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There are three types of frames

1. Conventional frame
2. Integral frame
3. Semi-integral frame

1. Conventional frame:

It has two long side members and 5 to 6 cross members joined together with the help
of rivets and bolts. The frame sections are used generally.
a. Channel Section Good resistance to bending
b. Tabular Section Good resistance to Torsion
c. Box Section Good resistance to both bending and Torsion
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2. Integral Frame:
This frame is used now a day in most of the cars. There is no frame and all the assembly
units are attached to the body. All the functions of the frame carried out by the body
itself. Due to elimination of long frame it is cheaper and due to less weight most
economical also. Only disadvantage is repairing is difficult.

3. Semi Integral Frame:

In some vehicles half frame is fixed in the front end on which engine gear box and front
suspension is mounted. It has the advantage when the vehicle is met with accident the
front frame can be taken easily to replace the damaged chassis frame. This type of frame
is used in some of the European and American cars.

Three types of steel sections are most commonly used for making frames:
(a) Channel section,
(b) Tubular section, and
(c) Box section


Ladder Frame

So named for its resemblance to a ladder, the ladder frame is the simplest and oldest of
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all designs. It consists merely of two symmetrical rails, or beams, and cross member
connecting them. Originally seen on almost all vehicles, the ladder frame was gradually
phased out on cars around the 1940s in favor of perimeter frames and is now seen
mainly on trucks.
This design offers good beam resistance because of its continuous rails from front to
rear, but poor resistance to torsion or warping if simple, perpendicular cross members
are used. Also, the vehicle's overall height will be higher due to the floor pan sitting
above the frame instead of inside it.

Backbone tube

Backbone chassis is a type of an automobile construction chassis that is similar to the

body-on-frame design. Instead of a two-dimensional ladder type structure, it consists of
a strong tubular backbone (usually rectangular in cross section) that connects the front
and rear suspension attachment areas. A body is then placed on this structure.

Perimeter Frame

Similar to a ladder frame, but the middle sections of the frame rails sit outboard of the
front and rear rails just behind the rocker panels/sill panels. This was done to allow for a
lower floor pan, and therefore lower overall vehicle in passenger cars. This was the
prevalent design for cars in the United States, but not in the rest of the world, until the
uni-body gained popularity and is still used on US full frame cars. It allowed for annual
model changes introduced in the 1950s to increase sales, but without costly structural
In addition to a lowered roof, the perimeter frame allows for more comfortable lower
seating positions and offers better safety in the event of a side impact. However, the
reason this design isn't used on all vehicles is that it lacks stiffness, because the
transition areas from front to center and center to rear reduce beam and torsional
resistance, hence the use of torque boxes, and soft suspension settings.


An Italian term (meaning "super-light") for sports-car construction using a

threedimensional frame that consists of a cage of narrow tubes that, besides being
under the body, run up the fenders and over the radiator, cowl, and roof, and under the
rear window; it resembles a geodesic structure. The body, which is not stress-bearing, is
attached to the outside of the frame and is often made of aluminum.
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By far the most common design in use today sometimes referred to as a sort of frame.
But the distinction still serves a purpose: if a unibody is damaged in an accident, getting
bent or warped, in effect its frame is too, and the vehicle undrivable. If the body of a
body-on-frame vehicle is similarly damaged, it might be torn in places from the frame,
which may still be straight, in which case the vehicle is simpler and cheaper to repair.

Sub frame

The sub frame, or stub frame, is a boxed frame section that attaches to a unibody. Seen
primarily on the front end of cars, it's also sometimes used in the rear. Both the front
and rear are used to attach the suspension to the vehicle and either may contain the
engine and transmission.
The most prolific example is the 1967-1981 Chevrolet Camaro.

Calculation of stresses on section

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Frame Material

A cars frame is the strong skeleton upon which the car is constructed. The frame should
be constructed out of material that is sturdy and dependable. The automobile frame is
the base of the car. It must be strong and stable. There are a few such materials that a
cars frame can be constructed of. An automobile can be made out of more than one
material. Most vehicles currently use steel. Some vehicles may use aluminum,
magnesium, or a combination of materials. The main composites utilized in the
construction of vehicle chassis are titanium alloys,
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aluminum alloys and steel alloys. Each metal has diverse properties and multiple
applications. The cost of each composite greatly varies.
The vehicles chassis has to be rigid so that it can stand up to any force that is affects it.
This is important for the suspension. On the chance that the chassis bends a little, the
vehicle is not going to act as it would have. The suspension will be modified. The chassis
cannot be totally rigid as it will become easily broken and thus become unusable. It
must be neither too rigid nor too flexible.

Types of Frames

This chassis can be one of several different models of chassis. The first model that was
designed is the ladder frame. This particular frame is one that is usually made from
metal and is similar to the form of a ladder. It is inexpensive to build and can handle
heavy loads. It was utilized in older model cars, sport utility vehicles, trucks and buses.
The chassis can also take the shape of a space frame. This model is designed utilizing a
number of small tubes to make a chassis that is three-dimensional. The tubes are placed
to manage the stress that is put on the frame. These models are extremely precise and
rigid. They are designed from different materials and usually exceptionally expensive.
These types of frames are used for competition vehicles and sporty road vehicles.
The frame can be designed as a one-piece structure. This is called monocoque. Large
metal sheets are stamped with a large stamping device. The parts are fused together to
form the chassis of the vehicle. The fusing method is automated. This makes this
particular frame quick to create. It has a low tolerance. This design accounts for most of
the vehicles currently made. It is made usually made of steel. The chassis is made to
withstand almost any impact. Aluminum is sometimes used in the body of this type of
chassis to reduce the weight. It is inexpensive and offers collision protection. It is also
not as rigid as some other frames because it does not use tubes in the construction of
the frame.
The last type of frame can be called a mixture of the space frame and monocoque. The
construction begins as a monocoque chassis and is completed with a space frame build.
It is easy and inexpensive to make. It has the best of both frames.


The frame as core component of a commercial vehicle has to withstand without any
serious damage the load and stress of a complete vehicle lifetime and needs therefore
thoroughly testing with representative load data, derived of real case use. Also other
chassis parts like axles, suspension, steering or add on parts have to be validated with
dynamic loads and proof their durability prior to vehicle testing and final release. Engine
and drivetrain components are additionally tested on our drivetrain test benches.
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Most fatigue tests are performed as realistic multi-channel tests under consideration of
all acting torques and forces with up to 22 actuators. Finally we have in addition our
own proving ground, where we perform functional and durability tests with the
complete vehicle.
With our expertise to measure and establish load data, we are able to establish
representative test procedures, which reflect a vehicle lifetime of 1 million km in 150 to
500h test duration.

Wheels and tyres

Vehicle wheels have developed from wooden spoked wheels via cast wheels to the
sheet metal disc wheel of today. This is the most commonly used wheel in motor vehicle
engineering at the present time. The wheel must be able to resist and transmit all forces
which act between the road and the vehicle.

The following essential demands are made on the vehicle:

Adequate rim stability
Firm fit of the tyre on the rim
Firm and secure connection with the wheel hub
Good dissipation of frictional heat
Adequate space for accommodating the brake system
The following travelling comfort is demanded:
Vertical and lateral impact must be as small as possible
Unbalance at circumference must be kept low
Attractive design
Simple fitting of tyres to the rim and of wheel to the hub
Production should be based on the following:
Low production price
Long service life
Low weight of the rim and small mass moment of inertia
Types of wheel
Wheels can be distinguished by the materials used for production and the design. Five
of the most common types are listed below:
Wirespoked wheels
Sheet metal wheels, double wall welded
Disc wheels
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cast light metal wheels

cast steel wheels

With regard to the rim base two types are distinguished:

Wide base rim
Wellbase rim
The wide base rim is in sections to allow easy fitting and removal of the tyre. It can
either be halved along its circumference, or divided by a detachable wheel ring with
locking spring. If it is to be divided along the circumference the two rim halves are
connected and held together by bolts. Tapered bead seat rims are similar to wide base
rims. They are used for heavy Lorries. Pitting the larger and stiffer tyres used for these
vehicles makes the devision of the rim necessary, and so the rims are divided into two or
three sections.
There are different ways of dividing them. The centrally divided simples wheel and the
triplex wheel are used. This triplex wheel is divided three times along its circumference,
but each ring is a closed section.
The tapered bead seat rim has virtually replaced the wide base rim in motor vehicle
engineering. Its advantage in comparison to the wide base is that the bead seat inclines
5 to the rim flange. The bead of the tyre is pressed onto the tapered bead seat rim by
the tyre pressure. In this way the tapered bead seat rim and the flange prevent the bead
from tipping. Fig shows a tyre fitted to a tapered bead seat rim.

For vehicles up to about 5 tonnes pay weight disc wheels are mainly used.
Steel wires, known as bead cores, run around the circumference of tyres. These steel
wires are closed and not ductile. In the wellbase rim this recess helps in fitting the tyre.
The tyre and bead are pressed into the wellbase at one side, and then pressed inwards
or outwards across the rim flange on the opposite side.
The tyre is always pressed into the wellbase at the opposite side to the valve.

Asymmetric rims are used in agricultural machines and construction machinery. These
vehicles manly have rims with a broadened wellbase. They are also called widebase
rims. In order to gain more space for the brakes the wellbase is shifted asymmetrically
to the outer rim flange. The 15 tapered rim is undivided, but has a particularly strongly
inclined bead. The inclination is 15. This type of rim is used in lorries. The rim is linked
to the wheel hub by the wheel disc, but it is disconnectable. The rim diameter must
always be larger than the wheel hub diameter. In the wheel disc there are clearance
holes which are standardised. In Fig. 5 these clearance holes are shown.
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When mounting the wheel at the wheel hub you must ensure that the wheel nuts
correspond to the clearance holes so that the wheel fits firmly and safely.
Then wheel nuts can loosen when stressed and loaded. Centring of the wheel on the
wheel hub can be done either by means of the wheel nuts or centring pins. Another
method of centring is the use of a centre hole in the wheel disc. Holes and slots are
made in the wheel disc to cool the brakes. The wheel nuts and the axle nuts can be
covered by a hub cap.


The tyres of the vehicle are intended to moderate the effects of uneven road surfaces, to
improve the driving qualities and to make high speeds possible by low ground friction.
Today pneumatic types are used exclusively.
The rubber tyre tread is to guarantee that the tyres have a good road grip and protect
the vehicle against skidding and sideslipping. To obtain a good road grip various tread
patterns are available. The term 'tyre' includes the rim band, the tube and the tyre. The
rim band is put between the rim and the tube to prevent friction between them. Such
friction would lead to the premature destruction of the tube. The tyres used in modern
vehicles are mostly lowpressure tyres. They are elastic and tend not to sink into the
ground. The tread pattern should guarantee a good grip on the road. The lateral
grooves on the tread help to prevent skidding, and the transversal grooves improve
motion. Grip can be improved by narrow lateral and transversal grooves. Pneumatic
tyres consist of several rubberised cord plies and the rubberised tread. These two
sections are connected by vulcanisation, i.e. heat treatment under pressure.
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Tires basically fall into two categories of construction: (1) bias, and (2) radial
The cords of the plies in a bias-ply tire run diagonally from bead to bead. This results in
a tire with good sidewall strength, a smooth ride, and adequate handling.
Bias-ply tires also are cheaper to manufacture. However, bias-ply tires suffer from tread
squirm, and they run hotter than other types of tire. This results in increased wear and a
higher potential for failure.
Initially, the cord materials were natural materials, such as cotton or linen. The first
manmade material to be used was rayon, and this was super ceded by nylon (Woehrle,
1995a). Nylon eventually died out due to its tendency for "flat spotting" (Woehrle,
1995a). When a car with nylon-reinforced tires remained stationary for even a brief time,
the tire would deform. The deformity would remain for only a short distance when the
car was driven, but until the tire regained its round shape, it produced an annoying
thump. In a competitive market, this resulted in a poor first impression and hurt the
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sales of cars so equipped.

A Follow-on to the bias-ply tire was the belted bias tire. This tire contained the usual
bias plies, but they were reinforced with circumferential belts, initially made of Fiberglass
(Woehrle, 1995a). These tires ran cooler than regular bias-ply tires and provided better
tread life and stopping power. However, they also produced a stiffer ride and were more
expensive than bias-ply tires.
The other category of tire construction is the radial tire. The plies in this tire ran directly
across the tire from bead to bead. Radial tires provide the longest tread life because
they run cooler, and they also provide excellent grip. They are more expensive than
bias-ply tires, and the softer sidewall is more susceptible to punctures. Furthermore,
radial tires exhibit lower rolling resistance, which translates into increased fuel economy
for the vehicle. Radial tires require some type of circumferential belt for reinforcement.
Fiberglass has been used, but the most popular choice has been steel belts.

Functions of tyres

Tires play an important role as an automobile component. Many parts may make up a
car but usually one part is limited to one function. Despite its simple appearance, a tire
differs from other parts in that it has numerous functions.
Thus, a tire supports the weight of the car, reduces the impact from the road and at the
same time, transmits the power to propel, brake and steer on the road. It also functions
to maintain a cars movement. In order to complete such tasks, a tire must be structured
to be a resilient vessel of air.
A tube is used to maintain its major function of maintaining air pressure but a tube
alone cannot maintain the high pressure needed to withstand the great weight. In
addition, the tube lacks the strength to withstand all of the exterior damage and impact
from driving on the road. The carcass is entrusted with this function.
The carcass is an inner layer that protects the tube that contains the high-pressure air
and supports vertical load. A thick rubber is attached to the parts that meet the road to
withstand exterior damage and wear. Tread patterns are chosen according to car
movement and safety demands. A solid structure is necessary to make sure the tires are
securely assembled onto rims.
According to improvements in automobile quality and capability as well as the
diversification of usage, the capabilities and performance of tires are becoming more
complex and diversified.