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Engineering Physics (G.T.U.

edition) Dielectrics

INTRODUCTION:
The dielectric is a material characterized by its relatively poor electrical conductivity, hence an
insulator. The dielectric materials are also known as Insulating Materials. When these materials
are used to prevent the flow of electricity through them or resist electric current, they are termed
as Insulators. When these materials are used for electric charge storage or to increase
capacitance, they are termed as dielectrics.
In dielectrics, the electrons are tightly bound with the nucleus. No free electrons are available for
conduction. Therefore, the valance band and the conduction band are separated by a forbidden
band-gap of several electron volts. Transition from valance band to conduction band is difficult.
So they are poor conductors or insulators. In insulators, all the states are completely occupied by
electrons and hence no free electron is available for electrical conduction; whereas a dielectric
material has very few electrons for electrical conductivity and hence it has a dipole.
Dielectric materials are nonmetallic materials. They have high temperature co-efficient in
resistance. They have high specific resistance. These are the basic properties of dielectrics.
Dielectric materials used in electrical equipments serve two purposes: Insulation and Electrical
energy storage.
An electrical insulator dielectric can be polarized by an applied electric field. Dielectrics are the
materials used for charge storage, by polarization of the molecules. A dielectric material
increases the capacitance or the charge storage ability of a capacitor.
Dielectric is a material in which energy can be stored by the polarization of the molecules. It is a
material that increases the capacitance or charge storage ability of a capacitor. Ideally it is a non-
conductor of electrical charge so that an applied field does not cause a flow of charge but instead
a relative displacement of opposite bound charges and hence polarization of the medium.
Properties of Dielectrics :-
The various properties of dielectric materials include Insulation, Temperature dependency,
Permittivity, Dielectric Strength, Dielectric Constant, Dipole moment, Polarisation &
Polarisability etc
Dielectrics are non metallic materials.
Dielectrics have high specific resistance.
Dielectrics have negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
SOME FUNDAMENTAL TERMS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS:-
Permittivity:
It is a quantity, which represents the dielectric property of a medium. Permittivity of a medium
indicates the easily polarisable nature of the material.
Units: Faraday / Meter ( Fm1 ) or Coulomb / Newton-meter ( C/Nm) .
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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

The permittivity of free space vacuum 0 = 8.85 X 1012 F. m1

Electric field intensity or Electric Field Strength :

Electric field intensity ( ) is the force on a unit positive test charge (dq) kept in an electric field
of source charge (Q). Electric field intensity ( ) is a vector quantity. Higher the value of
electric field intensity, stronger the electric field is.
If a test charge q is placed in an electric field of charge Q, the Couloumbian force acting on
it is .
Electric force experienced by the particle
Electric field = =F
E
its charge q

Force Q
Therefore = = = N/C or V/m [ 01]
Test charge dq 4.. r2

where = Permittivity of the medium.


For vacuum = 0 = 8.85 X 1012 C 2 N1 m2 or F. m1 or CV 1 m1
Electric Lines of Forces or Electric Flux:-
The electric flux (lines of forces) originated from positive charge and
end at negative charge. The tangent drawn on the electric force line at
any point gives the direction of the electric field at that point. Electric
lines of force are always normal to the surface of charged body. They
contract longitudinally and expand
laterally. There are no lines of force
inside the conductor. Two electric lines of force proceeding in the
same direction repel each other. Two electric lines of force
proceeding in the opposite direction attract each other. The lines of
force are imaginary but the field it represents as real. Two electric
lines of force cannot intersect each other
Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement Vector :
The number of flux lines passing normal to the unit surface area is called the electric flux
density. It is vector quantity in the direction of the electric field. Its unit is coulomb(meter)2
or C/m2 .
Electric Flux
Electric flux density D = =
Area of CrossSection A
The flux emerging from a surface or Total charge enclosed in that surface Q
Electric flux density D = =
Area of CrossSection 4 r2

Now, Electric Flux Density (Electric Displacement Vector) Electric field intensity

D
= .[02]
D
where = permittivity of material or medium

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics
Q
But we have = ........ [03]
4.. r2

Q Q
=
D = ...............[04]
4.. r2 4 r2

Electric flux density at conducting sphere :-

Insulating
dielectric
Metal -Q
material
conducting
sphere +Q

r=b
r=a

Consider the spheres shown above: The radius for the inner sphere is a. radius for outer sphere is
b respectively.
Q Q
D
= 2 C/m2 & D
= 2 C/m2 ...[05]
4 a 4 b
gives us information about polarization P
Displacement vector D and electric field intensity

We know thatelectric flux density or electric displacement D


=


D = 0 . r .....[06]
permittivity of medium
Where Relative permittivity . r = = ( 1 + e ).....[07]
permittivity of vacuum 0

D
= 0 ( 1 + e ) .[08]

D
= 0 + 0 e where e = Electric Susceptibility.


D = 0
+ P ..[09]
Where P = Polarization vector = 0 e ..[10]


P =
D 0
P = (0 . r ) 0
P = 0 . ( r 1) ....[11]
P
= 0 .( r 1) ....[12]

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

e = 0 . ( r 1) ....[13]


P
Polarization vector is directly proportional to electrical field intensity.
The dipole moment per unit volume of dielectric material is called polarization vector P.
P = (number of molecules/unit volume) (average dipole moment/molecule)
P=N
Dielectric Susceptibility :-
Polarization Applied Electric Field Intensity & Polarization The Permittivity of Free
Space. It is a dimensionless quantity. It is the ratio of the bound charge density to the free
charge density.

P = 0 e [14]

P 0 ( r 1)
Dielectric susceptibility e = = = 0 . ( r 1) .[15]

Dielectric susceptibility is a measure of the extent up to which a material can be polarized by the
application of electric field. The dielectric susceptibility e is a measure of how easily it
polarizes in response to an electric field. This,
in turn, determines the electric permittivity of
the material and thus influences capacitance.
Dielectric Parameters :
Some of the dielectric parameters are briefly
discussed as below:
(1) Dielectric Constant or Relative permittivity R
(2) Electric Dipole Moment
(3) Polarisation
(4) Polarisability

Dielectric constant or Relative permittivity R :-


The ratio of the permittivity of the medium to the permittivity of the free space is known as
dielectric constant or relative permittivity of the medium. It is a dimensionless quantity.
permittivity of medium
Dielectric constant or Relative permittivity = =
permittivity of vacuum 0

Where permittivity of vacuum 0 = 8.85 X 1012 C 2 N1 m2 or F. m1


Dielectric constant is the ratio of permittivity of medium to permittivity of vacuum 0.
R .0 . A
The capacitance of a capacitor is C = farad ...[16]
d

Where, d = distance between two plates of capacitor.


Dielectric constant or Relative permittivity r = 1 + e

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Where, e = electric susceptibility


The relative permittivity is known as Static Dielectric Constant when the applied electric
field is static constant or d.c. The relative permittivity becomes complex and frequency
dependent when the material is subjected to a.c.
Relative permittivity (r) or the dielectric constant of a dielectric is the fractional increase in the
stored charge per unit voltage on the capacitor plates due to the presence of the dielectric
between the plates (the whole space between the plates is assumed to be filled). Alternatively we
can define it as the fractional increase in the capacitance of a capacitor when the insulation
between the plates is changed from vacuum to a dielectric material keeping the geometry the
same.
Dielectric Constants for selected materials
Dielectric Dielectric Dielectric Material Dielectric Dielectric Material Dielectric
Material Constant. Constant. Constant.
[Kappa] [Kappa] [Kappa]
Soil 10 - 20 Glass 4-7 Transformer Oil 2.2
Vacuum 1.0000 Lead Oxide 25.9 Paper 3.3, 3.5
Air 1.00536 Lead Sulfide (Galena) 200 Salt 5.9
Calcium Lead Magnesium Polyvinyl
8.7 10,000 4.5
Carbonate Niobate Chloride (PVC)
Ethyl Alcohol 24.55 Epoxy 3.6 Polyester 3.2 - 4.3
Acetic Acid 6.2 Bees-Wax 2.7 - 3.0 Polyethylene 2.26
Asbestos 4.0 Paraffin- Wax 2.1 - 2.5 Polypropylene 2.2 - 2.3
Asphalt 2.6 Waxed-Paper 3.7 Polystyrene 2.55
Bakelite 4.8 Nylon 3.5 Porcelain 6-8
Calcite 8.0 Methyl Alcohol 32.70 Butyl Rubber 2.4
Mica 5.4-6.9 Mineral Oil 2.1 Neoprene Rubber 6.6
Cellulose 3.7 - 7.5 Petroleum Oil 2.0 - 2.2 Silicone Rubber 3.2
Cement ~2 Vulcanized Rubber 2.9 Silicone Oil 2.7 - 2.8
Cotton 1.3 Sulfur 3.7 Silicon 11.8
Ebonite 2.7 Teflon 2.1 Silicon Dioxide 4.5
Water, Liquid,
Ice ( 30 ) 99 Water 20 -40 80.2 55.5
100

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

):
Dipole and Electric Dipole Moment(
A pair of equal and opposite charges separated by a small distance constitutes an electric dipole.
Any two opposite charges constitute an electric dipole.
A dipole has opposite (positive and negative) charges separated
by a suitable distance. . The dipole is represented by an arrow,
which starts from the negative charge and ends at the positive
charge.
Dipole moment =(magnitude of positive or negative charge q)(Distance of their separation r)
Electric dipole moment is the product of magnitude of each dipole Q and the distance r. The
dipole moment = Q.r

Electric dipole moment is a vector quantity. Its unit is coulomb meter.
For a system consisting of a number of charges, the dipole moment is given by
= =
=1

Where is the charge of ith particle and is the distance between the reference charge and
the ith charge.
:-
The Effect of Electric Field on Dielectrics or Dielectric Polarisation
The positively charged nucleus is surrounded by orbiting electrons or electron cloud of
negatively charge. An isolated atom does not have any dipole moment because the centroid of
negatively charge distribution and the positive charge distribution coincide. But, when external
electric field is applied, the electron cloud and nucleus move in opposite directions. The centroid
of negative charge and positive charge no longer coincide. As a result electric dipole is induced
in the atom. And the atom is said to be polarized. Thus, polarisation is the process of creating or
inducing dipoles ( up to critical value) in a dielectric material by an external electric field.
Polarization is the separation of positive and negative charges in a system so that there is a net
electric dipole moment per unit volume. When dielectric material is placed in the electric field,
their positive and negative charges are so separated that they produce electric dipole inside the
material. This is Polarization.
Electrical Dipole Moment
Polarization = Cm2
volume

Polarisation vector measures the extent of polarisation in a unit volume of dielectric material.
Polarisation is the induced dipole moment per unit volume of the dielectric.
C.m C

= ....[17] Unit = =
V m3 m2


Electric Dipole Moment Electric Field

Polarization (since volume V of dielectric material is constant)
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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics


= .
Where, = polarisability of the material. The unit of polarisability is Fm2 .

= N.. [18]
Where, N = Number of atoms per unit volume of dielectric material.

= N Cm2
Where = Average induced dipole moment per unit molecule.
Dipole Moment qt qt q
In other words, polarisation = = = = Cm2 [19]
Volume V At A

Where, the dielectric slab has thickness t, volume V and area A.


Polarisation is the induced charge density or the induced surface charge per unit area.
Polarization is the separation of positive and negative charges in a system so that there is a net
electric dipole moment per unit volume.
Non-Polar Dielectrics :-
A dielectric material, in which, there is no
permanent dipole moment in absence of and
external electric field is called non polar
dielectrics. Examples: H2 , O2 , N2 , O2 , CH4 ,
CCl4 , etc
Polar Dielectrics :-
A dielectric material in which there is an
existence of permanent dipole moment even in the
absence of an external electric field is called a polar
dielectric. Example: H2 O, HCl, CO, CH2 Cl2 , CH3 Cl
etc
Polarisability :-
The induced dipole moment acquired by an atom per
unit electric field intensity is known as polarisability.
P
Polarisability = = Fm2
E NE

Types of Electrical Polarizations:-


When dielectric material is placed under electric field
influence, negative and positive charged particles are
separated in opposite directions and produce electric dipole within the material; this is called
dielectric polarisation. The induced dipole moment per unit volume is known as polarization. It
is represented by P and its unit is coulomb.meter 2 or Cm2 .
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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

There are four types of dielectric polarizations.

1. Electronic polarization 2. Ionic polarization


3. Orientational polarization 4. Space charge polarization or Interfacial
Polarization
:
Electronic Polarisation
Without external electric field applied,
electrons revolve around nucleus. The
electron charge is uniformly distributed
throughout the atom. When an external
electric field is applied, the nucleus
(Charge) is moved away from the field and
the electrons ( Charge) move towards the field. Due to this displacement of nucleus and
electrons in opposite directions, the dipole moment is induced. Due to this Lorentz forces,
and its unit
the induced dipole moment per unit volume is known as Electronic Polarization
is coulomb.meter 2 or Cm2 .
Materials like Germanium, Silicon, and Diamond etc show electronic polarisation.
e
Electronic Polarisation Electric field
e
Electronic Polarisation = e .
Where electronic polarisability of DE material =e Fm2 .
Electronic Polarisation e = N. e .
Cm2 ..[20]
Where N = No. of atoms per unit volume of DE material
i :-
Ionic Polarisation
Ionic crystals do not possess permanent dipole moment. Under external electric field, positive
and negative ions of ionic crystal move or displace in opposite directions and become ionic
dipoles. Thus ionic polarisation occurs.

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Ionic polarization is the relative displacement of oppositely charged ions in an ionic crystal that
results in the polarization of the whole material. Typically ionic polarization is important in ionic
crystals below the infrared wavelengths. The induced dipole moment per unit volume is known
and its unit is coulomb.meter 2 or
as Ionic Polarization Cm2 .
i
NaCl, KCl, KBr etc Ionic crystals show ionic polarisation
i
Ionic Polarization Electric field
i =i .
Ionic Polarization
i = Ionic polarisability of Dielectric material( Fm2 )
i = N. i .
Ionic Polarization Cm2 .[21]
Where N = No. of atoms per unit volume of Dielectric material
Though electronic polarization is more significant than ionic polarisation, the contribution of
ionic polarization is not negligible at lower frequency operations.
O
Dipolar or Orientational Polarization :-

The polar dielectric molecules like H2 O, HCl and Nitrobenzene etc. have permanent dipole
moment even in the absence of the electric field due to the arrangement of its molecular
structure. The molecules like CO2 have zero permanent dipole moment in absence of electric
field are called non polar dielectric molecules. The polarization of polar molecule under electric
field is known as Orientational polarization.
However the net dipole moment is negligibly small since all the molecular dipoles are oriented
randomly when there is no electric field. Broadly, in absence of the external electric field, all

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

dipoles are so randomly oriented that their average


net dipole moment is zero or negligible without
electric field.
When such materials are subjected to an external
electric field, the dipoles are rotated, some partially
and some fully. Their molecules of dipoles align
parallel to each other in the direction of electric field. This gives rise to a net average dipole
O . The
moment per molecule. This phenomenon is known as Orientational polarization
and its unit
induced dipole moment per unit volume is known as Orientational Polarization
is coulomb.meter 2 or Cm2 .
Orientational polarization O
Electric field
Orientational polarization O
= O .
O = Ionic polarisability (Fm2 ) of dielectric material.
Orientational polarisation O = N. O .
Cm2 ...[22]
Where N = Number of atoms per unit volume of dielectric material
The Orientational polarization is temperature dependent.
:-
Space Charge Polarization or Interfacial Polarisation
When a dielectric material like electrolyte solution is placed between two electrodes with
external electric field is applied, positive charges accumulate near negative electrode and
negative charges accumulate near positive electrode. Thus dipole moment per unit volume is
induced. The induced dipole moment per unit volume is known as Space Charge (Interfacial)
and its unit is Cm2 .
Polarization

Space Charge Polarization Electric field

Space Charge Polarization = s .
Where Ionic polarisability of DE material =s Fm2 .

Space Charge Polarization = N. s . Cm2 .[23]
Where, N = No. of atoms per unit volume of dielectric material
Space charge polarisation is very negligible because it occurs only at the interface of dielectrics
or near to the electrodes.
:-
Total Polarisation
Total Polarisability = Electronic Polarisability + Ionic Polarisability
+ Orientational Polarisability + Space Charge Polarisability
= e + i + o + s = e + i + o Fm2 [24 ]
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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Where, space charge polarisability s is negligible.


Total Polarisation = Electronic Polarisation + Ionic Polarisation + Orientational Polarisation
Ptotal =
Pe + Pi +
Po .[25]
Where, space charge polarization Ps is negligible.
total = . e . + . i . + . O . = N(e + i + o )
P Cm2 .[26]
Typical examples of polarisation mechanisms:

Claussius-Mosotti Equation :-
Claussius-Mosotti equation gives relation between polarisability (macroscopic property) and
dielectric constant (relative permittivity) r . Claussius-Mosotti equation is applicable to gases
and non-polar liquid materials which do not possess permanent dipole moment and experience
electronic polarisation only.
Total Polarization = Electronic Polarization + Ionic Polarisation
+ Orientational Polarisation + Space charge polarisation
Ptotal =
Pe + Pi +
Po + Ps
Considering Pi , s are negligible,
Po and P
total = . e .
P ...................................................................................................................... [27]
Where N = Number of atoms per unit volume of Dielectric material
e = electronic polarisability of DE material measured in Fm2
= electric field intensity.

P
local = +
Now, Lorentz' field equation is given by E ...[28]
30

Where 0 = Permittivity of Free Space = 8.85 1012 F/m


Substituting value of E from Eqn. [20] into Eqn.[21] gives
P
total = . e . E
P local = . e .( + ) .[29]
30

Dielectric displacement is given by =


D 0
+ P ... [30]
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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

=
P 0 ..[31]
D

P
D
= 0

But electric displacement is D


= .[32]
D

=


P
Therefore = = r . = ( r 1)


P = ( r 1) ..[33]
Substituting Eqn.[] into Eqn. [] we get,


( 1) +
= N. .(
( )
)

( )
( 1) = N. .( 1 + )

( ) ( ).
N. = ( ) =
( + ) ( + . )

. ( )
=
.( + )

. ( )
= [34]
( +)

This is known as Claussius-Mosotti equation.


Clausius-Mossotti equation relates the dielectric constant (r), a macroscopic property, to
the polarizability (), a microscopic property.
. e
Claussius-Mosotti equation in terms of Susceptibility = because = 1+e
( e +)

.
Claussius-Mosotti equation in terms of Refractive Index =
+

where n = refractive index of the material and for optical(high) frequencies = [35]
Disadvantages and Limitations of Dielectric Materials :-
Dielectric materials are neither perfect insulators nor they transfer energy perfectly. Dielectric
loss and dielectric breakdown are the major disadvantages.
Dielectric Loss :
When dielectrics are placed within external alternating electric field, their dipoles tend to align
in different opposite directions and then restore their original position. If a dielectric material is
subjected to an alternating voltage, the electrical energy is absorbed by the material and
dissipated in the form of heat. This dissipation of heat energy is called as dielectric loss. It is the
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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

loss of energy in the form of heat by a dielectric material under the action of an alternating
voltage. Dielectric loss increases as the alternating voltage frequency increases. The power loss
in dielectric material is proportional to many parameters like power factor, the square of applied
voltage, frequency of applied voltage, temperature, humidity etc. The factors affecting dielectric
loss are high frequency of applied voltage, high applied voltage, high temperature, high humidity
etc.
When alternating voltage is applied to pure dielectrics (Air or Vacuum or Pure Gas), charging
current leads applied voltage by an angle of 90 and dielectric polarisation is in phase with
alternating voltage. That means no consumption of energy. But when alternating voltage is
applied to commercial dielectrics, the charging current does not lead the applied voltage by 90,
but, less than 90. The complementary angle of leakage current is called dielectric loss
angle .
= 90 . This angle givers amount of power loss in form of heat dissipated in each
cycle.
The dielectric power loss for a dielectric material used in a capacitor with capacitance C
farad and applied voltage is V and current through capacitor is I ampere, then P = VI cos
V
P = V. ( ) cos
XC
V 1
Where, I= and XC = Capacitive Reactance =
XC 2fC

P = V. (2fCV) cos (90 )


= 2 V 2 fC Sin = 2 V 2 fC () = 2 V 2 fC tan ..[36]
Because, angle is negligible small.
Power factor = Tangent Loss = tan = P / 2 V 2 fC .[37]
Power factor is measure of power loss in a dielectric material during polarisation process.
Dielectric Breakdown:-
A dielectric material resists electric current flow and store electrical energy. It can withstand the
maximum voltage known as dielectric strength. If the applied electric field is beyond this value,
the dielectric material allows electric current to flow through. The failure of dielectric material to
resist the current flow is known as dielectric breakdown.
Whenever the voltage applied to dielectric material exceeds certain critical value, the dielectric
loses its insulating property and a large amount of current flows through it. This phenomenon is
called dielectric breakdown.
Every dielectric material has maximum voltage limit for polarisation and beyond this, different
types of breakdowns occur.
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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

No. Type of Characteristics


Breakdown
01 Atomic Atomic structure breakdown occurs when ..
Structure
Breakdown
02 Thermal Thermal Breakdown occurs at very high temperature.
Breakdown It takes place within few milliseconds.
03 Intrinsic Intrinsic Breakdown occurs when a large electric field is applied.
Breakdown The breakdown occurs even at low temperatures. It mostly occurs
in thin samples. It occurs within a short period of time.
04 Discharge Discharge breakdown occurs due to presence of gas bubbles.
Breakdown It occurs even at low temperature.
05 Electrochemical Electrochemical breakdown occurs due to the chemical reaction.
Breakdown It depends upon temperature.
06 Defect Defect breakdown is due to presence of crack and hence moisture
Breakdown accumulated within the dielectric material.

The dielectric insulators have large band-gap between conduction band and valance band.
Electrons require large electric field energy and high electric current value to cross the forbidden
gap. The large current flow of electrons breaks more and more covalent bonds in conduction
band. A large number of free electrons result breakdown in conduction band and the dielectric
material becomes conductor. This is Atomic Structure Breakdown. When amount of heat
released from dielectric material is less than heat generated due to dielectric loss, the Thermal
Breakdown occurs.
Dielectric Strength:-
The electric field at which dielectric breakdown occurs, i.e. the value of critical breakdown
voltage at which dielectric resistance becomes zero and current passes through it, is called
dielectric strength. Its unit is kV/m
Breakdown voltage
Dielectric strength = kv/m
Thickness of Doelectric material

Dielectric Strength can be defined as the minimum voltage required for producing dielectric
breakdown. Dielectric strength decreases with increase in temperature, humidity and age of the
material.

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Types of Dielectric Materials :


Dielectrics

Solid Dielectrics Liquid Dielectrics Gaseous Dielectrics

Elementary NonPolar Polar Mineral Oil Air


Dielectrics Ionioc Dielectrics Synthetic Oil Nitrogen (N2 )
Dielectrics Miscellaneous Oil Sulpher HexaFluoride (HF6 )
Hydrogen (H2 )
Rochelle salt
Sulpher High Density-
C6 H5 NO2
Mica Polyethylene Sr3 NbGa3 Si2 O14
Germanium Polystyrene
Diamond LiF, LiC, NaCl Transformer Oil,
Porcelain Plastics, Capacitor Oil,
Glass Cotton, Wood Silicon Liquids

Solid Dielectrics:-

Mostly dielectric materials are used in engineering field for insulation and heat conduction.
Dielectrics are used in all four types:
[1] Solid Dielectrics [2] Liquid Dielectrics
[3] Gaseous Dielectrics and [4] Composite Dielectrics.
Solid Dielectrics:-
A dielectric material is a substance which is a poor conductor of electricity, but an efficient
supporter of electrostatic fields.
Most dielectric materials are solid and they include porcelain, mica, glass, plastics. Widely used
solid dielectrics are In-Organic materials like Ceramics and Glass; Organic materials like Poly
Vinyl Chloride (PVC), Poly Ethylene (PE), Cross Linked Poly Ethylene (XLPE). Other than
these, Kraft Papers, Natural Rubber, Silicon Rubber and Poly Propylene Rubber etc. are used.
The solid dielectric materials are used in capacitors, e.g. mica, ceramics barium titanate etc.
Quartz crystal is used to prepare ultrasonic transducer, crystal oscillator, delay line; filters etc.
lead Zirconate tiatnate is used for preparation of microphone, spark generator, accelerometer,
earphones etc.

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Details of Elementary Non-Polar Ionic Solid Polar Ionic Solid


Solid Dielectrics Dielectrics Dielectrics
Substances Elements Molecules without Molecules with permanent
permanent dipole moment dipole moment
Polarisation Electronic Electronic Polarisation Electronic Polarisation
Polarisation Ionic Polarisation Ionic Polarisation
Orientational Polarisation
Examples Germanium, H.DPE(High Density Poly- SNGS (Sr3 NbGa3 Si2 O14 )
Diamond, ethane . PS(Poly Styrene) Ferroelectrics, C6 H5 NO2
Sulpher, Mica. LiF, LiC, NaCl Rochelle Salt, Quartz
Applications SF6 insulator, Radiation welding, Food Electric devices, TeleCom
CMOS chips, cutting Boards, Devices, Sensor Devices,
MEMS device Fabrication, Vacuum Die Microwave Devices.
(Germanium) cutting machinery, Nano
electrics.
Solid dielectrics are further classified into three categories based upon types of polarization they
show under external electric field.
1. Elementary solid Dielectrics
2. Non Polar or Ionic Solid Dielectrics
3. Polar Solid Dielectrics
Elementary Solid Dielectrics:-
When external electric field influence upon single atomic dielectric materials like Sulpher,
Germanium, Diamond etc., they undergo electronic polarisation. These are called Elementary
Solid Dielectrics. They are used in electronic and electrical devices. Sometimes they are used
with gaseous dielectrics.
Non Polar or Ionic Solid Dielectrics :-
Molecules of non-polar (ionic) solid dielectric material do not possess permanent dipole moment
but as soon as they placed under influence of external electric field, they undergo ionic
polarisation as well as electronic polarisation. Here, ionic polarisation has significant
contribution whereas electronic polarisation is negligible.
Polar Solid Dielectrics :-
Molecules of polar solid dielectric material possess permanent dipole moment. When such
dielectric material is placed in an external electric field, they experience Orientational
polarisation, ionic polarisation and electronic polarisation.
Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 16 of 33
Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Major ferroelectric materials are polar dielectrics and they are used in electronic devices,
communication devices and sensing devices
Gaseous Dielectrics :
A dielectric gas is an insulating material in gaseous state. It is used to prevent rapidly quench
electric discharge. Dielectric gases like Air, Nitrogen, Hydrogen and Sulpher HexaFluoride are
used in electrical insulators in high voltage applications like Air-Capacitors, transformers, circuit
breakers, switch gears, radar waveguides etc..
A good dielectric gas should have high dielectric-strength, high thermal stability and good
chemical inertness against the construction materials used, non-flammability and low toxicity,
low boiling point, good heat-transfer properties, and low cost. Dielectric gases are mostly used
under high pressure and this keeps high breakdown voltage.
Common types of gasses used include air, nitrogen, and sulfur hexafluoride. Various types of
electrical components such as transformers and circuit breakers require the presence of a
dielectric gas to prevent damage to a circuit in the case of an electrical discharge.
Vacuum is also used for insulation in vacuum circuit breaker, cyclotron, Van-de-Graff generator
etc. The dielectric constant of vacuum is one.
Air:-
In routine applications, air is often the dielectric gas of choice because it doesn't require a
pressurized, sealed system, and is ubiquitous. Its dielectric constant is 1. Air and nitrogen gasses
are often used as they are largely inert and nonreactive. Compressed air is used as a dielectric
insulation in air blast circuit breaker. It is also used as arc-extinguishing medium. The most
common dielectric gas is air, due to its ubiquity and low cost.
Nitrogen :-
Nitrogen is widely used gas. It is chemically inert. It prevents oxidation and slow down
electrons. Nitrogen is used as high voltage cables, capacitors and high voltage testing devices.
Hydrogen :-
Hydrogen has better dielectric strength. It is easy to handle at higher temperatures. It is not
harmful. It is used as a coolant in turbo generators and motors.
Moisture can degrade dielectric properties of the gas. Atmospheric pressure significantly
influences the insulation properties of air. High-voltage applications, e.g. xenon flash lamps, can
experience electrical breakdowns at high altitudes. For appropriate dielectric applications, a
mixture of gases can be used. E.g. sulphur hexafluoride, tetrafluoromethane etc..

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Liquid Dielectrics :-
A liquid dielectric is an insulating dielectric material in liquid state. Its main purpose is to
prevent or rapidly quench electric discharges. Dielectric liquids are used as electrical insulators
in high voltage applications, e.g. transformers, capacitors, high voltage cables, and switchgears.
Its function is to provide electrical insulation, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a
coolant. The liquid dielectrics are used as a cooling medium I transformers and some electronic
equipments. The liquid dielectrics are also used as filling medium in capacitors, bushings, etc.
The liquid dielectrics are used as an insulating and arc quenching medium in switchgears. The
liquid dielectrics impregnated with solid materials such as paper, porous polymer and press
board are used in transformers, switchgears, capacitors and cables.
A good liquid dielectric should have good dielectric strength, high thermal stability and chemical
inertness against the construction materials used, non-flammability and low toxicity, good heat
transfer properties, and low cost.
Liquid dielectrics are self-healing; when an electric breakdown occurs, the discharge channel
does not leave a permanent conductive trace in the fluid.
Mainly Liquid Dielectrics are, classified, further as:
1. Organic Liquid Dielectrics (Mineral Oils)
2. Inorganic Liquid Dielectrics (Synthetic Oils)
3. Miscellaneous Liquid Dielectrics.
Organic Liquid Dielectrics ( Mineral Oils) :
These are organic hydrocarbon materials obtained from petroleum products. They are used as
coolant in transformer s and capacitors oils.
In-Organic Liquid Dielectrics ( Synthetic Oils) :
These are inorganic or synthetic oils like Sovols and Karels, used in high tension transformers
and capacitors. They are used in arc quenching medium in switchgears. They are cheap in price
but toxic and inferior in quality compared to Mineral Oils; and therefore used occasionally.
Miscellaneous Liquid Dielectrics :-
Miscellaneous dielectrics like Silicon Oil and Vegetable Oil are used in cables, high voltage
capacitors. They are also used with pure insulators as impregnate.
Composite Materials :-
In many engineering applications, more than one types of insulation are used in parallel
together called composite insulation systems, e.g.
[01] Solid + Gas Composite Insulation Systems (transmission line insulators),

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

[02] Solid + Vacuum Composite Insulation Systems (vacuum circuit breaker, cyclotron,
Van-de Graff generator) and
[03] Solid + Liquid Composite Insulation Systems (trans-former winding insulation, oil
impregnated paper and oil impregnated metalized plastic film etc).
It is important to make sure that both the components of the composite should be chemically
stable and will not react with each other under the application of combined thermal, mechanical
and electrical stresses over the expected life of the equipment. They should also have nearly
equal dielectric constants. Further, the liquid insulator should not absorb any impurities from the
solid, which may adversely affect its resistivity, dielectric strength, loss factor and other
properties of the liquid dielectric.
Dielectric Insulators :-
Glass, Ceramics, Mica, Asbestos, Rubber and PVCs are popular dielectric insulators.
Glass is an amorphous SiO2 (Silicon Dioxide) having dielectric constant range 4 to 10. It is used
as dielectric materials in capacitors. It is used in bulbs, X-ray tubes, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT)
etc
Ceramics are either amorphous of crystalline dielectric material having dielectric constant
between 4 to 10. Ceramic dielectrics insulators like Alumina, Titanates and Porcelain are used I
switches, heaters, electric plugs, power distribution mechanisms etc..
Mica sheets or slices are widely useful dielectric insulator used in electrical irons, electric
hotplates, electric heaters, switchgears etc
Asbestos is a Magnesium Silicate having good die-electric as well as mechanical properties.
Asbestos is It is used in high voltage devices, furnace and clothes. Asbestos is used in form of
board, sheets and clothes in furnace and high-voltage devices.
Rubber (natural or synthetic) and PVCs are used for insulation and shielding of electric wires,
optical fibers, cables, motor windings and transformers.
Specific Applications of Dielectric Materials :
Dielectric materials have wide range of applications based upon their properties. Dielectrics are
used in electrical devices as wires & cables, optical fibres, electric motors, capacitors,
transformers, transducers, generators etc
Capacitance:
The property of a conductor or system of conductor that describes its ability to store electric
charge. It unit is farad or F
Charge of Capacitor Plate q coloumb
Capacitance C =
Potential Difference between two plates V volt

(Area of Capacitor Plate A m2 )(Permittivity of dielectric medium fared/metrer)


Capacitance C =
distance between two capacitor plate or thickness of dielectric in meter
Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 19 of 33
Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

C = q/V = A / d
Dielectric Capacitors :-

When a suitable dielectric material is placed between two conducting plates of a capacitor, it has
higher electrical storage capacity.
Dielectrics in capacitors serve three purposes:
1. Dielectrics do not allow contact between conducting plates. Smaller the separation,
higher the capacitance.
2. Dielectrics increase the effective capacitance by reducing the electric field strength,
which means the same charge at a lower voltage.

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

3. Dielectrics reduce the possibility of shorting out by sparking (known as dielectric


breakdown) during operation at high voltage.

Some of the important types of capacitors are discussed hereunder.


(01) Single Layer Capacitor:-

A metal electrode is covered by a dielectric ceramic disc and a conducting wire is taken out from
electrode. A protective coating around this structure avoids any kind of degradation of material
and provides durability.
(02) Multi Layer Capacitors:-
A multilayer capacitor is like connecting many single layer capacitors connected in parallel
connection. The parallel plates are separated by constant dielectric material. A multilayer
capacitor increases capacitance up to desired level.

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Electrolyte Capacitors:-

Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 22 of 33


Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

An electrolytic capacitor contains an electrolyte i.e.


an ionic conducting liquid. The anode (one plate) is
made up of pure aluminum foil with electrolytically
formed dielectric aluminum oxide on its surface. The
foil is fixed to increase the effective surface area.
Impregnate. The cathode (second plate) is aluminum
foil attached with a high absorption paper. This
cathode foil, in the contact of paper over a wide area,
reduces the series resistance of the capacitor.

Capacitors with vacuum, air and gases as dielectric are used in radio frequency and low
frequency measuring circuits. Capacitors with mineral oil as dielectric are used in high voltage
and large capacitance devices. Capacitors with combination of solid & liquid dielectrics are used
where high value of capacitance without precise value is needed like electric power distribution
system. Solid dielectrics like sodium, glass, titanium oxide etc. are used in the standard
capacitors.
Dielectric Transformers:-
A transformer transforms energy from primary coil to secondary coil without any electrically
conductive path but only through magnetic field. Therefore, dielectric insulators are provided at
all possible places to avoid electrical conduction. The dielectric material is so chosen that it can
withstand and survive against high power and high temperature.
When dielectric mineral oil is placed in core, between primary coil and secondary coil, it
provides overall insulation. Moreover, every wound of coil in transformer is coated with
dielectric coating. This insulation coating is made using paints, varnish and enamels. In
transformers mineral insulating liquid and synthetic insulating liquid are used as dielectric as
well as coolant.
Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 23 of 33
Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Different types of dielectric materials and their function in transformers are given below:
Solid dielectric materials used in transformers: - Fibrous materials are used in air-cooled and oil-
cooled transformers. Cotton tape is used to insulate the conductors of high cooled transformers.
Cylinder of Synthetic resin bonded paper is used between primary and secondary windings and
also between core and coil. Card-board or press board is used as a filling and packing material
between coils.
Liquid dielectric materials used in transformers:- Mineral insulating transformer oil is used
as a coolant. it maintains insulation of the windings. Fluorocarbon liquid is used as coolant to
provide high dielectric strength in large transformers. Dielectric fluids with higher dielectric
constants, such as mineral oil and electrical grade castor oil, are often used in high voltage
capacitors to help prevent corona discharge and increase capacitance.
Gaseous dielectric materials used in transformers:- Nitrogen as dielectric reduces oxidation of
transformer material. Sulpher Hexafluoride dielectric is non-toxic, non-inflammable, inert and
electronegative gas widely used in transformers.
Specially processed dielectrics, called electrets (ferroelectrics), may retain excess internal charge
or "frozen in" polarization. Electrets (ferroelectrics) have a semi-permanent external electric
field, and are the electrostatic equivalent to magnets. Electrets have numerous practical
applications in the home and industry.
Other applications of dielectrics:
Some dielectrics can generate a potential difference when subjected to mechanical stress, or
change physical shape if an external voltage is applied across the material. This property is
called piezoelectricity. Piezoelectric transducers are very useful to generate ultrasonic waves.
They are further useful in many communications, industrial, medicinal and non destructive
testing applications.

Patch Antennas for Automotive and GPS


Dielectric Rod Antennas
Ceramic Transformers
Sleeves for Ferrites
Waveguide Filters
Phase Shifters and Tuning Elements
Sputtering Targets
Dielectric resonator oscillator

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Numerical Problem Sums : polarization of dielectric slab if it is subjected to


Example 1: the electric field intensity of 2.25 103 V/m.
Calculate dielectric constant and electrical Solution:
susceptibility of a solid dielectric material Given Data:
having permittivity of 2.34 1010 F/m. Permittivity of Free Space
Solution: 0 = 8.85 1012 F/m
Given Data: Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity)
Permittivity of Free Space r = 6.25
0 = 8.85 1012 F/m.
Permittivity of Solid Dielectric Material Electricity field intensity E = 2.25 103 V/m.
= 2.34 1010 F/m.
In the dielectric slab, the dielectric flux density
Dielectric Constant = Relative Permittivity D
= . E = 0 . r . E
2.34 1010
= r r = = = (8.85 1012 )(6.25)( 2.25 103 )
0 8.85 1012
= 1.244 107 Coulomb/m2 .
= 25.42 unit less.

Polarization of Dielectric Slab


Dielectric Susceptibility e = [r 1 ] 0
P = 0 . (r 1 ) . E
e = ( 25.42 1.00) (8.85 1012 )
= (8.85 1012 ) 6.25 1 ) . (2.25
P
e = 2.161 1010 F/m
103 )
Example 2: = 4.646 108 cm/m2 .
P
The dielectric constant of Waxed paper is 3.70.
Calculate permittivity and electric susceptibility Example 4:
of the dielectric material. The dielectric constant of a gas is 1.0011 and its
Solution: atomic density is 2.7 1025 atoms/cubic
Given Data: meter. Calculate induced dipole moment of
Permittivity of Free Space each atom and atomic polarisability when the
0 = 8.85 1012 F/m. gas is place in electric field strength of 75 kV/m.
Dielectric constant of Waxed paper = r = 3.70 Solution:
Given Data:
Permittivity of Waxed paper = r . 0 Permittivity of Free Space
= r . 0 = (3.70 )( 8.85 1012 ) 0 = 8.85 1012 F/m
= 32.745 1012 F/m Dielectric Constant of gas = 1.0011
Atomic Density n = 2.7 1025 atoms/cubic
Dielectric Susceptibility meter
e = [r 1 ] 0 Electric Field Strength = E =75 kV/m
= ( 3.70 1.00) (8.85 1012 )
= 23.90 1010 F/m = 0 . e . E
Total Polarization P
Total Polarization P = 0 . (r 1 ) . E

Example 3:
P = (1.0011 1.0000) (8.85 1012 )(75000)
The dielectric material filled within the parallel
= (0.0011).(8.85 1012 )(75 103 )
plate capacitor has dielectric constant 6.25.
=0.73013 109 C / m2
Compute the electric displacement and electric
E
Polarization of each atom P = [r 1 ] 0
n
where n= total number of atoms
Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 25 of 33
Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Polarization of each atom P


(1.0011 1.0000) (8.85 1012 )(75000) Second method ( short cut)
= N e
2.7 1025 r=1+

0.73013 109 (2.7 1025 )(0.63 1037 )
= = 0.27042 1034 C / m2 =1+
2.7 1025 (8.85 1012 )

=2.7042 1035 C / m2 = 1 + 0.1922 = 1.1922

Now, we have, polarization P = . E Example 6:


P Calculate the relative dielectric constant of a
Polarisability = Barium Titanate crystal, which when inserted in
E
2.7042 1035
= = 0.00361 1037 a parallel plate capacitor of 10 mm 10 mm
75000
= 3.61 1040 Fm2 size, 2 mm separation and 109 F capacitance.
Solution:
Example 5 : Given Data:
At normal ATP, argon gas has atomic density Permittivity of Free Space
2.7 1025 atoms / m3 and polarisablility 0.63 0 = 8.854 1012 Fm1
1037 Fm2 . Calculate its dielectric constant Area of Capacitor = 100 mm2 = 100 106 m2
r Plates Distance d = 2 mm = 2 103 m
Solution: Capacitance = 109 F
Given Data:
. .
Permittivity of Free Space Capacitance C = F

0 = 8.85 1012 Fm1
Electronic polarisability e = 0.63 1037 Relative Permittivity = r =Dielectric
Fm2 C.d
Constant r =
0 .A
Total atoms/cubic meter volume N=2.7 1025
(109 )(2 103 )
=
(8.854 1012 )(100 106 )
The Claussius-Mossotti Eqn
N.e ( r 1)
. = 2 1093+12+4 2 104
30 ( r +2) = = = 2258.87 unit less
8.854 8.854

2Ne Example 7 :
{1+(
)}
30 The relative susceptibility of a material is 4.95
r= N
{1( e )} and the number of dipoles per unit volume is
30
1028 per m3 . Obtain polarisability.
(2.7 1025 )(0.63 1037 ) Solution:
Ne
Now, = Given Data:
30 3(8.85 1012 )
Permittivity of Free Space
Ne 0 = 8.854 1012 Fm1
= 6.639 105 Relative Susceptibility = 4.95
30
2N Dipoles per unit volume = 1028 m3
{1+( 3 e )}
Dielectric constant r =
0 = 0 . e . E
Polarization P = NE
Ne
{1( )} Polarisability =
0 .e
30 N

{1+(6.639 105 )} (8.854 1012 Fm1 )( 4.95)


= = 1.000199 =
{1(6.639 105 )} (1028 m3 )
Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 26 of 33
Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

= 43.8273 1016 Fm2 In a capacitor, metal sheets (plates) and


dielectric mica sheet of thickness 0.002 cm are
used. The dielectric constant of mica is 6.
Example 8 : Calculate the area of metal sheet required to
A crystal is subjected to an electric field of 1000 construct a capacitor of 0.02 F.
V/m and the resultant polarization is 4.3 . 108 Solution:
C/m2 . Calculate the relative permittivity Given Data:
(dielectric constant) of the crystal. Permittivity of Free Space
Solution: 0 = 8.854 1012 Fm1
Given Data: Relative Permittivity of Mica
FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012 r = 6.0
Fm1 Thickness of mica sheet = 0.002 102 m
Electric field = 1000 V/m Thickness of metal sheets = 0.002 102 m
Polarization P = 4.3 108 C/m2 Capacitance C = 0.02 106 F

r .0 .A

P = ( r 1) Capacitance C = F
d
Cd
Plate area A = m2
r .0

P
( r 1) = ( ) ( Plate area A =
Cd
) r .0
(0.02 106 F)(0.002 102 m)
=
P (6.0 Fm1 )(8.854 1012 Fm1 )
r =1+ ( ) ( )

= 7.529 103 m2 = 7.529 m2


(4.3 108 )
r =1+
(8.854 1012 ) (103 ) Example 11 :
The dielectric constant of Helium gas at NTP is
4.310 1.0000684. As the gas contains 2.7 1025
r =1+ = 5.8565
8.854 atoms per cubic meter volume, calculate its
electronic polarisability.
Example 9 :
Solution:
The radius of Neon atom is 0.158 nm. Calculate
Given Data:
its electronic polarisability.
FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012
Solution:
Fm1
Given Data:
Dielectric Const.= Relative Permittivity = r
Permittivity of Free Space
r HELIUM =1.0000684
0 = 8.854 1012 Fm1
Dipole concentration N = 2.7 1025 m3
Radius of Ne atom = R=0.158 109 m

Polarization
P = ( r 1)
Electronic polarisability e = 4 R3

e = 43.14 (8.854 1012 ) (0.158 109 )3


P = (8.854 1012 ) (1.0000684 1) Cm2
e = 4.388 1040 Fm2

P = (8.854 1012 ) (0.0000684) Cm2
Example 10:
= (6.056 1016
P ) Cm2

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012


Now, electronic polarisability e = P/NE Fm1
Relative permittivity r = 11.7
((6.0561016
) Cm2 ) No. of atoms per unit volume = N =4.82 1028
e =
(2.7 1025 m3 )( ) Electric field = 104 V/m

e = 2.243 1041 Fm2 ( r 1)


Electronic polarisability e =
N
Example 12 :
(8.854 1012 ) ( 11.7 1)
The FCC crystal Copper has lattice constant 3.6 e =
4.82 1028
A and atomic number 29. On applying strong
electric field, the average electron = 1.9646 1039 Fm2
displacement with respect to nucleus is 1018
m. Calculate its electronic polarisation. Now, Dipole Moment = e .E
Solution: Dipole Moment = (1.9646 1039 ) . (104 )
Given Data: = 1.9646 1035 Cm3
Electron density
= Now, Dipole Moment = Z.e.d
(No.of atoms /unit cell)(No.of electrons /atom)
Lattice Constant3 Distance d=
Ze
1.9646 1035
(4)(29) =
(14)(1.6 1019 )
=
(3.61 1010 )3 = 8.77 1018 m
30 3
= 2.465 10 electrons/ m = 8.77 108 m A

No.of atoms/unit volume Example 14 :


= Electron Density = N The radius of the hydrogen atom is 0.5 A. if
the density of 9.8 1026 atoms per meter 3
N = 2.465 1030 electrons/ m3 volume , calculate the polarisability and relative
permittivity of hydrogen gas .
Polarisation P = N = N.e.d Solution:
P = (2.465 1030 ) (1.6 1019 ) (1018 ) Given Data:
= 3.944 107 Cm2 FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012
Fm1
Example 13 : Radius ofH2 atom = R=0.5 1010 m
Silicon has atomic number 14 and a relative No. of atoms per unit volume = N =9.8 1026
permittivity of 11.7 at frequencies high enough
to ignore all but optical (electronic) Electronic polarisability e = 4 R3
polarisability. Silicon has 4.82 1028 atoms
per meter 3 volume. Calculate the dipole e = 43.14 (8.854 1012 ) (0.5 1010 )3
moment of each atom in a field of 104 V/m.
Obtain the distance between centre of electron e = 1.389 1041 Fm2
cloud and the nucleus for each atom. ( r 1)
Now, e =
N
Solution:
Given Data: N e
= ( r 1)
Atomic number of Dielectric(Si) = 14

Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 28 of 33


Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics
N e
Dielectric Const r = 1 +
Therefore angle = tan1 0.02 = 1 9
(9.8 1026 )(1.3891041 )
. r = 1 + And Phase Angle = (90)
( 8.854 1012 )
= (901 9)
= 1 + (1.5381 103 ) = (89 601 9 )
= 1 + 0.0015381 = 88 51
= 1.0015381 (unit less)
r .0 .A
formula for capacitance C = F
Example 15 : d
.
An elemental dielectric material with relative Relative Dielectric Constant =
. .
dielectric constant of 12 is having 5 1028
atomsm3 . Calculate electronic polarisability (2.4 1012 )( 0.5 102 )
= (
assuming Lorentz field. 8.854 1012 )(4 104 )

Solution: = 3.49
Given Data:
FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012 Dielectric loss factor = r tan
Fm1 = (3.49)(0.02) = 0.0698
No. of atoms per m3 . = N =5 x 1028
Example 17 :
Formula : Claussius-Mosotti equation A capacitor uses dielectric material of relative
N.e ( r 1) permittivity 8, surface area 0.036 m2 and a
= capacitance 6 F. Calculate the field strength
30 ( r +2)
and polarization (dipole moment/unit volume)
30 ( r 1) if the potential difference is 15 V across the
Electronic polarisability e =
N( r +2) capacitor.
Solution:
(8.854 1012 ) ( 12 1) Given Data:
e =
(5 1028 )(12+2) FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012
Fm1
= 4.17 1040 Fm2 Relative Dielectric Constant = 8
Area A = 0.036 m2
Example 16 : Capacitance C = 6 F = 6 106 F
An insulator of 1 cm x 4 cm x 0.5 cm produces a Potential difference = 6 V
capacitance of 2.4 1012 F with a r .0 .A
dissipation factor of 0.02. Determine its relative Formula of capacitance C = F
d
dielectric constant, electric loss factor and the Thickness of dipole or distance between two
phase angle.
Solution: r .0 .A
plates of capacitor d = meter
Given Data:
(8)( 8.854 1012 )(0.036)
FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012 d=
(6 106 )
Fm1
= 0.4249 106 m
Capacitance C = 2.4 1012 F
Area of dielectric block A = 4 104 m2
Now, Field strength E = V/d
Thickness of dielectric d = 0.5 102 m 15
E= = 35.30 x 106 V/m
Dielectric Loss Angle tan = 0.02 0.4249106
Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 29 of 33
Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Polarisation or (Dipole moment / unit volume )


= 0 . ( r 1)
= (8.854 1012 )( 35.30 x 106 )(8 1)
= 0.2187 104 C/ m2

Example 18 :
The polarisability of a gas is 0.35 1040 Fm2.
The gas contains 2.7 1025 atoms per meter 3
at 0 and 1 atmosphere pressure. Calculate its
relative permittivity or dielectric constant.
Given Data:
FreeSpace Permittivity 0 = 8.854 1012
Fm1
Polarisability = 0.35 1040 Fm2
Atom density N = 2.7 1025 atoms / m3
Formula : N = 0 . (r 1 )
N
r = 1 +
0

(2.7 1025 )( 0.35 1040 )


=1+ (8.854 1012 )
= 1 + 0.1067 103

= 1 + 0.0001067 = 1.0001067 unitless

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Exercise :
Short Questions:

1. Define the following terms giving symbol, unit and magnitude value. Draw figure, if
necessary.
1) Permittivity
2) Electric field intensity or Electric Field Strength : E
3) Electric Lines of Forces or Electric Flux
4) Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement Vector D
5) Dielectric Susceptibility
6) Dielectric Constant or Relative permittivity R
7) Dipole
8) Electric Dipole Moment
9) Polarisation P
10) Polarisability
11) Non-Polar Dielectrics
12) Polar Dielectrics
13) Electronic Polarisation Pe
14) Ionic Polarisation Pi
15) Dipolar or Orientational Polarization PO
16) Space Charge Polarization or Interfacial Polarisation Ps
17) Total Polarisation P
18) Dielectric Loss
19) Power factor or Tangent Loss
20) Dielectric Breakdown
21) Dielectric strength
22) Composite dielectric materials
23) Capacitor
24) Capacitance
25) Transformer core.
2. What do you mean by the term Dielectric Materials?
3. When is an insulator known as a dielectric material?
4. What is the basic function application of dielectric materials?
5. Make a list of characteristics and properties of dielectric materials.
6. What is Permittivity? Give its unit. What is the value of permittivity of free space?
7. What is Electric field intensity or Electric Field Strength ( E )? Briefly explain and
derive its formula.
8. What is the Electric Lines of Forces or Electric Flux ? Briefly explain.
9. What is Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement Vector ( D )? Derive its formula.
10. What is Dielectric Susceptibility ()? Write the formula to measure it.
11. Make a list of dielectric parameters.
12. What is Dielectric Constant or Relative permittivity R ? Give its formula.
13. Give the relation between permittivity and the relative permittivity of a material.
14. What is an electric Dipole? Explain dipole length.
15. What is Electric Dipole Moment ? Write its formula.
)? Write its formula.
16. What is dielectric Polarisation ( P
17. What is the relation between dipole moment and polarisation?
18. Briefly explain non polar dielectrics giving necessary figure.
Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 31 of 33
Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

19. Briefly explain polar dielectrics giving necessary figure.


20. What is Electronic Polarisation ( Pe )? Derive its formula.
21. What is Ionic Polarisation ( Pi )? Derive its formula.
22. What is Dipolar or Orientational Polarization(P O )? Derive its formula.
23. What is Space Charge Polarization or Interfacial Polarisation ( Ps )? Derive its formula.
24. What is Total Polarisation ( P)? Derive its formula.
25. Differentiate electronic polarisation and ionic polarisation.
26. What are the major disadvantages of dielectric materials?
27. What is Dielectric Loss? Write its different formulas.
28. What is Power factor or Tangent Loss? Write its formula.
29. What is Dielectric Breakdown? Make a list of different kinds of dielectric breakdowns.
30. What is thermal breakdown? When does it occur?
31. What is intrinsic breakdown? When does it occur?
32. What is discharge breakdown? When does it occur?
33. What is electrochemical breakdown? When does it occur?
34. What is defect breakdown? When does it occur?
35. What is Dielectric strength? Describe giving different definitions. Write its formula and
unit.
36. What are the Composite dielectric materials? What are the major types of composite
dielectric materials?
37. Name different types of solid dielectric materials. Define each in two lines.
38. What are the elementary solid dielectric materials? Give its examples. Where are they
used?
39. What are the non polar or ionic solid dielectric materials?
40. What are the polar solid dielectric materials?
41. List out various types of gaseous dielectric materials.
42. What are the liquid dielectrics? Name three different kinds of liquid dielectric materials.
43. State advantages of mineral oil against synthetic oil used in transformers.
44. Name any two specific applications of dielectric materials.
45. What is capacitance? Define and give its unit.
46. Which are the purposes served by dielectric materials in the capacitor? Or What are the
advantage of using dielectric materials in capacitors?
47. Name different types of dielectric capacitors. Write their classification.
48. How is dielectric material used in different types of capacitors?
49. How is dielectric materials used in different types of transformers?
50. Which are the purposes served by dielectric materials in the capacitor? Or What are the
advantage of using dielectric materials in capacitors?
51. Make a list of different types of dielectric materials used in different types of capacitors.
52. Describe different types of dielectric materials used at different places in different types
of transformers.
53. Mention the applications of dielectric materials in capacitors.
54. Mention the applications of dielectric materials in transformers.
55. Make a list of applications of dielectric materials.
56. Give examples of various dielectric insulators.

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Engineering Physics (G.T.U. edition) Dielectrics

Long Questions:
1. What is dielectric flux density? Derive formula for the electric flux density of a
conducting sphere. And hence, prove that Polarization is directly proportional to
electrical field intensity.
2. Discuss the effect of electric field on dielectric (polarization). Derive its formula.
3. What is dielectric polarisation? Name different types of electrical polarizations. Explain
each in brief.
4. What do you mean by polarisation in solid dielectrics? discuss the different types of
polarisation mechanism and hence derive the mathematical expression for the total
polarisation.
5. Write a short note on Electronic PolarisationP e .
6. Write a short note on Ionic PolarisationP i .
7. Write a short note on Dipolar or Orientational PolarisationP o .
8. Write a short note on Space charge PolarisationP S .
9. Deduce Claussius-Mosotti Equation.
10. What is meant by dielectric breakdown? Explain different types of dielectric
breakdowns.
11. Give classification of different types of dielectric materials giving specific examples of
each.
12. Explain solid dielectric materials with its examples and applications in detail.
13. What is overall advantage of gaseous dielectric materials? State advantages of sulphur
hexafluoride and its applications?
14. Describe and discuss Solid dielectrics in detail.
15. Describe and discuss Liquid dielectrics in detail.
16. Describe and discuss Gaseous dielectrics in detail.
17. Describe and discuss Composite dielectrics in detail.
18. What is a capacitor? What role does a dielectric material play in a capacitor? Explain
various types of capacitors.
19. What is a capacitor? What role does a dielectric material play in a capacitor?
Or Write a short note on different types of capacitors.
20. What is a transformer? What role does a dielectric material play in a transformer?
Or Write a short note on different types of c transformers.
21. Explain various dielectric insulators with proper specific examples and their applications
in various devices.
22. Discuss various dielectric materials used in electrical devices and systems.
23. Write a short note on dielectric insulators.

Alkesh Gandhi. B.Sc.(Physics),B.Sc.(Chemistry), M.Sc.(Physics) Page 33 of 33