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Tom W

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December 2012 #201

Dovetailed Chest
Build a Classic Case for
Your Treasured Tools
Geometric Tabletop
Make a Pinwheel Pattern
Using Shop-Sawn Veneers

12 Tips for Better


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CONTENTS DECEMBER 2012

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36 44 48

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F E AT U R E S

24 36 44 Tommy Macs Moravian Stool Body

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Toolbox This traditional, lightweight stool is an Mechanics
excellent rst step toward chairmaking.
Combine power- and hand-tool work to Get better results in all your woodworking
BY C H R I S TO P H ER S C H WA R Z
create an heirloom-quality tool chest (its a with these 12 tips for working smarter.
great project for the novice hand-tool user).
ONLINE u Lay Out Octagons BY J EFF M I LLER
BY T H O M A S J . M AC D O N A LD
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Watch our free video to see how the author ONLINE u
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new book.
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Decorative banding within moulding adds an
30 The Case for unexpected and distinctive detail.

48 Hollows &
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COVER PHOTO BY JOE CIARCIA/SYMPHONY PHOTOGRAPHY; STOOL PHOTO BY CHRISTOPHER SCHWARZ;
PARQUETRY PHOTO BY HEATHER TROSDAHL; BODY MECHANICS PHOTO BY JEFF MILLER; HOLLOWS & ROUNDS PHOTO BY AL PARRISH popularwoodworking.com 3
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Number 201, December 2012. Popular Woodworking Magazine (ISSN 0884-8823,USPS
752-250) is published 7 times a year, February, April, June, August, October, November
and December, which may include an occasional special, combined or expanded issue
that may count as two issues, by F+W Media, Inc. Editorial and advertising offices are
located at 8469 Blue Ash Road, Suite #100, Cincinnati, OH 45236. Unsolicited manu-
scripts, photographs and artwork should include ample postage on a self-addressed,
stamped envelope (SASE); otherwise they will not be returned. Subscription rates: A years

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subscription (7 issues) is $24.95; outside of the U.S. add $7/year Canada Publications

Mail Agreement No. 40025316. Canadian return address: 2835 Kew Drive, Windsor, ON
N8T 3B7 Copyright 2012 by Popular Woodworking Magazine. Periodicals postage paid at

58
Cincinnati, Ohio, and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send all address changes to
Popular Woodworking Magazine, P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, FL 32142-0235 Canada
GST Reg. # R122594716 Produced and printed in the U.S.A.

ILLUSTRATION BY MARY JANE FAVORITE; COPING SAW &


BOOKSHELF/WINE RACK PHOTOS BY AL PARRISH; FINISHING PHOTO BY BOB FLEXNER popularwoodworking.com 7
OUT ON A LIMB BY MATTHEW TEAGUE, EDITOR
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Good Enough is
DECEMBER 2012, VOL. 32, NO. 201
popularwoodworking.com
EDITORIAL OFFICES 513-531-2690

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PUBLISHER & GROUP EDITORIAL

Sometimes Best
DIRECTOR Kevin Ireland
kevin.ireland@fwmedia.com, x11407
EDITOR Matthew Teague
matthew.teague@fwmedia.com, x11007

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O
n the way to supper a few weeks We laid on a little glue, countersunk SENIOR ART DIRECTOR Daniel T. Pessell
daniel.pessell@fwmedia.com, x11396
ago we walked past the local a few screws to hold everything to-
EXECUTIVE EDITOR Robert W. Lang
hardware store (yes, a few still gether and then plugged the holes with robert.lang@fwmedia.com, x11327
exist) and at the wide plate-glass win- short lengths of a dowel. We debated EXECUTIVE EDITOR Megan Fitzpatrick
dow my son, Locke, stopped and stood the merits of using a fat dowel for the megan.tzpatrick@fwmedia.com, x11348

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with his mouth agape. Behind the glass handle but settled on cutting an arch SENIOR EDITOR Steve Shanesy

was a kids set of Real Tools. Small, in a piece of at stock, which we then steve.shanesy@fwmedia.com, x11238

but real. There was a hard hat, a steel doweled in place. ONLINE COMMUNITY MANAGER Tom Nunlist
tom.nunlist@fwmedia.com, x11008
hammer, a tape measure, a chalk box, There are no dovetails, hidden Chi-
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Adam Cherubini,
chalk and a square. There were also nese joints, gured lumber or exotic

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Bob Flexner, Glen D. Huey,
safety glasses, a tool belt and a pair veneers. Its just a little toolbox, for Christopher Schwarz
of suspenders (evi- little tools. Because PHOTOGRAPHER Al Parrish

dently, we should all while its good to


F+W MEDIA, INC.
be wearing those). push yourself, some-
CHAIRMAN & CEO David Nussbaum

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When my parents times simple is good CFO James Ogle
came into town to enough. PRESIDENT David Blanseld
help celebrate Lockes In my living room CHIEF DIGITAL OFFICER Chad Phelps

third birthday, wed acting as a plant stand VICE PRESIDENT, E-COMMERCE Lucas Hilbert
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT,
already bought the is a small bench that OPERATIONS Phil Graham

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f lying car and ev- may well be the rst COMMUNICATIONS DIRECTOR Stacie Berger
erything else a child piece of furniture my GROUP MARKETING DIRECTOR Kate Rados
could want, so I was father and I built to-
ADVERTISING
having a hard time gether when I was a VICE PRESIDENT, SALES Dave Davel
just if y ing (to my kid. Its a butt-jointed ADVERTISING DIRECTOR Don Schroder

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wife) running down to the hardware three-board stool, held together with 331 N. Arch St., Allentown, PA 18104
TEL. 610-821-4425; FAX. 610-821-7884
store and picking up the tool set. Luck- yellow glue (you can still spot the d.schroder@verizon.net
ily, my parents asked what he might squeeze-out) and a handful of nish ADVERTISING SALES
like. nails. How something so poorly built is COORDINATOR Connie Kostrzewa
TEL. 715-445-4612 x13883
It was the end of a busy week, but still rock-solid is beyond me, yet there

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connie.kostrzewa@fwmedia.com
Friday after work my father and I stole it sits.
away to the shop. We were scheduled I hope the same will be true for this NEWSSTAND
to light the candles on the cake in an little toolbox. Perhaps its because it was For newsstand sales, contact Scott T. Hill:
scott.hill@procirc.com
hour, but if I could nd a little stock al- made for my son, or because I built it
ready milled, we might manage a small with my father, but this simple little

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toolbox to hold Lockes new set of tools. toolbox, built in about 45 minutes, SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES:
There are a hundred ways to build a might be one of my favorite pieces. Subscription inquiries, orders and address changes can be
made at popularwoodworking.com (click on Customer
toolbox, but our method was dictated In the age of Xboxes and PlaySta- Service). Or by mail: Popular Woodworking Magazine,
by the clock. We found a few scraps tions, iPods and iPads and iEverything P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, FL 32142-0235. Or call 386-
246-3369. Include your address with all inquiries. Allow 6

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of poplar already milled. We decided else, its nice to have made something, to 8 weeks for delivery.
the toolbox should be exactly half the however simple, that, with luck, my NEWSSTAND DISTRIBUTION:
Curtis Circulation Co., 730 River Road, New Milford, NJ
length of the longest board and as tall son will still have years from now. Even 07646. PHONE: 201-634-7400. FAX: 201-634-7499.
as the shortest of two other scraps. We screws and inelegant dowels trump BACK ISSUES are available. Call 800-258-0929 for
cut simple angles on the end pieces and plastic. Especially now that my 3-year- pricing or visit popularwoodworking.com. Send check or

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money order to: Popular Woodworking Magazine Back Issues,
rabbeted the sides to accept the full old has a real steel hammer. PWM F+W Media Products, 700 E. State St., Iola, WI 54990.
thickness of the ends. The four sides of Please specify publication, month and year.
Copyright 2012 by F+W Media Inc. All
the box were grooved to house the bot- rights reserved. Popular Woodworking Magazine
tom and the bottom was rabbeted to t. is a registered trademark of F+W Media.

8 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 PHOTO BY THE AUTHOR


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LETTERS FROM OUR READERS
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Quadrant Stays Full-blind Dovetails

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I read the article in the August issue
(#198) about campaign furniture and
its fascinating; its something Ive never

I
am building a campaign chest In any case, the channel needs to be tried and would like to. But on page 26,
and I am having difficulty in wider than the brass hardware. To get Christopher Schwarz explains full-

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the placement of the quadrant the correct width of channel, I traced blind dovetails and Im confused.
stays. I have the stay located as low the shape of the stay at several points Normally, with either a through- or a
as possible, but the channel would (probably 10 or 12 points) between half-blind dovetail, the tail angle holds
be pretty wide and I would have to open and closed. This created a the pinned piece against its force; that
get or fashion a longer piece of brass true picture of the width of channel is, you assemble a drawer by pushing

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for the bridge/stop. that I needed to make. the sides into the front, so pulling on
Can you provide some insight on If you are going to make a pattern for the front gives you the actual wood
placement? a router equipped with a ush-trim bit, connection as a holding force.
John Schoonover you can make all these tracings on a sheet With this full-blind dovetail it ap-
Radcliff, Kentucky of paper taped to the drawer side. Then pears to me that both the tails and pins

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John, you can remove the paper and use it to are cut at 90 and assembly is just push-
The quadrant stays do not operate in a make your pattern. ing the top down onto the sides. Im
perfect arc or perhaps they do but the Christopher Schwarz, seeing this joint being held together
pivot point is shifted somehow. contributing editor by a lot of end-grain glue surface and

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no mechanical lock.
What am I missing?
Matt Waln
via e-mail
Matt,

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The full-blind dovetail works exactly like
a through-dovetail or a half-blind dovetail
joint. The only difference among the three
joints is what part of the joint the viewer
can see. In the case of the campaign chest,

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the tails are on the top and bottoms of the
chest. The pins are on the ends. All the
joints are sloped 14, which provides the
mechanical interlock.
If this is still not making sense, perhaps

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this will help: Picture a typical through-
dovetail joint. Now imagine adding a thick
layer of veneer covering the pin board
youve just created a half-blind dovetail
joint. Now imagine adding a second layer

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What Gouge for Texturing? you just a slightly different look. Wood- of thick veneer that covers the tail board
I plan on making Matthew Teagues box craft.com has drawings of proles beside youve just created a full-blind dovetail joint.
from 4 Boxes, 4 Ways (August 2012, the photos of their gouges; those will give In all three joints, the mechanics are the
issue #198). I have made some similar you some idea of how the end prole will same. The only difference is what part is

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boxes but have never tried my hand look using each. visible.
at using a gouge for texturing. What For this application, Id consider gouges Christopher Schwarz,
size gouge was used? And could you less than about 516" wide and see what look contributing editor
recommend a maker? suits your tastes. My gouges are Pfeil, but
Ike Weatherholtz, Im no expert on available brands. I also Knife Lines are Your Friends

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Falling Waters, West Virginia have an old set of carving tools with a few I plan on cutting stretchers and tenons
Ike, gouges in it from Millers Falls, which I by hand for a table project on which Im
The gouge pictured in the magazine is a love. As long as I can sharpen it, Ill use it. working, but Im not sure how to go
5mm No. 3 sweep; a different size will give Matthew Teague, editor about it. I can lay out the tenons with
CONTINUED ON PAGE 12

10 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 ILLUSTRATION BY MARY JANE FAVORITE


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My business has me conducting seminars and workshops on hand tool use
in locations across Canada, the US and the UK.
I have worked on too many benches to remember, though there were a few
I would like to forget! Good hand work requires a good bench, the two are
inseparable. When I arrive at a location and find a big Sjoberg, it all but

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I will only return to lead a hands on event if the facility has proper
benches for each student. I have guided several workshops in to purchasing the Sjobergs Elite
series 1500, 2000, 2500 and I recommend these to anyone starting out in woodworking.
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LETTERS CONTINUED FROM PAGE 10

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a marking gauge, saw close to the line My question is how to hold the

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and trim to the line with a shoulder nut block in the leg? In Christopher
plane. But in order for the table to be Schwarzs book Workbenches, he
square, opposite stretchers need to be mentions attaching it with 3" screws.
exactly the same length. Can I use the How has that worked out over the Highly Recommended
same procedure and saw close, then years? The Veritas molded-spine dovetail saws

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sneak up to the line with my shooting Tom Erbaugh dont look like traditional tools, but they
board? Will this make them identical via e-mail work every bit as well and at a lower
in length or is there a better way to Tom, price as saws offered by other manufac-
turers ($68, leevalley.com).
match the lengths of two boards? Christophers 2005 Roubo (the one that
Available with 14 teeth per inch (tpi)
With a table saw and a crosscut appears in Workbenches) uses a metal

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for stock thicker than 12" and 20 tpi for
sled this is easy to do, but I would like screw. The metal collar for it is screwed thin stock, the carbon-steel blade is 914"
to dedicate my table saw to long rips on to the back of the leg, with the threaded long, .020" thick with a 19 16" depth of
(what I think table saws do best). This hole centered on the hole through the leg. cut.
These bubinga-handled saws are an
issue of matching boards in length is He is still using that same vise hardware
excellent choice for beginners and non-
compounded when making boxes or on that bench (although hes since re-

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beginners alike, if you dont mind the
frames. moved the crochet on the left front), and non-traditional look.
I guess Im asking if there is some to the best of my knowledge, he has no Robert W. Lang
technique to get the same precision complaints with it after almost seven
with hand tools that you get with power years of daily use.

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tools when it come to repeatability of However, youre installing the same
length of cut? wooden screw that I have on my Gluebo
Paul Korman (the LVL Workbench that was featured Customer Service
How can I contact customer service with questions
via e-mail in the November 2009 issue, #179), and the regarding my subscription, including a lost or damaged
issue?
Paul, attachment method is a bit different. After Visit popularwoodworking.com/customerservice. Or write

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If youre using mortise-and-tenon joints, drilling the clearance hole for the screw to Popular Woodworking Magazine, P.O. Box 421751,
Palm Coast, FL 32142-1751. Or, if you prefer the telephone,
the critical length is the distance between through the leg, align the hole in the block call 1-877-860-9140 (U.S. & Canada), 386-246-3369
(International) and a customer service representative will
the shoulders. There isnt any reason to with the hole in the leg, then scribe (or pen- be happy to help you.
fuss with getting the overall lengths per- cil) a line across the top and bottom edge of When does my subscription expire?
The date of your subscription expiration appears on your
fect, because a bit of a gap at the bottom of the nut block. Now waste away the mate- magazine mailing label, above your name. The date

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indicates the last issue in your subscription.
the mortise wont hurt anything. I inten- rial between those lines to create a mortise
Can I get back issues of Popular Woodworking and
tionally leave a small gap to make room thats half the depth of the legs thickness. Woodworking Magazine?
Back issues are available while supplies last. Visit
for glue and bits of junk and to ensure that Set the nut block in the completed mortise, popularwoodworking.com/backissues. Or if you know
the shoulders are tight. then secure it in place with four countersunk the exact month and year of the issue you want, call our
customer service department toll-free at 855-840-5118
Your try square and marking knife are screws one at each corner. PWM to order.

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What if I want more information about the projects and
your allies in this. Clamp the parts together Megan Fitzpatrick, executive editor tools I read about in Popular Woodworking Magazine?
and mark the length between the shoulders For all editorial questions, please write to Popular
Woodworking Magazine, 8469 Blue Ash Road, Suite 100,
at the same time with your knife. Practice Cincinnati, OH 45236. Or e-mail popwood@fwmedia.
com.
sawing so you can get a square shoulder right ONLINE EXTRAS Does Popular Woodworking Magazine offer group
next to the line. If youre off a bit, trim back

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discounts?

to the knife line with your shoulder plane Letters & Comments Group discounts are available by special arrangement with
the publisher. For more details, send an e-mail to Debbie
At popularwoodworking.com/letters youll Paolello at debbie.paolello@fwmedia.com or call 513-531-
or a chisel, but dont go beyond the lines.
nd reader questions and comments, as 2690 x11296.
The rst few might take a while and well as our editors responses. Our Privacy Promise to You
make you nervous, but with a little practice We make portions of our customer list available to carefully
We want to hear from you.

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screened companies that offer products and services we
this is a reliable and time-tested method. believe you may enjoy. If you do not want to receive offers
Popular Woodworking Magazine welcomes
Robert W. Lang, executive editor and/or information, please let us know by contacting us at:
comments from readers. Published cor- List Manager, F+W Media, Inc.
respondence may be edited for length or 10151 Carver Road, Suite 200
Nut Block Attachment for a style. All published letters become the prop-
Blue Ash, OH 45242

Wooden Leg Vise erty of Popular Woodworking Magazine. Safety Note

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Safety is your responsibility. Manufacturers place safety
I am building a Roubo bench out of Send your questions and comments devices on their equipment for a reason. In many photos
via e-mail to popwood@fwmedia.com, or you see in Popular Woodworking Magazine, these have
Southern yellow pine and am ready to been removed to provide clarity. In some cases well use an
by mail to 8469 Blue Ash Road, Suite 100,
install the nut block of a Big Wood Vise Cincinnati, OH 45236.
awkward body position so you can better see whats being
demonstrated. Dont copy us. Think about each procedure
(bigwoodvise.com) in the front leg. youre going to perform beforehand.

12 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 PHOTO BY AL PARRISH


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TRICKS OF THE TRADE EDITED BY STEVE SHANESY

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THE WINNER:

Shop-made A Magnet Helps When

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Sharpening Small Blades
For sharpening small blades such as the

Circle-cutting Tool ones used in router planes, spokeshaves


etc., I use a refrigerator magnet (such
as the one offered by Lee Valley) and a

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DMT Dia-Sharp plate.
The small magnet has enough power
to grab hold of a small blade and when
used with a steel DMT sharpening
plate, the magnet grips the plate as

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well as the blade. The magnet provides
enough strength to hold a blade on the
bevel side, which saves your ngers
from those annoying cramps.
I use an old-fashioned ketchup

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bottle lled with water and a little car
wash soap as a lubricant for the steel
sharpening plate.
Peter Saale

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Pasadena, California

Router
plane blade

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I
often need to cut an arc or circle rst fender washer. Two 3 16" nuts Refrigerator
magnet
for a template or gasket. In the hold everything snugly, but allow
past, my results using a compass the blade to rotate. I drilled holes in
and scissors were far from the smooth the board at 1" increments and used
shape I hoped for. Recently, I needed a nail through the holes, driven into

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to cut a precise, smooth circular arc 3 4" plywood underneath, as a pivot

in a sheet of veneer, and I realized point. The blade extends below the
my old methods were inadequate. 1x2 board about 3 16".
In addition to the arc looking ragged With this circle cutter, it is best Plow Your Way to Small Pegs
and uneven, the thin veneer would to make several light cuts. If the idea of making small square pegs

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break when I attempted to cut it. I When the tool is not in use, I wrap with a table saw makes you cringe, here
needed a better method. a piece of duct tape around the blade is a way to make perfectly square pegs
I came up with a circle-cutting to protect it. It works great. with a plow plane.
tool that uses a rotary blade similar Bill Wells Start with a squared-up board. Then,
to the blade used in some ofce paper Olympia, Washington adjust the planes fence and depth stop

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trimmers. to match the size of peg you require. Us-
The rotary cutter blade is 28mm ing a thinner blade in your plow plane
(1.10") in diameter with a 5mm (3 16") will waste less wood.
Standard
mounting hole. A set of two blades is washer Start plowing a groove on the face
Rotary

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available at ofce supply and fabric cutter
of the board until you reach the depth
stores, or online under paper trim- blade stop. Then, plow a second groove on
mer blades. The blade is attached to the edge of the board, adjacent to the
the end of a 1x2 board using a 3 16" rst groove. Keep rm pressure on the
x 2" hanger bolt, with two 3 16" x 1" planes fence at all times.

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fender washers supporting the blade, When you reach the bottom of the
Fender
(one on each side) and a standard 3 16" Hanger washers second groove, the square peg snaps free.
washer between the board and the bolt Kari Hultman
Lemoyne, Pennsylvania

14 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 ILLUSTRATIONS BY MARY JANE FAVORITE


www.thetravellerest.com adhere the tape to the side of the chan- Drill Bit as Set-up Block

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nel that will be attached to the fence. Need a quick and precise way to set the
Then, I remove the backing on the other fence on your router table, mortiser,
side of the tape and relocate it (the back- drill press, table saw or band saw but
ing) to both sides of the tape above the dont have those fancy set-up blocks?
Double- J-channel to make a non-sticky grip. Yes, you do your drill bits.

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sided Note: If you dont have a piece of Just choose the appropriate-size bit
tape tabs
J-channel, you can buy a 10' length and use it as a spacer to set the fence. It
J-channel
for about $5 at a home-improvement also works for setting a precise distance
store. on components of your projects.
John Cusimano Rob Cairns

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Cutting Thin Sheet Stock Lansdale, Pennsylvania Nevada City, California
Cutting thin sheets of plastic laminate
or other thin stock on the table saw
presents a safety problem if the material
slips under the narrow space between

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the table and the bottom of the rip fence. Wooden Plow Plane Fence
The solution to this problem is to I added a wider auxiliary wooden fence
block that gap. The method I nd useful to my plow plane fence and improved
is to temporarily attach to the fence a my precision for making square cuts.
ONLINE EXTRAS

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leftover piece of vinyl J-channel (used But instead of a at rectangular fence,
around windows when installing vi- my fence is rabbeted on the outside For links to all online extras, go to:
nyl siding). I secure the J-channel to bottom edge, which allows me to put popularwoodworking.com/dec12

my rip fence with a few short pieces of my ngers there for better control of TRICKS ONLINE: We post tricks from the past
double-sided tape. the tool. The rabbeted space also keeps and lm videos of some Tricks of the Trade

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I leave some of the paper backer my ngers from touching the workpiece in use in our shop. Theyre available online,
free. Visit popularwoodworking.com/tricks
on the tape to use as grips to help re- thereby avoiding both splinters or pos-
to read and watch.
move the tape when Im done with the sible nger burns.
Our products are available online at:
J-channel. To make the grip, I peel off Charles Mak
ShopWoodworking.com
the backing on one side of the tape then Calgary, Alberta

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Cash and prizes
for your tricks and tips!
Each issue we publish woodworking tips
from our readers. Next issues winner
Improved Keyhole Slot Layout and a template to work with.
receives a $250 gift certicate from Lee Val-
I believe I have a more accurate yet sim- If the outline of the item is sym-

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ley Tools, good for any item in the catalog or
ple solution to the problem of mount- metrical to the keyholes, simply place on the web site (leevalley.com). (The tools
ing items with keyhole slots than was the template on the mounting surface pictured below are for illustration only, and
shown in Tricks of the Trade in the location and drill your screw holes are not part of the prize.)
Runners-up each receive a check for $50
June 2012 issue (#197). through the template. Remember that
to $100. When submitting a trick, include
Lay down a piece of paper larger the screws will be in the key not

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your mailing address and phone number.
than the dimensions of the object to the hole position when mounted. All accepted entries become the property of
be mounted. Next, place the hardware If the object is asymmetrical to the Popular Woodworking Magazine. Send your
keyholes down on the paper and trace keyholes, simply punch holes through trick by e-mail to popwoodtricks@fwmedia.
com, or mail it to Tricks of the Trade, Popular
the outline. When done, cut out the the template where you want the screws
Woodworking Magazine, 8469 Blue Ash

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shapes you traced. and turn the template over before plac- Road, Suite 100, Cincinnati, OH 45236.
Turn the hardware over (keyhole ing it on the mounting surface. Use the
slots up) and place the outline over holes as your drill guide.
it aligning all the edges. While hold- The item will be mounted exactly
ing the paper in place, gently rub the where you want it using only pencil,

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keyhole areas with the side, not the paper and scissors no measuring re-
point, of a soft pencil lead. With a little quired. PWM
practice you will magically produce a Chet Wolgamot
highly detailed copy of the keyholes Lawrenceburg, Indiana

popularwoodworking.com 15
TOOL TEST BY THE STAFF
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Knew Concepts Titanium Fretsaw
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The truss system of the spine looks curious, but it works gangbusters.

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T
he crazy design of this titanium
5" woodworkers fretsaw from
Knew Concepts is, I think its
fair to say, the rst thing you notice.

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But use it and youll quickly come to
appreciate that the structure helps to
make it lightweight and rigid, and the
clever tensioning mechanism snugs
up the blade tight and keeps it there.

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This frame is a redesign of the com-
panys earlier titanium woodworkers
fretsaw, the frame of which was a con-
tinuous piece of 1 8"-thick titanium

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(the same design as the aluminum
woodworkers fretsaw currently avail-
able). But in an effort that was initially
meant to reduce materials waste and
take advantage of more readily avail- Looks like a bridge. The truss system for the

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able 1 16"-thick titanium, designer Lee spine of this saw looks and acts like a bridge
it can handle incredible stress.
Marshall came up with a riveted truss
system for the saws spine thats even
more rigid than the original (he calls it the blade positioned correctly in the
a birdcage saw, in honor of the Bird- blade slot, then turn the orange knobs

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cage Maserati). The spine is riveted to to lock it securely.
1 8"-thick titanium arms. And the tensioning mechanism is just
Also worthy of note is the blade- as simple to use; it works more like the
clamping and tensioning mechanism. tension-release lever on a band saw than
On most fretsaws, the blade is pinched the typical thumbscrew arrangement.

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between two plates at either end. When Set it just short of perfect by turning the
a saw is properly tensioned, those plates knurled brass screw, then a cam clamp
need to hold the blade tightly; they effects the nal tension. Flip it against Cam action. The blade is tensioned by setting
typically dont (and it is quite frustrat- the saws arm, and you have a tight blade the brass screw appropriately, then ipping
the cam lever. Once the screw is set, its quick
ing when the blade comes loose in the that will ping nicely if you pluck it.

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and easy to ip from tensioned to not.
middle of a cut). When the saw isnt in use, release the
All Knew Concepts saws have a small tension to extend the blades life.
plunger and anvil mechanism that grabs Another clever feature is that the when tension is released. Is that a big
tight on the blade with little effort; get blade-clamping mechanism can swivel deal? Not really, but it does mean the

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left or right and lock in detents, from 0 saw will stay in the same orientation
to 45 (though 90 would be nice) quite you last left it, so theres less ddling.
Knew Concepts Fretsaw handy when removing dovetail waste At $225, the Knew Concepts tita-
Knew Concetps knewconcepts.com or
831-234-4652 in the middle of a board thats wider nium saw is certainly an investment
than the saws armature. And while in your work but it is also the best
Street price $225

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the saw I tested was a pre-production fretsaw Ive used. The company also
VIDEO See the companys titanium and
model and didnt include this feature, offers a ne aluminum version (with a
aluminum fretsaws in action.
Marshall tells me hes added indexing continuous frame) for $95.
Prices correct at time of publication.
positions to keep the swivel in place Megan Fitzpatrick
CONTINUED ON PAGE 18

16 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 PHOTOS BY AL PARRISH


This Holiday Season,

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GIVE THE GIFT OF
WOODWORKING!

Share your woodworking

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TOOL TEST CONTINUED FROM PAGE 16

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Makita PJ7000 Biscuit Joiner

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The biscuit or plate joiner category of The fence system for this
the hand-held power tool world has biscuit joiner consists of two
been pretty sleepy over the past few parts: the fence itself and a
years. But Makita has introduced a new removable angle guide. The
model that, while not revolutionary, angle guide moves up and

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adds some nice, user-friendly features. down on a rack-and-pinion
The PJ7000 packs plenty of power in gear system to make height
its 5.6-amp motor, yet the motor has a adjustments for various thick-
relatively small circumference making nesses of material. The fence
it comfortable to grip, even for smaller pivots in a fixed position to

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hands. The top handle is comfortable make angle cut adjustments.
as well. Combined, these holding fea- Three detents are built in for
tures provide solid control and less 0, 45 and 90 angles. With
user fatigue. And at just 5.5 pounds, its the fence in the usual 90 posi-
relatively lightweight about 20 per- tion, the 4" slot-cutting blade

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cent less than most competitor models. is centered for material approximately adjusted, on-board depth stop makes
3 4" thick (20mm). When using both the switch between #0, #10 and #20 bis-
PJ7000 Plate Joiner the fence and the fence with the angle cuits a snap. There are three additional
Makita makitausa.com guide, setup was quick and accurate settings, Max (20mm), D (14.7mm) and

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with easy-to-read scales. S (13mm) for use with other Lamello
Street price from $179
The tool also comes with a set plate fasteners and hinges.
ARTICLE Read A New Manual for Biscuit
that snaps on to the fence to cut a slot At $179, the price, combined with
Joiners on our web site.
centered on 1 2"-thick material. the nice features, makes it a good buy.
Prices correct at time of publication.
Like other plate joiners, an easily Steve Shanesy

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Bosch 23-gauge Pin Nailer
Whenever I use a 23-gauge pneumatic deeper sinking of fasteners,

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pin nailer, I feel like Im cheating. It is or operation with lower air
a fast, easy and reliable way to attach pressure.
moulding or other parts without much It also is the rst pin nailer
need to disguise the evidence. The slim to feature a dry re lock-out.
fasteners leave tiny holes behind that If youre out of ammo, the tool

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are nearly invisible. This new gun from wont shoot. This prevents pos-
Bosch has several features in a well- sible damage to the workpiece
designed tool that make it a great choice or the guns internal parts and
at a reasonable price. eliminates the embarrassment
Bosch has devoted its efforts recent- of dropping a piece of trim af-

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ly to tools that are lighter and more ter thinking youve nailed it
powerful than previous versions. The down.
FNS138-23 has 10 percent more power An internal air lter keeps
than the previous model, allowing for any debris or contamination from the molded grip, is light in weight and

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compressed air system out of the inter- nicely balanced with a narrow nose
nal parts, and the mufed exhaust air piece and a recessed magazine. You can
Bosch FNS138-23 Pin Nailer exits out the back of the gun. There is a see where the fastener will go and easily
Bosch Tools boschtools.com or
877-267-2499
window on the side of the magazine so place it in a tight corner or other hard-
you can see when youre running low. to-reach location. For putting small
Suggested retail price $159

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Fasteners up to 13 8" long are automati- mouldings on furniture or attaching
ARTICLES Visit our web site to read more
cally positioned in the easy -to-load household trim, this is a nice tool and
tool tests from our editors.
magazine. you arent really cheating. PWM
Prices correct at time of publication.
The tool has a comfortable over- Robert W. Lang

18 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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DESIGN MATTERS BY GEORGE R. WALKER
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Look Beneath the Surface
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Find valuable design lessons (and templates) in furniture bones.

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T
he average Jill might look at the
little chest of drawers shown
on this page and say, What a
nice furniture piece; its perfect for a

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nightstand. What kind of wood is that?
The average Joe might reply, Its
tiger maple, and has some interesting
post-and-rail joinery.
The somewhat more historically

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versed Fred might say, Its a dowry
chest circa 1830, crafted in the style
known as Empire. Note the large draw-
er on top and decorative split turnings

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on each side post.
All three would be right, but their
views are much different than what a
furniture designer sees. A designer sees
by visualizing a space and observing

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the relationships of shape, contrast,
transitions, light, shadow and texture
which is very different from how most
folks look at the world. Its human na-
ture to look at the surface, not taking

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the time to look deeper. By doing so, Miniature chest. This small chest of drawers is a reproduction of a small period dowry chest. But
in the basic form, there are many design lessons to explore that apply to any style.
we often miss many valuable lessons
and shortchange ourselves on a rich
source of ideas and inspiration. always striving to push the boundaries. Imagine the Form
Both these views have their place in our Try to imagine the bare-bones form of

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Look at the Bones furniture-building tradition. Artisans the chest above. It starts by just imagin-
Furniture in this Empire style never have always looked to masterful work as ing the space. In the Western tradition,
inspired a large, devoted following, standards to be appreciated and studied, designers envision space as a solid, even
and even today its sandwiched in the and conversely the desire to seek out if that space is a room full of air. This
shadows between the iconic furniture new expressions is a natural outgrowth might seem odd at rst, but if you can

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from the 18th century and the craftsman of the creative mindset. imagine a room or a furniture piece as
styles that ushered in the 20th. But our Yet both camps can miss the mark a three-dimensional cuboid, youve
job as artisan designers is to look below in how our woodworking tradition has taken a big leap forward.
the surface and try to see the bones at always kept itself alive and fresh. One I explained in my June 2012 column

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the heart of a design. tends to freeze the tradition, while the (issue #197) how period designers used
This actually requires pulling away other often ignores work from the past in simple circles, squares and rectangles
from several common mindsets that can search of new horizons. The important as building blocks. This has great po-
hinder us. One is the tendency to ideal- questions are not, Has this been done tential because we can easily envision
ize furniture from the past and view it before? or How does this rate against a simple square or rectangle. And, its

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as something in a glass case, not to be some standard of perfection? Instead, not much of a leap to go from imagining
changed or improved upon. At the other they are, What is the creative potential a two-dimensional square to a three-
extreme is the mindset focused on dis- in this object? Is there something hidden dimensional cube.
covering something new and untried, in the bones of this design? Lets take a moment and imagine the
CONTINUED ON PAGE 22

20 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 PHOTOS & ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR, EXCEPT PUBLIC DOMAIN EGG HEAD IMAGE
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DESIGN MATTERS CONTINUED FROM PAGE 20

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If youre in the camp that reveres mas-
terful work, whether period or contem-
porary, push yourself to sketch out the
bare bones of the work you most admire.
If its made before 1830 its likely the

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form is organized around simple whole-
number ratios. Even with contemporary
Reduce to form.
work, such as pieces by Sam Maloof or
Imagine the overall James Krenov, its a great way to visual-
space and then ll ize what it was that made these designs

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in the major shapes Experiment. When you see into the bones of stand out. While you are at it, take those
that make up the a design, it becomes a blank palette to experi- simple bones and experiment with your
design. ment with your own ideas.
own creative ideas. PWM

space that this chest embodies (above). can you imagine other possibilities?

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George is the author of two design DVDs
The first view is just the governing Perhaps some carvings or inlay? Or (Lie-Nielsen Toolworks) and co-author with Jim
space while the second shows the major just left plain with simple chamfers? Tolpin of the forthcoming book By Hand & By Eye
shapes and transitions (borders) that Just for a creative exercise, sketch out (Lost Art Press).

make up the composition. Note that we this simple form and see how many

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are looking beneath the curly maple, possibilities you can extract from this
decorative turnings and scrollwork basic skeleton.
on the bottom rail. Those details are
only skin deep. Looking again just at Look Around Your World
the faade, whats left is a simple form Apply this concept to your everyday

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basically a rectangle framed by the surroundings by breaking down the
posts, top and oor. commonplace into simple forms to un-
In this case I left the border that veil endless possibilities to inspire and
marks the top drawer, the most prom- inform. Take a simple egg form (below,
inent feature on this form. With all left). Its hard to get more basic; its just

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that detail removed, can you imagine a pair of major and minor circles con-
some different possibilities? Could the nected with some curved lines.
lower space be left open instead of lled You can create an innite number
with drawers, or could you imagine a of possibilities by varying the size and
door or a pair of doors? Instead of the spacing of the major and minor circles

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decorative split turnings on the legs, (nature already does this). Yet look at Underlying form. Is our egg shape hidden
the potential of this simple form: Is it an beneath the surface on this stone vase?
egg? Or is it a human face (below)? Or is
it a vase (right)? Thats just scratching
the surface on seeing the creative po- ONLINE EXTRAS

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tential in the bones beneath the surface, For links to all these online extras, go to:
popularwoodworking.com/dec12
yet it can open up a whole new world.
BLOG: Read more from George R. Walker on
his Design Matters blog.

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IN OUR STORE: George R. Walkers DVDs.

Our products are available online at:


ShopWoodworking.com

About This Column


Design Matters dives into

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the basics of proportions,
forms, contrast and compo-
Circles. Even an egg sition to give you the skill to tackle furniture
shape is made up of design challenges with condence.
simple circles. Egg head. But the simple egg shape is pregnant with possibilities!

22 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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A MUSIC ROW VIDEO PRODUCTION

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with Glen Huey

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reason: Routers can do a lot of different things in your
shop. Edge details, inlay, joinery there are hundreds
of ways to use a router. In Router Joinery & Techniques,

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host Glen Huey shows you some of his favorite router
applications. Along with those mentioned above, Glen
also shows how to cut circles with a router, do pattern
work, create rule joints and dovetails and much more. If
youre ready to push your router skills to the next level,

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this DVD is the one for you.
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TOMMY MACS
TOOLBOX
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B
BY THOMAS J. MACDONALD

Combine power and uilding a toolbox much like this building a toolbox was one of our rst

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one was a real turning point in my wood- project assignments at school.
hand tools to improve working career. It was 1999 and I had The experience was for me way more
begun classes at Bostons North Bennet than a project; it was my introduction to
your joinery skills. Street Schools Cabinet and Furniture hand tools and more advanced joinery.
Making program. At the time, I was a Years later, I realize just how much

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pretty good carpenter and could build this project inuenced my woodwork-
plywood cabinets using power tools, but ing. While building it, I was learning
I was pretty inexperienced when it came the harmony of using both power and
to crafting ne furniture. Designing and hand tools.

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www.thetravellerest.com Heirloom toolbox. This handsome chest will be a pleasure to use and be treasured for
generations to come plus its a great introduction to blending hand and power tools in the shop.

24 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 ALL PHOTOS BY JOE CIARCIA; ILLUSTRATIONS BY ROBERT W. LANG FROM ELI CLEVELANDS MODEL
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Now, its one of my favorite projects
and its featured in season three of
my PBS television show, Rough Cut

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Woodworking with Tommy Mac.
If youre new to woodworking, or
havent learned basic hand-tool skills,
this project could have a similar inu-
ence on you. Dont worry about the

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joints being a perfect fit. Its a shop
project after all.

Mill Your Lumber in Stages


I prepare stock in a couple sessions

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at least a day apart. This is meant to
Spring joint. A slight concave shape planed
minimize wood movement while also onto mating surfaces of an edge joint allows
allowing for it. As a rule of thumb, avoid you to clamp up with a single clamp across
taking more than 14" of wood off of the the center of the panel glue-up. Aim for a
thickness of a board in one milling. I call center thats recessed about 164".

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the rst session rough mill because
I cut the parts out of the rough board
leaving about 1" over in length, 12" over
in width and 18" over in thickness. Pin spacing. To get dovetail pins spaced

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First, atten one face on the jointer. equally, walk the compass across the work
and make adjustments until the spacing is
Check the grain direction of the wood
just right.
and watch for tear-out. Take off about
1 16" with each pass until the face is

at. Next, straighten one edge with the Before edge-gluing, clamp each mating is evenly divided. The points where the

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jointed face against the fence. Make sure pair of boards face to face and hand- dividers hit are the center points of the
the fence is 90 to the bed of the jointer. plane the edges to spring the joint. pins. Transfer the divider marks to the
When the jointer work is done, move Take a short pass along the middle of outside face. Measure 3 16" on either
to the planer and make the opposite face the edges, then another along more of side of the marks and, from that point,
parallel (to avoid tear-out, whichever the length and a nal pass along the draw the dovetail angle across the end

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end trailed over the jointer should lead full length. The boards jointed edges grain to the inside face. Square the lines
over the planer). Run each part through should touch at both ends with a tiny down the inside and outside faces to
the planer with the jointed face down. gap in the middle, about 1 64". the marking-gauge line.
Mill the boards to the sizes in the cutlist Glue up the boards starting with a Now you can cut the pins. Carefully
plus the overage described above. single clamp in the middle. Add more saw on the waste side of each pencil

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Stack the parts with stickers be- clamps if necessary. After the glue has line, then use a coping saw to cut out
tween and align them vertically so each dried, clean up any excess and trim the the bulk of the waste. Use a chisel to
board is supported by the one below parts to nal width and length. chop to the marking gauge line. Chop
it. Leave the boards overnight then halfway in, then flip the board and
repeat the milling process to bring the Through-dovetails come in from the opposite face to nish

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boards to nal dimensions. Note that Start by laying out the pins on the ends the waste removal. Check the surfaces
some parts, such as the case divider of the case side boards. Set a marking with a square and pare each cheek and
fronts, must be tted to the box rather gauge to the thickness of the case parts shoulder until they are true.
than cut to dimensions now. After the and mark around the faces and edges When the pins are nished, scribe

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second milling, remove any mill marks at both ends of each board. Then, lay the tails. Stand each end of the pin
by skimming all surfaces with a hand- out the pins on the ends of a side board. board on its corresponding tail board.
plane. Take light cuts to avoid changing Start by measuring and marking 3 16" Align the inside face of the pins with
the thickness or taking it out of square. from each edge. Then use a compass or the marking gauge line on the inside
dividers to make seven equal divisions face of the top or bottom board. Trace

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Spring Joints for Glue-ups between the 3 16" marks you just made the pins using a sharp pencil.
The wider outside case parts should (above). Start on one line and walk the Square the tail lines across the ends
be glued up from narrower boards; a dividers along to the other line. When of the boards then cut carefully on the
full-width board may cup over time. they land directly on the line, the space waste side of all of the lines. Saw out

popularwoodworking.com 25
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joints. The two upper dividers have a
middle rail with stub tenons.
Begin by cutting the slots in the long
stiles. The slots are 1 4" thick x 13 4"

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long, and go through the full width of
the front and back frame parts, centered
in the thickness of the parts. Put a 1 4"-
thick dado stack on your table saw set
to cut 13 4" high. Cut the slots with the

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parts on end using a backer board, such
Stop that rabbet. Set up stop-blocks on your router tables fence to register the front and back as as tenoning jig, to support the piece.
you mill the rabbets in the back inside edges of the case sides.
When done, cut grooves for the stub
tenons in the front and back pieces.
Without moving the fence, lower the

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dado stack to 1 4" and cut grooves on
the inside edges of the top two frames.
Now cut and t the frame tenons us-
ing your dado stack and table saw. Run
the stock at on the saw table guided

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with the miter gauge. The dado stack
should be set to cut just 1 8" high. Cut
the top face of the tenons rst, then t
the joint by trimming the bottom face.

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Ready, set, assemble. When all the case join- Custom caul. To make sure the dovetail joints For the top two center rails, cut the
ery, including dovetails, dados and rabbets, is seat completely, make a clamping caul that tenons at the same time as the rest. After
completed, the toolbox is ready for glue-up. applies pressure on only the tails.
all of the joints are t, trim the tenons
on the center runners to 1 4" long.
the bulk of the waste and chop to the tabletop and the fence. Run both the top With the frame joinery complete,

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marking-gauge lines. Lightly test-t and bottom all the way through. Now glue up the frames and t them to the
each corner and mark where the joints set up to make the stopped cuts. With case. Make sure the frames are square.
are too tight to close. Use a chisel to pare the router off, mark the front and back If necessary, clamp the slip joints closed
the tails to t. Do not adjust the pins. edges of the bit on the fence. Clamp so the joints dont are out. Once the
front and back stops on the fence so glue dries, ush the top surfaces at the

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Dados & Rabbets that the bit will not cut past either end joints with a handplane. Fit the frames
First lay out the dados for the case di- of the layout lines. to the dados in the case sides by planing
viders on the inside faces of the sides. To make the cuts, set the back corner the bottom surfaces.
The top one starts 23 8" from the top of the side against the rear stop and When the frames are done, glue on
edge; the second dado is 478" from the slowly move the piece toward the fence the cherry divider faces. Mill them just

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top; the third is 81 4" from the top. The and into the cutter. Once it is against thicker than the frames. Glue on the
dados are all 1 2" wide x 1 8" deep and the fence, push the piece to the front faces, allowing additional length on
are cut across the entire face. stop then slowly swing the back of the each end for the dovetails. Once the
To cut the dados mount a 1 2" dado piece away from the cutter. glue dries, handplane them ush to the
stack on the table saw to cut 1 8" deep. frames. Lay out the length of the dove-

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Make sure to cut the dados on the inside Glue up the Case tails on the case sides. Now slide each
faces. Run the top edge of each side Notch your clamping cauls around the frame into place and mark the dovetail
against the fence on all of the cuts. Once pins so they press only on the tails. length and the bottom of the dovetail
all of the dados are cut, use a router Glue and clamp the bottom corners dado on the face piece. When done, cut

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plane to clean up the dado bottoms. rst. Once the glue starts to set, remove each end of the cherry faces to length.
Now lay out and cut the 3 8" x 3 8" the clamps and glue the top corners,
rabbets on the back inside corner of checking for square. Now leave the Drawer Divider Front
the case sides, top and bottom. The clamps on until the glue has fully cured. I use a ramp block that helps me make
rabbets in the top and bottom run the the dovetails for the drawer divider

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full length of the edge. The rabbets on Make the Case Dividers front. To make it, mill a piece of scrap
the sides stop 3 8" from each end. Frames divide the case and act as draw- to 3 4" thick x 4" wide (and make sure
Cut the rabbets at the router table. er supports. The outside corners of the its a scrap that allows you to work a safe
Set a straight bit to cut 3 8" from the frames are joined with bridle or slip distance from the blade). On the edge,

26 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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In theory there is no difference
between theory and practice. In
practice there is.
Lawrence Peter Yogi Berra, (1925-)
Tommy Macs Toolbox
NO. ITEM

CASE
T
DIMENSIONS (INCHES)
W L
MATERIAL COMMENTS

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Baseball player and manager 2 Top & bottom 5 8 1412 28 Cherry
2 Sides 5 8 1412 1314 Cherry
3 Divider fronts 12 134 27 Cherry
mark 1 2" from one face. Tilt the table 12
3 Divider backs 134 27 Secondary
saw blade to 10 and set the fence just 12
6 Divider sides 134 1338

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Secondary
over 5 8" from the bottom of the blade. 12
2 Center runners 134 1338 Secondary Trim to t
With the scrap on edge, rip the angle
3 Divider faces 12 34 2758 Cherry Leave long
into the piece. Skim off any saw marks
1 Vertical partition 12 34 5 Cherry Leave long
with a handplane.
2 Center drawer guides 12 12 13 Secondary
Clamp the ramp block and divider

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4 Backs 3 8 2712
as shown below. The block should be 4 Secondary Shiplap
perpendicular to the face piece and DRAWERS
tight against its end. Chop down on 34
2 Fronts (upper) 134 1318 Cherry
the dado mark and remove chips until 3 8
4 Sides (upper) 134 1312 Secondary
the chisel rides at on the ramp block.

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2 Backs (upper) 3 8 114 1318 Secondary
Repeat this on the top and bottom of
2 Fronts (narrow mid.) 34 2 1318 Cherry
both ends of all of the dividers.
4 Sides (narrow mid.) 3 8 2 1312 Secondary
When done, t the dividers to the
2 Backs (narrow mid.) 3 8 112 1318
case. Slide each divider in place then Secondary

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use a sharp pencil to trace the dovetails 1 Front (wide mid.) 34 278 2634 Cherry
onto the front edges of the case. Remove 2 Sides (wide mid.) 3 8 278 1312 Secondary
the dividers, square the lines down the 1 Back (wide mid.) 3 8 238 2634 Secondary
inside face and mark the 3 4" depth of 1 Front (lower) 34 378 2634 Cherry
the sockets. Saw, chop and pare the 2 Sides (lower) 3 8 378 1312 Secondary

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sockets until the dividers t snugly. 3 8
1 Back (lower) 338 2634 Secondary
4 Narrow bottoms 3 8 1458 1234 Secondary
Partition & Guides 3 8
2 Wide bottoms 1458 2638 Secondary
Mark the length of the dovetails and
12 Drawer stops 18 12 5 8 Secondary
dados on the case top and second frame.

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The tails are 5 16" from the inside edges
of the top and frame. The dados are 1 8"
deep x 1 2" wide, and centered in the on the ends, and scribe the dado across that you used for the dividers. Mark
case. Use a square, knife and chisel the face of the top divider. Cut the 1 2"- the 1 4" dovetail length on the ends of
to clear out the 3 4"-long dados. Make deep x 3 4"-wide notch in the top divider the partitions. Set in the shoulders on

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sure the partition ts tightly in the da- and t it to the partition. the back and remove about 1 8" of the
dos. If not, either widen the dados or Now cut the partitions to length. back of the tails. Use these notches to
handplane the partition to t. Once the First, dry-t the frames in the case and test the partition in the dados. Once
partition ts, clamp the top divider to measure the length of the partition. the shoulders t, cut the tails with the
the second with the shoulders aligned Dovetail the ends using the ramp block ramp block as before.

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Ramp
block

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Frame-up. The case is divided using frames with slip joints at the ends
and stub tenons where needed for a center divider. These frames
support the drawers and t in dados.
Guided chisel. As an aid to cutting the dovetails on the divider fronts,
use a shop-made ramp block to guide the chisel and help achieve
consistent sizes and angles.

popularwoodworking.com 27
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Fit the partition to the case. With glue in the partition. Glue the center grooves are cut, rip the backs to width,
the dividers in place, slide the partition drawer runners on the top two divid- cutting them flush to the top of the
into the dados and scribe the tails on ers directly behind the partition. Use groove. Next, dovetail the drawers. Lay
the case and second divider. Mark the a square to make sure they are ush to out the half pins on the drawer fronts.

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5 8" depth of the tails as well. Remove the width of the partition and square Set a marking gauge to 9 16" and, from
the partition and divider to cut and t to the front of the case. the inside face, mark the end grain on
the sockets. When done, glue in the both ends of each drawer front.
dividers and partition. Start by slid- Make the Drawers Use the same setting to mark around
ing the dividers in almost completely On the inside face of each drawer part the front of the drawer sides. Reset the

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then apply glue to the front 2" and the cut a 1 4"-wide x 3 16"-deep groove 1 4" marking gauge to the 3 8" thickness of
dovetail. With the dividers in place, up from the bottom edge. Once the the drawer sides and mark the inside

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Dovetailed
divider front
Stub tenon

Slip joint

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Vertical
partition
Drawer
Dovetail socket. The socket for the case dividers
Shiplap back
dovetail is located at the end of a shallow
dado that houses the drawer divider.

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Stopped rabbet

Drawer stop
Upper drawers divided. A vertical partition
divides the case for the four narrower upper
drawers. It is dovetailed like the divider fronts Detail

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at the ends, and it is let into the middle of the
top drawer divider with a simple notch. EXPLODED VIEW

28" 141 2"


3 4"
1311 16"

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3 8" 3 8"
5 8" 131 8" 1 2"
5 8"
1 4"
5 8"
3 8"
13 4" 13 4"
1 2" 1 2"

2" 2"

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131 4" 1 2"

123 4"
27 8" 27 8"
1 2"

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37 8" 37 8"

5
8"

FRONT VIEW 5 8" SIDE SECTION VIEW

28 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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REGISTER TO WIN TOMMYS TOOL BOX & MORE

T ommy MacDonald has generously donated his toolbox (which is featured


on season three of Rough Cut) as part of the grand prize for a series of
daily random drawings sponsored by Popular Woodworking Magazine. The

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daily drawings are called The 31 Days of Christmas and will run during
December 2012. In addition to the toolbox, the grand-prize winner will also
receive sets of bench planes, chisels and several measuring and marking tools
from Woodcraft. Other great tools and materials from leading manufacturers

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will be given away each day leading up to the grand-prize drawing on Dec. 31.
To be eligible for the daily drawings, participants must enter each day of the
month. All entries in the daily drawings are automatically entered in the grand-
prize drawing. Some of the daily prizes include table saws from General Interna-
tional and JET, a mini-lathe from Rikon, a set of bench chisels from Veritas, Bessey

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clamps, a Blue Spruce Toolworks dovetail chisel, a Mirka Ceros sanding system, a
Woodpeckers router table lift plus 22 other daily prizes.
To learn more about the prizes and to enter for a chance to win, go to
popularwoodworking.com/31days. Steve Shanesy

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face on both ends of each front. With
the same setting, also mark around
the back of each side and around both
Cut the bottoms to t in the grooves.
Set the table saw to 6 with a zero-clear-
ance insert and a featherboard in front
to sand. Then thoroughly sand begin-
ning with #120-grit paper and progress
through ner grits stopping at #180 or

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ends of each drawer back. Lay out a of the blade. Set the fence to just under #220 grit. Then ease all the sharp edges.
1 4" half pin on the top and bottom of 1 4" from the blade. Bevel both sides and Apply the nish you prefer following
the drawer front and back. Also mark the front of the bottom. Adjust the fence the manufacturers instructions. When
a 3 8"-wide pin in the center. Mark the until the bottom just starts to slide into its dry, install drawer pulls of your
dovetail angle on the end grain and the drawer. Cut all of the bottoms and choice (mine are iron; 3 4" for the top

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square the lines down the inside faces. ne-tune the t with a plane. When the drawers, 11 8" for the bottom drawers).
On the drawer fronts, saw at an angle bottoms t, trim them ush to the back When your toolbox is completed you
taking care not to cut through either of the drawer. Cut a 1 2"-long x 1 8"-wide will have learned many of the essential
marking gauge line, then chop out the notch in the center of the back edge of woodworking skills. And if youre like
waste, working down to the lap line each drawer bottom. Insert a screw me, your joinery tolerances will have

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on the fronts. Pare the pins until the through the notch into the drawer back tightened up a lot just learning the ins
cheeks are at and perpendicular to the to pinch and hold the bottom in place. and outs of dovetailing. PWM
ends. Mark, cut and t the tails just as
you did on the case. Shiplap the Back Tommy is the creator and star of the WGBH PBS
Glue up the drawers making sure Rip the backboards to 4" wide. On one television program Rough Cut Woodworking

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with Tommy Mac.
they are square. Clean off all of the edge of each cut a 316"-deep x 38"-wide
glue and ush all of the surfaces with rabbet. On two of the boards, cut the
a handplane. Make sure the drawers sit same rabbet on the opposite face of the ONLINE EXTRAS
at on a at surface. Test the drawer in opposite edge. Fit a single-rabbet board For links to all online extras, go to:
popularwoodworking.com/dec12
its opening. Plane the top edges of the on the bottom of the case in the back rab-

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sides until the drawers move easily in bet and screw it along the bottom edge. ENTER THE DRAWINGS: Register your name to
win daily prizes in the 31 Days of Christ-
their pockets. Lay the double-rabbet boards in next so
mas sweepstakes.
the rabbets overlap, leaving a 18" reveal
WEB SITE: Visit the authors web site for more
Glue the Drawer Stops in each joint. Screw these boards in at
information about Rough Cut Wood-

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With the drawers t, align the drawer the ends, near where they overlap the working with Tommy Mac.
fronts ush with the case and dividers. board below. Trim the unrabbeted end of
WEB SITE: Visit the WGBH web site to watch
Apply a small amount of glue to each the nal board until it ts in place with past episodes of Rough Cut and see the
stop. Reach through the back of the the same 18" reveal and screw it in place. schedule for upcoming shows.
case and position the stops on the tops IN OUR STORE: Mastering Hand Tools, a two-

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of the dividers. Make sure the stop is Sand & Finish DVD set by Christopher Schwarz.
tight to the back of the drawer front. Make sure all the glue has been cleaned Our products are available online at:
Once the glue sets, test the drawer and off of the surfaces. Address any tear- ShopWoodworking.com
trim the stop if necessary. out, dents or gouges before you start

popularwoodworking.com 29
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The Case for
Hollows
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& Rounds
www.thetravellerest.com B Y M AT T B I C K F O R D

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A few simple planes open the doors
to a multitude of mouldings.

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Ins & outs. Most moulding proles are a
combination of convex and concave arcs.
With a few planes to make these arcs, nearly

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any prole is possible.

PHOTOS OF NEW PLANES BY AL PARRISH; ADDITIONAL PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR;


30 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 ILLUSTRATIONS BY ROBERT W. LANG FROM THE AUTHORS SKETCHUP MODELS
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I am not a woodworker who uses
only hand tools. I use machinery when

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it is efcient and when it wont dictate
the look of my final product. I use
planes to flatten boards wider than
my 6" jointer. I dimension lumber by
hand when it will not t through my 12"

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planer. I cut my dovetails with a hand-
saw. When I became tired of applying
the same moulded edges to my projects
One-trick ponies. Moulding planes with Quick work. Though limited to cutting but
of various sizes I started to research
complex proles are limited to cutting only one prole, a complex moulder will execute
my options.

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the one prole for which theyre designed. that one shape quickly.
Several years ago I became aware of
moulding planes. You have seen these
during your meanderings through ea
markets and auction houses. These
planes can be hundreds of years old,

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thus, when you use them, you will be
creating proles that are appropriate
to period work and do not contradict
period style. These planes do not make

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coves and astragals that are the inter-
preted design of a present-day machine Complex limitations. The fence and depth Router bits. Like a dedicated moulding plane,
shop, the corporate choice of what the stop on this side-bead plane means youre router bits are pretty much limited to execut-
limited to cutting only at the edge of a board. ing only the prole they were made to cut.
masses may like or the design insanity
of squeezing a 31 2" crown ogee into

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3 4"-thick material. Unlike routers, dedicated moulding tooling will be needed for each shape,
I bought several dedicated moulding planes often need a signicant amount regardless of complexity. Mimicking
planes (also called complex mould- of work to make them function. This the size of a larger prole is possible by
ers) over the course of a couple years. I work, which is often executed blindly building up smaller shapes you already
bought a couple of side-bead planes to, by a person new to the tool who chooses possess, but its still a compromise that

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well, make beads. I bought a reverse- to buy the most complex, makes the may never join, nish or look right.
ogee plane because I liked that prole plane seem even more limiting and There are, however, options that are
for a chest. I got a crown moulder be- daunting. Even more depressing: When cheap and bountiful, and easy to tune,
cause I thought it was neat. you nd that dedicated moulder to cre- use and maintain. And they allow you,
Like router bits, these dedicated ate the prole that you like, you nd the user, to never make compromises.

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planes make uniform proles and can the tool has been sold. Once youve purchased and tuned the
be, depending on size, very quick and A new prole, new plane and new tools, youll never be at the mercy of
extremely efcient. With a dedicated
moulding plane, a 3 16" lip around a MINIMAL TOOLS, MULTIPLE PROFILES
drawer front is executed in the span of

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A
minutes. A 1 4" bead along an edge is tall case clock can include
never more than a few moments away seven (or more) proles. To
from completion. make these proles with router bits
The integral fences and depth stops would require a signicant invest-

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that allow these planes to create a uni- ment in tooling. A few hollows and
form prole also preclude them from rounds, along with a rabbet plane,
making the same prole in a different will enable you to create nearly
location relative to a boards edges. any imaginable prole. MB
With both methods routers and dedi-

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cated moulding planes a complex
pro le can be built up using several
pieces, but the tool dictates the process
and product.

popularwoodworking.com 31
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Basic geometry. On hollows and rounds,
the width of a planes sole is equal to the 60
radius of the circle segment it creates.
Staying straight. With only one point to ride along, it can be difcult to keep a hollow from rotat-
ing as you move through the cut, resulting in a prole that varies along its length.

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Hollow on chamfer. A uniform chamfer (of about two-thirds the width of the hollows sole; left
and left center) provides two points for the plane to ride along; this helps the user get a good cut.
However, a chamfer thats either too wide (right center) or too narrow (right) will provide only a
Two points. The chamfer acts as a fence to lo-
cate the plane in the cut. Your rst passes will
produce two shavings one at each contact

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single reference point for the sole. point. As the cut progresses, those shavings
get wider. When they meet, youre done.

dedicated moulding plane proles or a circle on the edge of a board, or an uniform in width and angle along the
router-bit manufacturers again. ovolo thats nearly 90 set back from length of the workpiece. (Minor varia-

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the boards edge and is part of a larger tions will be overcome by the length of
Hollows & Rounds complex prole, the tool is the same. the hollow moulding plane.)
When I started with moulding planes Having a series of planes that creates Your hollow plane will ride on the
I quickly became aware of hollows a graduation of radii allows you to make two edges of that chamfer as you make
and rounds, and that these planes can nearly any prole that you can nd in the initial passes, and you will quickly

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do nearly everything. Most moulding furniture or in architecture. These tools see a uniform prole develop along the
proles are a combination of convex allow you to make the prole as it was length of your stock.
or concave circle segments with a few so often made in period work out of When you are ready to tackle a spe-
at segments, called llets, mixed in. one solid piece of wood. cic prole, start with a chamfer that
These are the same terms by which approximates the angle of the prole

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hollows and rounds should be viewed: Chamfers Control Hollows you intend to create (again, two-thirds
as a portion of something much larger. The rst time you hold a hollow plane, of the width of the planes sole). Change
Hollow and round planes create an it may not be apparent how to use it to the angle of the chamfer on your next
arc of a circle of specic radius, not create a uniform prole. A hollow has practice piece to see how that affects

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a specic prole. These planes have a concave sole, so it creates a convex the prole.
neither fences nor depth stops, which shape. If you start on a square corner This chamfer serves three pur-
means that there is no face upon which of a workpiece and work to completion, poses.
either needs to be referenced. These you will nd that consistency can be First, by giving the plane two
planes soles are only one-sixth of a difcult. points upon which to sit instead of

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circle, 60, but a larger portion of a circle Get a rabbet plane, shoulder plane, just one, you have made a fence of
can be created by tool manipulation. block plane or chisel, and use it to sorts to help steer the hollow. When
Regardless of whether you want cut a chamfer of about two-thirds the the plane makes its initial passes, it
to cut a bullnose that is nearly half of width of the planes sole, approximately will create two shavings (one from

32 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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each point on the chamfer) that will
each increase in width with subse-
quent passes.

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Round on chamfer. While a chamfer
Eventually, the second purpose will quickly remove waste material,
of the chamfer will be recognized as it wont provide help in steering a
these two shavings become one you round plane.
have a method to gauge progress and/
or depth.

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Third, you will have removed the
bulk of the waste material with a
straight plane blade that is easier to
maintain, leaving only a small amount
of work and wear for the concave cut-

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ting edge of the hollow planes blade.
By adding a chamfer or two prior
to executing proles, the number of
proles that can be created increases
dramatically (more on that later).

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Rabbets Control Rounds
Like a single hollow, a single round
plane creates one specic arc, but it is
Round on rabbet. A rabbet creates two arrises for a round plane to ride (left). Adjusting the width
and depth of the rabbet changes the angle at which the plane is presented, and thus changes the
resulting prole (center and right).

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concave. Again, imagine starting this
round plane on a square corner.
Adding a chamfer for the round to ONE ARC, ENDLESS VARIATIONS
ride will certainly remove a signicant

H
amount of material. A uniform chamfer ere are drawings of 16 cove mouldings, each of which illustrates a

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will also give you a gauge for progress as shape cut by a round plane of a single radius. Adding a rabbet or two
you watch the uniform facet disappear in different locations to guide the plane, and varying the angle of that rab-
with each pass. But a chamfer wont bet (and thus the path of the plane), allows you to create a variety of proles
help you steer the round plane. with a single tool. Smaller or larger segments of a circle will create a variety
Instead, cut a rabbet to create two of looks from an identical radius. MB

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arrises for the plane to sit upon. This
means that, so long as the rabbet is
uniform and the round is sitting upon
both points, it will be steered.
Start with a square rabbet. Then

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make a rabbet that is deeper and nar-
row, and compare the results after plan-
ing. Now cut a shallow, wide rabbet
for the round to ride along. As with
the chamfers for the hollows, the two

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edges of the rabbet on which the round
registers should be about two-thirds
the width of the planes sole.
Like the chamfer, this rabbet, also

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serves three purposes.
First, you steer the plane by giving
it a chute in which to ride.
Second, you will be able to gauge
your depth of progress by making certain

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that the two shavings being ejected at
either side of the blade are of equal width
along the length of the cut. These two
shavings will soon become one, which,

popularwoodworking.com 33
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if the rabbet is uniform, will occur along
the entire length of the nal pass. (Take
abbreviated passes in specic problem
rotate the tool in subsequent passes, the
user can progress into proles that are
one-quarter of a circle or larger.
So while one pair of hollows and
rounds is a good place to start, all your
prole possibilities will be derivatives

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areas if necessary, then make a nal pass And with a single pair of planes (one of the same or similar radii. But with
along the length to ensure youve a clean hollow and one matching round), the practice, you will learn to manipulate
and continuous cut.) number of proles you have the ability and steer the tools, and will be able to
And third, the bulk of the waste to create substantially increases. With a make a No. 6 hollow mimic the shape
material is removed with an easier- matched pair, you can combine convex of a No. 5, or use a No. 6 round to create

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to-maintain tool. and concave shapes to place coves next a slightly larger cove.
to ovolos in whatever order you want
A World of Proles on a single piece of stock. You can make Beyond the Basics
Possession of one of these two planes, ogees and reverse ogees by changing the Two pairs of hollows and rounds, along
either a hollow or round in any size, al- dimensions of your rabbet or rabbets, with a way to quickly, accurately and

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lows the user to make many moulding and practice making smooth transition efficiently make rabbets, is the next
proles (see One Arc, Endless Varia- points from hollow to round cuts. logical step. By adding only a second
tions on page 33). The more you use The two points upon which each pair of hollows and rounds to your tool
these planes the more you will learn plane sits (the edges of chamfers for chest, youll be able to take advantage
to manipulate them as well. hollows and the arrises of a rabbet of the versatility that these planes allow

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I envision users starting with a sin- for rounds) approximates the angle and encourage.
gle prole that is one-sixth of a circle of the pro le each creates. Only the With a second pair, you can make
with a radius that is equal to the plane location of the chamfers and rabbets the same proles in two different sizes.
soles width. Soon, by learning how to has changed relative to the original You can also mix and match the convex

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corner of the stock when it was square. shapes of one with the concave shapes of
another. With two pairs, you can create
Where to Begin? proles that are more representative of
A small to mid-sized antique pair of what we see throughout the centuries.
matched hollow and round planes is Having two pairs also allow you to

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a good place to start (think Nos. 4, 6, make elliptical or ovular shapes, or
8 or 10 according to the numbering make a base moulding that comple-
system listed in the chart on the next ments a support, which in turn comple-
page). Sharpening and tuning one pair ments a tables edge.
of planes is the best way to learn what Imagine the options that will be

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needs to be done (Larry Williams has open to you by adding a third pair. De-
an excellent DVD on Sharpening pending upon the scope of your work,
Proled Hand Tools, available from you may never need more than those
Lie-Nielsen). If you purchase several six moulding planes.
pairs of antique tools before learning But with a half set of planes (nine

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how to tune them up and use them, pairs incrementally increasing from a
you could nd it overwhelming and 1 8" radius up to 11 2"), the options are

counterproductive. staggering. With a half set, youre almost

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Multiple rabbets. In the left column, the red,
orange and yellow designate rabbets; the
green designates a chamfer. These cuts guide Locked-in design. Router bit proles limit de- Sensible sequence. Hollows and rounds
the planes to create the proles in the right sign possibilities and often are not appropriate allow you to produce well-proportioned
column. to a period design. complex mouldings with a few simple tools.

34 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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Two pair & a rabbet. With
just ve planes, you have
a huge array of moulding
possibilities.
Numbers of
Hollows & Rounds

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NO. IRON WIDTH RADIUS (INCHES)

1 116 116

2 18 18

3 316 316

4 14 14

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5 516 516

6 3 8 3 8

7 716 716

8 12 12

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9 9 16 9 16

10 5 8 5 8

11 1116 1116

12 34 34

13 78 78

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14 1 1
15 118 118
16 114 114
17 138 138

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18 112 112

A half set of planes would consist of


even or odd numbers only.

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certain to have all the tooling you could
ever need for any moulding prole.

Parts of a Whole
promote creativity for those who want
to create something new without be-
ing tied to manufacturers products.
These tools will not enable you to
of these tools will allow you to look at
a tall case clock and consider just one
thing: Am I ready yet? You will no
longer need to consider the investment

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The advantages of these planes are com- make crown moulding for your living in, or be hindered by, the prospect of
monly viewed through their lack fenc- room in less than an hour. You will not new tooling when you choose your
es or depth stops. This is what increases be inspired to make new baseboards next project. Youll have the tools. You
exponentially the number of moulding with a quirked ogee for your entire rst have the skill. You just need somebody
proles they allow you to create. oor. You will, however, consider rip- to paint the clock face. PWM

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Hollows and rounds are pieces of a ping out that mantel with machine
larger puzzle. They encourage you to marks to replace it with a better one. Matt is the maker of M.S. Bickford planes, and the
put your hand to your work and com- Hollows and rounds will not speed author of Mouldings in Practice (Lost Art Press), a
new book that delves deep into the use of these tools.
pare it to the backdrop of furniture up tenfold the pace at which you work.
history. They encourage pure copies They will, however, increase the rate at

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for those of us who try to replicate, and which you progress in your craft. A set ONLINE EXTRAS
For links to all online extras, go to:
popularwoodworking.com/dec12

BLOG: Read the authors blog, Musings


From Big Pink.

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IN OUR STORE: Buy the authors new book
Mouldings in Practice (Lost Art Press).
WEB SITE: Visit the authors web site and learn
about the moulding planes he makes.
TO BUY: Moldings in Practice Matt Bick-

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fords new DVD from Lie-Nielsen Toolworks.
Our products are available online at:
Lift the limits. With a half set of hollows and rounds in your arsenal, you may never need to buy ShopWoodworking.com
another tool to make any moulding you want.

popularwoodworking.com 35
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Moravian
Stool
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B Y C H R I S TO P H E R S C H WA R Z

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This traditional, lightweight stool is an
excellent rst step toward chairmaking.

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36 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012
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O Mne highlight of a visit to historic Old Salem in North
Carolina is the beautiful Moravian furniture and woodwork
OCTAGONS MADE EASY
aking a proper octagon is a mystery for many begin-
ning woodworkers, but it is easy. All you need is a

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in the villages buildings. My favorite piece in the town is compass, a center point and four corners of a square.
a small stool that shows up in many of the buildings. Its a 1. Set the compass to the distance between one corner
tough little guy the costumed interpreters sit, kneel, stand and the center point of the square you wish to make
or even saw on reproductions of this stool every day. into an octagon.
This form is also common in rural Europe, especially in 2. Place the point of the compass at one corner and

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eastern Bavaria, which is close to the origin of the Moravians strike an arc across the square.
in the Czech Republic. In Europe, its also common to see 3. Repeat this process at the other three corners of your
this stool with a back sometimes carved which turns it square.
into a chair. 4. The resulting pattern looks a bit like a ower. The
But the best part of the stool is that it requires about $10 eight points where the arcs intersect the square are

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in wood and two days in the shop to build and it has a the points of your octagon. Plane down to those lines
lot of fun operations: tapered octagons, sliding dovetails, and you have a well-proportioned octagon. CS
compound leg splays and wedged through-tenons. And by
building this stool, youll be about halfway home to being
able to build a Windsor or Welsh chair.

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This particular stool is based on originals owned by Old
Salem that are made from poplar. The stools are remarkably
lightweight less than 4 lbs. Like many original stools, the
top of many Old Salem stools have split because of their

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cross-grain construction. Despite the split, the stools remain
rock-solid thanks to sliding dovetail battens under the seat.
I like to think of the split as just another kind of necessary
wood movement. One compass setting. To make Smaller octagon. For the small
Heres how the stool goes together: The thin top is pierced an octagon, set your compass octagon at the foot, mark the

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by two sliding-dovetail sockets. Two battens t into those for the distance between the square you want to turn into an
sockets. The legs pierce both the battens and the stools top, center point of your square octagon, reset your compass
and one corner. and repeat the process.
and they are wedged in place through the top. This is the
cross-grain joint that will make the top split in time.
The best place to begin construction is with the legs.

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Geometry 101
The legs are tapered octagons. They are 15 8" square at the top
and 1" square at the foot. The top of the leg has an 13 8"-di-
ameter x 11 2"-long round tenon. To make the legs, rst mark

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the 15 8" octagon on the top of the leg and the 1" octagon at
the foot. See Octagons Made Easy at right.
With your octagons drawn, saw each leg into a tapered
square 15 8" at the top and 1" at the foot. I cut these tapers
A diamond in the square. Here you can see the arcs of the octagon
on the band saw, though Ive also done it with a jack plane.

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and how they create the facets of your octagon.
With the legs tapered, you can connect the corners of
your two octagons with a pencil and a straightedge. Then
its just a matter of planing the four corners down to your Tenon the legs.
pencil lines, which creates an octagon. Turn a 112" long

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Now turn the tenons on the top of each leg. The tenons by 13 8"-diameter
are 13 8" in diameter and 11 2" long. This is a quick operation tenon on the top of
each leg after youve
with a parting tool. Measure your tenons with dial calipers nished planing the
to ensure they are exactly 13 8" or just slightly less. If they octagons.
are even slightly fat, they wont go in.

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Big Sliding Dovetails
Many beginners are intimated by sliding dovetails because
they are hard to t, especially when made by machine. It

PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR; ILLUSTRATION BY ROBERT W. LANG FROM THE AUTHOR'S MODEL popularwoodworking.com 37
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CUT THE DOVETAIL SLOT

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Saw perfect walls. The 16 guide is made Faster than you think. A chisel can remove Flat & nished. Router planes excel at making

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from scrap and is clamped to the underside of waste much faster than a router plane. Just housed joints perfectly at. You could do this
the stools top. An 8-point crosscut handsaw keep an eye on the grain so it doesnt split work with a chisel, but it would be a fussy
was used to make these four kerfs. below the nal depth of the socket. process.

seems to take a lot of hammering to get the joint seated against the guide while stroking forward and back.

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without gaps. Remove the majority of the waste with a chisel and mallet.
When you make them by hand, you can build in a little Then nish the bottom of the sockets to their nal depth of
forgiveness that makes them both easy to assemble and 3 8" using a router plane.

tight. The trick? A shoulder plane. But Im getting ahead of


Shape the Battens to Fit

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myself. First we have to cut the long and wide socket on the
underside of the stools top. The battens have the complementary shape cut into them.
Fetch your sliding bevel and set it to 16 off of 90 (or 106). Unlike the sockets, there is very little material to remove
Lock it. Tight. That is the only angle you need for the entire to make the male section of the joint just little slivers on
project even the compound splay of the legs. the edges.

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The 16 is the angle of the walls of the sliding dovetail. The dovetail is 3 8" thick and has 16 bevels. Lay out the
Lay out the locations of the battens so they are 21 8" from the 3 8" thickness on the two edges and two ends of the batten.

ends of the top. The dovetail socket is 3 8" deep, 21 2" wide Then use your sliding bevel to scribe the 16 angle. The angle
at the bottom and has 16 splayed walls. Lay out the sockets should touch the corner of the batten and your 3 8" scribe
on the underside and edges of the top. line. Then you just have to remove the material in the two

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Now you need to saw the angled walls of the sockets. With right triangles created by your pencil.
short sliding dovetails (for drawer blades, for example) Ill There are lots of ways to do this, but the most straightfor-
just kerf them freehand. But because these sockets are 111 2" ward is to remove the majority of the waste with a shoulder
long, I make a guide for my handsaw. plane (or a rabbet plane) and tease the waste out of the corner
The guide is just a piece of 2"-square scrap that has one with a ne handsaw or chisel.

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edge sawn or planed to 16. I clamp the scrap to the underside Plane down to your layout lines and clean up the joint
of the bottom and saw the walls by pressing the sawplate for a test-t. Decide which way the joint will go together

PLANE THE BATTENS

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Little triangles; big strength. Heres the little triangular section that cre-
ates the dovetail, which was cut with a shoulder plane. The waste in the
corner can be removed using a saw or chisel.
Plane the middle. There is so much friction in assembling a sliding
dovetail that its best to hollow out the middle of the joint with a few
stopped shavings along the joints bevel.

38 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


Top: 5 8" x 111 2" x 141 4"

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The past is a foreign country; they do things
differently there.
L. P. Hartley (1895-1972),
Batten: 7 8" x 21 2" x 111 2"

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British novelist & short story writer

Tenon: 13 8" dia. x 11 2" long

15 8" Octagon at top


141 4"

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21 8" 21 2"
Tenon
15 8" Leg: 15 8" x 15 8" x 171 4"
138" dia.

11 2"

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1" Octagon at bottom
111 2" 1"

EXPLODED VIEW

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21 2"
171 4"
3" 31 2"
TOP PLAN
Moravian Stool
NO. ITEM DIMENSIONS (INCHES) MATERIAL
T W L

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1 Top 5 8 1112 1414 Poplar
5 8" 2 Battens 78 212 1112 Poplar
3 8" 21 2" 1" 4 Legs 158 158 *1714 Poplar
7 8"
* Level legs to oor after assembly

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TOP ELEVATION LEG PLAN

and compare the ends of the batten to the sockets in your at a compound angle called rake and splay. Instead, lay out
top. When both ends of a batten will t in their socket, the the leg angle from the center of an X drawn between the

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temptation is to hammer it home. Resist. locations of the four leg mortises. By working out from the
Instead, return to your bench vise and clamp your batten center point of the seat, you can drill the holes at a single
in place. Mark the sliding dovetail about 11 2" from both ends angle. The resulting hole produces a compound angle, but
of the batten. Then make stopped shavings between those by working from the center point, you only have to worry
two pencil marks until the plane stops cutting. Repeat this about one angle, which is what we call the resultant angle

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process on the other 16 walls. in chairmaking.
These stopped shavings hollow out the middle of the And heres the best part: For this stool, the resultant
sliding dovetail, which makes tting the joint much easier. angle is 16 the same angle setting as the sliding dovetail.
Now use a mallet to drive the battens in place. No glue. First step: Lay out the center point of the four leg mortises
You should be able to get the batten to slide in place with the on the underside of the assembled seat. The center point of

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same sort of force you would use for chopping dovetail waste. each leg hole is 21 2" from the long edges and 31 2" from the
If you are whaling on the batten and denting it, your joint ends. Draw a big X on the underside that connects these
is too tight. Remove the batten and plane a little more off. four points yes, its a pain to draw because of the battens.
Once the battens are t, plane a 3 16"x 3 16" chamfer on Now you have a choice: Chuck up a 13 8" Forstner in your

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their long edges to reduce the physical and visual weight brace or cordless drill and eyeball the angle using a sliding
of the stool. bevel placed on the X. This is how I usually do it with chairs.
Or take the chicken road and do it on the drill press. Here,
Legging Up I demonstrate the chicken method. Make a small platform
By far the most stressful part of the project is legging up that bevels the seat at 16 on your drill presss table. Clamp

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where you bore the compound-angle holes through the the platform to the drill press. Chuck a 13 8" Forstner in your
battens and seat. Luckily, there are some chairmaking tricks drill press. Line up the long line of your X with the shank
that make this process a snap. of your bit and the post of your drill press. That will ensure
The rst trick is to ignore the fact that the legs are inserted the hole is at the true resultant angle. Drill through the seat

popularwoodworking.com 39
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INSTALL THE LEGS
and take it slow so you dont splinter
the seat when the bit breaks through.
Rotate the seat and repeat the pro-
cess for the three other holes.

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Brief Detours
Before Assembly
These stools have a handle in the
middle that makes them easy to carry

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around. This handhold is 1" x 3" and
runs parallel to the grain. Bore it out
using a brace and bit or a drill press and
nish the shape with rasps. Quick & awless. The platform raises the Set for life? Wedging the tenons will keep
Another thing you need to do before seat to the 16 resultant angle. The pencil them tight even after the glue fails. To prevent

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lines ensure that the angle is in relation to the splitting, the kerf in the tenon is perpendicular
assembly is to make some 1 8"-wide
3
centerpoint of the seat. to the grain of the seat.
wedges to drive into the tenons on
the legs. I use wedges that have a 6
included angle and are about 11 4" long. Make them from it is perpendicular to the grain of the stools top. If you dont
hardwood I usually use oak and make them by splitting do this, the wedge will split the seat.

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or sawing. (Ive provided a short video on the magazines Drive the wedges home. Stop tapping them when they
web site that shows how I do this on a band saw.) stop moving deeper into the tenon. Wait for the glue to dry,
If your tenons t tightly in the mortises, you will need then saw the tenons ush to the seat.
to saw kerfs in the tenons so the wedges will go in. If your Cut the feet so they sit at on the oor the magazine

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tenons are loose, you can split the tenon with a chisel after has a story on its web site that explains how to do this. Then
driving the legs home. break all the sharp edges on the stool with sandpaper.
Last detail: Chamfer the rim of your tenons with a rasp. Many of these stools were painted. I applied three coats of
This will help prevent your seat from splintering when you General Finishs Tuscan Red milk paint, sanding between
whack the legs in place. coats with a #320-grit sanding sponge.

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With the stools construction complete, you only have to
Traditional Glue wait for nature to take its course. One night while you are
I use hide glue for most things, but especially chairs and lying in bed youll hear a sharp crack or pop its the sound
stools. Any household article that will take abuse and might of your stools seat splitting and becoming historically ac-
require repair is an excellent candidate for hide glue because curate. PWM

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it is reversible and easily repaired.
Brush the glue on the mortise and the tenon and drive the Christopher Schwarz is the editor of Lost Art Press (lostartpress.com) and the author
legs home. If you sawed a kerf in the tenon, align the kerf so of a forthcoming book titled The Furniture of Necessity.

ONLINE EXTRAS

www.thetravellerest.com For links to all online extras, go to:


popularwoodworking.com/dec12

WEB: Visit Old Salems web site and plan a


visit there to see the town and the Museum

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of Early Southern Decorative Arts.
VIDEO: See how the author lays out an octa-
gon on a leg.
BLOG: Learn how to level the feet of a chair
or stool.

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VIDEO: See how to cut perfect wedges on the
band saw.
TO BUY: Furniture in the Southern Style, by
Robert W. Lang and Glen D. Huey.
IN OUR STORE: The Anarchists Tool Chest,

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by Christopher Schwarz.
Our products are available online at:
Friendly for the ngers. The 1" x 3" grip for the stool is a little tight for most adult hands, but it ShopWoodworking.com
looks right. You might consider making it a little bigger if you have big mitts.

40 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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P ROF I L E D
Inlays
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most prole bits and planes cut at 45
degrees, so just placing the banding in
the rabbet at 90 and cutting a prole
that slants at 45 would skew the inlay
detail it would be longer on the side.

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I determined that in order to work,
B Y R U TA G E R W E S T the inlay would have to be presented
at 45 too. Easier said than done. After
several attempts (all successful some
Decorative banding within moulding difcult and others wasteful), I have

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settled on the following method: Rip a
adds a distinctive detail. board at 45 and insert the inlay strip
in the cut.

F
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or my very rst veneer project, I
decided to make a curved-top jewelry
box. I knew I would need to use solid
my bench. A light bulb went off in my
head and I thought, why not make my
edgebanding from my inlay blank?
In this example, Im starting out
with a holly and ebony checkerboard
inlay packet no thicker than the middle
section of a 3 16"-radius corner bead
profile my plane or router bit could
wood on the edges to protect the fragile The process seemed easy enough: cut. I wanted the rest of the prole to

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veneer and I also wanted to embellish Cut a rabbet in the corner and ll it be lled in with holly, so the board I
the box with some geometric inlay with a thick slice from my inlay packet ripped at 45 was holly.
bands. At the same time I was draw- then run the prole with my new plane Because both holly and ebony are
ing up some inlay ideas, I was staring or a router bit. Well, I did a bit more expensive and sometimes hard to nd,
at a new moulding plane that was on thinking and realized that many if not I wanted to conserve my stock. I did

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Orientation. If the inlay banding is placed at a right angle
to the edge moulding, the pattern would be skewed when
the moulding is cut (top). Tilting the banding to a 45 angle Appearance. When the edge is proled, either with a moulding plane or a router,
eliminates that distortion (above). the checkerboard pattern appears within the edge of the bead.

PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR, ILLUSTRATIONS BY ROBERT W. LANG popularwoodworking.com 41


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MOULDED INLAY BLANK CUT, ANGLED & REASSEMBLED

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T he checkerboard blank is made by gluing square
strips of contrasting wood into a long block. This

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block is cut into short lengths that are then glued
between blocks of light-colored wood. When the glue
1
has thoroughly dried, square lengths are ripped at the
band saw.
Good insurance. Rather than work with small pieces close to sharp
blades, the inlay is glued between wide pieces of scrap material.

To form the tilted edge inlay, these squares are

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glued between the angled edges of other pieces of
wood. The extra width of all these pieces provides
a margin of safety for forming the small moulding.
After the beaded edge is created, the

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small moulding is ripped from
the wider piece and glued
into a rabbet. RW

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4 Tight squeeze. Cauls above and below the joint prevent the bevels
from sliding apart as clamps are tightened.

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so by attaching scrap stock to the edge My method is to use several clamps a 1 16" step of holly, making the total
of the inlay packet and the edge of the for the edge and then sandwich them width 5 16". The proled inlay can now
holly. Edge-gluing the scrap to the holly with two pieces of melamine board be glued into a 5 16" rabbet or make
also adds a safety margin for the rip by (so the glue doesnt stick,) with Bow- the rabbet 1 16" wider and add two 1 32"
moving the work away from the tilted clamp cauls. I tighten the cauls about stripes of contrasting wood for a more

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table saw blade, which makes the offcut 75 percent and then start alternating dramatic look.
safer to handle. Adding the scrap to the edge clamps and cauls until the boards Proled inlays are a great way to add
inlay maximizes the yield of the packet are at and the glue starts squeezing a decorative touch to your next project.
since you need a large width to ll the out. I leave the clamps on overnight. They can be used in a rabbet on the

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rip cut but only really need about a 1 4" After the glue dries and the clamps edge or can be put into a V-groove most
of the inlay for the prole. are removed, I rip off the edge side at anywhere in the eld of your project.
The next step is to glue the inlay 90 even with the edge of the inlay then You can use lots of different proles
into the 45 rip cut. I like to use a white plane the profile with a Bridge City and wood species to make your next
glue that dries with a clear glue line, HP-6 handplane. The prole can also box, picture frame or piece of furniture

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such as Elmers. Youll need to clamp be cut with a hand-held router or on a really stand out. PWM
the boards together both edge to edge router table.
and top to bottom to stop the boards The last step is to cut the inlay free Rutager is largely a self-taught woodworker. He lives
from just ramping off each other. from the board at the table saw leaving in St. Paul, Minn.

42 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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2 3
Conservative approach. The checkerboard inlay blank is glued to a
thin scrap and ripped to make the most of the inlay blank.
Margin of safety. Scrap is glued to the blank to conserve material
and keep the tilted blade away from the fence.

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5 6
Orientation. With the clamps removed, the blank is ready to be Router ready. The edge is trimmed at a right angle and the blank is
turned into moulding. ready to be proled.

ONLINE EXTRAS

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For links to all online extras, go to:
popularwoodworking.com/dec12

WOOD: Buy ebony and holly blanks to make


your own inlay banding.

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ARTICLE: Learn how to make diamond-shaped
inlay banding from Rob Millard in an article
from our October 2011 issue.
ARTICLE: Read a review from our April 2008
issue of the Bridge City moulding plane used
by the author in this article.

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IN OUR STORE: Woodworkers Guide to
Veneering and Inlay, a 168-page book by
Jonathan Benson.
IN OUR STORE: Creating Veneer, Marquetry &
Inlay DVD, a compilation of nine videos

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from master craftsmen.
Sitting pretty. The completed moulding is Our products are available online at:
ready to be set in a rabbet. ShopWoodworking.com

popularwoodworking.com 43
BODY
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MECHANICS
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www.thetravellerest.com BY JEFF MILLER

Get better woodworking results with these 12 tips.

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I ve been teaching now for more than 15 years. And in
that time Ive thought a lot about why students are or are
Stand up Straight? Actually, No
Woodworking is one example where standing up straight is

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not able to do certain things. Problems arise only rarely as a actually a bad idea. Why? Standing up straight puts you in
result of a student not having good information about how a position that is less balanced, less stable and less versatile
something should be done. Most know the steps involved. than what you need for effective woodworking.
Many are familiar with multiple methods of cutting dove- That doesnt mean you should slouch. Its just that good

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tails or mortise-and-tenon joints. The problems are almost posture for woodworking is more like that for many sports.
always more fundamental in nature. Woodworking is not really an athletic endeavor although
If youre having trouble with your dovetails, or even your it can certainly have its moments. But when youre trying to
band sawing, here are a dozen fundamental things to think do almost anything physical, learning how to use your body
about that may help. better will denitely pay off. Not surprisingly, many of the

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Stable stance. At left is the basic
woodworking stance; brace yourself
against your bench when more
stability is needed (right).

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44 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE November 2012 PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR
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basic principles from a variety of sports apply just
as much to woodworking.
Whats the better stance? Stand with your feet
shoulder width apart, one foot pointing forward and

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the other pointing off somewhere between 45 and
90. Your knees should be slightly bent, with your
hips pushed gently forward. Many woodworkers
will also lean against either the workbench or a
machine for additional stability.

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Whats better about this stance? It provides you a
balanced, stable platform for all of your work. And
when youve got that stability and balance, almost Alignment counts. Put your body in front of the saw (left) and you force your
wrist and shoulder to move out of alignment with the tool in order to make a
any woodworking task will be easier to control,
straight cut. Instead, align with the saw the parts of your body that are in motion.
whether it be planing, sawing, chiseling or even us-

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ing one of your stationary machines. Youll be able to
extend your reach farther without losing your balance, and takes advantage of the natural pivoting of your arm from the
be able to use your strength and weight to greater advantage. shoulder, and tends to tighten the gauges fence against the
This certainly isnt the only body position for woodwork- work as you pull. If you push the marking gauge, your arm

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ing, but its a really effective one. wants to pivot away from the work. The same pivoting action
affects your sanding. The natural tendency when sanding
Body Alignment from side to side is to sand in arcs. Its easier to sand straight
Lining up your body properly will also help you to do the with strokes that go out from and back toward your body.
work more accurately and efficiently. The key to this is

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proper alignment. Put Yourself (& the Wood) in the Right Place
For example, mis-alignment of your arms means you Setting your body up in a good position is more than just
have to rely on multiple coordinated movements to control stance and alignment, however. You need to be in a good
what youre doing. Its both less accurate and less powerful position to do the work. You also need to be able to see what
to add in this unnecessary or wasted movement. Its not needs to be seen. Getting these things right can be as simple

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impossible to work this way, but its easier to just eliminate as working at a good workbench. But that doesnt take care
the extraneous movement. of the problem if you fail to think about where you need to
When sawing, you should have your wrist and forearm be in relation to the work. Dont just put the workpiece on
lined up precisely with the back of the saw. This way, a simple, your bench a certain way because its easy to put it there.
pivoting movement from your shoulder and some exing at Ask yourself if youll be able to set up your body properly to

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the elbow will move the saw in a straight line. If your wrist is do the work and to see important lines or relationships at
exed (your forearm doesnt line up with the saw) and youre the same time. You wont be able to work effectively if your
standing in front of the board, your shoulder will have to body position or alignment are thrown off by a poor choice
twist and pivot, and your wrist has to bend and straighten in locating your work. And you cant chop, pare or saw square
(along with the elbow movement) to move the saw. This if you cant see what square is. A good bench allows for ex-

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will be much harder (although not impossible) to control.
In addition to increasing your accuracy, aligning your
body properly also means youll be putting less stress on
the joints and fatiguing muscles less as well. You lessen the

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chance of a repetitive-stress injury.

Take Advantage of How Your Body Works


You also need to pay attention to the way your body natu-
rally wants to move (also known as body mechanics). Take

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advantage of these natural tendencies and youll do better
Natural arc. The natural pivoting motion of the shoulder leads to
work. Work against them, and youll expend extra effort to a curved sandpaper path if you sand from side to side. For straight
overcome what your body naturally wants to do. For example, strokes, reposition the work (or yourself) to sand out from and back
pulling a marking gauge toward you as you scribe a line toward your body.

PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR popularwoodworking.com 45


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working more efciently as well. Your lower body muscles are
also much stronger than your upper body ones. And relying
The right on the stronger muscles to do the harder work makes sense.
working height.
A Moxon-style
In reality, some of the work inevitably gets done by your

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vise (this one other hand or other part of the body. But thinking about the
is from Bench- separation of chores this way will denitely help you to gain
crafted) can more control over your actions.
hold boards for
dovetailing (and
Stay Contained

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other work) at the
perfect height. You have more power and more accuracy close to your body.
So if youre looking to increase one or both of these, you
need to keep things close though not so close that youre
cramping your ability to work (but it might be closer than
you think). Most of the time, your elbows shouldnt stray

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ibility in securing your work for just this reason. too far from your torso. Even handplaning is best with your
When you finish one task and start to do something elbows close to your body no more than a foot away from
different, dont just leave the work where it was if that posi- your hips most of the time.
tion is no longer effective. Think about the best position for
what youre about to do. This may mean moving the work, Stop Working so Hard

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or moving yourself. Hard work and accurate work seldom go together.
Im also a rm believer in raising or lowering the work as Im not talking about your work ethic here. Rather, Im
necessary, rather than simply hunching up your shoulders talking about the idea that if youre straining or pushing too
or bending over and straining your back. Youre better off hard or cutting too fast, youre creating a whole slew of ac-

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adjusting the work to suit the best body position instead of curacy problems. This is as true with machines, where youll
contorting yourself to accommodate the work. see vibration, chatter and
torn-out bers, as it is for
Separate Force & Control hand tools.
Most woodworking involves pushing or pulling either a tool And its also true for

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or the wood in a controlled way. In most cases it helps to think your body. You need to
about force behind the movement and the control over the get a feel for how hard
tool or the wood as separate issues. One part of your body to push or how fast you
should be responsible for the push or pull (the force), and can cut before things
another for the precise control. So you may be controlling break down. And then

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a chisels position with your hands and arms and possibly nd ways to work within
your shoulders, and applying force with shoulders, your core those limits.
or your legs. Or youll subtly adjust the pressure on the front This doesnt mean you
and back of a handplane with your hands and arms while cant work fast and hard
pushing the plane forward with your lower body. up to the point where ac-

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The same concept applies when you hold a board against curacy matters and then
Too fast? If you cut too aggressively
the rip fence and down on the surface of the table saw with slow down to get it all ex- with a router, the results suffer. In
your left hand as you push the board through with your right actly right. It means that the mortises above (which are sliced
hand. And also when you have to hold a tool at a constant pushing for hard and fast in half lengthwise), you can see
angle for freehand sharpening. has consequences for the chatter on the top. On the bottom

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is a mortise routed at an appropriate
Separation of force and control usually means youre accuracy and cleanliness
speed.
of your cuts.

Balanced pres- Stay Relaxed

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sure. You can Its common to tense up when trying to learn a new way of
plane a convex doing something physical. Adding in the thought that you
curve with a should relax is not always benecial (although sometimes
straight plane
you just have to
it helps). Instead, try to break down the task into smaller
learn to balance components and work on one simplied task until you can

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the pressure on do it without tension. Then add in the next component.
the tool between Its particularly helpful to commit to working on muscle
your hands. memory separate from accuracy and detail. Dont stress
about accuracy right away, either. It comes from a few things:

46 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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using your body correctly and without added movement or At the table saw, that might mean watching the blade cut the
tension, an awareness of exactly where you need to cut and wood. Sure, you need to be aware of where the blade is so
experimenting to see how you can best put these things you can keep your hands away, but watching the blade cut
together. Then it takes practice. Sometimes lots of practice. wont affect the quality of the cut. Watching to be sure that

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the board stays tight to the rip fence is far more important,
Seek Out Feedback and will have a direct impact on the cut quality. Likewise,
Its really helpful to have someone else look at your work, watching the shavings coming out of a handplane is cool,
especially if that person is more skilled than you are. You but the edge of the board youre planing will tell you much
need to learn to see more in the work, and having someone more about whats going on (although the shavings can

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else point things out to you is an invaluable start. tell you if the blade is skewed in the plane, and you should
But feedback should come much earlier than at the end check that each time you start planing). Choose to look at
of the project. whats important.

Learn to Accept Mistakes

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No one wants to make mistakes. But fear of making mis-
Plane feedback.
Be sure to watch
takes, or trying to avoid them by avoiding new challenges
for the uneven that might lead to mistakes, means you wont develop as
removal of stock quickly as a woodworker. Afraid youll spoil good wood?
as evidence of Use cheaper stuff.

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planing out of
square. You can
see this on the top
Learn How to Practice
leg. The leg on You really cant skip practice. You need to get good enough at
the bottom is still basic skills before you can add in or move on to additional,

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square across. more challenging skills.
For example, if youre not already comfortable with your
saw technique, then the simple fact that youre trying to saw
to a line will mean you have to concentrate on that, and your
Theres a very rich stream of feedback available to you saw technique will likely fall apart. You need to get good

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as you work. Your hands, eyes, ears and even nose provide enough at the motions of sawing that you can do it without
you with all kinds of useful information. You need to pay thinking. This means youve established certain neural
attention to this feedback for a couple of reasons. First, not pathways that are ready to work even if they arent given
noticing what youre doing as you do it, with all of the detail much thought. This is sometimes called muscle memory.
available, is like driving your car without paying attention And the only way to get it is to practice.

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to what youre doing. You dont wait until youre in the ditch It doesnt take a huge amount of time, but all the reading
to correct your steering; dont wait until your work is a in the world wont do it. You cant learn to ride a bicycle by
mess before paying attention to your reading about it, and woodworking is
woodworking. pretty much the same. PWM
Second, the more you observe of the

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sights, sounds, feel and smell of wood- Jeff is author of the new
working as you go, the more youll be book The Foundations
of Better Woodworking
able to correlate certain feels, sights and (Popular Woodworking) in
sounds with success. How does the plane which he writes on how to
feel in your hand when it works especial- use your body, tools and

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materials to do your best
ly well? How does it sound? What does work. Its now available at
it look like when you plane perfectly? shopwoodworking.com.
What about the sound of the jointer or
planer when youre going against the
ONLINE EXTRAS

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grain as opposed to with the grain?
Make it a habit to pay attention to For links to all online extras, go to:
all of these things more and more, and popularwoodworking.com/dec12
your work will improve. BLOG: Read Jeff Millers blog.

REVIEW: Read Andy Brownells review of

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Learn at What to Look Practice. Planing a short board upright
against a single bench dog is a good way to The Foundations of Better Woodworking.
Its not as simple as it sounds. A lot of learn about balance and pressure when plan- Our products are available online at:
the time, the temptation is to watch ing. Practice enough and your muscles will ShopWoodworking.com
something that is completely irrelevant. retain the knowledge.

popularwoodworking.com 47
Parquetry
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Tabletop
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B Y H E AT H E R T R O S DA H L

Grain pattern inspires a new


take on a pinwheel design.

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I originally made this table dur- parquetry the joining of many pieces tent throughout the piece. (If you need

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ing my rst year at the College of the of wood to make a geometric pattern. resawing instruction, see Successful
Redwoods Fine Woodworking Pro- But what pattern? This is where the Resawing at popularwoodworking.
gram. For our second project we are possibilities are endless and can be com/dec12.)
encouraged to incorporate shop-sawn somewhat overwhelming. Revisiting the tabletop design for this

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veneers in some way. My plan was sim- Luckily, I had a ame-like graphic article, I decided to use black walnut,
ple: I wanted to make a table out of a at the end of my board and I thought one of my favorite domestic woods. It
small but beautiful piece of red narra it a shame to destroy its potential by has rich grain characteristics, is readily
(an exotic from Southeast Asia). I knew slicing it in to smaller pieces. Instead, available and is relatively easy to work.
it had to be a veneered top to get the I cut a template window that framed For this top I used one 1" x 8" x 48"

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most out of this unusual board, and I this part of my board, which allowed me board of black walnut with a combina-
wanted it to be simple in design to allow to notice a wedge shape that evoked a tion of wild-grain graphics from the
the wood to speak for itself. I decided petal-like form, or a blade on a windmill at-sawn part of the board and straight
to resaw the board and nd a pleasing rather than a symmetrical wedge suit- grain from the quartersawn edges; both
layout by slipmatching my veneers. able for a starburst. I liked this shape, so are necessary for the pattern. I resawed

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Once I cut the veneers I realized I I used the window to search for other another small board consisting of most-
didnt like how this particular board areas on the veneer that would work ly vertical grain for the underside of the
looked when slipmatched. Bookmatch- with this same shape. I found a total of tabletop. Note that you should saw the
ing, or even ipping parts end to end, three petals per veneer leaf. veneers for both sides of the table at
presented unwelcome chatoyance. No From there, one question guided the same time to make them the same

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matter how I arranged the veneers and me through the next stage: Can I use thickness. Its important that the two
depending on the direction of the light the chatoyance inherent in the wood to
they shifted from lighter to darker in accentuate the already implied move-
color, highlighting the fact that I was ment in, say, a pinwheel pattern? And
joining separate pieces of wood to make so it begins.

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the top.
To my eyes, neither option was go- Shop-sawn Veneers
ing to do this board any justice. Then Using shop-sawn veneers for parquetry
it dawned on me: I was approaching takes a lot of the worry out of the work.

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this project with a solid-wood mindset. At 1 16" to 3 32" thick, shop-sawn ve-
Now that I was working with veneers I neers are not as delicate as commercial
could put aside my concerns for wood veneers, and shop-sawn veneers can
movement, multiplying the possibili- be worked like solid wood. The extra
ties. So why not take this opportunity thickness allows handplaning and pro-

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to explore something new? led edges. If you are working with a
I turned to my wood for some guid- larger board, you can combine veneer Saw your own. Resawing your own veneer
ance: How can I use the chatoyance and solid wood from the same plank allows you to control the thickness and grain
as part of the design? The answer: to keep the colors and textures consis- pattern to suit specic goals.

48 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR


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sides are balanced and that the bottom Cut four strips of walnut
veneer is crossbanded (like plywood) that are about 38" x 78" x 2218",
to ensure maximum stability once the slightly larger than the dimen-
veneers are glued to the substrate. sions of the substrate edge.
Prepare for clamping the

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Prepare the Substrate edge banding. The screw pres-
For your substrate, you can use a at sure of your clamps should be
piece of 3 4" plywood, cut into a 22" centered in the middle of the
x 22" square. Clean up the rough stock. The use of cauls at least
plywood edges with ne sandpaper 3 4" thick between the banding

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wrapped around a hard block. and the clamps will protect the
However, because the plywood edge banding and better distribute
will never get completely smooth and I clamp pressure. Get set. To attach your edge banding, elevate
nd plywood unpleasant to handplane, Elevate your substrate on the substrate and position the clamps and
I add solid wood to the edges of the cauls (faced with tape to resist the

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cauls. Then spread glue on the plywood and
substrate. You can easily plane the solid glue), and place a caul under each end walnut, rub the pieces together for even glue
distribution, and tape and clamp the edge
edges smooth and square and guarantee of the clamps. Brush glue on to both
banding in place.
a good glue surface for the edge banding. the plywood edge and the banding and
Often I will use something inexpen- rub the two back and forth to evenly

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sive and easy to plane, such as poplar, spread the glue. Now position the edge moving on to the two remaining edges.
but for this project I recommend using banding and use some blue tape to hold With all edges ush to the surface,
the same species of wood as your ve- it in place. Glue the banding on two use a handplane to square the edge-
neers; that provides extra security to opposing sides at the same time and banded substrate.
guard against planing through when then clamp it down.

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proling the edges. If you choose this After allowing the glue to dry, use a Draw Your Pattern
method, cut your plywood substrate handsaw to cut off the extra lengths of Begin by laying out the only two lines
square 3 8" smaller than your final the edge banding, then use a handplane which go from edge to edge uninter-
tabletop dimensions: so, 215 8" x 215 8". to ush it to the substrate surface before rupted.

popularwoodworking.com 49
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1. Your rst line divides the sub- point 78" at the bottom near center. Do Art is pattern informed
strate in two parts, almost diagonally, this for each corner and label this petal by sensibility.
but not corner to corner. Because of the with the appropriate letter preceded by Herbert Read (1892-1968),
pinwheel pattern, begin the line 53 8" the number 3. English poet and literature & critic

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to the right of the top left corner and 5. For the last petal, move counter-
connect it to a point 53 8" from the left clockwise, connecting a point on the
side of the bottom right corner. edge 4" to the left of the corner and grain graphics at the end of my board.
2. Draw the second line to divide it connect it to a point 78" to the left of This is my favorite part, so I reserve
into four. Move clockwise to the next center. Do this for each corner and label it for the largest corner petal (#4) for

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corner and measure out 53 8" to the these petals with the appropriate letter each quadrant.
right of the top right corner and con- and the number 2. I use the remaining windows to
nect the line to a point 53 8" from the 6. The remaining triangles should find interesting flat-sawn graphics
left side of the bottom left corner. be labeled with the appropriate letter elsewhere in my stack of veneers, and
3. Draw a line from each corner, and the number 1, as shown in photo reserve the vertical grain for the tri-

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connecting it to a point 1" from the 4 (bottom, right). Now the pattern is angle shapes.
center of the two main intersecting complete and we have the parts prop- Keep in mind that you need enough
lines. Now we have our rst petal for erly labeled for layout and assembly. material for each shape times four. Each
each corner. Label these petals with a shape can have a different grain pattern,
letter for each corner preceded by the Locate the Shapes but all four of any one shape should

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number 4 (4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, as shown in Make viewing windows for each have a similar graphic, with grain run-
photo 2, below, right). shape to frame locations in the veneer ning in the same direction, so try to take
4. For the next petal, work clock- and help visualize the selection after its each shape from the same area of each
wise, connecting a point on the edge, cut (See Make Template Windows on of the four source veneers. (I was care-

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33 8" to the right of the rst petal to a page 51). In this case, I have interesting ful not to ip any veneers for the petal
shapes so the chatoyant effect would
be the same for each group of petals.)
PATTERN LAYOUT Once you nd your parts in your ma-
terial, trace the inside of the templates

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with a dark pencil, leaving enough
room around each piece for sawing.
If you plan to include waterfall edge
banding as I did, set aside the offcuts
from each shape. Label them to make

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it easier to match the grain once the
parquetry veneer is complete.
To make sure you have enough ma-
terial for the whole pattern, lay out all
the parts on to your veneers before you

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Photo 1 Photo 2
start cutting.
To make the cuts I used a band saw
with a ne blade and a zero-clearance
table bed. The bed is simply a thin piece
of plywood cut to the dimensions of

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the band saw table. Turn the saw on
and feed the ply through the saw until
the sheet covers the whole table. Use
double-sided tape or clamps to keep

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the sheet in place. This zero-clearance
bed should reduce any chip out on the
bottom of the veneers but to be safe
I cut 1 16" beyond the inside edges and
plane to t as the pieces are assembled.

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Photo 3 Photo 4 Also leave some extra material
(between 1 4"-1 2") at the edges that
Draw the pattern. The lines and labels in the images above are explained in steps one through six will become the outside edges of your
in the section above titled Draw the Pattern. tabletop. This will give you extra mate-

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MAKE TEMPLATE WINDOWS GRAIN SELECTION

www.thetravellerest.com Largest rst. First select the area from your


veneer that will make up the largest portion of

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your pattern.

B ecause there are only four different shapes for the pinwheel pattern that
are repeated at each corner, we only have to make four template win-
dows to complete the pattern.
Trace each of the four shapes onto tracing paper. Then take these shapes

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and lightly tape the corners to trace them with a straightedge onto white
card stock. Leave yourself enough
room to add a second line around the
outside of each shape for the frame.

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Use an X-Acto knife to cut out the Continuous pattern. Locate the smaller pat-
inside lines for each shape, then tern pieces contiguously on a wide band of
cut the outside line to release each straight grain.
shape from the sheet of card
stock. HT

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rial and the wiggle room needed if you
accidentally plane past your template
ished with the top (see pictures at the
top of the next page).

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line and need to slide the part inward Note: If you decide on simple edge
to get some extra width. banding, reserve four straight grain
The extra length is also a good place veneer strips slightly larger than your
to hold the assembly down if you need substrate edge in width and length.
to atten it before its glued to the sub-

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strate. Prepare Your Veneer Pieces
Start by making a simple veneer shoot-
Start Underneath ing board to hold the parts while you Careful sawing. With a zero-clearance bed
in place on your band-saw table, cut out your
To practice joining edges before you clean up the edges. The veneer is placed
pattern pieces.
move on to the parquetry, start by on a piece of ply large enough to fully

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piecing together the underside of your support your veneers and faced on one
tabletop rst. This is a fairly easy place side with sandpaper to help hold the
to begin because the bottom is simply veneer in place.
made up of four or ve wider strips of Place your rst piece, part (1A) on
straight-grain veneer. You will use the the board with one edge protruding

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same techniques described below slightly beyond the edge of the shoot-
shooting each edge of the veneer pieces ing board. Use a jointer plane on its
then gluing one seam at a time until side, pushing it along the surface of the
youve reached your nal dimensions benchtop. (Its important your bench-

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(See Shooting Perfect Edge Joints on top is at, your plane side is square to
page 52 for additional information). the bottom of the plane and the blade
To glue up these veneers, rst tape is sharp and taking even shavings.)
the seam together on one side, place To make sure your edges match
the mating parts between two clamped up perfectly, you may want to mark

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cauls and tap in wedges to add extra which side is up when you plane the
Quick shooting board. With a at bench,
clamping pressure to the seam. Then edge. Then ip and mark the mating a piece of plywood topped with adhesive-
store it somewhere at with a heavy part upside down and plane the join- backed sandpaper and a jointer plane, youve
piece of ply covering it until youre n- ing edge. This way the parts will still an almost-instant shooting board.

popularwoodworking.com 51
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Lay out the bottom. The underside is made up of wide
strips of straight-grain veneer. Practice your glue lines on
the simpler underside before tackling the top.
Glue up the bottom. The extra thickness of shop-sawn ve-
neers allows for stronger clamping across a panel glue-up.
Tap in wedges at the corners to snug things up tight.

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join together even if the edges arent pull the tape tight and secure to the also need a glue bottle with a small
perfectly square. mating piece. If youre using veneer opening so that you can place a small
Plane the edges of the rst piece (1A) tape you can place an additional piece bead of glue along these narrow edges.
until they t the space on your pattern, lengthwise with the seam. Once they Cut some strips of tape in 3" or 4"
leaving only the top outer edge long by are taped together and the top edge lengths. Weighted bars or wooden

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planing it just outside your rst outer looks good, ip it over to make sure the cauls with a clear tape covering the
pencil line. Plane the edge of 2A that seam looks good on the bottom, too. surface serve to keep the veneer and
mates with 1A. The two edges should If the seam is open, take it back to the glue joint at.
meet up perfectly. shooting board and check to see that Place your parts with the taped seam

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Before you glue these pieces together youre cutting square. If both sides look down on the table. Fold the piece open
make sure the seam looks good on the good then youre ready for a glue-up. slightly and apply a thin bead of glue
top and bottom. To do this, tape them along the entire edge. Tape the top seam
together on one side with nylon-rein- Time for Glue-up together the same way you taped the
forced strapping tape or veneer tape. Use a at, laminated tabletop for gluing other side. Place a weighted bar or

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Apply half of the tape to one piece, up veneers, and wax the surface to make clamp a caul over the seam to ensure
starting in the center, butt up the edges, clean up easier between glue-ups. Youll it stays at. Repeat the same process
to join 1B and 2B, 1C and 2C, and so
SHOOTING PERFECT EDGE JOINTS on. By the time you glue up 1D and 2D
the glue-up from the rst batch will be

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Y ou must be careful not to rely on force to bring edge seams together, ready to work.
especially at the ends. If you force a gap together, youre going to see the Match the glued-up pieces to the
seam open up in the future. If you are having trouble closing the gaps on the pattern on your substrate, then plane
outer edges, its likely because youre diving in and out of your cuts with the the remaining edge of 1A that will mate
handplane as you shoot the edges of the veneer pieces. with 3A. Be careful this edge is now

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To solve this, start out with the nose of your plane at on the edge, apply a combination of edge and end grain.
pressure only to the front of the plane and pull the plane forward into the Make sure your blade is sharp and it
cut. Push your plane along the edge, shifting your pressure to the center and shouldnt be a problem. Plane the edge
then shifting it again to the back of the plane toward the end of the edge, and of A3 to your pencil line and join the
lift off to complete the cut. two edges. Repeat the steps above for

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At rst, practice this with slow, deliberate movements to get the feel for the same parts from each quadrant.
it. After shooting a couple of edges successfully, youll develop the muscle Clean up the remaining edge of 2A
memory to join these edges quickly and uidly. HT (also a combination of edge and end
grain) to the pencil line and do the same

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with the mating edge of 4A. Repeat the
steps above until you have four sections.
Clean up the remaining edges on the
four parts to just outside the pencil line
before moving to the next joint. Joint

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and glue the edge of 4A to the edge of 3B.
Do the same for 4C and D3. Now youve
two halves and youre almost done.
The bigger the piece gets, the more

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you need to handle it with care. Joining ASSEMBLE THE PATTERN
the two halves is the trickiest joint yet,
because youll have grain going in every
direction. Make sure your plane blade

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is nice and sharp and set to take ne
shavings. Once the pattern is complete,
theres only a little more clean-up before
you glue the veneers to the substrate.

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Apply Veneer to Substrate
Plane the outer edges even to the pencil
1. Glue. After taping the seam on one side, 2. Tape. After the glue is applied, apply pieces
line using a piece of 1 2" ply to fully sup- fold the pieces open just enough to run a thin of tape across the seam and move on to the
port and elevate the veneer sheet. The bead of glue down the edge. next edge joint while this one dries.
top and bottom veneer sheets should be

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only slightly larger than the substrate,
by about 1 16" on each side. Position the
top and bottom and make some clear
registration marks on the edges and
top/bottom surfaces. Use a dark pencil

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or white wax pencil so the marks are
easy to see during the glue-up.

Shop-made Veneer Press

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My veneer press consists of two plat- 3. Pattern matching. After each glue-up, 4. Quadrants. Work on the overall pattern in
ens and two pieces of card stock. The match the workpiece to the pattern on the quadrants, repeating the shoot then glue-up
substrate to determine where to plane the process until you have four workpieces.
platens are thick in order to disperse
next pieces to t.
clamp pressure. Each platen is two 3 4"
pieces of plywood glued together, with

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card stock on the pressing faces. The line up on both the top and bottom Waterfall Edge Banding
card stock will absorb small height veneers and use blue tape along the Now youre ready for edge banding. You
variations in the veneer. (If you have edges to secure the two pieces in place. may opt for straight-grain continuous
too much height variation you may Place it, top up, on the paper-covered banding (which is faster), but I think
have to use a scraper or sanding block platen and add a piece of paper, then a waterfall edge is an important detail

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to level out the veneers before you put card stock, and a second platen to the that adds dimension and another level
them in the press.) top. Place your cambered cauls and of completeness to the nished piece.
Set up a few cauls on a tabletop or a start clamping from center out on each To prepare for this stage you will
pair of sawhorses and place ve cam- side. Check for even glue squeeze-out need the veneer offcuts we set aside
bered battens on top of the cauls. Place on all sides and adjust clamping pres- earlier, a sliding square or ruler, and

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the rst platen followed by a sheet of sure or add clamps as needed. Leave a shooting board. Locate all four of
card stock and then a piece of paper on the glue-up overnight to dry. the offcuts that mate up with the parts
top of that. Place your substrate bottom After removing the tabletop from from one edge.
up and place your veneer sheet nearby. the press, use a handplane to ush the
Because moisture from the glue on one veneer edges. Clamp the top to the side

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side of the veneer can cause it to curl of a bench and plane down the edges in
you should apply a liberal amount of the same way you did with the banding.
glue to the substrate only. Here, the surface for your plane to
Use an ink brayer (found at art sup- ride on is much narrower so its impor-

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ply stores) to distribute the glue quickly tant to be aware of this and keep your
and evenly. hand pressure even and the plane bot-
Using your registration marks, posi- tom parallel across the edge to prevent
tion the veneer sheet and lightly tape the cuts from diving off at the edge or
the veneer in two spots or carefully cutting into your edge banding. Your

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hold it in place as you flip it over to nal plane stroke should take an even
the top side. shaving, including the edge banding. Registration. Mark where your veneer glue-
Repeat these steps for the top veneer. Before moving on, check that your up meets the substrate, and make sure you
Make sure the registration marks still edges are square. can easily see the marks.

popularwoodworking.com 53
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Find a place on the scrap veneer tion). Shoot the edge of the rst piece of out from the rst piece before tting
that lines up the best with its mating banding that will mate up with second the second. Shoot both edges of the
part in the pattern and mark it with a piece to the rst line, and leave the and second piece until it lines up with its
cabinetmakers triangle. leave the outer edges slightly proud of mating petal. Apply glue to the second

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Shoot the end of scrap veneer before the substrate corner. section and place a piece of tape to hold
you cut it into a smaller piece. Draw a Use a brush to distribute the glue the piece in place. Place a second piece
line to mark the width of the piece so evenly to one section at a time, and of tape, lengthwise this time, and use
its slightly larger than the substrate tape the banding in place so it doesnt it to pull the edge of the second piece
edge. Locate each of the four pieces shift while clamping. Place the caul tight against the rst piece. Use a couple

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you need for one side and cut them out and clamp it down. more pieces of tape to hold the piece in
slightly oversized. Allow 20 or 30 minutes for the glue place on the substrate edge.
Use a square to draw lines to divide to set and remove the clamps to add the Use a square to check that the band-
the edge into four parts (one each to second piece of veneer. Use a chisel or a ing hasnt slipped while taping. Then
match each top pattern piece in a sec- plane blade to remove any glue squeeze- place a caul over both edge pieces and

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clamp it up. Repeat these steps; gluing
PRESS THE VENEER one piece at a time until one side is n-
ished. Allow a couple hours of clamping
time before working this new edge.
Meanwhile, you can search for your

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parts for the remaining edges. Once
Press. You can make the glue has fully dried, ush up the
a simple veneer press ends of the banding to the substrate
consisting of plywood top before moving on to the next edge.
platens faced with

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Use the same planing techniques
card stock, sitting
atop cambered cauls. as you did for ushing the edge band-
ing, and be careful not to cut into the
surface veneers. To avoid this you may
leave these edges a plane stroke or two

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proud of the surface; youll take it the
rest of the way when you clean up the
surface. Repeat these steps for the re-
maining edges.

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Roll on. You need to
distribute the glue
Prepare for Finish
quickly and evenly To clean up the surfaces and prepare
to your substrate and them for nish, start by using a scraper
veneer. An ink brayer to remove any glue and veneer tape
is ideal for this job. from the pattern seams. Because of

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the parquetry pattern, there is grain
running in every direction, so I use
a large, hard sanding block to atten
the top. Depending on the amount of
attening required, start with #180- or

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#220-grit paper and sand in a circular
motion working in patterns across
the surface and diagonally until the
surface is at.

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To ensure circular scratches are
eliminated, switch to a small, cork-
padded block with #320-grit paper for
the last round of circular sanding, then
switch to #400 grit and carefully sand

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with the grain in each section.
Apply pressure. Cambered cauls atop and below your
press allow for even pressure distribution across the Because the design of this table is
glue-up. You should see even glue squeeze-out around angular I decided to chamfer all my
all the edges. edges rather than cut a roundover.

54 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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WATERFALL EDGE BANDING I prefer a matte nish for most of
my projects, and protection is also a
concern with a tabletop. For this top, I
used several coats of Epifanes Rubbed

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Effect Finish (a quick-drying interior
varnish) cut 50/50 with thinner to n-
ish the top. With a very light hand,
I sanded between coats with a some
worn-out #600-grit sandpaper backed

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by a cork block. For the nal coat, I
applied Epifanes Wood Finish Matte
Varnish to reduce the gloss.
Pattern match. Check your offcuts against the Add a little. Shoot one edge of your offcut,
After applying nish to my top, I
pattern on top to determine what matches up then mark off that edge the width of the table-
was nally able to see the effect the

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best with what. top plus a tiny bit extra.
chatoyance had on my pattern. It did
add a level of depth and subtle motion
that gives this piece an interactive qual-
ity: As the viewer walks around the
table the color shifts enough to make

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the petals appear to be in motion. The
result, I think, is a piece that embodies
the spirit of a maker at play.
I didnt want to constrain this free-

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spirited pinwheel by simply planting
it on the oor with four legs, bound by
Dont skimp on tape. After applying glue, Apply pressure. Use a caul across opposite stretchers or aprons. To me, the only
each piece of waterfall veneer must be taped edges to distribute the pressure. Work in sec- option was giving it a lift on a pedestal
securely in place so it doesnt shift during tions and allow the glue to set before moving base. I took some cues from the top to

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clamping. to the next section along an edge. create a similar pinwheel effect with
the base. The result is a base that sup-
Keep in mind the thickness of your diving in and out of your cuts; the block ports the pinwheel pattern, but does
veneer: There are only so many plane helps only to maintain a consistent not distract from the main story. PWM
passes you can take before you hit the angle. You may want to line the bottom

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edge banding (or worse, plywood, if with something soft (cork or felt) to Heather is a graduate of the College of the Red-
you elected not to edge the substrate). keep it from scratching the top as you woods. Her work has won international awards and
been featured in several galleries and magazines. The
While the walnut edge on the sub- push it across the surface. design shown here earned an Award of Excellence at
strate does add some security when After chamfering, lightly le then the Sonoma County Wood Fair. Currently, Heather
edge proling, to be most effective, the burnish the corners (I like the two- is building custom pieces and creating a small line of

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production furniture for Studio Proxima. She can be
waterfall pattern needs to ow over the sided le/burnisher from Glen-Drake reached at heathertrosdahl@gmail.com.
edge uninterrupted; that can only be Toolworks).
achieved if you keep the pro le size
within the thickness of your veneers. ONLINE EXTRAS
To be on the safe side, cut the cham- For links to all online extras, go to:

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popularwoodworking.com/dec12
fers with a block plane rather than a
BLOG: For more information on resawing
router. That way, you can keep an eye
your own veneer, see the authors Tips for
on the veneer thickness and take only Successful Resawing on the Editors Blog.
enough shavings to blend the edge and
WEB SITE: Epifanes nishes can be found at

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surface veneers seamlessly. Jamestown Distributors.
To help maintain a constant angle for
WEB SITE: For the le/burnisher the author
your plane, cut a small block, about the uses, visit Glen-Drake Toolworks.
size of a small block plane, with a at
IN OUR STORE: For more design inspiration,
on the bottom to ride along the table- read Oscar P. Fitzgeralds Studio Furniture

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top and your desired chamfer angle on of the Renwick Gallery.
Guide block. To maintain an even chamfer,
one side. Use it to guide your plane for cut a small block of wood with your desired Our products are available online at:
an even chamfer along each edge. As chamfer angle and back the surface that rides ShopWoodworking.com
always, make sure your plane is not on the tabletop with cork or felt.

popularwoodworking.com 55
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56 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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Acanthus Workshop

Apprenticeshop, The
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57

56
1

74
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apprenticeshop.org
Keller & Company
PAGE # CARD # WEB ADDRESS

56 26 kellerdovetail.com

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Lake Erie Toolworks 56 70 lakeerietoolworks.com
Beall Tool Company 56 2 bealltool.com Lee Valley Cvr 4 28 leevalley.com
Bloxygen 57 3 bloxygen.com
Leigh Industries 17, 19 - leighjigs.com
Connecticut Valley School
of Woodworking 56 64 schoolofwoodworking.com Lie-Nielsen Toolworks 9 29 lie-nielsen.com
Craftsman Plans 56 - craftsmanplans.com MLCS 61 81 mlcswoodworking.com

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Craftsman Studio 56 5 craftsmanstudio.com
Old English 56 34 www.oefcc.com
Di Legno Woodshop Supply 57 6 dlws.com
Oneida Air Systems 9 35 oneida-air.com
EBAC industrial Products 17 10 ebacusa.com
Philadelphia Furniture Workshop 56 - philadelphiafurnitureworkshop.com
Epilog Laser 13 56 epiloglaser.com
Porter Cable Cvr 3 84 portercable.com
Forrest Mfg. 21 13 forrestblades.com

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RadarCarve 19 38 radarcarve.net
Frederick Wilbur Woodcarver 57 15 frederickwilbur-woodcarver.com

Furniture Institute of Massachusetts 56, 57 16 furnituremakingclasses.com Royalwood Ltd. 57 no royalwoodltd.com

Gorilla Glue 19 18 gorillaglue.com School at Annapolis Woodworks 57 43 annapoliswoodworks.com

Gregory Paolini Designs 57 19 gregorypaolini.com Shellac.net 57 90 shallac.net

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Grex USA 13 20 grexusa.com Tools for Working Wood 23 45 toolsforworkingwood.com
Grizzly Industrial Cvr 2, 1 57 grizzly.com
Wall Lumber 23 47 walllumber.com
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Whitechapel Ltd. 56 48 whitechapel-ltd.com
Harbor Freight 63 76 harborfreight.com
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Highland Woodworking 19 22 highlandwoodworking.com
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JDL Company 56 88 jdltes.com Woodpeckers 2 52 woodpeck.com

Jim Bode Tools 57 24 jimbodetools.com Woodworkers Source 56 53 woodworkerssource.com

John Campbell Folk School 57 25 folkschool.org Woodworkers Supply 19 54 woodworker.com

popularwoodworking.com 57
I CAN DO THAT BY TOM NUNLIST
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Bookshelf & Wine Rack
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This simple modular shelf offers plenty

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of options for reconguration.

O
ne symptom of my pervasive
early 20s restlessness is that I

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regularly overhaul my apart-
ment, completely rearranging the fur-
niture and dcor once a month or so.
Its not so much that I cant settle on a
suitable arrangement, but that suit-

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ability itself has a rather short shelf
life. As such, Ive become a huge fan of
modular furniture design. Always eager
to assume multiple roles, furniture of

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this kind wants to be rearranged just
as much as I want to rearange it.
Thats what inspired me to design
my inaugural project for the magazine
(with help from Robert W. Lang, ex-

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ecutive editor). This bookshelf/wine
rack will help solve a problem common Building the Modules helpful to have an extra pair of hands
to evenings spent beside the hearth Now that you have the basic component to hold the sides together children
whether to drink or read by gently pieces, its time to start constructing the are particularly suited to this task, if
encouraging both. The shelf can also be individual boxes. Each box is joined you have any lying around.

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reoriented to sit in a standard position, with rabbets that are glued together, Check the boxes with your combina-
and allows for expansion by building and then nailed for reinforcement. Two tion square before adding a few clamps,
additional modules as you like. rabbets are cut into each 14" length of and then check for square again. Its
At the home center, I picked up board one at each end, and on the vital that you check twice because the
two 8' lengths of 1"x10" yellow pine. same side of course. Cut these using force of the clamps can throw the boxes

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Because the boards are cut down to a router with a 3 4" bit set for 1 4" deep. out of square. Adjust as necessary, and
short lengths for the sides of the box To set up this cut, I rst marked the then leave the glue to dry overnight.
modules, theres no need to fret if the width of the rabbet from the end of the The next day, drill pilot holes for
lumber you nd has a bit of a bow or board, and then aligned the router to 6d nails (four to each rabbet) and tap
twist (a problem common to big-box the line. I marked the edge of the router them in to reinforce the joint.

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lumber); imperfections will be worked base, drew a line and clamped down
out during construction. a piece of scrap that acts as a fence.
First, you need to cut the 12 box Mark this same distance from the end
sides to size. To accommodate the rab- of the board to the fence on the rest

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bets used to join the sides, youll need of your boards. I used a combination
to cut six 14" lengths from one board square to be positive the rabbets were
and six 13" lengths from the other. I reproduced identically.
used a miter saw, but a circular saw will When all the rabbets have been
work just as well provided you use a cut, its time to put the boxes together.

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piece of scrap as a fence to guide it. Set Standing two 14" rabbeted pieces, and
aside the extra wood from the ends; two 13" pieces on their sides, line up the
this will provide the material needed shape of the box and apply a little glue Rabbets & fences. Set up a fence to keep the
for the mitered shelf in the middle unit. to the joint surfaces. At this point, its router perfectly straight.

LEAD PHOTO BY AL PARRISH;


58 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 STEP PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR; ILLUSTRATIONS BY ROBERT W. LANG
www.thetravellerest.com 13"
14"

Bookshelf & Wine Rack

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NO. ITEM DIMENSIONS (INCHES) MATERIAL COMMENTS
T W L

4 Sides 34 914 14 Pine Rabbet both ends


12"
4 Sides 34 914 13 Pine

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1 Shelf 34 914 12 Pine 45 bevel both ends

1 2" 3 4"
before making the with non-rabbet on the other. The con-
second cut. tinuity wont stand out as a feature, but

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91 4" Installing the shelf discontinuity will.
in the box may seem a Clamp the boxes together and tweak
bit tricky. The piece, which the alignment as necessary. Drill four
ts snugly into exactly the countersunk pilot holes about 11 2"
right place with no measurements from each corner, and install the

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Make the Shelf whatsoever, will want to slide around screws. Flip the whole thing over and
Choose one of your boxes, it doesnt when you nail it. To avoid this, clamp attach the third box.
matter which, to house the horizontal the piece of 45 scrap you just cut to the Add a few coats of clear Watco Dan-
shelf. Grab the leftover piece of pine inside of the box. The matching angle ish Oil (or the nish of your choice)

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from earlier and use your square to will provide all the support you need. and this piece is ready hold books. Or
mark a 45 angle on one end of the Drilling pilot holes into the shelf will wine. But preferably both.
board. You should have about 18" of make this process even easier just a The wonderful thing about this
board to make the 12" shelf, so there few taps and youll be in. piece: If you get sick of it sitting on its
is no need to measure length yet just corners, ip it over to stand upright. Its

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get fairly close to the end. Tune-up & Assembly even small enough to hang on a wall.
I considered using the miter saw The flip side to the convenience of And of course you can always expand
for this (which would have eliminated big-box lumber is that the boards are it by building more modules. PMW
the need for marking the angle), but seldom perfect. Those slight defects
the piece is so small that it would be a translate into less-than-pristine edge Tom is the online community editor of Popular

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scary cut to make. Break out the jigsaw alignment in the joinery, even if your Woodworking Magazine. He can be reached at
tom.nunlist@fwmedia.com.
instead. Set it to 45 and nd your fence boxes are perfectly square. No worries
placement from the line the same way this is what a block plane is made
you found the router fence placement. for. Use it to trim the front edges ush.
Steady yourself, then make the cut. Final assembly of the piece is the ONLINE EXTRAS

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To get the correct length, measure 12" easiest part of the entire project. Place For links to all online extras, go to:
from the outside of the bevel youve cre- the middle box on its side and stack popularwoodworking.com/dec12
ated that mark will be your next cut. one of its companions on top. Make PLAN: Download a free SketchUp model for
Make sure that the bevels on both ends sure to align the sides so they match: the Bookshelf & Wine Rack.
slope toward the bottom of the piece rabbet with rabbet on one, non-rabbet

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ARTICLES: All the I Can Do That articles are
free online.
Our products are available online at:
ShopWoodworking.com

About This Column

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Our I Can Do That column fea-
tures projects that can be com-
pleted by any woodworker with
a modest (but decent) kit of tools in less than
two days of shop time, using materials from

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any home center. Our free PDF manual
explains how to use all the tools in the kit.
Trim up the edges. Dimensional lumber Visit PopularWoodworking.com/ICan
A jigsawn bevel. Set your jigsaws baseplate seldom results in perfect boxes but a block DoThat to download the free manual.
to a 45 angle to cut the shelf to size. plane can easily solve the problem.

popularwoodworking.com 59
FLEXNER ON FINISHING BY BOB FLEXNER
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Sealers & Washcoats
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Understand the difference between these often misused terms.

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I
t would be difcult to nd wood n-
ishing subjects that have been made
more confusing than sealing and
washcoating. This is unfortunate be-

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cause these procedures are very simple
and easy to understand.

Denitions
A sealer is the rst coat of nish you

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apply to the wood. It enters the pores, Washcoating. This blotchy pine board shows the impact of thinning a washcoat to various degrees
dries and stops them up so liquids dont before applying a stain. Left to right are sprayed full-strength lacquer, lacquer thinned 1-to-1 with lac-
quer thinner, 1-to-2, 1-to-3 and nally 1-to-4. Its clear that getting the mix optimized for maximum
penetrate easily. It seals the wood.
color and minimum blotching is no easy matter.
The sealer can be the nish itself (any

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nish), or it can be a special product
designed to solve a problem. want to block off. Use sanding sealer tant as the nish itself, and subsequent
A washcoat is any nish thinned to to avoid the clogging. Use shellac to coats of finish dont bond as well to
10 percent-or-less solids content and block off problems. the sealer as they do to the wood or to
used to partially stop up the pores in previous coats of nish. So more is lost

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the wood (so a stain will still add some Sanding Sealer than gained by using sanding sealer on
color), or provide a thinner barrier be- Oil-based polyurethane and all water- smaller objects.
tween color coats (stain, glaze, ller or based nishes sand and powder eas- Shellac is often recommended for
toner) to limit the total nish build. The ily without clogging sandpaper, but sealing, but it adds little in the way
commercial varnish product labeled varnish and nitrocellulose lacquer of reduced sandpaper clogging. Shel-

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wood conditioner is a washcoat. gum up sandpaper. So manufacturers lac still clogs sandpaper, just less than
provide a special product to be used varnish and lacquer.
Finishing Steps under varnish and lacquer, properly Some manufacturers provide a
The steps for getting good results with called sanding sealer, but sometimes sanding sealer for water-based nishes,
any nish are as follows: misleadingly labeled sealer. but I see only disadvantages because

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1. After preparing the wood, apply The purpose of sanding sealer is water-based nishes are already easy
the rst coat by denition, the sealer simply to speed production. It takes to sand.
coat. signicantly less effort (and less sand- For easier sanding without using
2. Let the coat dry. paper) to sand large surfaces. sanding sealer, thin the rst coat of
3. Sand this coat smooth so subse- But sanding sealer reduces the du- nish by about half so the build is thin-

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quent coats will be smooth (the rst rability of the total nish build because ner. The thinner the build, the easier
coat is always a little rough). it doesnt dry as hard or as water resis- the nish sands and powders.
4. Remove dust and apply the next
coat. Sealing & washcoat-
ing. Sealing is the rst

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5. Apply as many more coats as you
full coat of any nish.
want. Sand between these coats if there It stops up the pores
are problems or roughness you want of the wood so liquids
to remove. dont penetrate easily
Use the finish itself for the first (top). Washcoating

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under a stain with a
coat unless you want to avoid one of
thinned nish partially
two problems: the nish youre using stops up the pores so
for nal coats clogs the sandpaper, or some stain can get
theres something in the wood that you through (bottom).
CONTINUED ON PAGE 62

60 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR, ILLUSTRATIONS BY HAYES SHANESY
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FLEXNER ON FINISHING CONTINUED FROM PAGE 60

www.thetravellerest.com SEALERS ARENT PRIMERS

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I t would be easy to think of sealers as equivalent to primers for paint.
Theyre both rst coats, after all. But sealers and primers have very differ-
ent purposes.
The best paints hide well because they contain a high ratio of pigment
to binder (nish). As a result, they dont bond very well to porous wood. So

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primers, with a higher ratio of binder to pigment (and reduced hiding), were
Clogging. Lacquer and varnish clog sandpa- created for the rst coat.
per, even stearated sandpaper, which slows In contrast, nishes are all binder, so they bond perfectly well to wood.
the sanding process and forces you to use
more sandpaper.
Finishes dont need a separate product to achieve a better bond. BF

www.thetravellerest.com On new wood, shellac also blocks


the resin from pine knots and very oily
tropical woods, which can slow the dry-
ing of lacquer and varnish signicantly.
Washcoating to reduce blotching is a
trade-off. The higher the solids content
of the nish and/or the more washcoat
you apply (and let dry), the more you

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Shellac is great for dealing with reduce the blotching but the lighter
these problems. But if you are nish- the resulting stain color. Successful
ing new woods other than pine or very washcoating takes practice, meaning
Powdering. Lacquer and varnish sanding
oily wood, shellacs only benet would experimentation, to optimize the ratios
sealer powder when they are sanded. So do

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oil-based polyurethane and water-based n- be to add a little warmth to the color and application methods.
ish. Shellac still clogs a little. under water-based nish. The same Factories usually achieve a darker
thing could also be achieved with any coloring on blotch-prone woods such
solvent nish. as cherry and birch using glazes and
sprayed toners applied over a sealed

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Washcoats surface. They put most of the color in
A washcoat is any nish thinned to 10 the nish rather than in the wood. (This
percent-or-less solids content: lacquer is why its almost impossible to imitate
with at least 1 parts thinner; varnish many factory nishes with only a stain
thinned with at least two parts thinner; and nish.)

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or a -or-less-pound cut of shellac. Because of the instructions, which
Fish eye. Shellac blocks silicone oil from Washcoats are used to partially stop almost guarantee failure, and the result-
furniture polishes (right), which causes sh up the pores of the wood to reduce ing confusion the product causes, the
eye (left). Shellac also blocks other common blotching and to create a thin barrier woodworking community would prob-
renishing problems such as resin from pine
between color layers so the colors dont ably be better off if wood conditioners

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knots and oily tropical woods.
smear or mix. Used as a barrier, the were removed from the market. PWM
washcoat is usually sprayed.
Shellac Its confusing and wrong to call wash- Bob Flexner is author of Wood Finishing 101,
Shellac is often promoted as the best coating sealing, as is commonly done, Flexner on Finishing, and Understanding Wood
Finishing.
sealer. This is silly, as explained above. because youre not sealing anything.

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All full-strength nishes seal the wood.
Shellacs benets to the nsher are Washcoating Under a Stain
that it is unique for its blocking quali- If youve ever used a wood conditioner ONLINE EXTRAS
ties. It blocks, or seals in, very low- to prevent blotching, you know how For links to all online extras, go to:
popularwoodworking.com/dec12

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surface-tension silicone oil from furni- difcult it is to achieve success. Be-
ARTICLE: Read Bob Flexners article on nish-
ture polishes, which causes sh eye sides the instructions on the cans being
ing cherry, free on our web site.
(the nish bunching up into craters or incorrect, you lose a lot of the stains
IN OUR STORE: Flexner on Finishing 12
ridges). It also blocks odors from ani- color intensity and you usually still get
years of columns illustrated with beautiful
mal urine and smoke, and residue wax blotching anyway. (The cans instruc- full-color images and updated, and Wood

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from waxed furniture or from strippers tions say to apply a stain within two Finishing 101.
(many of which contain wax). hours, but to be fully effective you have Our products are available online at:
These are all renishing problems, to give the thinned varnish at least six ShopWoodworking.com
not new-wood problems. hours to dry completely.)

62 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012


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our 400 Stores Nationwide and use this Non-transferable. Valid through 3/27/13. Limit one coupon per customer per day. from original purchase date with original receipt. Non-transferable. Original coupon
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after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable.
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after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable.
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R ! ER N!
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97626/69451 LOT NO.
68019
4 PIECE 3/4" WE CARRY A FULL
WOOD CHISEL 1" SAVE Item
68986 SAVE
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15
shown
Item 42429 shown SET 46% $ 99
4
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PRICE 42429/
$7.99 69471 HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 7 HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 6
$ 99 REG.
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after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable.
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R !
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SU UP TRAILER SU UPO PALM SANDER SUP PO DELUXE CARGO CARRIER
LOT NO. 93431/69857/69917 U
CO HITCH CO Item 93431
CO
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shown

55%
19 SAVE
94141/69874
$ 99

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LOT NO.
SAVE $50 66983/69623
Item
33%
19 49
94141
shown $ 99
HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 5
REG.
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$44.99
Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases
REG. PRICE $29.99

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HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 4
Item 66983
shown
$
REG. PRICE $99.99
99
Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases
after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable.
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R ! 2 HP FIXED BASE ROUTER R ! R ! 30", 11 DRAWER
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LOT NO. 6" DISC SANDER 6 Drawer Top Chest
25% 68341 LOT NO. 97181/ 93981 2 Drawer Middle Section
SAVE 3 Drawer Roller Cabinet

54 $ 99 REG.

44 149 $ 99 REG. PRICE Item 97181 $150 $ 99 REG.

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PRICE $99.99 shown PRICE
$59.99 LOT NO. $299.99
67421
HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 4 HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 4 HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 5
Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases
after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable.
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R ! 60'' WORKBENCH WITH ER N! R !


UPE ON FOUR DRAWERS SUPUPO 2.5 HP, 21 GALLON, UPE ON RAPID PUMP 1.5 TON
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LOT NO.
93454/69054 SAVE LOT NO. 67847/69091 MOST VEHICLES! 27 LBS.
$90 $60
Item
93454

139
shown
149 59 $ 99
$70 $ 99 REG.
PRICE
$219.99
Item 67847
$ 99 REG.
PRICE
$119.99
Item
LOT NO.
68053/
69252/
60569

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shown 68053
HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 3 REG. PRICE $229.99 HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 4 HARBOR FREIGHT TOOLS - LIMIT 5 shown
Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases Good at our stores or website or by phone. Cannot be used with other discount or coupon or prior purchases
after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable. after 30 days from original purchase with original receipt. Offer good while supplies last. Non-transferable.
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GRAND Covina, CA Indio, CA Waterbury, CT Medford, MA


OPENINGS Downey, CA Lakewood, CO Hyannis, MA Pennsauken, NJ

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END GRAIN BY ROBERT W. LANG
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Past Imperfect
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If anyone ever sees that,

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theyre looking too closely.

I
spend a lot of time looking at an- Im no stranger to those
tique furniture, often from below. choices, and when I look at

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My interest is pieces made about old work I dont search for
100 years ago, from the Arts & Crafts aws, but now and then I
period of the early 20th century. I share come across one. Recently A peek below. A look underneath can reveal important
details. Or another furniture nerd (here, Jerome Bias).
a passion with those who collect these I was lying on the floor,
pieces, but I look at them with a differ- pointing my camera up to

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ent eye. The lines and proportions draw record how a drawer was built and how closer look, and again the repair was
me in, and I appreciate the rarity and it slid in and out of a cabinet. On my lost in the shadow. I could feel it if I ran
value. But my mind isnt on the dollar way out from under, I noticed a bump my hand in just the right place, but it
value of any particular piece; Im out in a back leg, just below where a side wasnt visible unless my head was near

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to connect with the guy who made it rail connected. I took a closer look and the oor.
way back when. realized what I was seeing. We tend to idealize craftsmen of
On tours of old houses I hold up the On this piece, a side panel sat in the past, but I think I admire the man
group by crawling under things for a a groove in the square leg. Below the more for nding evidence of his lapse
closer look. At museums I set off alarms panel, a rail joined the leg with a tenon. and the execution of his repair. None of

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by getting too close or reaching out to The mortise is in the groove, a deeper us is perfect, and the discovery of this
touch when the guard is distracted. My portion at the end. The bump I saw was kind of thing makes a better connection
fascination is with how these things go in line with the panel, and I knew that to workers of the past than absolutely
together, and I wonder what constraints the original builder had made a classic perfect work.
of time, money and resources the origi- woodworking mistake. Theres a chance that Im the only

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nal maker had to contend with. Its a The groove has to stop so that person to ever spot this repair. Im
reality check against the overload of it doesnt show, but its easy to lose sure that it ruined the mans day and
information in print and online. Its one track of where to stop when milling he likely worried about what would
thing to read about how things should the groove and go too far. Ive done happen if it were seen. In the end, its a
be done and quite another to look at it, and Ive been faced with that same small aw in a hidden location in what

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the tangible legacy of someones work. dilemma another cabinetmaker faced is considered to be a masterpiece. Its
My favorite moments are when I dis- a century ago: Throw out the leg, or try presence makes sense to me, and if
cover something that only a woodworker to make an invisible patch? the original maker and I were to meet
would recognize, details that y over the He chose to patch, and I cant nd through time-travel or some other cos-
head of the collector or curator. Building fault with him for putting it in. The leg mic happenstance, I would shake his

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furniture involves compromise; the ma- below the rail is in a shadow, and the hand and say, Thats OK brother, your
terial and tools dont always cooperate, grain and color of the patch matched secret is safe with me. PWM
and the mind of the cabinetmaker isnt the leg. What gave it away was wood
always as sharp as his chisels. movement. The leg had shrunk or the Bob is executive editor of Popular Woodworking

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We strive for perfection, but when it patch had swelled. Below the rail was a Magazine. He can be reached at robert.lang@
fwmedia.com.
escapes us we have decisions to make. neat, rectangular area a few inches long
As we build, each part becomes more that just broke the surface of the leg. I
valuable. Each dovetail, mortise or wondered if he had cussed and thrown ONLINE EXTRAS
tenon cut in a piece of wood is an invest- something or just quietly looked for a
For links to all online extras, go to:

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ment of time. When things dont work matching piece of scrap. popularwoodworking.com/dec12
out, a painful choice must be made: I stepped back and looked at the
BLOG: See some of the pictures Bob has
Scrap the investment and start over or patch from a normal point of view and taken of period pieces.
try to x it so no one will know? I couldnt see it. I crouched down for a

64 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE December 2012 PHOTO BY THE AUTHOR


DETAILS MATTER
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THE RIGHT BALANCE OF FEATURES
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FOR A FINE FINISH

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Its all about the details. In your nishing touches and our nishing tools. The Porter Cable BN200C
2" Brad Nailer has been updated from its previous version to be more compact, lightweight and easy
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features also available in the NS150C Finish Stapler.
BN200C NS150C To learn more about Porter Cable Finish Nailers, visit portercable.com or stop by a retailer near you.

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2012 Porter Cable, Inc

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Veritas PM-V11
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Bench Chisels
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These chisels are among the rst edge tools milled from PM-V11
steel (Rc61-63), an innovative proprietary alloy. This metals micro-
structure makes it extremely durable, so it can withstand the impact
of heavy chopping cuts without chipping or deforming as readily as
Each chisel is superbly balanced, with the center of gravity at or
below the tang/socket connection.
The hard maple handle has been kiln-baked at a high temperature to
eliminate nearly all moisture and caramelize the natural sugars in the

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other tool steels, even at bevel angles as low as 20. It is also highly wood. This imparts a rich, dark color to the wood, while helping to seal
wear-resistant, with an edge typically lasting at least twice as long in it against humidity changes, making it resistant to swelling and
use as an A2 blade before it needs sharpening. Despite its tough- shrinkage. The contoured handle ts the hand nicely and has shallow
ness, it is as easy to sharpen as A2 steel using common abrasive ats parallel to the blade back for nger placement. The domed end
media such as water stones. resists chipping from glancing mallet blows.

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rigidity, and have parallel sides and true bevel edges for clearance blades from 45/8" to 51/8" long. The 1/4" and 3/8" chisels have 30
and minimal friction when working into an angled corner or a tight primary bevels; the others are 25. All have 2 micro-bevels, and
recess. To ensure the face of the blade is both smooth and true, require only nal honing before use. Made in Canada.
we lap each blade to a atness tolerance of 0.0005" over the 05S21.04 PM-V11 Bench Chisel, 1/4" $ 74.00
entire surface. 05S21.06 PM-V11 Bench Chisel, 3/8" $ 74.00

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The blade and handle are connected with a tang and a socket-like 05S21.08 PM-V11 Bench Chisel, 1/2" $ 79.00
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