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PROCESSED FOOD
Cheese and By Product
Confectionery and Pastry
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INTRODUCTION
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee
Report defines a processed food as an
agricultural commodity that has undergone,
washing, cleaning, milling, cutting, chopping,
heating, pasteurizing, blanching, cooking,
canning, freezing, drying, dehydrating, mixing,
packaging, or other procedures that alter the food
from its natural state.
Additionally, processing may include adding
ingredients to foods such as preservatives,
flavors, nutrients, and other food additives or
substances.
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PROCESSED FOOD
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PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS


Cereal, Cereal Product, Fruit and Fruits Product
Starch & Bread Jam, Fruit Jellies,
Marmalade and Seri
Milk and Milk Product Kaya
Sweetening Substance Nut and Nut Product
Meat and Meat Product Tea, Coffee, Chicory and
Related Products
Fish and Fish Product
Milk shake
Egg and Eggs Product Spices
Edible Fat and Edible Oil Vinegar, Sauce, Chutney
Vegetable and
and Pickle
Soft Drink
Vegetable Product
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HALAL FOOD AND DRINK


Food & drink and/or their ingredients permitted under Shariah law & fulfils
these conditions:
a) Does not contain any parts or products of animals that are non-halal
by Shariah law or any parts or products of animals which are not
slaughtered according to Shariah law;
b) Does not contain najs* according to Shariah law;
c) Safe for consumption, non-poisonous, non-intoxicating or non-
hazardous to health
d) Not prepared, processed or manufactured using equipment
contaminated with najs according to Shariah law;
e) Do not contain any human parts or its derivatives that are not
permitted by Shariah law
f) During its preparation, processing, handling, packaging, storage or
distribution, the food is physically separated from any other food that
does not meet the requirements stated in items a), b), c) d) or e) or
any other things that have been decreed as najs by Shariah law.
HALAL INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM
An internal system which is established and implemented to
ensure compliance to regulatory and certification bodys
requirements for halal certification through the supply chain
in producing halal products and services.
Requirements to comply with as stated in MS 1500: 2009:
Management responsibility
Premise
Devices, utensil, machines and processing aids
Hygiene, sanitation and food safety
Processing of halal food and drink
Storage, transportation, display, sale and serving halal food
Packaging, labelling, and advertising
Legal requirement
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Processing Halal Food


MS1500: 2009, Clause 3.5 focus to three critical element
in producing halal food.
These elements are:
3.5.1 Sources of halal food and drink
3.5.2 Slaughtering process
3.5.3 Processing, handling, distribution and serving
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PROCESSING, HANDLING, DISTRIBUTION &


SERVING
All processed halal shall meets these requirements:
a. Food or its ingredients shall not be processed using
any components or products of animals that are non-
halal by Shariah law or of halal food any components
or product of animals that are not slaughtered
according to Shariah law;
b. Food shall not be processed using anything in any
quantity that is decreed as najs by Shariah law;
c. Processed food or its ingredient shall be safe for
consumption, non-poisonous, non-intoxicating or
non-hazardous to health
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PROCESSING, HANDLING, DISTRIBUTION &


SERVING
All processed halal shall meets these requirements:
d. Food shall be prepared, processed or
manufactured using equipment and facilities
that are free from contamination with najs;
e. During its preparation, processing, handling,
packaging, storage distribution and serving, it
shall be physically separated from any other
food that does not meet the requirements
specified in item a), b), c) and/or d) or any
other things that are decreed as najs by
Shariah law.
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CRITICAL PROCESSED INGREDIENTS


Main ingredients in confectionery and pastry and cheese
and its by product :

Confectionery and Pastry Cheese and by product

Flour Milk
Cocoa powder Whey
Sugar Acidification agent
Fats and Oils Coagulation agent
Milk
Egg
Jelling agent
Fruits
Water
Yeast
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CRITICAL PROCESSED INGREDIENTS


Optional in confectionery and pastry and cheese and by
products:
a. Milk product
b. Sugar product
c. Fruits (dry/ peel/ puree)
d. Vegetables
e. Jam
f. Nuts and Spices
g. Mould
h. Additive: emulsifier / stabiliser / gelling agent / thickener
/ colouring / flavouring / leavening agent / wax /
preservative
IDENTIFICATION & ASSESSMENT of
MATERIAL / INGREDIENT
Identification and assessment of material or
ingredient is crucial in producing halal products.
The source of material and processes involve in
producing the material determine the criticality of
the material.
Verification of halal status for material are through
recognised halal certificate, product specification
and detailed process flow.
IDENTIFICATION & ASSESSMENT of
MATERIAL / INGREDIENT

Example of method use fro identification of


material criticality is decision tree by MUI
LPPOM, Indonesia.
There are four decision tree to use:
Animal
Plant
Microbial
Others mining mineral, synthetic and mixed.
IDENTIFICATION & ASSESSMENT of
MATERIAL / INGREDIENT
Screening element in identification and assessment
of halal material :
Critical Non
critical
Material Animal Plant
Additive Microorganism Chemical
Alcohol Mining
Processing aids
Khamar mineral
Equipment, utensil and
devices
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Land Animal Products

Meat & by Products (Fat, Bone, Skin, etc)


Milk, Egg, Aquatic Animal
(fish, crustacean)
Are meat and by products from halal animals?
Any processing?

Yes No Haram No Yes

Critical Non Is slaughtering of animal in compliance with Shariah Law


Point Critical and slaughter house recognised by related authority?
Point
No Yes

Further Processing
Haram

Yes No

Critical Point Critical Point


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Plant Products

Is there any processing?

No Yes

Non Critical Point Microbial Cultivation

Yes No

Khamr Fermentation Any addition of additives and /or Processing Aids

No Yes
Yes No

Haram Critical Point Non Critical Point Critical Point


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Microbial Products

Critical Point
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Other
Materials

Mining
Synthetics Mixed
Minerals

Non Critical Critical


Non Organic Organic
Point Point

Critical
Does it contain food additives?
Point

Yes No

Critical
Non Critical Point
Point
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FLOUR
Flour is a product produced by physical process.
There are many types of flour.
Example: Wheat flour, Rice Flour, Corn flour, and
others
Critical Point:
Flour fortified or enrich with vitamins
Vitamin is critical due to:
Source
Coating agent
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Vitamin in Flour

Plant Additive

Plant Stabilizer agent for


Animal Vitamin C, E, beta
Microbial carotene i.e.
gelatine
Chemical Synthetic
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Sugar
Sugar is food chemically known as sucrose and
includes granulated sugar, sugar loaf, castor
sugar, powdered sugar and rock sugar.
Sugar-
Shall contain not less than 99.5% of sucrose
Shall not yield more than 0.03% sulphated ash
Sugar may contain permitted preservative
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Sugar Refining Process


Raw sugar

Affination

Remelt

Carbonation Concentration

Filtration Crystallization

Activated Carbon Crystalline Sugar


or Bone char

Ion Exchange Resin


Decolourisation Note: Organo Corporation
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Sugar Refining Process


Halal Critical Point
Decolourisation process
The use of ion exchange resin.
Ion exchange resin are made from polystyrene
sulfonate and coat with gel
Possible source of gel is gelatin.

The use of activated carbon


Possible source for activated carbon is nutshell,
wood, coal, petroleum and bone.
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STARCH HYDROLYZED PRODUCTS


Products:
Glucose, glucose syrup, fructose syrup, xylose,
maltodextrine
The product are made by hydrolyzing the starch
(corn starch, tapioca and others).
Use acid or enzymes in hydrolyzing and
saccharification i.e. amylase, glucoamylase,
isomerase
Decolourisation with activated carbon, ion
exchange resin
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Fats and Oils
What are lipids?
A family of compounds that includes
Triglycerides (fats & oils)
Fats: lipids that are solid at room temperature
Oils: lipids that are liquid at room temperature
Phospholipids
Sterols (cholesterol).
The Functions of Fat in Food
Provide calories (9 per gram)
Provide satiety
Carry fat-soluble vitamins & essential fatty
acids
Contribute aroma & flavor
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Fats and Oils


Fats and oils are among the important material in
food industry, whereby it can be use as the main
ingredient or be further process to be an additive in
food i.e. emulsifier.
The main source for fats and oils are animal and
plant.
Fats and oils fro plant base are mainly from palm and
followed by soya bean.
Fats and oils processing are divided into 3 stages
Production of crude oil
Refining of oil
Fats and Oils further processes
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Crude Oil Process


Crude Oil

Sterilization

Clarification tank
Stripping

Centrifuge and Purification


Digestion

Vacuum Drying
Pressing

Crude Oil
Oil Liquid
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Oil Refining
There are two method in refining oil:
Chemical refining
Physical refining
Chemical refining is suitable for low free fatty acids oil
The refining processes involve are neutralizing,
bleaching and deodorizing.
Residual soap and gums from neutralizing stages is
clean by water washing or using silica adsorbent in
bleaching stage.
Physical Refining is suitable for high free fatty acid oil
The refining process involve are acid conditioning or
enhanced degumming, bleaching, stripping and
deodorizing.
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Physical Refining Crude Oil Chemical Refining

*Degumming Water degumming

Dewaxing Alkali - Neutralisation

Bleaching Dewaxing

**Deacidification/ Bleaching
Deodarisation

Deodarisation
Edible Oil

Edible Oil

*Degumming process can either be by acid or enzyme


** Deacidification is for acid degumming
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Oil Refining
Halal Critical Point
The critical point for oil refining is in the
degumming stage.
Degumming stage can either be done using
chemical or enzyme.
The type of enzyme use is phospholipase C
which can be source:
animal (pancreatic bovine or porcine)
microorganism i.e. Pseudomonas flourescens,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Plant corn or soya
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Fats and Oil Further Process


Edible oil can be further processed by going
through processes such as:
Fractionation
Interesterification* - chemical or enzyme (lipase)
Hydrogenation
Glycerolysis
Distillation
Product produces:
RBD olein, RBD stearin, double olein, double
stearin, fatty acids distillates, oleochemicals,
emulsifier.
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Milk and Milk Products


Milk means the normal, clean, fresh mammary
secretion of healthy cow, buffalo, goat or sheep
that is properly fed and kept.
Skimmed milk, skim milk, non fat milk or
separated milk
Pasteurised milk
Sterilised milk
Ultra high temperature milk or UHT milk
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Milk and Milk Products


Milk products shall be any product prepared from milk.
Flavoured milk
Full cream milk powder or dried full cream milk
Skimmed milk powder, skim milk powder, dried non
fat milk solids or separated milk powder
Malted milk powder
Recombined milk
Reconstituted milk
Evaporated milk or unsweetened condensed milk
Condensed milk or sweetened condensed milk
Lactose hydrolysed milk
Filled milk and filled milk products
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Milk and Milk Products


Milk products shall be any product prepared from
milk.
Cream or raw cream
Pasteurised cream
Reduced cream or pouring cream
Butter
Recombined butter
Ghee
Cheese
Ice cream
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Milk and Milk Products


Halal Critical Point
a. Additive:
i. Emulsifier glycerol monostearate &
polysorbate 80,sodium stearoyl lactylate
(SSL) (plant or animal)
ii. Stabiliser gelatin, xanthan gum, guar gum
iii. Anti-caking natural ( kaolin, talc)
manufactured (silicon dioxide, calcium
stearate, magnesium stearate)
iv. Flavour animal, plant, microbial, artificial
v. Colouring animal, plant, microbial, artificial
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Emulsifiers
An emulsifier is a molecule with one oil-friendly
and one water-friendly end. Water friendly end in
food emulsifier is called hydrophilic tail and oil-
friendly end is called hydrophobic head.
Presence in food to give technological function
such as dispersed fat, provide lubricant,
plastisizer in gum base and hydration effect
during chewing, viscosity control and many others
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Emulsifiers
Halal critical Point
Source of emulsifier
Plant - soya
Animal porcine, bovine
Processing use of enzyme in the
interesterification process
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Food Emulsifier

Bread Dough strengthener diacetyl


tartaric acid ester / sodium or calcium
stearoyl-2- lactylate
Dough softener mono and di-
glycerides of fatty acids

Chocolate Consistency - Lecithin / ammonium


phosphotide
Anti blooming sorbitang tristearate

Ice cream, sorbet, Mono and di-glyceride of fatty acids,


milkshake, frozen lecithin, polysorbates
mouse and frozen
yoghurt
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Gelatine
Gelatine is an animal by-product, the partially
hydrolysed collagen tissue of various animal
parts.
There 2 types of gelatin
Type A made from porcine skin
Type B skin of cattle or calf or demineralized
bones

Halal Critical Point:


Sources animal halal and non halal (porcine,
bovine, ovine, fish)
Processing purification process ion exchange
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Vegetable Substitutes For Gelatin


a. Agar also called agar-agar, gelose, Chinese
isinglass, Japanese isinglass, Bengal isinglass, or
Ceylon isinglass.
b. Carrageenan polysaccharide extracted from red
seaweed.
c. Pectin polysaccharide substance present in cell walls
of all plants.
d. Xanthan gum polysaccharide gum produced by
bacteria. The bacterial medium must be halal for the
product to be halal.
e. Modified corn starch.
f. Cellulose gum.
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Fresh Egg and Egg Products


Fresh egg refer to egg which has not been
subjected to any process of cooking or
preservation.
Egg products refers to egg in liquid or powder
form or preserved egg.
Liquid or powder egg can either be in the form of
whole egg, egg white or egg yolk.
Every liquid egg shall be pasteurized at desired
temperature prior to cooling and delivery to user.
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Fresh Egg and Egg products


Halal Critical Point.
Critical Process Step Enzyme
Washing process- removing Catalase
hydrogen peroxide
Desugar egg white prevent Glucose
browning reaction oxidase
Eliminate egg yolk lipid from Lipase
egg white
Emulsification of egg yolk Phospholipase
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COLOURING
An additive added to enhance, uniform the
appearance of the food and drink

Halal Critical Point


Source from animal, plant, microbial, synthetic
Carrier for colouring
Non alcohol glycerin propylene, glycol,
vegetable oil
Alcohol ethyl alcohol
Gum solution for spray drying into powder
form
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Source
Animal Corchineal

Plant Anatto, Gardenia, Tumeric


Microbial Arpink red pennicillium oxalicum
B carotene Blakeslea trispora
Monascud (red) Xanthophyllomyces
dendrorhous
Synthetic Azo dyes chemical reactions
Red shades acetoacetanilide and
heterocylic compound
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Microorganism
Microorganism is an organism that can be seen
only with the aid of microscope and that typically
consist of only a single cell.
Microorganism include bacteria, protozoans and
certain algae and fungi
Microorganism is commonly use in fermentation
product such as tempeh, tapai, kimchi and many
others.
Currently microorganism is widely use in
producing material for food and non food industry
i.e. colouring, flavouring, vitamins and enzymes.
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Microorganism
Halal Critical Point
a. Media
b. Enzyme as processing aids in media
preparation
c. Processing aids
d. Recombinant microorganism
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Microorganism
Halal Critical Point Media
a. Seed culture and propagation media
Microorganism require nutrition to accelerate it
growth.
Nitrogen source as one of the required
nutrition is normally sourced from organic
protein or hydrolyzed of organic protein.
The source are from blood, meat extract,
gelatin.
Enzymes is use in producing hydrolyzed
protein.
Example : Beef extract, peptone, yeast extract
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Microorganism
Halal Critical Point Media
b. Fermentation Media
Usually from industrial by product as it is
cheap and available in large amount
Critical for nitrogen source by product
from slaughter house, protein or
hydrolyzed vegetable protein soya
powder
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Microorganism
Halal Critical Point Enzyme as processing aids in
media preparation
a. Enzymes can be produced from animal, plant
and microorganism
b. Example of enzyme from animal
Catalase liver of animal
Protease pancreas of pig
Lipase pancreas of cow or pig
Phospholipase pancreas of pig or cow
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Microorganism
Halal Critical Point Processing Aids
a. Antifoam - silicon, sulphonates, esters and
fatty acid from animals
b. Activated carbon wood, coconut shell, or
animal bone
c. Harvesting aids using tween 80 surfactant
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Microorganism
Halal Critical Point Recombinant microorganism
which uses haram genes
a. The use of microorganism to produce other
material such as enzyme.
b. Example production of chymosine in cheese
production.
c. Chymosine presence in rennet which sourced
from porcine, bovine or ovine.
d. Therefore, in bacteria and yeast the
recombinant required DNA from either porcine,
bovine or ovine.
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Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)


As stated in the MS 1500: 2009, food and drinks
containing product and / or by-product of
Genetically Modified Organisms or ingredient
made by the use of genetic material of animals
that are non-halal by Shariah law are not halal.
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ENZYMES
Enzyme is a biological catalyst which increase the rate of
chemical reaction.
Sourced from plant, animal, microbial or by fermentation
using microorganism

Enzymes Source
Amylase Cow, sheep, pig
Aspergillus oryzae
Bacillus subtilis
Glucoamylase Aspergillus niger
Rhizopus sp.
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ENZYMES
Halal Critical Point for enzymes
a. Source - animal, plant, microorganism
b. Microbial enzyme ingredient for
fermentation media & processing aids
c. Purification process using ion exchange
resins
DOUGH IMPROVER : L- CYSTEIN
A type of amino acid
In food :
Dough conditioner (to reduce mixing time,
prevent dough from sticking)
Meat flavouring
Antioxidant for fruit juices
Act as processing aid in bakery products
Possible sources : human hair, duck and chicken
feathers
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CHEESE & BY
PRODUCTS
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CHEESE
Cheese shall be the fresh or matured solid or
semi-solid product obtained by coagulating milk,
cream, skimmed or partly skimmed milk or any
components; of milk, or a mixture of any such
substance with rennet or any other protein
coagulating enzymes and includes the food for
which a standard is prescribed in regulations 107
and 108.
Cheese may contain ripening ferments, harmless
acid-producing bacterial cultures, special
mould cultures and may be coated with
harmless wax or plastic.
.
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CHEESE
Except as otherwise provided in these
Regulations, cheese
shall contain not less than 40 per cent of milk
fat on a water-free basis; and
may contain permitted preservative, permitted
colouring substance of vegetable origin and
permitted flavoring substance.
Hard cheese shall be cheese containing not more
than 39 per cent of water.
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Classification of cheese
The classification of cheese can be divided
according to:
Length of ageing
Texture
Method of making
Fat content
Animal milk
Country or region of origin
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Classification of cheese
Commonly use method for classification:
Moisture content
Fat content
Curing or ripening method
Either use singly or combination of methods
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Classification of cheese

Age Moisture

Source of milk Mold

Brined Processed Cheese


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Classification of cheese

Fresh Soft to Cow, ewe

Source of milk
Age

Moisture
cheese hard Cheese :
Curd Soft, semi Pocarino
cheese, soft,
cream medium
cheese, hard, semi
farmer hard
cheese,
cas,
shhena,
fromage
blanc
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Classification of cheese

Soft ripened - using P. Camemberti


Cheese: Brie, Camembert
Mold

Wash rind- periodically cured in salt solution


mould bearing agent such as beer, wine,
brandy and spices
Cheese: Lamburger / Apperizeller
Smear ripened- using Brevibacterium linen,
Debaryomyces hanseni, Geotrichum candidum.
Cheese : Munster, Port salut.
Blue inoculate cheese with Pennicillium
roqueforti
Cheese: Roquefort, Gorgonzola stilton
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Classification of cheese

Cheese in brine A few type of

Processed Cheese
Brined

and in air tight or cheese mixed and


semi permeable reprocess to
container. produce a new
Cheese: Bryndza, cheese.
feta, holloumi Example : Cheddar
slice
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Cheese General Process Flow


HCP 1 Material Delivery

Storage
Surplus Cream
Pasteurisation

Separation Standardisation

HCP 2 Curdling Starter Culture,


Rennet
Pre-Pressing

Molding Cheddaring
Salting
Final Pressing Milling

Brining Hooping

Final Pressing

HCP 3 Ripening

Distribution
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Halal Critical Point


1. HCP1
Delivery of material
Material shall be sourced from halal sources and
dedicated delivery of halal material.
2. HCP 2
Curdling
The use of coagulating agent enzymes
(chymosine) shall be from halal sources.
Can be sourced from animal, bacteria, yeast,
plant.
Process enzyme for media, additives, media
source shall be from halal sources
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Halal Critical Point


3. HCP3
Ripening
This is the process whereby inoculation of mould
and bacteria is done to get blue cheese and
other desired flavor development.
Also the process of curing for wash rind cheese
using salt solution or khamar i.e. wine.
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By product of cheese
By product of cheese processing are:
Whey
Whey powder
Whey protein
Whey protein concentrate
Whey protein isolate
Lactose
Lactic acid
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Production of cheese By product: Whey

Separator

Membrane Filter Defatted Whey

Evaporator
Lactose WPC
WPI
Spray Dryer

Lactose Dry Whey


Packaging and
packaging and
Labelling
labelling
Packaging and labelling
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Halal Critical Point


1. HCP1
Delivery of material
Material shall be sourced from halal sources i.e.
whey using halal coagulant enzyme and
dedicated delivery of halal material.
2. HCP 2
Spray dryer
Use halal emulsifier for whey mixture in storage
tank prior to spray dryer
3. Membrane filter
Membrane filter from halal sources i.e. ceramic.
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CONFECTIONERY &
PASTRY
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DEFINITION
Confectionery
A fancy dish or sweetmeat
Sweet food
Food which is rich in sugar or carbohydrates
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CATEGORIES OF CONFECTION
i. Flour confection

ii. Sugar confection

iii. Frozen confection

iv. Ice confection

v. Table confection
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Flour confection
Including pastry, cake and biscuits
The product shall be the product prepares from
mixture of flour or meal and other food. It may be
cooked or uncooked.
May contain permitted preservative, colouring
substances, flavouring substances and permitted
conditioner.

* Food Act 1983 & Regulations


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FLOUR CONFECTION:
GENERAL PROCESS FLOW
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HCP 1 Material Delivery


Storage

Pre Wash Sieving Defrost

Weighing

Preparation*
Mixing

HCP 2
Proving / Fermentation
Forming
Egg Wash
HCP 3 Baking
Cooling
HCP 4
Filling

HCP 5 Decoration
Packing
AZURAH ABDUL AZIZ
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Halal Critical Point


1. HCP1
Delivery of material
Material shall be sourced from halal sources
and dedicated delivery of halal material.
2. HCP 2
Fermentation process
The use of yeast for developing flavor and as
leavening agent.
Yeast shall be from halal sources and not from
brewery industry by product.
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Halal Critical Point


1. HCP 3
Pan release grease / oil .
Shall be sourced from halal sources animal or
plant.
Identify possibility of using enzyme in oil
production.
2. HCP 4
Fresh egg egg is washed from any bird feces.
Liquid egg identify anti browning agent use in
liquid egg production.
Identify the type of brush use for egg wash
process.
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Halal Critical Point


5. HCP 5
Decoration
The use of marshmallow, fondant, gelatin.
Both marshmallow and fondant contain
gelatin & glucose. Therefore shall be from
halal sources.
The use of cream especially cream liquor
which contain alcohol as part of the
ingredient.
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Sugar Confection
Product made principally from sugar, glucose,
sorbitol or any sweetening substances or other
than non nutritive sweetening substances
With or without other food
Shall include chewing gum, bubble gum and
other masticatory confection and cake decoration
but shall not include frozen confectionery
May contain permitted preservative, colouring
substances, flavouring substances, permitted
conditioner, permitted non-nutritive sweetening
substances or permitted glazing agent.
* Food Act 1983 & Regulations
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Chocolate Products Process Flow

HCP 1 Material Delivery

Storage

Sieving

Mixing

Refining Filling:
Caramel
Conching
Cereal
Nuts
Tempering
Moulding / Enrobing
Biscuit/ Wafer
Cooling
sandwich
HCP 2 Wrapping

HCP 2 Packing
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Halal Critical Point


1. HCP1
Ingredients use for producing chocolate is
made from halal sources especially for
emulsifier, milk powder, milk solids, whey
powder, cocoa butter replacer RBD Olein or
Stearin.
2. HCP 2
The type of brush use for wrapping machine.
Avoid animal bristle.
The use of lubricant and grease for machinery.
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Hard Candy Products Process Flow

HCP 1 Material Delivery

Storage

Sieving

Mixing

Dissolving

Cooking
Colouring
HCP 2 Kneading Flavouring

Cooling

HCP 2 Molding

Cooling

Wrapping

HCP 2 Packing
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Halal Critical Point


1. HCP1
Ingredients use for producing hard candy is from
halal sources i.e. sugar, glucose, flavouring,
colouring, citric acid.
2. HCP 2
Kneading and moulding.
The use of heat resistant hand gloves leather
from halal animal.
The use of animal bristle for brush at packing
machine
The use of oil to avoid sticking of hot hard sugar
mixture to the table and moulding machine.
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Chewing Gum & Bubble Gum General Process Flow

HCP 1 Material Delivery

Storage

Mixing

Pre extruder

Extruder
Filling
Rolling / Molding

Cooling

Coating - Colour

Waxing

Wrapping

HCP 2 Packing
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Frozen Confection
Product of milk or skimmed milk with fat or edible
vegetable fat or a combination of these, or cream
or butter or combination of this
With sugar and other food
Shall comply with standard for ice cream

* Food Act 1983 & Regulations


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Ice Cream
Ice cream is both foam and an emulsion and it
contain ice crystal and an unfrozen aqueous
phase whose freezing point is depressed by
freeze concentration of salt, sugar and
polysaccharide stabilizer.
The smoothness and palatability of ice cream
depending on the ice crystal formation.
Ingredient for making ice cream:
Milk, cream, butter fat, milk solid, whey,
sucrose, corn syrup, stabilizer and emulsifier,
colouring and flavouring.
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Stabiliser and Emulsifier


Stabiliser
Gelatine (animal), Xanthan Gum (Xhantamonas
species), Guar gum (Guar Beans)
Emulsifier
Lecithine, glycerol monostearate, sodium
stearoyllactylate, monoglycerides, polysorbates
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Ice Cream General Process Flow


HCP 1 Material Delivery

Storage

Blending

Homogenisation

Cooling

Ageing

Addition of Flavour & Colour

Air Incorporation

Freezing

Add in particulate

Wrapping

Packing
94

Halal Critical Point


1. HCP1
Ingredients use for producing ice cream shall be
from halal sources i.e. milk, vegetable fat, whey,
milk solids, glucose, lactose, emulsifier,
flavouring and coloring.
Additional ingredient food products:
mashmallow gelatin, glycerine, shortening,
glucose syrup from halal sources.
95

Ice Confection
A frozen preparation of water with other food. It
shall include cream ices, water ices, ice sherbets
and ice lollipops
May contain permitted colouring substances,
permitted flavouring substances, and permitted
food conditioner.

* Food Act 1983 & Regulations


96

Ice Sorbet General Process Flow


HCP 1 Material Delivery

Storage

Blending

Homogenisation

Pasteurisation

Cooling

Ageing

Churning

Filling

Wrapping

Packing

Hardening
97

Halal Critical Point


1. HCP1
Ingredients use for producing ice confection shall
be from halal sources i.e. milk, vegetable fat,
whey, milk solids, glucose, lactose, emulsifier,
flavouring and coloring.
98

Table Confection
Any preparation including jelly crystals thats is
suitable and intended use as a dessert or for
ready conversion into a dessert and for which no
other standards is prescribe in these regulations
May contain permitted colouring substances,
permitted flavoring substances and permitted
food conditioner.

* Food Act 1983 & Regulations


99

Conclusion
The status of halal product does not only focus to
the ingredients used but also involve process and
machinery and personnel in the premise.
Production of halal product involves every
personnel in the premise not just the production
personnel.