the centuries, persist in our
facts of her story. And her technique of weaving past and present signicantly secular time. Bergman says: I cling to the promis-
events together with paragraphs of self-discovery and personal es that if we seek God we will nd him, that if we knock the door
revelation produces an authentic poetic formula of presentation will be opened. In these words lie powerful incentives to an active
where the reader is carried along the narrative by the pace and life of faith.
choice of words Bergman uses to tell her truths. She is a born teller
of stories. She writes: At rst no one believed me and I knew it.
On Sunday nights until I was at least ten (not every week) my OTHER WORKS: Buried Life (1999).
parents spanked me for my weeks worth of lies, until I cried so
hard I would lose my breath. Eventually I learned how to simulate
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Anthem (National Public Radio, Oct. 1998).
breath loss so theyd stop before the welts rose. I practiced on the
NYTBR (1994).
gullible until, satised that even skeptics would not doubt, I told
the one about my fathers performance at Carnegie Hall. And KATHLEEN BONANN MARSHALL
later, as she removes the layers of untruth: You must understand
that lying is a temporal invisibility.
Bergmans memoir shook the very foundations of Americas
love affair with the family. In a review for Christian Century, BERNAYS, Anne
Suzanna Ruta addressed what it meant from the outside to
acknowledge the family of a father who died of AIDS. . . .A Born 14 September 1930, New York, New York
strict disciplinarian, church organist, head of a fundamentalist Daughter of Edward L. and Dorothy Fleischman Bernays; mar-
family in which love was expressed, he led a double life of ried Justin Kaplan, 1954; children: Susanna, Hester, Polly
cruising and promiscuity. Each reader or reviewer confronts the
same horror and must likely draw the same conclusion: that Born into a prominent family, Anne Bernays was a grandniece
behind the statistics and the labels, behind the name-calling and of Freud and the younger of two daughters of the founding father
the blame, lie real people (often children) whose lives are changed of the public relations eld. Bernays was raised in the Sherry
forever. Netherlands Hotel during the Depression, which, she was told,
We learn from Bergman herself in Anonymity that she wished was happening to poor people. She attended the Brearley
to attend a college where her artistic and writing skills could be School in New York City, then Wellesley for two years, transfer-
honed and developed. She hoped for Cornell University. Her ring to Barnard where for the rst time, she made friends outside a
parents insisted on a Christian college, however, so her B.A. limited social circle.
degree (1979) is from Wheaton College in Illinois. Later, as her In 1953 Bernays worked as an editor of Discovery for Vance
choices were less bound by parental restrictions, Bergman Bourjaily. In 1954 she married critic Justin Kaplan and left
earned M.A. (1988) and Ph.D. (1992) degrees in English from publishing in 1957 to give birth to the rst of her three daughters.
Northwestern University. She has managed for several decades to The same year, she started writing and completed 10 short stories.
juggle motherhood (four children), a successful career as a writer, In 1959 Bernays moved with her family to Cambridge, Massachu-
and service as a teacher. She was visiting writer at her alma mater, setts, where she has taught ction workshops, written novels, and
Wheaton College, in 1997-98; at Notre Dame University in 1996; worked as a part-time editor for David Godine.
and conducted personal writing workshops for the Ragdale Foun-
dation and River Oaks Arts in Illinois. Her poems have been Bernays rst novel, Short Pleasure (1962), tells the story of
published since 1985 in such widely known periodicals as Prairie an heiress who runs away from her wedding but claims she was


kidnapped and stuffed into a car trunk. Bernays uses the story, become personied as mysterious old acquaintances who make
based on a newspaper item, to illustrate the extravagant lengths to claims upon her. The Address Book successfully portrays the
which a poor little rich girl will go to escape the connes of conict between Alicias genuine love of and attachment to her
her family. family and her longings to escape the personal restrictions it
imposes upon her.
One of Bernays best books, Growing Up Rich (1975), deals
again with the need to escape the familythis time, however, Professor Romeo (1989) deals with sexual harassment on the
without having the characters resort to tales of dramatic kidnap- college campus. Assuming a male voice, Bernays tells the story of
ping or to suicide, as in The New York Ride (1965). In Growing Up compulsive sexual exploitation from the point of view of the
Rich, Bernays accurately records the characteristics of the rich perpetrator, psychology professor Jake Barker, and reveals the
and the trappings of their wealth. The narrator, another poor profound emptiness looming behind Barkers accomplished fa-
little rich girl, cannot, as Bernays herself could not, make friends cade. Finally called to account for his unethical behavior, Barker
in her private school. The pudgy schoolgirl who lacks self-assur- faces his dismissal from Harvard, and the professional demise it
ance is confused by her divided loyaltiesto her natural father, a represents, with bewildered incomprehension. A shallow man
Christian, and her stepfather, a Jew; to her German parents and her from beginning to end, he shows no sign of reform or redemption.
Russian guardians. When disaster strikes, she is sent to live with
the same Russian Jews who were formerly held in contempt by her In 1990 Bernays took another direction, publishing a creative
family. In her new home, her makeshift bedroom is a converted writing manual for students with Pamela Painter. Composed of 83
porch without heat, and she goes to public, not private school. She lessons in 12 sections, each addressing a facet of ction writing,
becomes a debutante in a new sense of the word as she enters a What If? Writing Exercises for Fiction Writers avoids theoretical
more public, less private society. Growing Up Rich is written with and technical jargon, focusing instead on practical exercises,
wit, sophistication, and a sense of pain and poignancy, holding up revision, and the study of great authors. The next year, 1991,
to ridicule the false values of upper class society. Bernays joined the faculty at Holy Cross College in Worcester,
Massachusetts. With her husband, Kaplan, she jointly holds the
With Growing Up Rich, Bernays hits her stride as a social Jenks Chair in Contemporary Letters. Bernays and Kaplan col-
satirist; she maintains the pace in The School Room (1979). In a laborated on The Language of Names in 1997, which provides
central episode, children in a Cambridge, Massachusetts, private scholarly information about names in an easily accessible style.
school, spying on their teachers through a crack in a wall, catch The authors discuss the importance of names as cultural univer-
them in a compromising situation. Multiple plots and the contrast- sals used throughout history and provide a wealth of trivia about
ing positions of children either thrust out of, or secure in, their names from literature, history, lms, racial and ethnic groups, and
families are deftly handled. Bernays humor brings levity to the the business world.
pain of adolescence. These books ensured Bernays reputation;
she is one of few writers to deal with mother/daughter relation- In addition to pursuing her own writing career, Bernays is
ships, showing that the child belongs to the nurturing, and not busy on behalf of other writers. She is a founding and active
necessarily the natural, parent. Parents in her novels are often member of PEN New England, a regional offshoot of the national
weak: mothers are too intrusive, evasive, or too busy with their anticensorship and writer advocacy organization. She is chair of
own concerns; nor can fathers help their sons. Bernays writes the Fine Arts Work Center, which funds writers and visual artists
about children and about women who are both professionals and for a years stay in Provincetown; she also serves on the board of
involved family members. Bernays wit, her acute ear for dia- the National Writers Union.
logue, her compassion for the adolescent, her ability to handle
intricate plots, and her awareness of the life of the mind as well as
her knowledge of the domestic scene make her work mature, OTHER WORKS: Prudence, Indeed (1966). The First to Know (1974).
womanly, and literate.
Bernays has explored in her ction the culture of social BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: CA (1967). CANR (1982, 1999).
privilege in America. From New York Citys high society (The SATA (1983).
New York Ride and Growing Up Rich) to the cloistered environ- Other references: Boston Magazine (Dec. 1975). College
ment of an exclusive Cambridge boarding school (The School Composition and Communication (Feb. 1992). Hudson Review
Book, 1980), Bernays has exposed with humor and poignancy (Autumn 1984). NYT (19 July 1989). NYTBR (13 Nov. 1983, 23
these often hermetic institutions of privilege. In two novels in the July 1989). Ploughshares (Spring 1976).
1980s, Bernays turned her attention to issues concerning profes-
sional women. The Address Book (1983) features a successful, E. M. BRONER,
middle-aged editor at a Boston publishing house who is offered a UPDATED BY MELISSA BURNS AND NICK ASSENDELFT
new job with a top New York rm. As Alicia Baerwife, mother,
professional womanstruggles with the decision to move on in
her career or to remain with her family, she is confronted by her
own fears of loneliness and death, as well as by her repressed BERNE, Victoria
ambition and sexuality. Submerged elements of her inner life See FISHER, M. F. K.


BETHUNE, Mary McLeod Division of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration
and as a representative to the San Francisco Conference to draw
up a permanent charter for the United Nations. At that conference
Born 10 July 1875, near Mayesville, South Carolina; died 18 May
she helped draft a statement calling for a World Bill of Rights and
1955, Daytona, Florida
urging nations to face what is one of the most serious problems
Daughter of Samuel and Patsy McLeod; married Albertus
of the 20th centurythe question of race and color.
Bethune, 1898
Throughout her career Bethune asserted her belief in the
Born to former slaves, Mary McLeod Bethune realized early promise of the American dream, pointed out the discrepancy
the importance of education in improving the quality of life. Upon between the ideal and reality, and sought to extend the promise to
graduating from Mayesville Institute, she attended Scotia Semi- all groups. Moreover, her travels and living through two world
nary in Concord, North Carolina, and pursued further studies at wars made her aware of Americas role in the world and of the ties
Moody Institute in Chicago. Two black women, Emma Wilson, that bind all people. In Certain Unalienable Rights, she brings
Bethunes rst teacher, and Lucy Laney, her rst principal and these realizations together, asserting that the black Americans
employer, inspired her by giving her an educational opportunity desire for equality was rooted in the American principles of
and by serving as models in opening schools for blacks. Moreo- democracy and that the black Americans who were angry were
ver, the teachers at Scotia taught her about the evils of discrimina- analogous to the Boston Tea Party patriots. To Bethune these
tion. Following these examples, Bethune devoted her life to black Americans were among the depressed and repressed
offering others educational opportunities and to combating col- masses all over the world who were swelling to the breaking
or, caste and class distinctions. point against the walls of the ghettoes. She concluded that
America and the world had two alternatives in reacting to the cry
After marrying, Bethune taught in mission schools in the
for equality: to act in keeping with American ideals or to
South, and in 1904 she opened the Daytona Educational and
mimic Hitler.
Industrial School for Training Negro Girls; in 1923 the school
merged with Cookman Institute and became Bethune-Cookman Bethunes leadership in education and in the cause of Peace,
College, and Bethune remained head of the school until 1942. Progress, Brotherhood and Love brought her national and inter-
national acclaim, as attested by the numerous honors and awards
It was as an educator and founder of a school that Bethune
she received, including the Spingarn Medal, the Drexel Award,
rst achieved recognition, but she refused to conne her talent
the Thomas Jefferson Award, the Honor Merit of Haiti Award,
and effort to one institution or to one group of peopleshe
and the Star of Africa Award from Liberia. In 1974 a memorial to
became a national and international leader in the cause of equality,
her was erected in Washington, D.C.
peace, and brotherhood. In 1920 she was elected to the Executive
Board of the National Urban League. In The Problems of the Although she published rarely, and never in volume form,
City Dweller (Opportunity, 3 Feb. 1925), Bethune pointed out Bethunes essays appeared in Opportunity and in the Journal of
the discrepancy between the El Dorado of the country lads Negro History. To reach a more popular audience, she turned to
dreams and the economic, social, and educational oppression Ebony with My Secret Talks with Franklin D. Roosevelt (April
found in urban centers. She urged the Urban League to focus 1949) and My Last Will and Testament (10 August 1955).
attention on the problems of the city dweller, calling equally for
the breaking down of racial barriers and for the aiding of
OTHER WORKS: Mary McLeod Bethune, Her Own Words of
Inspiration (1975, reprinted1990). Mary McLeod Bethune Pa-
Bethune served as vice president of the National Association pers, 1923-1942 (microlm, 1976). Mary McLeod Bethune Pa-
for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and formed the pers, Bethune Foundation Collection, Part 2: Correspondence
National Council of Negro Women. She was also president of the Files, 1914-1955 (1997). My Last Will and Testament in Can I
Association for the Study of Negro Life and History and urged Get a Witness? Prophetic Religious Voices of African American
scholars and researchers to discover, interpret, and disseminate Women: An Anthology (1997).
the truth in the eld of Negro life. She reminded them that the
social usefulness of scholarship and its ndings depends upon
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ashby, R. and D. G. Ohrn, eds., Herstory: Women
its translation into the common tongue. Focusing upon this same
Who Changed the World (1995). Blackwell, B. G., The Advocacies
theme in a 1939 speech, The Adaptation of the History of the
and Ideological Commitments of a Black Educator: Mary McLeod
Negro to the Capacity of the Child (Journal of Negro History,
Bethune, 1875-1955 (dissertation, 1978). Boehm, R., A Guide
Jan. 1939), she pointed out that children must have a true picture
to the Microlm Edition of Mary McLeod Bethune Papers:
of races because peace is based on international understanding
The Bethune-Cookman College Collection, 1922-1955 (1995).
and good will.
Brawley, B., Negro Builders and Heroes (1937). David, S. I.,
Bethunes talent, energy, and resources were drawn upon by Women Builders (1931). Embree, E. R., Thirteen Against the
two U.S. presidents. President Hoover invited her to the White Odds (1944). Felder, D. G., The 100 Most Inuential Women of
House Conference on Child Health and Protection and to the All Time: A Ranking Past and Present (1996). Greeneld, E.,
Presidents Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership. Mary McLeod Bethune (1977). Hall, J. B., Segregation and the
Under Franklin D. Roosevelt she served as Director of the Politics of Race: Mary McLeod Bethune and the National Youth


Administration, 1935-1943 (thesis, 1996). Hanson, J. A., The rejects her chance to escape with a lover; other stories show
Ties that Bind: Mary McLeod Bethune and the Political Mobiliza- characters coping with handicaps, poverty, aging, and racial
tion of African-American Women (dissertation, 1997). Hardy, discrimination. There is no sentimentality; a chain gang, murder,
G. J., American Women Civil Rights Activists: Biobibliographies maternal rejection, patriarchal ruthlessness, bitter sexual frustra-
of 68 Leaders, 1825-1992 (1993). Holt, R., Mary McLeod Bethune: tion are dispassionately presented. Betts characteristic use of
A Biography (1964). McCluskey, A. T., Mary McLeod Bethune interior monologue for ironic self-revelation, her concern for
and the Education of Black Girls in the South, 1904-1923 (disser- morality and religion, her use of animal symbols, and her humor
tation, 1991). Newsome, C. G., Mary McLeod Bethune in Relig- are all already apparent.
ious Perspective (dissertation, 1982). Peare, C. O., Mary McLeod
Betts second book of short stories, The Astronomer, and
Bethune (1951). Poole, B. A., Mary McLeod Bethune (1994).
Other Stories (1966), is actually a novella whose central charac-
Reynolds, M. D., Women Champions of Human Rights: Elev-
ter, a widower, tries to ll his life by pursuing astronomy but nds
en U.S. Leaders of the Twentieth Century (1991). Russell, D.,
he cannot ll the emptiness without involvement with other
Black Genius and the American Experience (1998). Skorapa,
people. Betts increased control of her medium is evident in the
O. L., Feminist Theory and the Educational Endeavor of Mary
economy with which several lives are simultaneously revealed. In
McLeod Bethune (dissertation, 1989). Seller, M., ed., Women
the other stories in this collection, Betts succinctly portrays people
Educators in the United States, 1820-1993: A Biobibliographical
who deal with life the best they can but not always effectively.
Sourcebook (1994). Smallwood, D., Proles of Great African
Americans (1998). Young, J. A., A Study of the Educational It is unfortunate Betts yielded to writing novels, because it is
Philosophies of Three Pioneer Black Women and their Contribu- in her short stories that she succeeds in catching whole lives
tions to American Education (dissertation, 1993, 1987). quickly. Tall Houses in Winter (1957), Betts rst novel, is
Other references: JNH (1975). Light in the Southern Sky overplotted and melodramatic, and only somewhat redeemed by
(video, 1994). Mary McLeod Bethune as Shaper of Social Reality convincing character portrayal. The Scarlet Thread (1964), a
(audiocassette, 1986). Mary McLeod Bethune: Educator (video, historical novel, is noteworthy primarily for its vivid scenes and
1997). Mary McLeod Bethune: Political & Social Development at biblical symbolism. The River to Pickle Beach (1972) skillfully
Home and Abroad (video, 1996). Mary McLeod Bethune: The uses symbols of nature to make this novel a powerful afrma-
Spirit of a Champion (video, 1996). Portraits: The Americans tion of life.
(video, 1997). Southern Workman (March 1912). The Story of
With Beasts of the Southern Wild, and Other Stories (1973),
Mary McLeod Bethune from Cotton Fields to the White House
for which Betts was a 1974 National Book award nalist, and
(video, 1990).
Heading West (1981), is a collection of seven stories representing
both a culmination of her previous work and a new departure.
More comic, more fantastic, these stories are nonetheless as
revelatory of ordinary people as Betts other ction. Using animal
images and female central consciousnesses, Betts creates a world
in which awareness of mortality heightens experience.
BETTS, Doris
Betts characters, often grotesque, gain dignity from con-
fronting loneliness, family and racial tensions, aging, and death.
Born 4 June 1932, Statesville, North Carolina She achieves rare authenticity about women through detailing
Daughter of William E. and Mary Ellen Freeze Elmore Waugh; graphically with the birth process, the emotional effects of abor-
married Lowry M. Betts, 1952; children: Doris, tion, hysterectomy, and childlessness. Betts discussions of the
David, Erskine aesthetics of writing reect her award-winning teaching.

Since winning a Mademoiselle college ction contest in Between 1954 and 1973 Betts produced three volumes of
1953, Doris Betts has published nine novels and three volumes of short stories and three novels, all focused on her native North
short stories. She has been a journalist at several North Carolina Carolina. She has always been well received in her region: each
newspapers and a professor at a number of colleges in North novel won the Sir Walter Raleigh award for the best ction of its
Carolina and Indiana. Betts has also been active in her town of year by a North Carolinian. The aforementioned Beasts of the
Sanford, North Carolina, and is the Alumni Distinguished Profes- Southern Wild and Other Stories (1973), broadened her reputa-
sor of English at the nearby University of North Carolina at tion; it was widely reviewed, and one of the stories, The Ugliest
Chapel Hill. She has won several literary awards, including the Pilgrim, was lmed for the Public Broadcasting System (PBS)
Guggenheim Fellowship in ction in 1958-59 and an American as Violet, with Betts writing the screenplay. In Heading West
Academy of Arts and Letters Medal of Merit in 1989. (1981), a Book-of-the-Month selection, the authors wider scope
is paralleled by that of her female epic hero, Nancy Finch, an
The Gentle Insurrection, and Other Stories (1954), though unmarried librarian in a small North Carolina town desperate to
published when the author was twenty-two, shows mature under- escape her dull life. Maintaining the comic voice evident in many
standing of human powers and limitations. In the title story, the of her short stories, Betts makes her story of Nancys journey to
daughter of a sharecropper, out of both fear and family loyalty, the Grand Canyon a mock epic. The Grand Canyon parallels


Melvilles white whale as a symbol of the American quest for Tamsen Donner. Meanwhile, she meets 12-year-old Sam, who
meaning, which Betts locates, nally, in the American dream of has run away from his would-be kidnappers, and another camper,
family. Instead of Melvilles mad hero, Betts protagonist is the newly deaf Paul Cowan. The group forms a makeshift family until
victim of a mad kidnapper who introduces himself with the words Sam is kidnapped by his pursuers and Luna and Paul must go to
Call me Dwight, echoing Melvilles Call me Ishmael. his rescue. The Sharp Teeth of Love received a mixed reception
Nancys vocation as librarian gives Betts ample opportunity for from critics, who praised its appealing characters but generally
other literary parallels and allusions; the Bible, Pilgrims Prog- agreed the various plotlines didnt completely mesh.
ress, Paradise Lost, proverbs, fairytales, and popular songs fur-
nish opportunities for irony and also deepen the universality of
Nancys predicament and ambivalence. Betts subverts the myth of OTHER WORKS: Halfway Home and a Long Way to Go: The
the imperial hero, a loner who ruthlessly prevails over all Report of the 1986 Commission on the Future of the South (1986).
obstacles. Like Odysseus, Nancy returns home to complete her The papers of Doris Betts are housed at Boston University, in
spiritual journey before heading west for good. Boston, Massachusetts.

Through irony and the witty inner voice of her protagonist,

Betts makes Nancys adventures credible and the characters BIBLIOGRAPHY: Carr, J., ed., Kite-Flying and Other Irrational
convincing. Using the form of a suspenseful mystery story in Acts: Conversations with Twelve Southern Writers (1972). Dantzler,
which the good guys win, Betts has solved the dilemma of writers K. L. N., Writings of Religious Rebellion: Doris Betts Early
in a democracy of how to make a serious work accessible to many Fiction (dissertation, 1989). Evans, E., Doris Betts (1997). Kimball,
levels of readers. A published excerpt from a novel in progress, S. L. and L. V. Sandler, eds., The Home Truths of Doris Betts
Souls Raised from the Dead, makes it clear Betts has mastered the (1992). Prenshaw, P. W., ed., Women Writers of the Contempo-
novel form as well as she had already mastered that of the short rary South (1984). Wilson, M. J., Southern, Female and Chris-
story. Betts remained busy throughout the rest of the 1980s and tian: A Comparative Study of Christian Orthodoxy in the Short
early 1990s with both her teaching and writing. She contributed Fiction of Flannery OConnor and Doris Betts (dissertation, 1987).
articles, poems, short ction, and literary reviews to various Reference works: CANR (1998). Oxford Companion to Wom-
magazines; her short stories were also anthologized in various ens Writing in the United States (1995).
local and national works, including Best American Short Stories Other references: Chapel Hill Weekly (3 May 1972). Chris-
and A New Southern Reader. tian Century (8 Oct. 1997). Critique (1975). PW (25 Apr. 1994).
Red Clay Reader (1970). The Sanford (5 Dec. 1974). Southern
Souls Raised from the Dead (1994) was Betts rst novel in Quarterly (Summer & Winter 1983).
over a decade and received overwhelmingly favorable reviews.
Set in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the novels protagonist is MARY ANNE FERGUSON,
12-year-old Mary Grace Thompson, whose mother abandoned UPDATED BY LEAH J. SPARKS
Mary Grace and her highway patrolman father, Frank, three years
before. Mary Grace has a minor riding accident early in the novel
and the ensuing hospitalization leads to her diagnosis with chronic
renal failure. Frank already has one damaged kidney due to a BIANCO, Margery Williams
gunshot wound received while in the line of duty years earlier, and
Mary Grace must therefore rely upon her mother Christine as the
Born 22 July 1881, London, England; died 4 September 1944,
most likely donor.
New York, New York
Christine is afraid of undergoing surgery, however, and so Also wrote under: Margery Bianco, Margery Williams
denies her kidney by pretending that Mary Grace will be ne Daughter of Robert and Florence Harper Williams; married
without it. Mary Graces slow physical decline is mirrored in the Francesco Bianco, 1904
spiritual decline of her family. Just as her kidneys cannot serve as
an adequate lter for her bodys toxins, Mary Grace herself can no Margery Williams Bianco was born in London, where she
longer serve as a spiritual and emotional lter for her dysfunctional early developed the interest for studying animals reected in
extended family. Betts, a Presbyterian elder and devout Christian, many of her books. Biancos father died when she was seven and
gives the child an ample share of the grace for which she is named, two years later the remaining members of the family sailed for
and shows her meeting her impending death with courage and New York. From there they moved to a farm in Pennsylvania,
conviction. where Bianco reveled in berry picking, corn husking, coasting in
winterall the country things one had read about in St. Nicholas.
A childs death also gures in Betts next novel, The Sharp
Teeth of Love (1997), whose characters include a ghost and a At seventeen, Bianco began to write and occasionally publish
young runaway. Heroine Luna Stone leaves her anc midway short stories. Her rst novel, The Late Returning, appeared in
through their trip to their prospective new home in California. She 1902 and was followed by two more adult novels, The Price of
camps out in the Desolation Wilderness where the ill-fated Youth (1904) and The Bar (1906). A. C. Moore has described
Donner Party met its end and is soon haunted by the ghost of these early novels as absorbing stories of human loyalties and


conicts in which Biancos characteristic concern for the mys- BISHOP, Claire Huchet
tery of nature was already present.
In 1922 Bianco published her rst novel for children, The
Born circa 1899, Brittany, France; died 11 March 1993
Velveteen Rabbit. This fantasy about a toy rabbit that becomes
married Frank Bishop
real through the power of love has long been acknowledged as a
work of rare distinction. A tale of patient love, willing sacrice,
and bittersweet reward, it is reminiscent of Hans Christian Ander- Born into a family and a culture where storytelling, particu-
sens literary fairy tales, which Bianco greatly admired. Her style, larly of traditional tales, was a normal part of life, Claire Huchet
which is tender and yet humorous, is well suited to the story of the Bishop seems to have come naturally to her career as a childrens
velveteen rabbit, and to the stories of toys and their people that librarian and author. After studying at the Sorbonne, Bishop
followed it: Poor Cecco (1925), The Little Wooden Doll (1925), opened the rst French childrens library, LHeure Joyeuse, in the
The Skin Horse (1927), and The Adventures of Andy (1927). years following World War I. There, in a library sponsored by an
Biancos success in these early childrens books was in her American Committee headed by Mrs. Herbert Hoover, she began
ability to create secondary realitiesworlds and characters paral- to tell stories to children. When she married pianist Frank Bishop
lel to but different from our own. Her charming style and use of and accompanied him to New York City in the 1930s, she took a
facts made animals into individuals. But Biancos later childrens position in the New York Public Library, where she was also
books demonstrate that she was also able to draw upon realistic invited to be a storyteller. Her rst book, The Five Chinese
settings, and create realistic human characters. In Winterbound Brothers (1938), was a written version of a tale she had told
(1936), the four Ellis children spend a hard winter alone in a drafty children on two continents.
Connecticut farmhouse. The two older sisters use good sense,
good spirits, and good character to bring the family through a The Five Chinese Brothers, as bets a written version of an
series of potential disasters. Biancos hand with characterization oral tale, has a simple, dramatic storyline; it makes extensive use
is so sure that not only are the Ellises all fully realized as of repetitions (Your Honor, will you allow me to go and bid my
individuals, but each member of the supporting cast is also clearly mother good-bye? asks each of the brothers. It is only fair,
and memorably dened. Throughout Winterbound, Biancos love the judge always replies); and it celebrates personal resourceful-
for the colors and the inhabitants of the countryside brings ness over social order. The Five Chinese Brothers has acquired the
landscape, ora, and fauna into the fabric of her story. status of a modern classic.
A frequent contributor to Horn Book magazine, Bianco The same structural qualities of the traditional oral tale
brought high standards of criticism to her consideration of child-
appear in The Man Who Lost His Head (1942), which is also a
rens books, and she was as demanding of herself as she was of
picture book. This droll tale is about a man who, waking one
others. She had a keen awareness of the role of literature in
morning without his head, sets out to nd it. He tries three
educating the imagination, and wrote that Imagination is another
word for the interpretation of life. alternative headsa pumpkin, a parsnip, and a piece of wood
before he regains his own through the help of a young and ragged
magician with a penchant for extraordinary words. Bishops other
OTHER WORKS: Paris (1910). The Thing in the Woods (1913). The picture books include The Ferryman (1941), Augustus (1945), and
Apple Tree (1926). All About Pets (1929). The Candlestick Twenty-two Bears (1964).
(1929). The House That Grew Smaller (1931). A Street of Little
Shops (1932). The Hurdy-Gurdy Man (1933). The Good Friends Bishop is best known for The Five Chinese, but her short
(1934). More About Animals (1934). Green Grows the Garden novels for children are also major achievements. In such books as
(1936). Tales from a Finnish Tupa (with J. C. Bowman, 1936). Pancakes-Paris (1947), Twenty and Ten (1952), All Alone (1953),
Rufus the Fox (1937). Other Peoples Houses (1939). Franzi and and A Present from Petros (1961), Bishop manages to simultane-
Gizi (with G. Loefer, 1941). Bright Morning (1942). The Five- ously evoke the uniqueness of various cultures and the universali-
and-a-Half Club (1942). Penny and the White Horse (1942). ty of childhood. Pancakes-Paris, for example, is the story of
Forward Commandos! (1944). Herberts Zoo (1949). The New Charles, a ten-year-old postwar Parisian who wants desperately to
Five-and-a-half Club (1951). make crpes for his mother for Mardi Gras. But he has no milk, no
eggs, no oilnothing. Although two American soldiers provide a
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Moore and Miller, eds., Writing and Criticism: A happy ending, the reality of Charless life and its contrast with our
Book for Margery Bianco (1951). own comes through.
Reference works: Junior Book of Authors, S. J. Kunitz,
and H. Haycraft, eds. (1951). The humanitarian impulse, evident in the soldiers who bring
Other references: EngElemR (June 1935). Horn Book (May packages of food and supplies to Charless family, is strong in
1945). PW (23 Sept. 1944). Weekly Book Review (1 Oct. 1944). Pancakes-Paris. A similar morality is at work in All Alone, the
story of two young cowherds in the French Alps who, by example,
KATHARYN F. CRABBE persuade a village to give up rugged individualism and minding


ones own business for a sense of community and brotherhood. BISHOP, Elizabeth
Here, as in all her novels, Bishop celebrates courage, caring, and
acceptance of responsibility, both for self and for others.
Born 8 February 1911, Worcester, Massachusetts; died 6 October
Accepting responsibility for others is a major theme in 1979, Boston, Massachusetts
Twenty and Ten, the childrens novel most closely connected to Daughter of Gertrude May Bulmer and William Thomas Bishop
Bishops writing for adults. Its the story of 20 French fth- (the Bulmer family name was pronounced with a silent l
graders who have been sent to a country house to wait out the and had the variant spelling of Boomer)
occupation, and of the 10 Jewish children they hid from the Nazis.
In this book Bishop has used the device of a childrens Christmas When Elizabeth Bishop was eight months old, she lost her
game called The Flight into Egypt to propose the oneness of father to Brights disease after he had been ill off and on for six
Christians and Jews. This concern for religious harmony is also years. The death had a disastrous effect on her mother. Unable to
the force behind two later accomplishments: her noble foreword cope with the tragedy, her mother became increasingly disorient-
to an English edition of Jesus and Israel (Jsus et Isral) by the ed and was in and out of mental hospitals during Bishops early
French historian Jules Isaac, and her own How Catholics Look at childhood. In 1916 she was permanently institutionalized and
Jews (1974). The foreword to Jesus and Israel (1970) reveals never saw her daughter again before she died in 1934.
Bishops commitment to the battle against anti-Semitism and her As an only child growing up, Bishop was continually aware
conviction that even Vatican Council II did not go far enough in that she did not provide her mother with sufcient consolation or
trying to eradicate anti-Jewish prejudice in the teachings of the sense of purpose to keep her from leaving yet again. The memory
Roman Catholic church. of what seemed to be maternal neglect and rejection stayed with
Bishop all her life and surfaced in her poetry, a particularly clear
The importance Bishop places on religion is reected in her
instance being an unpublished draft of a poem called A Drunk-
recreation of the life of Christ, Yeshu, Called Jesus (1966), and in
ard, where it is associated with the beginnings of her lifelong
her three saints lives, Christopher the Giant (1950), Bernard and
problem with alcoholism, her abnormal thirst.
His Dogs (1952), and Martin de Porres, Hero (1954), all written
for children. These books also reveal her ability to speak candidly The uncertainty surrounding her mothers condition was
about defects in the Catholic church, as in Martin de Porres, Hero mitigated by the stable and loving relationship Bishop had with
which contains several depictions of the dandyism and self- her maternal grandparents. After being widowed, Bishops moth-
indulgence that characterized some religious houses in the 16th er had taken her daughter and returned home to live with them in
and 17th centuries. Great Village, Nova Scotia, a tiny and close-knit community lled
with relatives and neighbors. When Bishop was six years old,
Bishops spare style and dry wit are admirable. She is most however, the warmth and liveliness of life in Great Village came
effective in creating a sense of place and an awareness of cultural to an end following the arrival of her fathers parents, the
differences in her novels and in echoing the oral tradition in her prosperous Bishops, whose wealth had been made from a success-
picture-story books. It is also in her ction that she most success- ful contracting rm noted for building such landmarks as the
fully integrates moral themes into the fabric of the work. Boston Public Library and Museum of Fine Arts. The Bishops
were intent on taking their granddaughter back with them, and so
she was returned, against her will, to her birthplace in Worcester,
OTHER WORKS: French Childrens Books for English Speaking Massachusetts.
Children (1938). The Kings Day (1940). France Alive (1947).
Blue Spring Farm (1948). All Things Common (1950). The Big The contrast between the cold and proper opulence of the
Loop (1955). Happy Christmas (ed. by Bishop, 1956). Totos Bishop home and her country existence in Nova Scotia could not
Triumph (1957). French Roundabout (1960). Lafayette: French- have been greater. The sudden isolation and boredom were
American Hero (1960). Here is France (1969). The Trufe Pig terrible experiences for a sensitive child who had already suffered
(1971). Johann Sebastian Bach (1972). Georgette (1974). more than her share of misfortune. She became ill with a number
of severe ailments including bronchitis, asthma, and eczema, all
of which plagued her for the rest of her life. Her miserable stay
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hopkins, L. B., Books are by People (1969). with the Bishops lasted only nine months, but it represented a
profound turning point. Her famous poem In the Waiting
Schwartz, A. V., On The Five Chinese Brothers, in Interracial
Room recalls it as a fall from innocence into a painfully acute
Books for Children Bulletin 3 (1977). Smaridge, N., Famous
and alienating consciousness of time and self.
Modern Story Tellers for Young People (1969).
Reference works: The Junior Book of Authors, S. J. Kunitz Her health became so poor that the Bishops allowed her to be
and H. Haycraft, eds, (1951). rescued by her aunt, Maud Bulmer Shepherdson, her mothers
Other references: LJ (Oct. 1977). PW (10 May 1947). older sister. In 1918 Bishop moved to Revere, Massachusetts, to
live with Maud and her husband. Although she loved her aunt and
KATHARYN F. CRABBE was deeply grateful for her generosity, she continued to suffer


from the sense of having no rightful place or home of her own. (1983). The Collected Prose (1984). One Art: Elizabeth Bishop
During an interview with Elizabeth Spires in 1978 (published in (letters edited by Robert Giroux, 1994).
Paris Review, Summer 1981), Bishop said, . . .my relationship
with my relativesI was always a sort of guest, and I think Ive
always felt like that. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Brown, A., An Interview with Elizabeth Bish-
op, in Shenandoah 17 (Winter 1966). CANR 61 (1998). CLC 32
Before the age of fourteen Bishop had little formal education, (1985). DLB 5 (1980), 169 (1996). Goldensohn, L., Elizabeth
but with the help of her aunt she developed her literary interests Bishop: The Biography of a Poet (1991). Kalstone, D., Becoming
through independent reading. At fourteen she began attending a Poet: Elizabeth Bishop with Marianne Moore and Robert
high school and day school, and from 1927 to 1930 she went to Lowell (1989). Millier, B. C., Elizabeth Bishop: Life and the
Walnut Hill, a college prep boarding school in Natick, Massachu- Memory of It (1993); The Prodigal: Elizabeth Bishop and
setts. In 1930 she entered Vassar College and became part of a Alcohol, in Contemporary Literature 39 (Spring 1998). Paton,
group of gifted students that included Mary McCarthy, Eleanor
P. M., Landscape and Female Desire: Elizabeth Bishops Clos-
Clark, and Muriel Rukeyser. During her senior year, she was
et Tactics, in Mosaic 31 (Sept. 1998). Showalter, E., ed.,
introduced to poet Marianne Moore, who was forty-seven at the
Modern American Women Writers (1991).
time. Moore befriended the young Bishop, and their relation-
shipas mentor and apprentice initially and then as colleagues
lasted through the years, despite the many travels and changes of
residence that characterized Bishops nomadic life.
A second key friendship with a fellow poet took shape when
Bishop met Robert Lowell in 1947. As two up-and-coming BLACK, Katherine Bolton
writers, they established a relationship of peers. Both had just
published highly acclaimed collectionsNorth & South (1946)
for Bishop and Lord Wearys Castle for Lowelland they sensed Born 7 November 1903, Boston, Massachusetts; died 13 Novem-
in each other a kinship that would develop into a mutually ber 1962, Boston, Massachusetts
sustaining exchange of ideas, drafts, and advice. Daughter of Henry and Margaret Weed Bolton; married
Joseph R. Black, 1928; children: four
In 1951 Bishop embarked on a trip around South America.
During a stop in Rio de Janeiro, she suffered a violent allergic Katherine Bolton Black, daughter of a wealthy Boston busi-
reaction to the fruit of the cashew tree and had to abandon her nessman and a socialite mother, spent much of her early childhood
plans and recover there. She was cared for by the friends she had abroad in the British and French countryside. The lovely scenery
been visiting, and with one of them, Lota Costellat de Macedos of rural Europe gured prominently in her early poetry and in By
Soares, the friendship deepened into an intimate relationship. She the Riverbank (1954). Black attended Miss Brodys School for
ended up living with Soares in Brazil for 15 years. For much of Girls, then Simmons College, from which she graduated with
that period she led a settled and happy existence, combining honors in 1924. Her marriage to Joseph Black, a lawyer, produced
domesticity with creative production.
four children.
Bishops second collection of poems was published with a
Black began her writing career at Simmons, composing verse
reissuance of her rst collection, and the combined volume,
in which the recurring theme of a Natural Paradise gured
Poems: North & SouthA Cold Spring (1955), won the Pulitzer
heavily. Her rst published poem, The Greenest Pastures, ran
Prize in 1956. Her third collection, Questions of Travel (1965),
in the July 1930 issue of McCalls. Her verse was subsequently
was followed by The Complete Poems (1969), which received the
published in miscellaneous ladies magazines, but was never
National Book award in 1970.
collected in volume form.
After the tragic death of Soares in 1967, apparently by
suicide, Bishop made arrangements to take up residence in In 1942 Blacks rst attempt at ction, a long short story,
the U.S. and spent the nal decade of her life writing and teaching, At the Village Gate, was selected to run in the anthology, Best
primarily at Harvard University. In 1976 she became the rst Short Stories of the Year: 1942. In this story a British naval ofcer
American and the rst woman to receive the Books Abroad/ falls in love with Jenny, who is obviously modeled after Black. On
Neustadt International Prize for Literature. That same year saw leave, he visits Jenny at her small-town New England home, only
the publication of the nal collection to appear in her lifetime, to nd she is in love with another man. His despair at the
Geography III, which won the National Book Critics Circle award discovery is moving, although the tone of the whole is sentimen-
in 1977. After her death in 1979, Bishops reputation continued to tal. Blacks vivid descriptions of nature and the outdoors, howev-
grow and she has come to be considered one of the preeminent er, are the saving grace of this otherwise very ordinary love story.
poets of the 20th century.
Black continued to write verse and stories, but her household
and wifely duties interfered with her writing. In 1949 her husband
OTHER WORKS: Brazil (with the editors of Life, 1962). The Ballad died, and Black turned to writing with a seriousness and energy
of the Burglar of Babylon (1968). The Complete Poems, 1927-1979 not previously evident in her work. In the next few years she wrote


her most highly acclaimed stories, John, Forever Mine, and homely, and unsure, she was the only child of her demanding
Another Hillside Vacation, both solidly written, unsentimental parents. In her youth, Blackwell had rebelled against the cause
looks at married life. that demanded so much of her mothers attention. But after
graduation from Boston University, she gladly joined the suffrage
Her rst novel, By the Riverbank (1954), created little stir in
ranks. For the next 35 years, she edited the Womans Journal, the
the literary world, but one critic called it, a thoughtful study of
longest running, widest circulating feminist newspaper. She solic-
human jealousy and greed. The book centers around a newlywed
ited contributions, cajoled advertisers, and wrote copy. Her edito-
couple who have emigrated to England from France shortly before
World War II. The tensions of living in a foreign land quickly rials, along with her numerous suffrage tracts and pamphlets, were
create strong jealousies between the two young people, who are coolly logical arguments for the enfranchisement of women.
both aspiring writers. Sarah accuses her husband Stephen of Those same arguments are found in the Womans Column, a four-
involvement with the daughter of a neighboring farmer, and page collection of suffrage items also edited by Blackwell, sent
Stephen grows increasingly jealous as he realizes his wifes weekly to 1,000 newspaper editors in the United States.
creative talents are greater than his own. In By the Riverbank
Blackwells other contribution to suffragism was uniting the
Black presents an interesting psychological study of a loving
warring factions of the movement. The quarrel between the
marriage that is nearly destroyed by jealousy.
American Woman Suffrage Association, led by her parents, and
Blacks second novel, As the Crow Flies (1957), lacks the the National Woman Suffrage Association of Elizabeth Cady
ne characterization found in her rst novel. Here, Black tends to Stanton and Susan B. Anthony had begun in 1870. The split was
bog down in endless description of natural settings as she presents prompted by the problem of black versus woman suffrage. Al-
arguments in favor of ecological conservation. The story centers though the problem had long been solved, the division remained.
around a young girl growing up in New England, who witnesses By 1890, personalities, not philosophies, separated the two fac-
the destruction of natural beauty around her: farms and waterways tions. Blackwell, guided by her mother, brought them together in
are destroyed as the metropolis of Boston spreads into the sur- the National American Woman Suffrage Association.
rounding countryside. Although Black presents a convincing
argument for conservation, the storyline is sacriced to the When Lucy Stone died in 1893, Blackwell took over the
novels message. family business of suffrage and suffrage journalism. Her other
reformist impulses, long suppressed in the atmosphere created by
Blacks work is characterized by poetic description and a
her parents, became visible. Blackwell put aside her causes long
keen eye for detail. Evidence of her early interest in poetry can be
enough to write a laudatory biography of her mother. It was no
found in the graceful phrasing of her later prose works. Although
doubt published to balance the bulk of suffrage history that
not a major writer, Black deserves more recognition than she has
Blackwell believed had been written by the Stanton-Anthony
hitherto received.
faction totally ignoring the contributions of the Blackwell family.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Good Housekeeping (13 May 1954). Life (March Blackwells only brush with romance led her into another
1958). NYHTB (June 1954). NYT (16 May 1954, 23 May 1954). genre. In 1893, she met an Armenian theological student. She was
entranced by him and his tales of the oppression of Armenia.
MAUREEN MACDONALD When he died a few years later, Blackwell dedicated herself to his
people, helping them nd refuge in the U.S. She also translated
the works of Armenian poets into English. A volume of these
pieces, Armenian Poems, is heavily laced with patriotic outpourings.
BLACKWELL, Alice Stone The offerings include Let Us Live Armenians, Let Us Die
Armenians, The Lament of Mother Armenia, and The
Born 14 September 1857, Orange, New Jersey; died 15 March Wandering Armenian to the Swallows.
1950, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Her interest in Armenian verse led Blackwell to translate
Daughter of Henry Blackwell and Lucy Stone
poetry of other suppressed peoples. During her middle years, she
published the verse of Russian, Yiddish, Hungarian, and Spanish-
Alice Stone Blackwell was born into a unique family of
reformers because the women were more distinguished than the speaking writers. Although in the original these poems may have
men. Blackwells aunt, Elizabeth Blackwell, was the rst woman been inspired, the translations are not. This no doubt reects the
in America to receive a medical degree; another aunt, Antoinette fact that Blackwells literary tastes and talents were extremely
Brown Blackwell, was the rst woman ordained as a minister by a conventional.
recognized denomination in the U.S.; and her mother, Lucy Stone,
Blackwells support of socialism culminated the increasingly
was president of the countrys largest suffrage organization and
radical drift of her afliations. Her rst hesitant steps away from
publisher of its suffrage newspaper.
wholehearted adherence to suffragism had taken her to the Wom-
The Blackwell family lived and worked for the cause of ans Christian Temperance Movement, the Anti-Vivisection So-
female equality. This made life difcult for Blackwellshy, ciety, and the Womans Trade Union League. In later years she


joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored ordination (belatedly she was granted the A.M. in 1878 and in
People (NAACP), the American Peace Society, and the move- honorary D.D. in 1908).
ment to save Sacco and Vanzetti. To the end of her life at the age
of ninety-three, Blackwells concerns embraced America and Blackwell became a lecturer on abolition, temperance, and
Armenia, feminism and socialism. womens rights. At Oberlin she had written an exegesis of 1
Corinthians 14:34-35 (Let your women keep silence in the
churches. . .) and 1 Timothy 2:11-12 (I suffer not a wom-
an to teach. . .), which the schools president had published
OTHER WORKS: Songs of Russia (1906). Songs of Grief and
in the scholarly Oberlin Quarterly Reviewfollowed by a
Gladness (1906). The Yellow Ribbon Speaker (with A. H. Shaw
counterargument by the schools Bible professor. E. C. Stantons
and L. E. Anthony, 1909). The Little Grandmother of the Russian
History of Woman Suffrage notes that at every early womens
Revolution: Reminiscences and Letters of Catherine Breshkovsky
rights convention Antoinette Brown was called on as usual to
(1917). A Hungarian Poet (1929). Some Spanish-American Po-
meet the Bible argument. Brown made a logical argument on
ems (1929). Lucy Stone: Pioneer of Womens Rights (1930).
womans position in the Bible, claiming her complete equality
Growing Up in Bostons Guilded Age: The Journal of Alice Stone
with man, the simultaneous creation of the sexes, and their moral
Blackwell 1872-1874 (1991).
responsibilities as individual and imperative.

In 1853 Blackwell realized her dream of becoming the rst

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hays, E. R., Morning Star: A Biography of Lucy woman ordained by a recognized denomination in this country.
Stone (1961). Hays, E. R., Those Extraordinary Blackwells (1967). She became minister of First Congregational Church in Butler and
Howe, J. W., ed., Representative Women of New England (1904). Savannah, New York. Less than a year later, however, she was
Martin, J. L., Alice Stone Blackwell: Soldier and Strategist for relieved of her duties at her own request. The difculties of
Suffrage (1993). Rolka, G. M., 100 Women Who Shaped World translating theology into the complexities of day-to-day interper-
History (1994). sonal relationships got the better of her: she comforted a dying boy
Reference works: Grolier Library of Womens Biographies with Gods love rather than pressing him into a conversion
(1998). National Cyclopedia of American Biography (1892 et experience through fear of hell; she refused to preach on infant
seq.). NAW, 1607-1950 (1971). damnation at the funeral of an illegitimate child.

After Oberlin, Blackwell had tried to work in New York City

at the Methodist Five Points Mission, but some there were
offended by her outspoken feminism. In 1855 she returned to the
city to work in the slums and prisons, because, as she said, I pity
the man or woman who does not choose to be identied with the
BLACKWELL, Antoinette Brown cause of the oppressed. She verbalized her social protest in
Horace Greeleys New York Tribune, and the article series was
later collected in Shadows of Our Social System (1856).
Born 20 May 1825, Henrietta, New York; died 5 November 1921,
Elizabeth, New Jersey For 18 years after her marriage in 1856, Blackwell rarely
Daughter of Joseph and Abby Morse Brown; married Samuel appeared on a public platform. She continued her writing, howev-
Blackwell, 1856 er, and completed two novels, A Market Woman (1870) and The
Island Neighbors (1871). Unlike most ction of the period, these
are not moralistic in tone, but rather portray universal foibles.
Antoinette Brown Blackwell, the seventh of 10 children,
Blackwell also began to write a series for Lucy Stones Womans
grew up in a small town in New York. Valuing education, her
Journal on womans capacities and abilities to work, think, and
parents sent her to the Monroe County Academy, where, with the
learn, which were collected into The Sexes Throughout Na-
exception of Greek, she quickly mastered the same subjects as the
ture (1875).
male students preparing for Dartmouth.
In The Sexes Throughout Nature as well as in many other
The Brown family was deeply religiousBlackwells father
works, Blackwell wrestled to harmonize the new evolutionary
was a Congregational deacon. At age nine, Blackwell publicly
hypothesis and its social implications, as expounded by Darwin
confessed her own religious faith and joined the Congregational
and Spencer, with her own religious and social views. The
church. In 1830 she attended Oberlin, the countrys only coed Philosophy of Individuality (1893) represents her nal attempt to
college. Despite parental objections, Blackwell persisted in fol- write a cosmology reconciling mind and matter, revealing the
lowing her brother into graduate study in theology. Her name was possible emergence of the Relative from the Absolute by the
not listed among the students in the department, and she was intervention of Benecent and Rational Causation.
denied a job teaching younger students to support herself. Al-
though Blackwell completed her studies in 1850, she was not After her husbands death in 1901, Blackwell helped to found
awarded a degree, and the faculty refused to arrange for her All Souls Unitarian Church in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where she


served as pastor emeritus from 1908 until her death. She contin- Henry Ward Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe were counted as
ued faithfully to attend suffrage meetings, and on 2 November friends in Ohio. In this liberal family atmosphere, the Blackwell
1920, she became the only one of the original generation of daughters and sons received their education at home from pri-
womens rights leaders to cast a vote under the 19th amendment. vate tutors.

In 1847 Blackwell was refused admission to Harvard, Yale,

OTHER WORKS: Studies in General Science (1869). The Physical Bowdoin, and medical schools in Philadelphia and New York
Basis of Immortality (1876). Sex Injustice (1900). Sea Drift City. Jefferson Medical College suggested she might attend
(1902). The Making of the Universe (1914). The Social Side of classes disguised as a man, but Blackwell believed her moral
Mind and Action (1915). crusade must be pursued in the light of day, and with public
The papers of Antoinette Brown Blackwell are at the sanction, in order to accomplish its end. Finally, Geneva Medi-
Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College, and at the Library of cal College, an undistinguished rural school in New York, admit-
Congress. ted Blackwell to study in November 1847. The 150 male students
at Geneva had unanimously treated her application as a joke
and Blackwell faced ridicule and discrimination in her classes. In
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ashby, R. and D. G. Ohrn, Herstory: Women Who the summer of 1848, however, she was given the opportunity to do
Changed the World (1995). Banwell, N., Antoinette Brown work with patients at the Philadelphia Hospital of the Blockley
Blackwell: An Individual Search for Religious Truth (thesis, Almshouse. There she treated typhus among Irish immigrants and
1984). Cazden, E., Antoinette Brown Blackwell, A Biography became convinced of the need for sanitation and personal hy-
(1983). Hays, E. R., Those Extraordinary Blackwells (1967). giene. Her convictions were recorded in her thesis, published in
Kerr, L., Lady in the Pulpit (1951). Matthews, L. F., Women in 1849 in the Buffalo Medical Journal and Monthly. In 1849,
Ministry, 1853-1984 (thesis, 1985). Mermes, M. B., Three graduating at the head of her class, Blackwell became the rst
Women of the Nineteenth Century: Studies in Transcendence woman in America to earn a degree from a medical college.
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, Reverend Antoinette Brown Blackwell,
Eager to increase her medical knowledge, Blackwell set out
Lucy Stone (thesis, 1976). Siles, W. H., ed., Studies in Local
for study in Europe after becoming a naturalized American
History: Tall Tales, Folklore and Legend of Upstate New York
citizen. In Paris she enrolled as a student midwife in La Maternit.
(1986). Stanton, E. C. et al., History of Woman Suffrage (1881).
There she contracted purulent ophthalmia and lost sight in one
Stone, L., Soul Mates: The Oberlin Correspondence of Lucy Stone
eye; all hopes of becoming a surgeon were dashed. During work in
and Antoinette Brown, 1846-1850 (1983). Stone, L., Friends and
England, she began a lifelong friendship with Florence Nightin-
Sisters: Letters Between Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown
gale and shared interests in sanitation and hygiene.
Blackwell, 1846-93 (1987).
Reference works: NAW, 1607-1950 (1971). A Woman of the In 1851 Blackwell returned to New York but faced serious
Century, F. E. Willard and M. A. Livermore (1893). difculties in establishing a private practice. She turned to lec-
tures and writing on good hygiene. The Laws of Life, with
NANCY HARDESTY Special Reference to the Physical Education of Girls, published
in 1852, drew a favorable response from Quakers. By 1853
Blackwell had a one-room dispensary in the tenement district of
New York and in 1857 was renamed the New York Inrmary for
Women and Children. Blackwells plans for a medical college for
BLACKWELL, Elizabeth women were delayed by the Civil War, but in 1868 the Womens
Medical College was opened and Blackwell was appointed to the
Born 3 February 1821, Counterslip, England; died 31 May 1910, rst chair of hygiene.
Hastings, England
Blackwell returned to England in 1869, leaving management
Daughter of Samuel and Hannah Lane Blackwell
of the inrmary and college to her sister. She resided there for the
rest of her life with her adopted daughter. She established a
Elizabeth Blackwells independence of thought, pioneer spirit, successful practice in London and in 1871 helped found the
and reform interests were promoted in her parents home. She was National Health Society with the motto Prevention is better than
the third daughter among nine children. When Blackwell was cure. In 1875 she was awarded the chair of gynecology at the
eleven, her fathers sugar renery was lost by re and the family New Hospital and London School of Medicine for Women.
sailed from England to settle rst in New York City and later in
New Jersey and Cincinnati, Ohio. Blackwells father was an Blackwell continued to write and lecture on moral reform.
active dissenter and lay preacher in the Independent church Her Counsel to Parents on the Moral Education of Their Child-
and was vitally concerned with social reform, the abolition of ren (1879) was rejected by 12 publishers as too controversial and
slavery, womens rights, and temperance. Reformers such as had to be printed privately. In a plain and direct manner Blackwell
William Lloyd Garrison were visitors to the Blackwell home and argued that there was no physiological necessity for a double


standard of morality, but Victorian England and America were BLAKE, Lillie Devereux
shocked by her position.
Blackwells attention focused on economic and social reform Born 12 August 1833, Raleigh, North Carolina; died 30 Decem-
in her pamphlet Christian Socialism (1882). In this document she ber 1913, Englewood, New Jersey
called for a more just distribution of income, improved efciency Also wrote under: Lillie Devereux Umsted
in government, workers insurance, and the establishment of Daughter of George and Sarah Johnson Devereux; married
agrarian communities where women could play major roles. Frank Umsted, 1855; Grenll Blake, 1866
Blackwells autobiography, Pioneer Work in Opening the
Medical Profession to Women (1895), provides a vivid picture of For the rst 25 years of Lillie Devereaux Blakes writing
the challenges she faced in her moral crusade. In the closing career (1857-1882) she concentrated on ction, publishing sever-
chapter she wrote of her hope for the future: the study of human al novels and novellas and hundreds of short stories. After 1882,
nature by women as well as men commences that new and hopeful most of her published work took the form of essays and lectures on
era of the intelligent co-operation of the sexes through which womens rights.
alone real progress can be attained and secured. Blake was born into a distinguished Southern family. When
her father died in 1837, her mother moved to New Haven,
OTHER WORKS: Essays in Medical Sociology (2 vols. 1892-1902). Connecticut, where Blake attended a girls school and received
The Blackwell family papers are in the Library of Congress private tutoring in the Yale undergraduate course. Mother and
and the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College. Letters from daughter were very close and remained so throughout their lives.
Elizabeth Blackwell to her friend Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon When Blake debuted at age 17, she became renowned for her
are in the Columbia University Library. Other letters and docu- beauty and led a strenuous social life. In her writings she often
ments may be found in Fawcett Library, London; Sophia Smith refers to this period of her life, noting that she was taught to regard
Research Room, Smith College; Library of Hobart and William social success as the only worthwhile goal for a woman. I was
Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York; Boston Public Library; New always a belle, attered and fted. I only wonder that I was not
York Inrmary; Medical Library, St. Bartholomews Hospital, entirely ruined by an ordeal that would be pretty certain to turn the
London; Royal Free Medical School Library, London. head of a fairly well-balanced man. She portrays in her ction
many young women enfeebled by attery, enforced idleness, and
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Fancourt, M., They Dared to Be Doctors: Eliza- what she calls false education.
beth Blackwell, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1965). Felder, D. G., In 1869 Blake became involved in the womens rights
The 100 Most Inuential Women of All Time: A Ranking Past and movement, to which she devoted the rest of her life and most of
Present (1996). Flexner, E., Century of Struggle: The Womans her subsequent writings. From 1879 to 1890 she was president of
Rights Movement in the U.S. (1975). Hays, E. R., Those Extraor- the New York State Woman Suffrage Association and from 1886
dinary Blackwells (1967). Lovejoy, E. P., Women Doctors of the to 1900 president of the New York City Woman Suffrage League.
World (1957). Morantz-Sanchez, R. Feminist Theory and His- She was an excellent speaker, and her writings on womens rights
torical Practice: Rereading Elizabeth Blackwell in Feminists
are remarkable for their wit and humor; they are often in the form
Revision History (1994). Robinson, V., Pathnders in Medicine
of satire or parable.
(1929). Ross, I., Child of Destiny; The Life Story of the First
Woman Doctor (1949). Sahli, N. A., Elizabeth Blackwell, M.D., Blake ran for president of the National American Woman
1821-1910: A Biography (1982). Shearer, B. F. and Shearer, B. S., Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1900, but was forced to
ed., Notable Women in the Life Sciences: A Biographical Diction- withdraw in favor of Susan B. Anthonys choice, Carrie Chapman
ary (1996). Walsh, M. R., Doctors Wanted: No Women Need Catt. Blakes philosophy and approach differed from Anthonys
Apply: Sexual Barriers in the Medical Profession, 1835-1975 in several respects. She was often true to her aristocratic back-
(1977). Weprin, J. G., The Young Elizabeth Blackwell: Why ground, expressing concern that suffrage workers be well-dressed,
She Became the First Woman to Graduate from an American well-behaved ladies, and she inaugurated such events as the
Medical School (thesis, 1992). Wilson, D. C., Lone Woman Pilgrim Mothers Dinners, held annually at the Waldorf-Astoria.
(1970). Wright, M., Elizabeth Blackwell of Bristol: The First More importantly, she believed suffrage was only one means of
Woman Doctor (1995). improving womens status. As chair of NAWSAs Committee on
Other references: Elizabeth Blackwell: First Woman Doctor Legislative Advice, she advocated campaigning to secure legisla-
(video, 1997). tion favorable to women and agitating for the appointment of
women to new positions (e.g., school trustees, factory inspectors,
JEAN M. WARD physicians in mental hospitals, and police matrons). She was
instrumental in achieving many of these gains in New York State.
When Blakes legislative committee was dissolved by
BLAISDELL, Anne NAWSA, she founded and became president of the National
See LININGTON, Elizabeth Legislative League. This organization carried on the legislative


approach from 1900 until 1905, when illness prevented Blake her father sent her to local schools and to Emersons Private
from continuing her work. School in Boston. Blake later studied music and modern languag-
es at the Academy of the Sacred Heart in Manhattanville, New
Although she avoids the worst excesses of the sentimental
York. Before she married a Boston physician, she was a school-
ction of the times, Blake writes much to the general pattern.
teacher. The Blakes had eleven children.
Spirited young women develop fatal fascinations for evil Lovelace
types in her stories and may or may not be saved by their Blakes poetry was widely published in Roman Catholic
honorable suitors; young lovers are separated, reunited, and then periodicals and in a number of Boston papers, including the
part forever when they discover they are siblings. In Blakes early
Boston Gazette and the Boston Transcript. Her Rambling Talks
writings, characters who espouse feminist sentiments are pun-
were a regular feature in the Boston Journal. She was an ardent,
ished. For instance, in Southwold (1859), the protagonist, when
sentimental Irish-American with conservative views about relig-
rejected by a man she loves, becomes embittered and bold and
ion and American politics.
even unfeminine in her opinions. She shocks other characters by
not taking every word of the Bible literally and by claiming Blake gained a local reputation as an occasional poet and she
Christianity has harmed womens status. The book ends with her wrote poems to commemorate notable Bostonians such as Wen-
suicide. Interestingly enough, Blake later was to espouse the dell Phillips, Admiral David Dixon Porter, and the Most Reverend
opinions her protagonist had expressed. Dogmatic theology, John J. Williams, Archbishop of Boston. Blake also wrote poems
founded on masculine interpretation of the Bible, was the
to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of the Sisters of Charity and
subject of attack in her Womans Place To-Day (1883), a series of
the 150th anniversary of the Charitable Irish Society. Oliver
lectures delivered in response to a misogynist theologian. Blake
Wendell Holmes remarked of her lyrics, You are one of the birds
was also one of the contributors to Elizabeth Cady Stantons
that must sing, and Theodore Roosevelt was said to be an
controversial Womans Bible (1895).
admirer of her work.
Blakes last novel, Fettered for Life; or, Lord and Master
(1874), is a feminist work in which wife abuse, unjust marriage Blakes rst book of poetry, Poems, was issued in 1882. Her
laws, discrimination in employment, and lack of educational themes range from Catholic devotion to nature and the seasons,
opportunities for women are illustrated and discussed by the but her most representative work celebrates family life. Several
characters. Female friendships are strong in the novel, and the poems on the death of children depict the anxiety of the times
hero, a successful reporter who frequently rescues the female about childhood mortality. Some poems reect an ambivalent
characters, turns out to be a woman in disguise. When she adopted attitude toward womens roles: Simple Story and What the
male attire, she found that my limbs were free; I could move Wifes Heart Said urge women to be content serving their
untrammelled, and my actions were free; I could go about husbands and families, while The Ballad of Elizabeth Zane
unquestioned. No man insulted me, and when I asked for work, I and Isabella of Castille clearly expresses admiration for spirit-
was not offered outrage. ed, independent women.

Although conscientious about her obligations to home and

OTHER WORKS: Rockford; or, Sunshine and Storm (1863). Forced family, Blake was an enthusiastic traveler who reminded her
Vows; or, A Revengeful Womans Fate (1870). A Daring Experi- reader that a housewife must not stop to think of her responsibili-
ment and Other Stories (1892). ties, or the stay-at-home weight will be so overwhelming in
proportion that she could not be propelled away by anything short
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Blake, K. D., and M. L. Wallace, Champion of of a catapult. On the Wing, an account of her trip across
Women: The Life of Lillie Devereaux Blake (1943). Stanton, E. C. America, serialized in the Boston Journal in 1882 and published
et al., History of Woman Suffrage (1881). in 1883, is a view of the American West through the eyes of a
Reference works: NAW (1971). partisan New Englander. A Summer Holiday in Europe (1890),
based on Blakes ve trips to Europethree of them walking
BARBARA A. WHITE tours with her childrenwent into a third printing.

Outside of her home and her work, Blake was active in the
American Peace Society. Her pamphlet The Coming Reform: A
BLAKE, Mary E(lizabeth) McGrath Womans Word, which criticized the absurdities of old fash-
ioned militarism at home and abroad, was widely circulated
Born 1840, Dungarven, Ireland; died 1907, Boston, Massachusetts during the Spanish-American War.
Wrote under: Marie of the Pilot, Mary Elizabeth McGrath Blake
Daughter of Patrick and Mary Murphy McGrath; married John G.
Blake, 1865; children: 11 OTHER WORKS: An Epic of Travel (1884). Poem: A Memorial of
Wendell Phillips (1884). The Merry Months All (1885). Youth in
Mary E. McGrath Blakes parents emigrated to Quincy, Twelve Centuries (1886). Mexico: Picturesque, Political, Pro-
Massachusetts, in about 1850. A marble worker and businessman, gressive (with M. F. Sullivan, 1888). Verses Along the Way


(1890). A Memoir of Patrick McGrath 1812-1894 (1894). In the Gone Quiet (1994) and Done Wrong (1995) reveal the more
Harbour of Hope (1907). personal side of MacAlisters sleuthing. In the rst, she deals with
the complexities of a scandal in a community held together by
religion when she helps an old friend unravel the mysterious death
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Conway, K. E., Mary Blake: Woman and Poet
of a Baptist deacon who is secretly a pedophile. The second novel
in In the Harbour of Hope (1907). Cullen, J. B., Story of the Irish
nds MacAlister engaged in investigating the real circumstances
in Boston (1890).
and secrets surrounding the apparent suicide of her late Chicago
Other references: Boston Globe (7 Feb. 1907). PW (9
police narcotics squad husband. Both works also explore the
March 1907).
personal side of the main characters life as she interacts with her
MAUREEN MURPHY children, her family, her friends, and the community and as she
comes to grip with her loneliness as a widow. Critics found
Blands writing low key and understated, but with keen insight
and plenty of action. All of them agreed that the Marti MacAlister
BLAND, Eleanor Taylor character was the cornerstone for all of Blands works.

Two unrelated murder cases are linked together by another

Born 31 December 1944, Boston older case concerning the disappearance of a young abused girl in
Daughter of Leroy and Mildred Gershefski Taylor; married Keep Still (1996). This time Bland explores the evil that exists in a
(divorced); Children: Kevin, Todd, two grandchildren dysfunctional family as she exposes the realities of child abuse.
Again the main character, Marti MacAlister, fascinates readers
Mystery writer Eleanor Taylor Bland is the author of a series with her ability to seek justice and not lose her own humanity as
of novels featuring the reported rst African-American female she juggles her work with her personal relationships with her
police detective, Marti MacAlister. Blands works not only in- children and her new boyfriend.
clude the gritty detective work of her main character, but they also
detail the personal life of this working woman and the problems Called by Booklists Stuart W. Miller her most sophisticat-
she faces as trying to operate effectively in a traditionally male ed, complex and successful work yet, See No Evil (1998) nds a
profession. Each of the novels delves into the dark secrets that psychopathic killer visiting the MacAlisters household and plot-
lead to the murders of seemingly ordinary members of the ting to murder the entire family. At the same time, Marti and her
community. They are lled with social comment and a grim look partner struggle to solve the case of a young drug-addicted and
at the reality of the modern-day suburban/urban crime scene. abused girls murder, with Marti unaware of her familys peril
because of worrying about protecting her children and educating
Bland began her writing career after an early marriage at age
them about the real world. The counterpoints of the subplots of
fourteen to a sailor, rearing two children, and working various
this novel heighten the suspense for the reader and established
jobs with disabled and abused children. In 1972, after she was
Bland as one of todays most talented mystery writers.
diagnosed with terminal cancer, she pursued a college degree,
which she completed in accounting and education. It was also at In Tell No Tales (1999), Marti nds herself newly married
this time that she became determined to publish a book. and in a new home. Her honeymoon is abruptly ended by the
The character of streetwise MacAlister was introduced in discovery of the dead body of an African-American woman who
Dead Time (1992) as a recently widowed South Side Chicago seems to have lost her life in the 1960s and the murder of a recluse
police ofcer who moves with her children to suburban Lincoln in the basement of a building owned by his family. Marti and her
Prairie, Illinois, and becomes a member of this small communitys partner, Vic, struggle with their own personal problems but
police detective force. Investigating the mysterious ophouse eventually nd a connection between the two murders. The
murders of a wealthy, schizophrenic woman and a pair of poten- complexity of the plot keeps the reader enthralled.
tial witnesses leads her in search of some abandoned children who
In an article in the Chicago magazine, Bland said, I want to
also saw the womans murder. The tense relationship of MacAlister
write about things that matter. She also stated, . . .if you no
with her white male partner and the plight of children in peril and
longer look at the world exactly the way you looked at it before
the mentally ill are revealed by Bland in what critics called a
you read my book, thats good enough. As the life of Marti
detached and often at manner and with sensitivity and
MacAlister continues to unfold, Bland achieves these goals. Her
mysteries with a social conscience are engaging and enlightening.
Blands next work Slow Burn (1993), continues the life of
MacAlister with another social commentary surrounding the
death of two medical workers killed in a clinic re connected to a BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: CA 166.
child pornography scheme. Issues of sexism, racism, and the ill Other works: Chicago (Feb. 1999). Booklist (1 June 1994, 1
treatment of children again are interlaced in the plot. This work June 1995, July 1996, 15 Dec. 1997, 1 Jan. 1999). Cogdill, O. H.,
was hailed for its strong and engaging character development, on A Biography of Eleanor Taylor Bland, in Sun-Sentinel South
the one hand, but panned for overshadowing the story with Florida (8 Apr. 1998,
social issues. blandbio.htm, accessed April 7, 1998). LJ (Jan. 1998, Jan. 1999).


PW (3 Feb. 1992, 14 June 1993, 13 June 1994, 15 May 1995, 27 Blatch joined the Socialist Party in the 1920s and in 1924
May 1996, 22 Dec. 1997). endorsed Robert M. LaFollettes presidential campaign. To the
end of her life she was active in liberal causes. Her autobiography,
PAULA C. MURPHY Challenging Years (1940), gives a lively account of her political
activities. Herein she notes that women were the rst group in
history to be enfranchised before gaining their economic indepen-
dence. Because of her practical orientation and familiarity with
BLATCH, Harriot Stanton the tactics employed by English suffrage leaders, she widened the
appeal of the American suffrage movement in the early 20th
Born 20 January 1856, Seneca Falls, New York; died 20 Novem- century.
ber 1940, Greenwich, Connecticut
OTHER TITLES: Elizabeth Cady Stanton as Revealed in Her
Daughter of Henry Brewster and Elizabeth Cady Stanton; mar-
Letters, Diary and Reminiscences (ed. by Blatch with T.
ried William Henry Blatch, 1882
Stanton, 1922).
One of seven children of noted suffragist Elizabeth Cady
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Flexner, E., A Century of Struggle (1959). Lutz, A.,
Stanton, Harriot Stanton Blatch attended Vassar College. After a
Created Equal (1940). Stanton, E. C., Eighty Years and
year in Europe (1880-81), she assisted her mother and Susan B.
More (1898).
Anthony in preparing their History of Woman Suffrage. They had
Reference works: Dictionary of American Biography, Na-
originally planned to deal only with the National Woman Suffrage
tional Cyclopedia of American Biography (1892 et seq.). NAW,
Association, which the authors led, but Blatch urged inclusion of
1607-1950 (1971).
an account of the American Woman Suffrage Association. Her
moderate treatment of this Boston wing of the movement JANE BENARDETE
appeared in Volume II of the History (1881) and contributed to
ending the internecine war between the two leading groups in
the suffrage movement.
After marriage to William Henry Blatch, an English busi-
BLEECKER, Ann Eliza Schuyler
nessman, she lived 20 years in England where she knew such
reformers as Beatrice and Sidney Webb, Ramsay MacDonald, G. B. Born October 1752, New York, New York; died 23 November
Shaw, and Emmeline Pankhurst. She returned to the U.S. in 1902, 1783, Tomhanick, New York
and in 1907 organized the Equality League of Self-Supporting Daughter of Brandt and Margaret Van Wyck Schuyler; married
Women (later the Womens Political Union), a group designed to John J. Bleecker, 1769; children: Margaretta Bleecker
draw nonprofessional women, especially women trade unionists, Faugeres
into the suffrage movement. This group increased the numbers
and visibility of the suffragists. It organized the rst suffrage Encouraged by her wealthy lawyer husband, Ann Eliza
parades (1910) so that the enemy could see women marching Schuyler Bleecker wrote steadily throughout her life, although
in increasing numbers year by year out on the public avenues, much of her work was lost in manuscript. The couple settled in the
holding high their banner, Votes for Women. wilderness at Tomhanick, where the sensitive Bleecker was
subjected to Indian raids and the general isolation of the frontier.
Blatch became convinced that the war which had broken out A series of disasters connected with General Burgoynes invasion
in Europe would advance the cause of equal rights for women. Her in 1777 caused the deaths of her infant daughter, her mother, and
book, Mobilizing Woman-Power (1918), published with a lauda- her sister in rapid succession. Chronically depressed after these
tory introduction by Theodore Roosevelt, describes German tragedies, she received an additional shock when her husband,
Kultur as the enemy of freedom because it worships efcien- active in the militia, was kidnapped by Tories in 1781 and by mere
cy, cramps originality and initiative and is unjust to women. chance was rescued before being taken over the Canadian border.
Always interested in the relation between economics and suf- Bleeckers declining physical and mental health was exacerbated
frage, Blatch notes that the war increased employment opportuni- by a disillusioning trip to war-ravaged New York after the peace
ties for women and consequently helped free them from service in 1783, and she died in November. Her daughter, Margaretta
for the love of service, i.e., unpaid labor in the home. Payment, Faugeres, prepared Bleeckers work for posthumous publica-
she felt, changes womens status: with the pay envelope tion in 1793.
women are welcome everywhere.
A narrative of sufferings undergone by captives during the
At the wars end Blatch wrote A Womans Point of View: French and Indian War, The History of Maria Kittle (1779), is
Some Roads to Peace (1920), which became a major contribution presented as a true history, but the dramatic dialogue, psycho-
to the library against all war. She encouraged women to unite logical portraiture, and rounded plot of Bleeckers version are
in preventing another such devastation and argued that just as possible only in ction. Personications and mythological refer-
women should be given a role in political decisionmaking, so too ences contrast strangely with events: Ceres presides over elds
labor, formerly voiceless, should now be given a place in through which screaming Indians run, killing and tearing off
management. scalps. The tomahawking of the pregnant Comelia, with details of


her cleft white forehead, the dead staring of her ne azure eyes, identity. These proved to be too feeble to counteract the harshness
and the ripping out of her fetus and dashing it to pieces are of fate. The struggle was not only against the outer world of
unusually concrete, if grim, visualizations. Purple passages de- frontier America but against the soul-destroying disillusionment
scribe Marias sorrows as her abductors drag her to their allies in of an inner nature too idealistic to accept sordid and savage reality:
Montreal. The History has the virtue of its genuine and direct Alas! the wilderness is within, she wails. Her essential intellec-
testimony of horror, unlike the sentimental and stylized fragment, tual value resides in her biography. We read her work for the
Story of Henry and Ann. fascination of her personality and greater empathetic understand-
ing of the trials undergone by the human and feminine spirit.
Bleeckers poetry is derivative from earlier British authors,
but purposely so in the neoclassical tradition. Of most value are
her nature poems. To Mr. Bleecker, on his passage to New OTHER WORKS: The Posthumous Works of Ann Eliza
York is a long topographical piece in which Fancy takes a water Bleecker (1793).
journey down the Hudson, scenes of mountains and animals
giving way to the rst outcrops of civilization. Bleeckers patriot-
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Faugeres, M., Memoirs of Mrs. Ann Eliza
ic panegyric on the Hudson River valley shows great love of the
Bleecker in The Post-humous Works of A. E. Bleecker (1793).
land, the majesty of the natural setting, and the beauty of human
Griswold, R., The Female Poets of America (1848). Hendrickson, J.,
life within it. A Pastoral Dialogue turns into a hymn to
Ann Eliza Bleecker: Her Life and Works (Masters thesis,
American industry and liberty, which are contrasted with the envy
Columbia Univ., 1935). Losche, L., The Early American Novel
and barbarity of the British and Indians. Idealistic rural scenes of
(1907). Munsell, J. The Annals of Albany (1855). Schuyler, G.,
prosperity, static word paintings of peasants reliefed against a
Colonial New York (1885). Tyler, M., The Literary History of the
monumental and fertile landscape, are suddenly ablaze with the
American Revolution, 1763-1783 (1897).
terrifyingly dynamic howls and murders of the attacking Indians.
Reference works: Cyclopedia of American Literature (1855).
Desolation again brings stasis, but it is the unnatural silence of
DAB (1929). NAW, 1607-1950 (1971).
ashes and death. But the moral superiority of the sons of freedom
revives their hope of victory. L. W. KOENGETER
Not all Bleeckers pastoral poetry is ideological; Return to
Tomhanick is naturalistic, and An Evening Prospect displays
a mystic and divine connection with nature, Wordsworthian in BLOOMER, Amelia Jenks
feeling if not in form. Poetic natural scenes are ubiquitous in her
letters and prose, and her descriptions often evoke the idealistic
landscape paintings of Cole or Doughty of the next centurys Born 27 May 1818, Homer, New York; died 30 December 1894,
Hudson River School. Council Bluffs, Iowa
Daughter of Ananias and Lucy Webb Jenks; married Dexter C.
The meditative narrative of Bleeckers Written in the Bloomer, 1840
Retreat from Burgoyne shows an unresigned anguish over her
daughters death, and her naturally pensive sensibility inu- Amelia Jenks Bloomers parents were natives of Rhode
enced her to write a number of elegies and thanatopses. In A Island. She received only a few years schooling at the district
Prospect of Death, death is a raging sea from which Virtue school in Courtland County, New York, but was evidently well
(on wings) may rescue her. The charnel-house imagery of A enough educated to teach in another school when she was seven-
Thought on Death gives way to a more personal musing on her teen years old.
own dissolution in Complaint, The Storm, Desponden-
cy, and Recollection. Her husband, a lawyer and editor of the Seneca County
Courier, encouraged her to contribute articles on social, political,
But the inherent sprightliness of Bleeckers imagination can and moral subjects to his paper. She also began to take an active
be seen in many little ironic and satirical poems and passages. The part in the temperance movement, writing frequently for the
best of these comic pieces is the mock journal in which Susan Ten Water Bucket, an organ of the temperance society of Seneca Falls,
Eycks fashionably frivolous day and neglect of her sisters New York. She attended the rst meeting on womens rights held
weighty letter is projected in Rape of the Lock style. Bleekers in Seneca Falls in 1848 but did not actively participate. In 1849
Letters, the remnants of her prolic correspondence, repeat the she began the publication of a periodical called Lily, writing on
themes and motifs of her more formal work in a manner most such subjects as temperance, education, unjust marriage laws, and
likely to suit modern taste. woman suffrage. By 1853 Lily had a circulation of some 4,000
subscribers. It was the rst newspaper owned, edited, and con-
In Bleeckers work, there is a schizophrenic contrast between
trolled by a woman and devoted solely to the interests of women.
the idyllic Eden of her imagination, based upon love of nature,
culture, intellect, and family, and the savage reality of treachery, Through Lily she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B.
war, death, isolation, anomy, and insanity that plagued her life. Anthony. She also met Elizabeth Smith Miller, a cousin of Mrs.
She could not adjust to the unfairness and incompletion of actual Stanton, who was the rst to wear the short skirt and full Turkish
human existence. As a good woman of her era, she clung to the trousers that came to be known as bloomers. Several of the
bulwarks of Divine Providence and family love for security and women adopted the costume, nding it more comfortable, more


sanitary, and better adapted to the active life they were leading one of the nest examples of the clear, forceful, and logical
than the corsets and voluminous skirts that were the fashion. They arguments presented in the cause. She ends this stirring speech by
ceased wearing the costume only when they discovered their attire calling womans admission to the ballot box the crowning right
was distracting from the message of womens rights. to which she is justly entitled and states that when woman shall
be thus recognized as an equal partner with man in the universe of
In 1852 Bloomer began lecturing on temperance and wom-
Godequal in rights and dutiesthen will she for the rst time,
ens rights, never speaking extemporaneously but always careful-
in truth, become what her Creator designed her to be, a helpmeet
ly writing out and delivering her speeches from manuscript. The
for man. With her mind and body fully developed, imbued with a
following year her husband purchased an interest in the Western
full sense of her responsibilities, and living in the conscientious
Home Visitor and the Bloomers moved to Mount Vernon, Ohio.
discharge of each and all of them, she will be tted to share with
She continued publishing Lily, served as assistant editor of the
her brother in all of the duties of life; to aid and counsel him in his
Western Home Visitor, a literary weekly with a fairly large
hours of trial; and to rejoice with him in the triumph of every good
circulation, and lectured occasionally. Early in 1855, when her
word and work.
husband decided to relocate in Council Bluffs, Iowa, it was
necessary to cease publication of Lily, but she did not discontinue It is indeed unfortunate Bloomers skill as a writer is over-
writing and speaking on behalf of temperance and womens shadowed by the association of her name with a short-lived and
rights. She was instrumental in organizing the Iowa Womans ridiculed experiment in female attire.
State Suffrage Society and worked zealously for her church and
OTHER WORKS: Life and Writings of Amelia Bloomer (ed. D. C.
As a writer Bloomer produced prose that was graceful, clear,
Bloomer; 1895).
and often infused with passion. Her early writings were devoted to
temperance, imploring women to unite in that cause. Warning all
those who supported it not to relax their vigilance, she wrote in BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: Appletons Cyclopedia of Ameri-
one early essay: Those who feel most secure will nd to their can Biography (1888). DAB (1929). A Woman of the Centu-
dismay that the viper has only been crushed for a time, and will ry (1893).
rise again upon his victim with a rmer and more deadly grasp
than before. In starting her journal she made it clear in her rst ELAINE K. GINSBERG
editorial that it is woman that speaks through Lily. . . .Like the
beautiful ower from which it derives its name, we shall strive to
make the Lily the emblem of sweetness and purity; and may
heaven smile upon our attempt to advocate the great cause of
Temperance reform! BLOOMFIELD-MOORE, Clara
Always a woman of strong opinions on almost every subject, (Sophia) Jessup
she introduced herself to the readers of the Western Home Visitor
by saying: What I have been in the past, I expect to be in the Born 16 February 1824, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; died 5
future,an uncompromising opponent of wrong and oppression January 1899, London, England
in every form, and a sustainer of the right and the true, with Wrote under: Clara Moore, Clara Jessup Moore, Clara Moreton,
whatever it may be connected. The causes Bloomer advocated Mrs. H. O. Ward
included employment and education for women. She considered Daughter of Augustus Edward and Lydia Eager Mosley Jessup;
the failure to educate women for meaningful occupations a serious married Bloomeld Haines Moore, 1842
wrong and insisted parents do a great injustice to their
daughters when they doom them to a life of idleness or, what is Clara Jessup Bloomeld-Moore was raised in an atmosphere
worse, to a life of frivolity and fashionable dissipation. of good breeding, charity, and devotion to learning. She was
She considered, in fact, that the education of women might be educated at Westeld Academy and at Mrs. Merricks School in
a cure for some of the ills of the nation. Replying to an article on New Haven, Connecticut. After her marriage to a Philadelphia
corruption in the state legislature, she demanded: Where then Quaker, she and her husband joined their efforts in civic and
shall the remedy for purifying and healing the nation be found? philanthropic causes. Her dedication to a life of social duty
We answer, in the education and enfranchisement of woman! continued throughout her career, both in her writing and in her
Loose the chains that bind her to the condition of a dependent, a private pursuits; income from her publishing was always con-
slave to passion and the caprices of men. Open for her the doors of signed to charities and related concerns. After her husbands
our colleges and universities and bid her enter. Hold up before her death, Bloomeld-Moore emigrated to London, where she main-
a pattern for womanly greatness and excellence and bid her to tained her ties to the literary world.
occupy the same positions held by her brothers.
In a climate of security, based on wealth, gracious living, and
Bloomers lecture on suffrage, written originally in 1852 and good works, writing was the natural pursuit of a society woman of
delivered and revised many times through the years, is perhaps leisure and position, a genteel way of living a useful life. With the


publication of several prize-winning stories and novellas written Ladys Friend (reissue of E. Farrars 1836 title, 1880). Gondalines
under pen names, Bloomeld-Moore found herself a public gure Lesson. . . and Other Poems (1881).
and a member of the Philadelphia literary circle. Following these
successes, her Philadelphia home became a retreat and salon for
the literary gures of the day. Her output of ction and poetry BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reference works: Female Prose Writers of America
(1852). NAW, 1607-1950 (1971). A Woman of the Century (1893).
spans a period of 40 years, featuring such titles as On Dangerous
Other references: Lippincotts Magazine (March 1873). NYT
Ground: A Romance of American Society (1876), The Estranged
(6 Jan. 1899).
Hearts, and The Hasty Marriage. These are now considered
to be light, sentimental works of a topical and period-piece nature.
Bloomeld-Moores observations, advice, rulings, and ide-
ology in the eld of etiquette had the greatest interest and the most
enduring appeal. In 1873 she anonymously published an article
entitled Some Unsettled Points of Etiquette in Lippincotts BLUME, Judy
Magazine. In this piece she posed the basic problem of American
manners: the lack of a uniformly established or accepted code Born 12 February 1938, Elizabeth, New Jersey
applicable to every region and reach of society, one which can be Daughter of Rudolph and Esther Rosenfeld Sussman; married
relied on as a standard of common courtesy. In this context, John Blume, 1959 (divorced); Thomas Kitchens, 1976 (di-
Bloomeld-Moore cited classic cases of the wide variations of vorced); George Cooper, 1987; children: Randy Lee, Law-
custom between American cities, regions, and generations. The rence Andrew.
articulation of this perplexing difculty is a key statement in the
history of American sociability. Best known for her realistic ction for adolescents, Judy
Blume is one of the most popular authors in the contemporary
Bloomeld-Moores own compilation, Sensible Etiquette of