The Invincibles(Team 3) White Paper | Green Building | Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design

The Invincibles

2010
Green Purdue

Mohamed El Malik David Harbaugh Jennifer Cheaney

7/23/2010

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Contents
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................. 4 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 5 What has Purdue University done to be green from past to present? ...................................................... 5 Purdue’s Aquatic Impact ...................................................................................................................... 5 Purdue’s Energy Management ............................................................................................................. 6 Purdue’s Waste & Recycling ................................................................................................................ 6 Green Buildings ................................................................................................................................... 7 Education & Research .......................................................................................................................... 8 How is Purdue Planning to be Green in the Future? ................................................................................. 8 BoilerRide ............................................................................................................................................ 9 Eco-Friendly Education ........................................................................................................................ 9 University Vehicles .............................................................................................................................. 9 What are other public universities of comparable size and endowment doing to be green? .................. 10 America’s Greenest Universities ........................................................................................................ 10 What specifics actually make those universities successful in “going green”? ........................................ 10 The University of Washington ............................................................................................................ 11 Renewable Energy ......................................................................................................................... 11 Transportation ............................................................................................................................... 11 Green Building ............................................................................................................................... 11 Efficiency and Conservation ........................................................................................................... 11 The University of Colorado ................................................................................................................ 12 Energy Consumption...................................................................................................................... 12 Food and Recycling Programs ........................................................................................................ 12 Green Buildings ............................................................................................................................. 12 Transportation ............................................................................................................................... 13 Student involvement and employment .......................................................................................... 13 New York University .......................................................................................................................... 13 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................. 14 The Interview with Professor Hawks ...................................................................................................... 14 Mohamed: Can you please give us an introduction about yourself? ................................................... 15

THE INVINCIBLES 3 Mohamed: How is this building (The M.E extension wing) different from the other buildings on campus? What makes it LEED certified?............................................................................................. 15 Mohamed: How different is the cost is the cost of this building, as opposed to if the building was not build to become LEED certified? ........................................................................................................ 16 Mohamed: Wouldn’t it have been better if that much money went to serve a better cause? Are you sure that this is the right thing to do? ................................................................................................ 16 Mohamed: Do you think that Purdue in general is doing enough to become environmentally friendly? .......................................................................................................................................................... 16 Mohamed: Do you know any specific examples about future construction projects at Purdue that will be LEED certified? .............................................................................................................................. 16 Mohamed: Do you think is doing better or worse than the other Big Ten universities? ...................... 17 References ............................................................................................................................................ 17

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Executive Summary
In this project our team answered ―How Purdue University has gone green and how it could go greener in the future‖. This was broken into three areas to focus on: what Purdue has done in the past up to the present, what the university plans to do in the future to make it greener, and what other universities of similar size and endowment are doing to be green. Research for this project also includes an interview with Professor Hawks who has 50 years of experience as a member of faculty and is in charge of all of Purdue’s College of Engineering construction projects. From the past to the present, Purdue has had many projects that have helped to make the university greener. An example of this is installing porous asphalt at the horticulture service drive, which allows storm water to be filtered and returned to the soil. Purdue is also retrocommissioning, or fine tuning the utilities and other mechanical systems in a building to better reflect its usage, buildings such as Pierce, Beering and Stone Halls, to save energy by using motion sensors in restrooms and lecture halls that turn off lights and reduce the circulation of air when the presence of people is not detected. The university is also lessening its impact on the environment by purchasing approximately 2% of its energy from Benton County wind production as well as working to reduce the amount of waste produced by the campus. Recently, Purdue has begun construction of its first ―green‖ building, which will meet all LEED requirements for certification. In the future Purdue plans to further decrease their negative impact on the environment. Through projects like BoilerRide, a web-based carpool matching program, the university hopes to encourage students to use more eco-friendly methods of commuting to campus. Purdue Transportation Service, the department in charge of renting out university-owned vehicles, plans to lower carbon emissions by composing its fleet of 60% hybrid vehicles and 40% flex fuel vehicles by mid-2012. Future programs to make the university more environmentally friendly also include using beet juice to de-ice roads in the winter, increase the number of recycling bins on campus, utilize green building practices, and educating the faculty, students and surrounding community on how they can live greener lives. Three universities comparable to Purdue who have ―greener‖ campuses are the University of Washington, the University of Colorado, and New York University. University of Washington has helped lower its impact on the environment through programs that help lower travel emissions, reduce the amount of solid waste produced by the campus and LEED building. The University of Colorado is working to achieve a 20 percent reduction in energy consumption from 2005-2006 levels by the 2011-2012 academic year through the use of conservation campaigns, competitions between campus buildings and constructing new buildings to meet LEED Gold standards. New York University is hoping to be greener through its ―Climate Action Plan‖ which is aimed at reducing energy intensity, generating and using cleaner energy, generating renewable energy, and reducing or offsetting remaining emissions.

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Introduction
In today’s world going green is a big thing, whether it’s because of a moral obligation to the environment, because shareholders view it as necessary, or just because it can save money in the long run. Many businesses and organizations have followed the trend to make things more energy efficient, less wasteful, and more environmentally friendly and Purdue University is no exception. For a long time Purdue has promoted recycling and better waste management but in recent years there has been a big push to go ―green‖ by being even more environmental and energy conscious. Purdue University has done a number of things to be more green and has plans to become more green in the future. Purdue isn’t the only university trying to add a little green to their school colors, the University of Washington, the University of Colorado, and New York University are all schools of similar size and endowment that have also done things to become greener.

What has Purdue University done to be green from past to present?

Purdue’s Aquatic Impact
Purdue University has done many things to reduce its impact on the aquatic environment. They have installed porous asphalt at the Horticulture service drive. Porous asphalt allows storm water to be filtered and slowly returned to the soil therefore cleaning it along the way. The filtration reduces the amount of suspended solids, metals, oil, and grease absorbed into the groundwater. An additional benefit to this pavement is the reduction of storm sewer strain by returning rainwater to water tables and aquifers ("Porous Asphalt"). Another technique Purdue is using to filter and control storm runoff is the installation of bioswales near Pao and Mann Halls. Bioswales are ―storm runoff conveyance systems that provide an alternative to storm sewers‖, according to the United States Department of Figure 1: Porous Asphalt Agriculture ("Biswale"). Plants as well as rocks or sand make up the main body of a bioswales. The rocks or sand, as well as the roots of the plants help to absorb storm runoff as well as filter it before returning it to the ground water.

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Purdue’s Energy Management
Purdue has attempted to reduce its energy impact on the environment by retrocommissioning Pierce, Beering and Stone Halls. Retro-commissioning means fine tuning the utilities and other mechanical systems in a building to better reflect its usage ("Purdue University Sustainability"). An example of this would be carbon dioxide detectors and motion sensors installed in Figure2: Purdue’s Beering Hall restrooms and lecture halls to detect the presence of people. If the room is not being used the system dims or shuts off the lights and the air is not circulated as frequently. The university also purchases approximately 2% of its energy from Benton County wind production. Purdue is also currently working on a utility metering project which may help further reduce its energy consumption.

Purdue’s Waste & Recycling
The institution has adopted numerous ways to reduce the amount of negative impact its waste has on the environment. The campus elevators use a soy-based hydraulic oil instead of a petroleum based one. In an effort to reduce emissions, switchgrass is used in the boilers instead of coal. An experimental gasifier is being used to collect the methane given off by the food waste from residence halls and dining courts in an attempt to reduce the amount delivered to a landfill and also to harness the gas for other purposes ("Purdue University Sustainability"). Another thing being done to reduce the amount of waste going to landfills is the recent push for more recycling on campus. Many recycling bins have been placed around campus and some trash cans have been removed in an attempt to prompt students to recycle. Recycling bins have replaced office trash cans to encourage faculty and staff to recycle as well. All of the residence halls have containers for recyclables so students living there can easily recycle their trash. The Purdue Memorial Union uses ―green‖ cleaning chemicals and has recently installed new flooring that does not require harsh chemicals to maintain ("Purdue University Sustainability"). The Housing and Food Services sells refillable bottles to customers and further reduces waste by supplying students and staff with 100% recycled fiber napkins ("Purdue University Sustainability"). The animal bedding and manure from the Veterinary Hospital, as well as leaves and old mulch from around campus, have been used to create a compost. That compost can then be used to fertilize plants around campus or in the green houses further reducing the need for mulch.

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Student programs like Boiler Green Initiative promote recycling by collecting recyclable waste after football and basketball games as well as by organizing programs like ―Recyclemania‖ during the academic year. Recyclemania is a ten week long competition in which people from different universities around the country try to collect the most recyclables by actually collecting them but also by promoting recycling around campus. The grounds Figure 3: Recyclemania poster department is in charge of weighing the recyclables collected to determine who wins the competition.

Green Buildings
In a recent endeavor, Purdue is building its first ―green‖ building. The building will be part of the Mechanical Engineering Building and will meet LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. Some of the ideas being considered for the building are: roofing supplies with a high solar reflectance index, plumbing fixtures that use less treated water, construction materials with recycled content, carpet that is green label plus rated, Figure 4: The new Mechanical Engineering wing wood products certified by the Forest (in current form) Stewardship Council, and paints and sealants with low volatile-organic-chemical ratings (which reduce indoor air pollution and improve air quality) ("Purdue University Sustainability"). Professor Keith Hawks is in charge of all College of Engineering construction projects and has 50 years experience as a faculty member. He says that the ME extension project will be LEED Gold certified and that all future Purdue construction projects will be LEED certified. These LEED additions to campus will help Purdue maintain a ―green‖ outlook into the future (―Hawks, Keith‖). Another ―green‖ addition to a building came in the form of a rooftop garden. A flat portion of the Schleman Hall roof was transformed into a small park with many new plants and a few tables to enjoy them from. Some of the benefits of having plants on the roof are greater energy efficiency, reduced storm runoff, and an extended life for the roof itself by protecting it from the worst of the elements. The Boiler Green Initiative was granted money from State Farm Insurance for this project and hopes to be able to do this to other buildings around campus.

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Education & Research
Purdue has a number of educational and research programs in place to deal with issues of campus sustainability, and the campus and national/global environments. Some of the active research projects include Purdue’s Climate Change Research Center and the Vulcan project. Some of the educational programs include Indiana WIRED and Purdue Student Pugwash Midwest Regional Conference ("Purdue University Sustainability"). There are many other centers and groups at Purdue that focus their research on sustainability. Some of these Figure5: Man Hall, the home of Purdue’s include: Purdue Interdisciplinary Center for Climate Change Research cCenter Ecological Sustainability (PICES), Energy Center at Discovery Park, Global Sustainable Industrial Systems (GSIS), Solar Energy Research Group, and Purdue Clean Manufacturing Technology Institute. The school also employs five LEED accredited professionals on the staff of the Physical Facilities, which shows that the energy and environmental issues are taken seriously by the administration. In 2007 the national average carbon footprint was 6 carbon metric tons per capita. At 3.6 metric tons per capita, Purdue’s carbon footprint was more than one-third less than the national average for that year.

How is Purdue Planning to be Green in the Future?
In the future, Purdue looks to improve the ―greenness‖ of the university through research, student involvement, and more environmentally conscious decision-making. The university’s sustainability strategic plan includes goals such as making the best use of available resources, expanding recycling programs around campus, increasing eco-friendly education, and other activities that would encourage student involvement to make the university more green. While the success of some future programs depend mostly on the environmental consciousness of the students, Purdue is also taking steps to make the university more environmentally friendly through its own choices. An example of the university’s strive to make the best use of available resources is a project being performed by the school of Horticulture in which the energy from the hot water used to cool boilers is piped through a tunnel system that would allow food producers in the Midwest to

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grow year round. Before this project, the heat energy from the boilers was simply released into the atmosphere, now it is being put to use.

BoilerRide
Purdue plans to encourage carpooling to campus with its BoilerRide program. BoilerRide is set up through GreenRide, a web-based carpool-matching program that can also be used for events and trips. To access BoilerRide, students follow a link on http://www.purdue.edu/transportation/boilerride.htm, which leads to a login. After inputting university logon information, students are taken to a website powered by GreenRide made specifically for Purdue students. The website stores addresses, and matches students with each other who are could potentially Figure6: Boiler Ride Poster carpool together. This program is set up to promote sustainability through the use of alternative transportation. Carpooling reduces carbon emissions and pollution from vehicles by reducing the number of vehicles on the road. Not only does the environment benefit from carpooling but the program could also solve parking issues as well as decrease campus congestion.

Eco-Friendly Education
The university is not only working to make itself more environmentally friendly, but also educate others on ways to lessen their carbon footprints. Purdue is showing its commitment to helping students as well as the community make eco-conscious decisions by providing information about various types of renewable energy and how they can be used instead of fossil fuels. Educating people on the use of renewable resources can be compared to the proverb ―Give a man a fish and feed him for a day, teach a man to fish and feed him for a lifetime‖. By providing education to the masses, the university is, in effect, reducing a footprint much larger than its own. In the future, Purdue plans to expand its educational efforts, and provide more people with knowledge that can help them make more eco-conscious decisions.

University Vehicles
Purdue itself is choosing to make decisions that can help improve the quality of the environment. By mid2012, Purdue Transportation Service hopes to have its fleet comprised of 60% hybrid and 40% flex-fuel vehicles. Transportation Service is the department that

Figure 7: A Purdue university vehicle

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rents out university vehicles. In 2007, its rental cars were driven more than 3.8 million miles and had more than 50,000 rental days charged. If the department can reach its goal of 60% hybrid vehicles, emissions can be greatly reduced, and, probably more importantly in the university’s eyes, more money can be saved from reduced fuel costs. In addition to these programs, the university also plans to start using beet juice extract to de-ice roads in the winter, and to increase the number of recycling bins around campus. Plans to implement organic turf management, expand the university using green building practices, and use more alternative sources of energy on campus also show Purdue’s commitment to making the university a more environmentally friendly place to live, work, and study.

What are other public universities of comparable size and endowment doing to be green?

America’s Greenest Universities
Some extensive research on some of America’s ―greenest‖ universities has been done, and through websites like Forbes and the Green Economy Post, it was found that 3 of these Universities are of special interest to our team since they have similar attributes to Purdue University. Those universities are the University of Washington, New York University and the University of Colorado at Boulder. The University of Washington is the most similar of the three universities to Purdue University (similar endowment, size, type of school (public), etc), yet it has implemented policies that make it more committed to Carbon neutrality than Purdue and has made sure that 100% of its electricity comes from renewable sources. The University of Colorado at Boulder is also another public school committed to being environmentally friendly. The school’s size is similar to Purdue’s but has a much smaller endowment, yet, the university was able to implement much better going green policies than Purdue. New York University is a private school that has a larger endowment than Purdue; however, its student body is almost proportionately larger. The EPA listed New York University’s campus as the number 1 purchaser of green energy among America’s campuses. Such an honor makes this university hard to ignore while searching for answers to why other universities have been more successful than Purdue in becoming greener.

What specifics actually make those universities successful in “going green”?

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The University of Washington

Renewable Energy The University of Washington (UW) at Seattle purchases 100% renewable electricity from Seattle City Light (SCL). About 94% of the SCL power portfolio is hydro based. Since 2006, the University of Washington at Seattle has been a Gold Level participant in the SCL Green Up Program. Through the Green Up program, the University of Washington purchases new green power equivalent to the remaining 6% of the SCL power portfolio, making Figure 8: University of Washington Logo electricity purchased for the Seattle campus 100% renewable. There are also two photo voltaic installations on campus, a smaller one the Mechanical Engineering building and a larger 7.5 kW installation on Merrill Hall which provides over 10% of the buildings’ needs.

Transportation The University of Washington is the home of the first UPass program in the US providing subsidized bus passes to all full-time students. The UW Commuter Café, another one of the university’s ―going green‖ transportation programs, provides information on alternative transportation including commuter information on bicycling, buses, ferries and car sharing. Ride in the Rain is an inter-campus competition held for four weeks every winter to encourage bicycle commuting—even in the rain. Most importantly, The University of Washington’s fleet includes several all electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and alternative fuel vehicles designed for bio fuels. Additionally, the UW is initiating an internal ―flexcar‖ program for UW Departments.

Green Building The University of Washington boasts an incredible LEED building program (LEED is an internationally recognized green building standard) with one Gold, two Silver, one certified building completed and over ten other projects currently in various stages of the building delivery process. To keep up their green building reputation The University of Washington has employed over 50 LEED Accredited Professionals on campus primarily on the operational side. Efficiency and Conservation The University of Washington’s Conservation Project Development Team has been involved in energy retrofits and water conservation efforts. From 1996 through 2007 the University of

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Washington’s Seattle Campus has avoided $58 million in utility costs through its conservation efforts and programs. Also, the University of Washington’s water use has decreased over 30% since 2000 while the University of Washington’s size has grown by 40%.

The University of Colorado

Energy Consumption The university of Colorado is aiming for a 20 percent reduction in energy consumption from 2005–2006 levels by the 2011–2012 academic year. Among multiple conservation campaigns, the Buff Energy Star program is a comprehensive competition among all campus buildings and building proctors to save energy Figure9: University of Colorado logo and reduce waste. The university is currently working on a 1.5 megawatt solar array. Since 2000, about 10 percent of campus electricity consumption has been offset by wind energy credits and, recently, from local offsets.

Food and Recycling Programs All incoming residents to the University of Colorado are given a reusable shopping bag for use in Grab-n-Go and retail dining locations, and an ―EcoMug‖ program offers discounts to students. The university buys from five to eight local producers, including a ground beef and dairy supplier, to provide fresher and more organic food to the students, reduce transportation costs, and indirectly decrease emissions.

Green Buildings The University of Colorado’s campus design standards are set relatively high; they mandate that all new buildings and major renovations meet LEED Gold standards. There are currently four LEED-certified buildings on campus and three new buildings are LEED Gold-certified.

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Transportation Since 1991, the university community has ridden for free on local/regional public transportation. The use of alternative transportation is encouraged through a car-sharing program, a ride board, a carpool network, and a bike rental program.

Student involvement and employment The Environmental Center employs more than 60 students. Eco-Leaders serve in each residence hall and the Green Teams program educates off-campus students. There are numerous sustainability-related student organizations, and a residence hall competition encourages students to conserve energy.

New York University
It was interesting to find a website displaying what, at a first glance, looks like a ―White paper‖ describing how New York University (NYU) is aiming to become green (it’s interesting since this is a white paper talking about how Purdue is becoming ―green‖). The title of the report is the ―Climate action Plan‖ and is structured around four major emissions reduction strategies which are reducing energy intensity, generating and using cleaner energy, generate renewable energy, and reducing or offsetting remaining emissions.

Figure10: New York University Logo

In addition to the Climate Action Plan the University has done all of the following in the aim of becoming ―greener‖: The Sustainability Task Force, which is responsible for initiating the ―Climate Action Plan‖, has a long list of other successful projects including wind power purchases, native landscaping, tracking water consumption, conservation contests in the residence halls and composting biodegradable waste in the dining hall. ―Green Grants‖ are awarded each year to fund the best project ideas that improve sustainability on campus, engage the community and advance applied research and educational goals. Some of the projects that were funded this year include a year-end

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residence hall recycling drive, a residential energy challenge, a veggie-powered vehicle project and a lighting efficiency project. NYU is also a member of New York City’s PlaNYC, which commits them to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent over the next ten years – although, NYU expects to meet that goal much sooner than that. All new construction at New York University will meet LEED silver standards, joining the university’s first LEED certified building, Gallatin Hall. The Bike to School project, provide bicycles for students to get around campus, and saves old bicycles from heading to the landfill. Volunteer mechanics at a nearby environmental organization rejuvenate abandoned bikes using new parts purchased with the grant money. NYU also recently announced funding for a bike-sharing initiative.

Conclusion/Summary
Purdue University has done many things to become more green in recent years, from an increased push for recycling, better water and land management, to building its first LEED gold certified building. Purdue also has many green plans for the future such as a carpooling program called BoilerRide, a plan to make campus vehicles more environmentally friendly and less dependent on non-renewable fuel sources, and plans to make every future construction project LEED certified. The universities of Washington, Colorado, and New York have also shown examples of how to be green. Whether it be at the University of Washington (which uses renewable energy for 100% of its energy needs), or the University of Colorado (which buys much of its food from local suppliers to reduce transportation waste), or the New York University (which provides bicycles for students to use to get around campus instead of using cars) there are many examples of good green policies that could also be applied at Purdue.

The Interview with Professor Hawks
The interview below was done with Professor Hawks at Purdue University as part of the research to find out more about Purdue new Mechanical Engineering Gatewood wing. It provides an introduction about the professor, more detailed information about the wing, and the Professor’s personal opinions Purdue’s future construction products and Purdue’s position in relation to other Big Ten universities when talking about ―going green‖.

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Mohamed: Can you please give us an introduction about yourself?
Prof. Hawks: I’ve been a faculty member since 1968, got my degrees here and has been at Purdue for 50 years. I did some research with the auto plants for about 30 years and was a consultant for the university power plants. About 12, 15 years ago I started working with the dean office in handling construction projects for the school of engineering, so I was the dean’s representative in building Armstrong, I worked on Chem E and MSEE buildings and so I started planning for the Gatewood wing in 1999.

Figure11: Professor Hawks

Mohamed: How is this building (The M.E extension wing) different from the other buildings on campus? What makes it LEED certified?
Prof. Hawks: A number of things. The site itself is selected and designed in such a way that we meet the LEED’s requirements, in other words if you take the fencing around the construction site, you subtract the area of the building itself, what’s left we have to make it so much green space to get the LEED’s points. There’s going to be grass all around it, there is going to be a grass mall up to the west side of it so students could sit on a grassy area. We had to put two small showers inside the building, one male one female, for bicycle riders. We have to provide a certain percentage of bicycle racks for the number of occupants of the wing, there will be a number of spaces in the parking garage designated for alternative fuel vehicles, that’s because of our wing. Also, the university allocated a plot of ground the same size as the wing that will never be developed but will be kept for green space. The building itself is designed for energy efficiency; all the windows will have triple panes instead of double panes. The walls are probably several inches thicker than normal. The roof has more insulation on it so that we meet certain energy requirements. All the equipment that is in it is capable of 50% make up air so we can handle the environment inside of the building, all the equipment will have monitoring on them so we can measure the energy consumption for the equipment. We will provide an educational computer kiosk in the main wing of the building that will tell you right then why the building is LEED certified, and would tell you exactly what was done for every part the construction of the building to make it LEED certified. We will have to give tours in the future on why the building is energy efficient. During construction all the material that comes on site has to be certified from the LEED council. All the paint, adhesives, the carpet must be made from low volatile material. A typical university building in the past would get 19 points of the 26 points necessary to get LEED certified, so didn’t have to a great deal to get certified. We wanted to go further than that though, we are aiming to become GOLD certified which requires a lot

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more points than 26. We’re going to have recycling bins in many areas of the building so we can recycle as many things as possible.

Mohamed: How different is the cost is the cost of this building, as opposed to if the building was not build to become LEED certified?
Prof. Hawks: The additional cost for our building is approaching roughly a $1,000,000. But Roger Gatewood, the major donor for the wing, wanted the building to be LEED certified.

Mohamed: Wouldn’t it have been better if that much money went to serve a better cause? Are you sure that this is the right thing to do?
Prof. Hawks: I think that this is the wise thing to do, it’s because it helps the environment because our building uses 40% less energy consumption as it would normally have been. Now we’re going to be the standard on campus and all the buildings are going to follow us, I think the net effect down the road would be that we’ll help the environment, we’ll help the state of Indiana tax payer, it just makes common sense.

Mohamed: Do you think that Purdue in general is doing enough to become environmentally friendly?
Prof. Hawks: Yes, yes when we approached the university with the idea that we wanted to be LEED certified and the fact that we had a donor willing to pay for it, the university then decided that that’s the thing to do. They immediately gathered some of the architects on campus and they sent them to a school so they know what it required to be LEED certified, and since then our inspectors have all gone to schools so they know what is required. When we actually did the building the contractor’s architects also went or had been to a LEED school and in fact they already designed a LEED building for the state of Indiana that was a hospital. The net effect is that it’s mushrooming it’s a domino effect, people are going to become more involved in making things more environmentally friendly and energy efficient.

Mohamed: Do you know any specific examples about future construction projects at Purdue that will be LEED certified?
Prof. Hawks: All construction projects that have been bid since we started our project are all LEED certified buildings for energy efficiency.

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Mohamed: Do you think is doing better or worse than the other Big Ten universities?
Prof. Hawks: I think we’re a leader. The physical plan administrators for the various Big Ten schools meet annually, and discuss mutual projects and problems. I know that our people on campus have been telling those people what we’re doing, why we’re doing it and so I feel we are a leader.

Annotated Bibliography
The issue addressed in the white paper is approached from three different angles: what has Purdue done in the past to be green, what are they planning to do in the future to be greener, and what are schools of similar size and endowment doing to be green. These issues are being covered by David, Jennifer, and Mohamed respectively. The problem is, ―How is Purdue University gone green and how could it be greener‖. The solution is covered in the white paper whether it be by showing what the university has already done (i.e. porous asphalt, bioswales, recycling, etc.), or what it will do (carpooling, green buildings, hybrid and flex-fuel cars, etc.). The paper will also use the examples set by other schools to highlight some things Purdue is doing well or could be doing better. We have many background sources and even an interview but we may find we need some more detailed sources as we continue to do research

"Porous Asphalt." National Asphalt Pavement Association. National Asphalt Pavement Association, 2010. Web. 11 Jul 2010. <http://www.hotmix.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=359&Itemid=863>. This web page is part of the National Asphalt Pavement Association website. The purpose of this section is to educate people about the nature of porous asphalt. Initially it covers what exactly it is as well as its function. It goes on to discuss the benefits, cost, lifespan, etc. of porous asphalt. One of the things Purdue is doing to become more environmentally friendly is installing porous asphalt around campus. This source was used to help understand the asphalt and this information will be used to explain porous asphalt in the white paper.

"Purdue University Sustainability." Purdue University Physical Facilities. N.p., 2008. Web. 11 Jul 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/pages/doing.html>. This is an entire website dedicated to what Purdue University has done to be greener and some of their plans for the future. The information is broken up by topic and labeled on the main page.

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The site contains information pertaining to the campus buildings, recycling programs, student organizations involved in sustainability, as well as current research and education going on at the school relating to sustainability. This page was used heavily in the initial research because it contains much information about what Purdue is doing and has done to become greener. Information from this source will be a basis for many of the arguments in the white paper.

"State Farm board to help Schleman Hall sprout green roof." Purdue University Physical Facilities. University News Service, 20 Feb 2009. Web. 11 Jul 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/pages/green-roof.htm>. This is a news article released from the Purdue University News Service. The topic of the article is the ―green‖ roof project on Schleman Hall. The article reads like a normal news piece and covers background information about the project and statements from people involved. Photographs of the current roof of Schleman Hall as well as computer renderings of what it will look like when the project is completed are supplied. This source will be used to discuss the Schleman Hall addition and may be quoted to show that Boiler Green Initiative has plans to continue this project in the future.

―Purdue Shares Sustainability Strategic Plan at Earth Day Celebration.‖ Purdue Today. 26 April 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/purduetoday/general/2010/100423 SustainPlan.html>. This article, posted on Purdue Today - a daily e-mail newsletter published jointly through the Purdue News Service and the Office of University Periodicals, describes some of Purdue’s future plans to make the university more eco-friendly by describing its sustainability strategic plan. The article also lists programs being implemented in the near future, such as BoilerRide and expanding the university’s vehicle fleet to include more hybrid and flex fuel cars. One of the main points in our research paper is to describe some of Purdue’s future plans to lessen its impact on the environment. By listing the university’s future projects, this article is an asset for our paper.

"Purdue University BoilerRide". Purdue University. 14 July 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/transportation/boilerride.htm>. This is a website created by Purdue to manage its BoilerRide program. The program is run through GreenRide, a website that helps users find others to carpool with. The website’s FAQ page provides the benefits of carpooling to both the environment and the student, which include improved air quality as well as reduced campus demand and parking demand. The page will be

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used in the paper to describe in further detail the program Purdue is implementing in the near future, and its positive impact on both campus and the environment.

Weddle, Eric. "Purdue Driving toward Eco-friendly Objectives." JCOnline.com. 19 Apr. 2009. Web. 14 July 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/physicalfacilities/pdf/news/ Purdue_transportation.pdf>. This is an article originally published through JCOnline.com, but later posted by Purdue on its Physical Facilities’ News site which describes Purdue Transportation Service’s goal to, by mid2012, have 60% of the vehicles maintained by the department to be hybrid, and the other 40% be flex-fuel vehicles. The website also shares that, in 2007, vehicles monitored by Transportation Service were driven more than 3.8 million miles. Although this article was published in 2009, it still shows a future goal of the university, which will be discussed in the paper. Given both the plan to incorporate more fuel-efficient vehicles and the amount of miles historically driven, the positive impact on the environment given these changes can be shown.

"University of Washington." NWgreen Campus. 11 July, 2010 <http://nwgreencampus.org/northwest-campuses/university-washington> The website above provides specific information about the programs or initiatives that Washington University has implemented in order to become greener. Programs are mainly regarding how the university is using renewable energy, cleaner transportation, better recycling policies, and efficiency and conservation of energy policies. The information here will be used to compare Purdue University’s policies to the University of Washington’s better policies. This is to show how much more Purdue can do, what it is lacking, and how other universities of similar size are doing more to become greener.

"Climate Action Plan". New York University. 12 July, 2010 <http://www.nyu.edu/sustainability/pdf/capreport10.pdf>. The website above shows the Climate Action plan that New York University is planning to undertake in the future. The plan aims to decrease greenhouse gas emissions throughout the university through mainly reducing electric energy consumption and finding cleaner ways to produce energy for the university’s use. New York University is one of the greenest universities in the nation, and is a very good role model for Purdue to look up to. Information gained from this site will be valuable in showing the reader what some of America’s greenest universities are planning to do to become even greener in the future.

"University of Colorado". The College Sustainability Report Card. 12 July, 2010 <http://www.greenreportcard.org/report-card-2009/schools/university-of-colorado>.

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The website above provides information on what policies and programs have made the University of Colorado one of America’s greenest universities. Such policies include reusable bags for dining services, construction projects to build or renovate buildings to become LEED certified, and of course encouraging students to be part of their going green initiatives by hiring students in their environmental centers. The purpose of this information is to show the reader how a university of slightly smaller size than Purdue, but a much lower endowment can still implement very successful ―going green‖ initiatives. It is also to show that the greenest universities do not always have to be private or in big cities.

Hawks, Keith. Personal Interview. 15 July 2010 Professor Hawks is the person in charge of all College of Engineering construction projects. With 50 years of experience as a faculty member he was a great person to interview. He answered questions as to how the new ME extension building differs from other Purdue buildings, thus explaining what LEED certification really means in the process. He also mentioned that the new ME extension is aiming for the LEED Gold certification. When he was asked about if he was aware of any future LEED construction projects that Purdue is aiming to do, he replied that all future Purdue construction products will in fact be LEED certified. This interview will help our paper as it will provide us with a primary source of information on the ME extension and LEED certification requirements. His opinions on how Purdue is becoming greener compared to other Big Ten Universities could also be valuable (The professor thinks that Purdue is a leader among other Big Ten universities in the field of ―going green‖).

References
"Bioswale." United States Department of Agriculture. N.p., 2007. Web. 11 Jul 2010. <ftp://ftpfc.sc.egov.usda.gov/MT/www/technical/water/Bioswale.pdf>.

"Climate Action Plan". New York University. 12 July, 2010 <http://www.nyu.edu/sustainability/pdf/capreport10.pdf>.

Hawks, Keith. Personal Interview. 15 July 2010

THE INVINCIBLES 21

"Porous Asphalt." National Asphalt Pavement Association. National Asphalt Pavement Association, 2010. Web. 11 Jul 2010. <http://www.hotmix.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=359&Itemid=863>.

―Purdue Shares Sustainability Strategic Plan at Earth Day Celebration.‖ Purdue Today. 26 April 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/purduetoday/general/2010/100423 SustainPlan.html>.

"Purdue University BoilerRide". Purdue University. 14 July 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/transportation/boilerride.htm>. "Purdue University Sustainability." Purdue University Physical Facilities. N.p., 2008. Web. 11 Jul 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/pages/doing.html>.

"State Farm board to help Schleman Hall sprout green roof." Purdue University Physical Facilities. University News Service, 20 Feb 2009. Web. 11 Jul 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/sustainability/pages/green-roof.htm>.

"University of Colorado". The College Sustainability Report Card. 12 July, 2010 <http://www.greenreportcard.org/report-card-2009/schools/university-of-colorado>.

"University of Washington." NWgreen Campus. 11 July, 2010 <http://nwgreencampus.org/northwest-campuses/university-washington>.

Weddle, Eric. "Purdue Driving toward Eco-friendly Objectives." JCOnline.com. 19 Apr. 2009. Web. 14 July 2010. <http://www.purdue.edu/physicalfacilities/pdf/news/ Purdue_transportation.pdf>.

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