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Modal When to use it Examples

CAN Expresses ability and posibility in *I can speak five languages.
present tense. *The restaurant can be expensive if you drink a lot
of wine.
COULD Expresses ability and posibility in *
Joe could speak Spanish when he was young.
past tense. *It could have been worse.
MAY Expresses possibility in the future. *May I have a glass of water?
*You may leave if you like.
MIGHT It is used in the present and the *I would bring an umbrella, it might rain later.
future. *It might be better to finish this now, rather than
wait until tomorrow.
SHALL It is used in Future. It expresses will *Chris shall be happy to see you.
WILL and determination. *Ill take the 3 oclock train.
More polite in UK. *We will learn English
SHOULD It is used for giving advice or *I should call my parents more often.
recommendation. It reflects what is *They should practice more if they want to win the
based on your opinion what is championship.
OUGHT The same as SHOULD. It expresses *She ought to quit smoking.
TO a weak obligation. *They ought to work less.
MUST It is a strong obligation or *You must read this book, its fantastic
prohibition need. Its personal. It *You must not drink and drive.
involves the speakers opinion.
WOULD It is used to ask for or offer *Would you like some coffee?
something politely. *I would like a beer and my wife would like a glass of
Preferences. wine please.
HAVE TO It is a strong obligation. Its *I have to bring the dictionary. My teacher always
external: law, rules, etc. check it.
*I have to study hard. I want to pass the exam.
HAD We use had better to refer to the *Youd better study for the exam.
BETTER present or the future, to talk about * Wed better hurry up or well miss the train.
actions we think people should do
or which are desirable in a specific
Modal Verbs

Choose the correct modal verb
1. ____ you help me? 5. I ____ like to go to New York someday.
a) Can a) may
b) Might b) will
c) Should c) should
d) Would d) would

2. They ____ practice more if they want 6. They ____ to work less.
to win the championship. a) may
a) may b) ought
b) might c) should
c) should d) must
d) would
7. It ____ be dangerous to drive if you
3. You ____ not drink and drive. are tired.
a) may a) can
b) might b) shall
c) would c) ought
d) must d) should
4. ____ you always be late? 8. ____ you help me move?
a) May a) Might
b) Might b) Will
c) Would c) Ought to
d) Must d) Should

skydiving______ fishing____ playing board games_____

white water rafting horse riding _____ bowling_____
_______ playing music______ playing basketball_____
skateboarding ____ chatting online______ playing ice hockey____
2. Choose three sports or hobbies. Copy and complete the table with information for
each one. Then write sentences like the ones below.

Playing board games is a hobby.

You can play them indoors or
You can play them with one or
more players.

3. Classify the previous and the following sports into the chart.

Sport Hobby
Parachute Jet ski
Indoors Rock climbing
Outdoors Team Motocross
Playing board games x X x x
Skateboarding X x
Speaking: Useful Language
Ask and answer questions. I like fishing.
a. What do you do in your free time? I dont really like fishing.
b. What outdoor/indoor sports/hobbies do you I prefer playing basketball.
like? In my country, the most popular sports
c. Which sports /hobbies would you like to try? /hobbies are
d. What are the most popular sports and Id like to try
hobbies in your country? I really want to try
e. Which sports /hobbies are dangerous or Bungee jumping is dangerous /safe.

4. Listening: Listen to Thomas, Angela and Chris talk about their hobbies and sports.
Complete the table with the hobbies and sports they do and don't do.

Look at the dictionary for the meaning of these words: avoid, trained, fearless, innovate,
hurt yourself, taking advantage of, overcome obstacles, know how to break your fall.

Expressions to clarify: Expressions to present a Expressions to give an opinion:

What I hear you say is. project: *I think that
If I. *Today, we would like to *It is my opinion that
You should have. present... *I really believe that
In sum, *Good afternoon, our purpose
today is
*My group members are and
I am
Expression to describe Expressions to talk about Expressions to describe tables
conditions customs: or diagrams
* If A., then B. *They normally use/ dress *This diagram demonstrates a rise
*Given these conditions, we *They pierce their ears with in illness.
will spacers. *This table shows a slight
* Whether or not *Some have tattoos decrease in hospitalization.
Expressions to talk about
*If that happened to me, I could
with it.
*I would be scared, if I got an
* He got sick, because he pierced
his ear himself.
Eating Disorders
1. Write the right synonym:
Word box
Plentiful Interruption Overweight
Preoccupation Uneasiness Self destruction
(get )rid of
Word Synonym Word Synonym
Abundant Obsession
Anxiety Promote
disruption Purge
obese Suicide
2. What do you understand the meaning of Eating disorder is?
3. Have you ever known anyone that would consider to have an eating disorder?
Describe your experience with that person.
4. What are some influences in our society that make us want to be thin?
___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
5. Why do you think some people will go such extreme to achieve their idea of the
perfect body ?
___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Types of Disorders

People with anorexia nervosa have a distorted body image that causes them to see themselves
as overweight even when they're dangerously thin. Often refusing to eat, exercising
compulsively, and
developing unusual habits such as refusing to eat in front of others, they loselarge amounts of
and may even starve to death.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa eat excessive quantities, and then purge their bodies of the
food and calories they fear by using laxatives, enemas, or diuretics; vomiting; or exercising.
Often acting in secrecy, they feel disgusted and ashamed as they binge, yet relieved of tension
and negative emotions once their stomachs are empty again.

Like people with bulimia, those with binge eating disorder experience frequent episodes
of out-of-control eating. The difference is that binge eaters don't purge their bodies of excess
Another category of eating disorders is "eating disorders not otherwise specified," in which
individuals have eating-related problems but don't meet the official criteria for anorexia, bulimia
or binge eating.

Complete the chart, according to the reading:

Eating Disorder Characteristics
Taken from: Just for girls by Eleonor M. Summers.

What are eating disorders?

There are two types: People with anorexia nervosa think they are fat.
They almost stop eating because they want o be thin. Often they are
under the normal weight for their size. They always think about calories,
make excuses for not eating, or eat very small amounts and do a great
deal of exercise. Some use laxatives or diuretics to help them lose
weight and others make themselves vomit after eating. If anorexics
dont get help they may become so ill that they die.

People with bulimia eat large amounts of food quickly, usually when they are alone. This is called
bingeing. After bingeing, they make themselves vomit. Like anorexics, they may exercise too
much and use laxatives and diuretics. Princess Diana got over her problem with bulimia and
wanted to help others with eating disorders.

Why do people have eating disorders?

When people are unhappy and they want their problems to disappear, they should talk to their
family or friends or go to their doctor. But some people use alcohol, or drugs, or begin to have
eating disorders. Often these people are unhappy about their appearance. They think, If I were
thinner, I would be happier. Maybe there are other things they cannot control in their lives. One
thing they can control is the amount of food they eat and the weight they lose. Usually these
people wear a happy face and dont talk about their feelings, so the disorder gets worse.
Taken from :

Now answer the following questions:

1. Can you name some famous people who have or had an eating disorder?
2. Have you any idea about what might have caused the disease?
3. Do you think that eating disorders are a new health problem? If so, why?
4. Choose the correct definition for each word.
A. Calories are B. Laxatives are
1. a unit for measuring the amount of energy 1. a medicine to helps you sleep better.
that food will produce.
2. a medicine or a piece of fruit to help you
2. a unit for measuring a persons eight calm down.
3. a unit of counting food. 3. a medicine or something that makes you
go to the toilet
5. The following sentences are wrong. Transform them into correct statements
according to the text.
A. If a person has a problem, he or she should turn to alcohol or drugs for support.
B. You can always tell that person has an eating disorder just by looking at her face.

Complete the information below about the farmers.

Name Place Product How Fair trade is


Read and answer

As women, we're trained from childhood to believe that it's socially
inappropriate to love our bodies, or at least, to admit that we love them.
We're taught, instead, to bond with each other over our hatred of our bodies,
and various different parts of our bodies. If a friend starts complaining about
"feeling fat," we know the rules: tell her she isn't fat, and then find
some part of your own body to complain about. Similarly, when we're
complimented on our looks, we're taught to "be modest" and say lame
phrases like "Oh, this old thing?!" or "Oh, thanks, but I really wish I had
your butt/boobs/face/hair/feet/hands/etc."

Sometimes we even talk badly about women who seem "full of themselves," and we're
definitely scared of being talked badly about for being "full of ourselves." We may admit that we
like one - maybe two - things about our looks, but the list of things we claim to hate is usually
Curly hair, This means that, as women, we spend a lot of time hanging out
straight hair,
strong broad shoulders,
with other women while we all pick apart our bodies, piece by
freckles, (pecas) piece. We may compliment each other, but we don't compliment
my mom's eyes, ourselves, and we talk a lot about feeling jealous of other women
big eyes, because we wish we had "her
single-lidded eyes
interracial features, thighs/boobs/butt/stomach/hair/etc." We almost NEVER spend
tiny hands, time with other women while we all talk about things we like
little boobs, about our bodies. (FYI, The only cases in which women have told
nice boobs, me they've talked positively about their bodies in a group setting,
being tall,
being short, was if they were participating in a classroom activity, or an eating
being perfectly average disorder recovery therapy. In other words, positive body talk
height, doesn't seem to happen "naturally.")
full lips,
naturally pink lips, Answer
flexible toes, 1. What is the text about?
light skin, 2. Based on the reading, what are the rules among women?
dark skin, 3. What do you think about desire another persons body?
clear skin,
4. What do you do in these situations
"innie" belly-buttons,
strong legs, a. A man or woman complains about his/her physical
butt dimples, (hoyuelos) appearance.
crooked pointer-fingers, b. You work so hard on your body and you presume your
curvy hips, physical appearance.

Body Image Activities

1. Everyone in the group is given paper and a pen or pencil. If you're feeling fancy,
colored pencils, markers, and/or crayons are fun too!

2. Each person in the group draws a picture of her body on the piece of paper. It
doesn't matter how realistic or artistically appealing the picture is. This is a time to NOT be a

3. After drawing the picture, each person makes a list of all the things she
likes/loves/appreciates about her body. This "things I like" list can be infinitely long, and
MUST contain at least FIVE things. Each person can also list ONE (but not more than one) thing
she doesn't like about her body.

4. After 10-15 minutes of artistry and list-making, each person shows the group her
picture, and explains her lists. It's important that each thing on the "like" list is explained,
instead of just stated. (i.e., "I like my eyes because they are the same color as my mom's

5. After everyone has shared, the activity is over. Participants are encouraged to keep their
picture + list, and to remember what the activity felt like.


Everyone eats food. Some people eat lots of fruit and vegetables, others may eat more or less
meat, and some people may eat healthy, but others do not. All of it is related to
nutrition. Nutrition is the process of how people get the food that is needed to grow strong and
healthy along with obtaining the necessary vitamins and nutrients to help bodies grow and
For children, good nutrition is especially important and it is
necessary to eat healthy foods because kids are constantly
growing. Good nutrition will lead to healthy bones and
muscles, and without receiving the correct vitamins and
nutrients while growing, a child will not grow as tall and as
strong as they could be.

There are five main food groups that should be eaten each
day. Eating a variety of foods in each group will lead to
receiving most important nutrients to remain strong and
healthy. The first food group includes grains such as
breads, cereals, pasta, and rice. The second food group is dairy, which includes milk, cheese,
yogurt, and other dairy products. Apples, oranges, grapes, bananas, and much more are a part
of the third food group, fruits. Of course, vegetables is in its own food group as well. There are
many, many vegetables available to eat including beans, broccoli, peas, carrots, corn, and
others. Finally, the fifth and final food group is protein, which can be found in beef, chicken,
eggs, nuts, fish, and pork.

The portion size of each food group is not the same. For example, it is recommended that a
person eat slightly more vegetables and grains than fruit and protein for each meal. There are
also other guidelines on how to eat healthier, some of which includes drinking skim milk instead
of whole milk, water instead of sugary drinks, and eating wheat bread instead of white bread.
Calories are a measure of the amount of energy in food items. Calories are necessary to eat to
get the energy needed to play, work, and move around. The calories get burned off during
movement, so eating will replenish them. But if a person eats more calories than they burn, the
excess is stored as fat. There are also some foods that contain empty calories, meaning they
have very little nutritional value such as solid fats and sugars.

In summary, good nutrition leads to good health. When a person wants to lose weight, it can be
done by eating healthier and exercising regularly. Nearly all foods contain some of the vitamins
and minerals needed for the body, but it is also important to eat the right amount of foods from
the five food groups: grains, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and protein.

1) Why is it most important for 4) Which of the following is the measure of

children to eat healthy? energy in food?
A: Children are smaller than adults. A: Nutrition
B: They play and run more often B: Calories
C: Children like food better. C: Values
D: Children are constantly growing. D: Percent

2) Which of the following food 5) What happens when more calories are eaten
groups includes beef, chicken, than burned off?
and eggs? A: Fat is stored
A: Protein B: Fat is released
B: Grains C: Fat is burned off
C: Dairy D: None of the above
D: Fruits
6) Which of the following is good for healthy
3) Which of the following two bones?
food groups are needed slight A: Vitamin A
more than fruit and protein? B: Iron
A: Dairy and vegetables C: Vitamin D
B: Vegetables and grains D: Vitamin C
C: Dairy and grains
D: All of the above
Listen to the conversation and then answer 4. What does Carla suggest he do?
the questions. A. take herbal medicine
B. see another doctor
1. What's the matter with Steve? C. eat chicken soup
A. He has a cold.
B. He has the flu. 5. What does Steve decide to do?
C. He has a stomachache. A. talk to another friend
B. listen to Carla's suggestion
2. How long has Steve been sick? C. see the same doctor again
A. since Friday
B. since Saturday
C. since Sunday HELPFUL TIP:
People often have
3. How often should Steve take the
their own home
medicine the doctor prescribes?
A. three times a day with meals remedies for
B. four times a day before meals different ailments.
C. three times a day after meals Some people eat hot chicken soup when they
have a cold. Give it a try.

Key Vocabulary
the flu (noun): informal for
influenza, like a very bad cold
with chills and fever
stuffy (adjective): closed or

Based on the vocabulary match the sentence with the correct word

1.You're ________________ take this medication three times a Supposed to

2. You need to _________________ until at least the end of the Flu
3. I have a ___________ nose, and I can't breathe well. Seem
4. I thinking I'm coming down with the ____________, and I Stuffy
have a fever.
5. The kids ____________ to be getting better, but they still Stay off your feet
need to rest.

3. Speaking
Think of a time during the last year when you got really sick.
What was the problem?
Did you go to the doctor?
If so, what did the doctor tell you to do, eat, or buy to get better?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________ If
you didn't go to the doctor, what did you try to recover from your illness?
4. Writing
What home remedies do you have in your country for the following illnesses or situations?
Sore throat

Listening transcript

Carla: So, how are things going, Steve?

Steve: Well, to be honest Carla, I was feeling great on Saturday, but I started to feel sick
Sunday afternoon. I thought I'd get better, but I feel worse than before. And I'm really
worried because I'm scheduled to give a presentation at work on Friday, so I have to be
better by then.

Carla: Well, what seems to be the problem?

Steve: Well, I thought I had the flu, but the doctor said it was just a bad cold. He gave me
some cold medicine to take care of my stuffy nose and fever. I'm supposed to take the
medicine three times a day after eating, but it doesn't seem to help. He also told me to stay
off my feet for a day or so, but I'm so busy these days.

Carla: Listen, forget about that medicine! I have just the thing to get rid of bad colds. You
see, my mom is really into herbal medicine.

Steve: Oh, no thanks.

Carla: Ah, come on! Give it a try. You just take some of my mom's herbal tea and drink it
four times a day. Believe me. You'll be up and dancing around in no time.

Steve: Dancing around in no time, right? Well, I guess. Nothing else seems to be doing the

Carla: Great. I'll come by your place at 7:30. See you then.

Sick 2 (file of listening)


Reported Speech

Tense Direct Speech Reported Speech

present I like ice cream She said (that) she liked ice cream.
present I am living in London She said (that) she was living in London.
past simple I bought a car She said (that) she had bought a car OR She said (that) she
bought a car.
past I was walking along the She said (that) she had been walking along the street.
continuous street
present I haven't seen Julie She said (that) she hadn't seen Julie.
past perfect* I had taken English She said (that) she had taken English lessons before.
lessons before
will I'll see you later She said (that) she would see me later.
would* I would help, but.. She said (that) she would help but...
can I can speak perfect She said (that) she could speak perfect English.
could* I could swim when I She said (that) she could swim when she was four.
was four
shall I shall come later She said (that) she would come later.
should* I should call my She said (that) she should call her mother
might* "I might be late" She said (that) she might be late
must "I must study at the She said (that) she must study at the weekend OR She said
weekend" she had to study at the weekend


1. Change the direct speech into reported speech. Use 'she said' at the beginning of each
answer. It's the same day, so you don't need to change the time expressions.

1) "He works in a
2) "We went out last night"
3) "I'm coming!" ________________________________________________________________________________
4) "I was waiting for the bus when he arrived"
5) "I'd never been there before"
6) "I didn't go to the party"
7) "Lucy will come later"
8) "He hasn't eaten
9) "I can help you tomorrow"
10) "You should go to bed early"
11) "I don't like chocolate"
12) "I won't see you tomorrow"
13) "She's living in Paris for a few months"
14) "I visited my parents at the weekend"
15) "She hasn't eaten sushi
16) "I hadn't travelled by underground before I came to London"
17) "They would help if they could"
18) "I'll do the washing-up later"
19) "He could read when he was three"
20) "I was sleeping when Julie
Answers of reported speech

1. She said that he worked in a bank

2. She said that they had gone out last night

3.. She said that she was coming

4. She said that she had been waiting for the bus when he arrived

5. She said that she had never been there before

6. She said that she hadn't gone to the party

7. She said that Lucy would come later.

8. She said that he hadn't eaten breakfast

9. She said that she could help me tomorrow

10. She said that I should go to bed early

11. She said that she didn't like chocolate

12. She said that she wouldn't see me tomorrow

13. She said that she was living in Paris for a few months.

14 She said that she had visited her parents at the weekend.

15 She said that she hadn't eaten sushi before

16.She said she hadn't travelled by underground before she came to


17 She said that they would help if they could

18. She said that she would do the washing-up later

19. She said that he could read when he was three

20 She said that she had been sleeping when Julie called
This is Mary. She has got long brown hair and brown eyes. Her ears are small
and her cheeks are chubby.

She gets up at 7 oclock in the morning has a shower, gets dressed and has
breakfast. She usually has a lot of coffee. She doesnt like cheese. Then the
girl goes to school. She travels by bus. She has lunch at school with her
friends. They sometimes have pizza and milkshake. After de lessons they play in
the park and they like flying a kite .Mary goes home at 5 pm. She has dinner with
her mother and father. Her mother likes cooking! Mary goes to bed at 10 pm

The girl lives in the city. There is a swimming pool next to her house but her
school is far. There are lots of shops and supermarkets in her street. There is a
caf behind her house and Mary goes there at the weekend with her family.

There is a market in front of the house. There are a lot of fruit, She likes eating watermelons and
mangoes but she doesn0t like grapes , she likes vegetables.

Now the girl is in her bedroom .it is big. There are two windows, there is a wardrobe in the room
and there is her desk next to the window. There is a chair next to her desk. Now her room is a
mess! There are her jeans on the floor and there is one sock one the sofa, one sock on the lamp.
Her mother is angry. She says: You cant go to the park please tidy up your room! Put those
jeans in the wardrobe and find the socks!

Mary likes doing athletics and playing table tennis .Going swimming is fun! But she doesnt like
playing basketball. She is very short!

In the summer, Mary would like to go camping with her grandfather! She wouldnt like to help
her grandmother in the garden. Its boring!

1. Write yes or no
3. There is a. next to her home.
1. Mary has got short brown hair___ a. supermarket
2. she has toast and coffee for breakfast___ b. caf
3. the children dont have pizza for lunch__ c. swimming pool
4. her school is next to her house___
5. there is a caf in front of her house____ 4. Mary doesn0t like eating
6.Mary likes mangoes but doesnt eat a. watermelons
watermelons ___ b. potatoes
7.there is a desk behind the wardrobe in her c.grapes
8 her room is a mess_____
There is one sock under the sofa_____ 5. the girls mother ask the girl
a. to find the jeans
2. Choose the right answer. b. to go to the park
to clean the room
1. the girl gets up at
a. eight oclock
b. seven oclock
c. nine oclock

2. she goes to school by

a. car
b helicopter
c. bus