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Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 534540

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Children and Youth Services Review

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / c h i l d yo u t h

Strengthening youth citizenship and social inclusion practice The Australian

case: Towards rights based and inclusive practice in services for marginalized
young people
Michael Wearing
Social Work Program, The School of Social Sciences and International Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Morven Brown Building Rm G35, University of New South Wales,
UNSW SYDNEY, NSW, 2052, Australia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Available online 2 June 2010 This article provides a framework for understanding disadvantaged young people from a youth citizenship
perspective that includes social inclusion principles and a rights based approach to service delivery. This
Keywords: paper will argue that a rights based and inclusive practice approach can help to enable the self-condence,
Inclusive practice resilience and capacities of marginal youth in efforts to counter social exclusion. A social inclusion strategy
Intersectionality that is derived from the European Union helps frame inclusive practice and is explicitly linked to an
Homeless youth
emerging national human rights and inclusive agenda for marginalized youth in Australia. Elements of
Aboriginal youth
inclusive service practice include youth participation in services, issues of access and equity, service
responsiveness, joined-up services and user-led accountability. These elements provide a basis for bringing a
citizenship framework into services, and for professional learning and education in work with marginal
youth. A framework is suggested that seeks to recognise and respond to highly disadvantaged youth that
includes the marginalizing intersections of gender, racial and disability identities. Brief excerpts of
secondary qualitative data on two highly vulnerable youth populationshomeless youth and Aboriginal
youthare used to highlight the need for a citizenship approach that listens and responds to these vulnerable
young people in both research and practice.
Crown Copyright 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction 2005). The ve success factors for social inclusion include: funding for
quality services and a high level workforce; coordination that balances
The central concern of this article is to emphasize the utility of a exible delivery between the involvement of government, youth
subjectivist and maximising rights approach to young people in the services and other services and young people themselves as service
context of recent national social inclusion and human rights agenda. users; access to inclusive and active labour market policy that reaches
This approach can engage with intersections of disadvantage and the intended target groups; reexivity includes policy stakeholders
strengthen the rights of marginal young people. I will focus on a and young people themselves in richer service evaluation integrated
framework for practice and give some examples of how inclusive with everyday practice and higher levels of trust in provideruser
practice can assist understanding of the rights of young people to relationships; and nally empowerment or the motivation of young
services. Australia's national inclusion agenda can learn from the people to engage with services and the labour market.
social inclusion strategy for vulnerable groups of the European Union The approach to youth citizenship taken here will also rely upon
(EU, 2009). The EU's threefold strategy for vulnerable groups consists intersectional analysis to understand marginal youth disadvantage.
of: increased access to mainstream services and integration, the The marginalization of these disadvantaged groupings of youth in
enforcement of legislation to overcome discrimination and the Australia occurs in the context of broader social exclusion processes.
development of targeted approaches for specic needs. The EU takes Child and youth poverty in Australia and the USA remains a driving
a broad approach to youth disadvantage involving unequal opportu- factor in creating risk, violence and abuse in these societies. When
nities and the risk of social exclusion through structural lack of access, compared to others in the OECD, both countries have relatively high
manageability and relevance to goods and services including social levels of poverty and income inequality (Creig, Lewins, & White,
welfare services and to individual lack of resources (Walther & Pohl, 2003). Lindsey (2009) argues that social inequalities of income and
wealth have created levels of child and youth poverty that mean those
social categories hardest hit by social inequality such as single parents
Tel.: + 61 2 9385 1880; fax: + 61 2 9662 8991. lack economic opportunities and adequate child tax credits to slow or
E-mail address: M.Wearing@UNSW.EDU.AU. cut the rates of child poverty and decrease inequality. Such disparities

0190-7409/$ see front matter. Crown Copyright 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M. Wearing / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 534540 535

have a direct and negative impact on the lives of vulnerable and providers can design inclusive programs and practices that put into
marginal young people. The social categories homeless and Aboriginal place appropriate and effective service delivery based on such
youth discussed here are two groupings with multiple forms or principles.
intersectional identities of disadvantage where gender, ethnicity, The Youth Action and Policy Association of New South Wales
social class, disabilities, and sexuality can intersect and challenge the (YAPA) as a peak welfare group in the area has developed inclusive
efforts of inclusive service practice (Daley, Solomon, Newman, & models of youth services that could guide service providers. These
Mishna, 2008). models can be incorporated as principles in program delivery that
The recent Federal inquiry into a bill of rights indicates that legal, address scenarios where individuals feel the need for privacy and
civil and political rights, and social and economic rights that include safety, and also socio-cultural inclusivity. Strategies and practices are
child and youth rights are limited in Australia and need expansion used within such organizations for the participation of young people
in national policy agendas (HREOC, 2009). Australia is the only as clients, advocacy allies, volunteers and even as paid workers that
liberal democracy without national human rights legislation. The allows for diversity of religious, cultural and lifestyle factors (Hughes
lack of a national rights framework and legislation is an indicator of & Wearing, 2007). This organisational inclusiveness also needs to
some major barriers to full citizenship for young people and the minimise or eliminate situations of harassment and other exclusion-
protection of their rights especially for disadvantaged groups ary behaviour for such people. These are not only model policies for
(HREOC, 2005). Sociologists have argued that childhood (up to direct practice in youth services but can also be designed and
12 years) and youth hood (12 to 25 years) are social and cultural implemented in other forms and settings such as anti-violence, anti-
constructions that are not necessarily conned to strict age harassment and anti-bullying programs in schools, non-prot
categories (Corsaro, 2003). As in the UK, Australia confers criminal organizations and church groups (Daley et al., 2008).
responsibility at 810 years, school leaving age and age of consent Fig. 1 outlines different dimensions and types of practice for social
at 16 years, and the right to vote and drink alcohol at 18 years. This inclusion. This is partly based on Robinson's (2003) model developed
represents the gradual and fragmented way in which youth identity in relation to homeless people with mental health disorders and can
rights and citizenship are conferred (Thomson et al., 2004 p214). be applied to other marginal groups. The ow of gaining user rights in
Against this fragmentation, I will argue that a maximising, Fig. 1 follows a logic that requires formal social support interventions
humanistic and subjective view on youth citizenship helps to take though service participation and inclusive practice. Robinson's
account of beliefs and values, and the unique biographies lived out framework suggests that the social elements of inclusive principles
within local cultures. Such a view is seen as a necessary pre- includes familial and other social supports such as those through
requisite understanding for inclusive practice (White & Wyn, 2005, family members and friends, the labour market, neighbourhood, local
p89). The concept of youth citizenship in this sense offers a strategic service organizations, and association such as sporting groups.
way of understanding how some legal and welfare rights are often Economic elements include resources such as wages, savings, assets,
confusing and limiting when bestowed on young people on the path social security, and benets from the market economy. Institutional
to adulthood. elements include youth justice, youth health, criminal justice and
With the emergence of the post World War Two welfare state the justice education. Territorial elements include issues of demography
concept and discourse of social citizenship included basic material (migration) and accessibility such as transport, communications, and
rights of social wellbeing known as social rights by virtue of being a access to services in deprived areas. Symbolic elements include
citizen and not necessarily as a function of a person's market capacity identity issues, self-esteem, social visibility, basic abilities, interests
i.e. the right to work, the right to a decent standard of living, the right and motivations, and future prospects. The key types of inclusion that
to child care, the right to an education, public transport, and so on. In social services can provide are related to the social and symbolic
this extended traditional view these social rights are sustained by resources. Social service organizations help to provide the capacities
social services and the welfare state otherwise known as social and and symbolic means to live in this economy. Material assistance and
economic rights or welfare rights (Sen, 2004). In the revised in-kind benets to clients, their families and communities are also
subjectivist model citizens are active agents in making claims for provided by such services. Welfare resources such as these can
their rights, and their self-recognition and self-respect (Morris, 2009). counteract or at least work against the material inequalities of a
This model acknowledges young peoples' agency in establishing their market economy.
rights and social inclusivity in the community and services. Youth We can add to this framework the UK model of social integration
cultures are primarily local in this regard and have specic social provided by Beirens, Hughes, Hek, and Spicer (2007), 2201) that
class-based and socio-cultural resources, subjectivities, resilience and focuses on three elements: social bonds or connections within a
capacities at their disposal. community dened by identifying with and belonging to say a
particular ethnic, national or religious group; social links such as
2. The emerging social inclusion agenda engagement with institutions, agencies and services, and; social
bridges dened by the two way relationship with other identity
State Governments and now the Federal Government are working groups to promote social cohesion. I suggest that these social
towards a social inclusion agenda for children and youth especially connections are as important to marginal youth as they are to other
those most in need on the margins of Australian society. The federal age and cultural groups. However, these elements may not always
Social Inclusion Board's Aspirational Principles highlight the estab- work in unison to gain stability and inclusion for highly vulnerable
lishment of a voice and participation for the disadvantaged, building youth. This combined inclusionintegration model is a strong
partnerships, joined-up services, tailoring services to individual and institutional approach to welfare as it includes the means to social
local needs, and planning in an evidenced based way for sustainabil- wellbeing in employment, housing, education and health as well as
ity. Many of these measures centre on core social welfare areas such as facilitators of social and cultural recognitions such as language and
housing, education, health and mental health for marginalized young cultural knowledge and safety and stability.
people. Social inclusion measures for these groups include transition Limits to this rights based model hinge on how far it can extend
policies from school to work, joined-up multicultural services, and welfare rights into what Sen (2004) calls the reach of public reason
school retention until nal year high school (Sedgewick, 2008). If this or how far such discourse nds legitimacy and active agency in the
model is applied to child and youth poverty for example the public sphere. By extending a rights based approach to working
vulnerabilities of deprivation and social exclusion are highlighted with the life-worlds and subjective biographies/experiences of
across the life cycle and in the biographies of young people. Service young people an initial step is made in challenging institutional
536 M. Wearing / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 534540

Fig. 1. Social inclusion as a service framework: strategies, principles and rights. (Source: adapted from Robinson, 2003; Manning, 2004; HREOC, 2005, 2009).

practices of discrimination and cultural barriers for disadvantaged 3. Voicing marginality and framing inclusive practice
youth. Nonetheless, examples of the extension of the discourse of
citizenship into the public sphere indicate that policy rhetoric has Inclusive practices can be developed in the education of service
not necessarily translated into change initiatives embedded in workers and professionals in consultation with young people. This
practice. This criticism has been levelled at the policy agenda for section will provide some examples for skill development in inclusive
equal gender rights in the E U. Critics have argued that these policies practice based in the experiences of youth. These are practice skills
have not transformed traditional gender roles or gender inequalities that help to promote say service integration across areas or
in Europe (Meier & Lombardo, 2008). Such examples heed a specically as part of inclusive services such as between the police
warning in the Australian context that talk of rights does not and youth mental health services or schools and child welfare
necessarily mean that policy initiatives and their practice will agencies, and skills that assist in the political and/or social positions
encourage social inclusion. of young people such as advocacy, lobbying and community
M. Wearing / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 534540 537

development to help argue for government and other material spiral into deep poverty and homelessness at 11 years of age. He had
resources. Secondary qualitative data is used to illustrate the voices limited access to housing, mental health services and a case manager.
or lived experience of two signicant marginal groupings and their His problems with physical health needs and child access show how
use of serviceshomeless youth and Aboriginal youth. The selective his exclusion is partly created by geographic or territorial distance. In
use of qualitative research as a knowledge base for a subjective Ben's case and those with similar life circumstances could be used
inclusive practice could enhance the success factors around evalua- around his capacities to seek out help and engage with certain
tion and reexivity mentioned in the EU's denitions of inclusion workers depending on his perception of a match to the service.
policy (Walther & Pohl, 2005). The aim of this section is to show how a Symbolic, territorial and social inclusions can then combine through
rights based and social inclusion framework can be applied in practice. the matching of services to need.
In 2006 2.7 M or 14% of the total Australians population were aged Amongst the chaos and instability of living with a mental illness,
1524 years. Recent estimates indicate that: and without shelter and deprived material circumstances there was a
glimmer of hope amongst the study's participants. Tara a 23 year old
32.444 or 0.16% of the population was dened as homeless youth
with multiple disorders including schizophrenia (Robinson, 2003
aged 1224 and two thirds were 18 or younger though this has
pp278) said: I want stability. I felt like it hasn't been normal for the
decreased signicantly since 2001 (CoA, 2008, 2),
last couple of years, just moving and never liking it there. Issues such
about 111,000 or 18% of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait
as resilience and adequate housing are raised by this subjective plea
Islander populations are young people (ABS, 2006, p2).
for stable housing and the right to shelter. The study argued for
These groupings of young people are most at risk of marginality supported and community integrated housing with rent adjustment
due to their low social status and deprived material circumstances in to their income to help prevent such iterative homelessness notably
Australia. for young people. One of the respondents put it this way: if you don't
have a safe place to go and services can't come to you if you don't
4. Homeless youth have a home base (Robinson, 2003: 40). Social inclusion requires
access to services within a sense of place that local geographic and
Homelessness is dened by several authors as a lack of belonging cultural communities can give to a young person's identity.
rather than rooessness or nowhere to sleep (Robinson, 2003). Inclusive practice that includes both the material and symbolic
National youth homelessness in Australia is a signicant social means of social exclusion is necessary to ensure social connectedness
problem and recent strategies have assisted some of these youth to and cohesion for particular groups. Young people still at school (under
nd a sustainable place to live (CoA, 2008). Nonetheless many young 18 years) who live away from home can have some of the greatest
people are vulnerable to homelessness especially in the transition nancial difculties and need as well as signicant symbolic
years towards the end of their schooling. One of the most vulnerable exclusion:
populations of homeless youth is those living with mental illness. In
You don't have parents to pay for excursions, you don't have
Robinson's (2003): 14) study of homeless people with mental
parents to buy books for you, you don't have parents there to buy
disorders in Sydney and Melbourne she found that in a survey of
clothes, shoes.
165 participants many had had children before 21 years (half of the
All I really need is the basics, somewhere to stay, a meal and a
40% of the sample who had children) and that their family of origin
way to get through school. That's all I'd be happy with (Ball, 2007
was a site of aggression, extreme violence, incest and sexual abuse
which contributed to/caused mental disorder. Only 23% of the sample
was living in independent accommodation with support while the
This illustrates both the potential stigma of youth poverty and the
others were living on the streets, in squats or cars (18%), boarding
lived experience of material deprivation. The life-worlds of these
houses (12%) and in supported accommodation (hostels, 40%).
youth are difcult yet resilient and operate at the basic level of
The 28 in-depth life histories (many in their early-mid twenties)
survival and self-reliance because of their poverty (Samuels & Pryce,
also conducted for the Robinson study involved several young people
2008). Youth work and youth programs can be designed with
who gave several reasons for being homeless. Ben a 20 year old
inclusive objectives so as to generate self-respect and skill capacities
Brisbane youth related his mental health and homelessness to the
in young people. Inclusive practice here requires services with highly
death of his father:
developed engagement and interpersonal skill standards in order to
I've never dealt with my Dad dying and I think that's why, and sustain longer term contact with homeless youth, their sub-groups
I've lost my two sisters as well, I can't get myself together and communities. We can understand that the rights of these young
because I never actually dealt with bad things that happened in people such as the right to a decent standard of living are contravened
my life. I've just turned to drugs and alcohol and the streets by such meager income provision. The income support benet, Youth
(Robinson, 2003: p21). Allowance, is provided to low-income youth and is more than 10%
below the Australian poverty line. This deeply experienced poverty
Ben had high levels of self-harm, violent and suicidal behaviours. means that the social bonds, links and bridges to formal and informal
He wanted services and the government to look into why he developed social supports for homeless youth are fragmented. Street level
such behaviour especially as he believed rationally or not that these services can provide models and mentors for inclusive practice that
were a reaction to lack of access rights to his two-year-old boy: help to connect such youth to wider social networks and bonds.

The Government's really got to look after why people they say
oh yeah suicidal people, well who cares? They've got to look at 5. Aboriginal youth
why people are like that yesterday if I wasn't here (youth drop
in centre) I probably would have harmed myself again That's Aboriginal youth are the most social disadvantaged group of young
people in Australia and signicantly over-represented as users of
why I'm doing it because I can't see my son and that really hurts
You give up Too hard to nd a place to stay if you are under a social welfare. Since White settlement in 1788 Aboriginal people as
the original owners of the land have suffered colonization, margin-
certain age (Robinson, 2003, p22).
alization and dispossession, that today are reected in neo-colonial
This quote reveals the high level, multiple and complex needs that policy interventions. It is essential to challenge neo-colonial and non-
young homeless people such as Ben have. Ben had started on this indigenous knowledge about appropriate interventions for Aboriginal
538 M. Wearing / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 534540

communities and life-cycle groupings and this can in part be done services. At the centre of these inclusive strategies and programs is
through decolonised indigenous knowledge that informs inclusive a pride in cultural identity. There is great capacity in the cultural arts
practice. Aboriginal children and young people are over-represented and elsewhere to uphold strong cultural and decolonised Aboriginal
in the child protection system in Australia, juvenile justice and other youth identities as the young GreekAustralian/Aboriginal Hip Hop
welfare areas such as social housing. For example, estimates are that artist known as Little G makes clear her sense of identication and
indigenous children and youth comprise 22% of OOHC but are only place:
3.6% of young people and children in Australia (Green & Baldry, 2009,
p29). The depth of this disadvantage and exclusion can also be I come from the clan of the Yorta Yorta nation, And I let people
illustrated through opportunities that formal education provides in know I'm a fascination This is my place, A race they'll have to
gaining employment and related social benets: for example, face (Stavrias, 2005, p47).
completing year 10 or 11 (of high school at ages 16 and 17 years)
increases an Aboriginal person's chance of employment by 40% There are also many avenues for participation and expression of
(Vinson, 2009, p3). Employment also decreases the risk of poverty identity that social services can link up with in programs and changing
and associated negative impacts on crime, health and social status. practice with Aboriginal youth. Music, food, sport and other activities
These are life changing objectives whereby homeless and Aboriginal can provide means to build cultural and social capitals in remote and
youth can start to break out of cycles of high-risk behaviours and their rural communities. Many youth services in Australia include such
negative impact. innovative programs incorporating the views and decision making of
Linking the rights of Aboriginal youth to international or even young people themselves. These innovations appear to have been
national conventions and legislation is clearly a difcult problem if ignored in current Government thinking around inclusion and the
these are not supported by both services and constitutional-legislative rights of Aboriginal youth especially in the NT interventions.
commitments. The international conventions on indigenous people These two examples of marginal youth demonstrate the possibil-
include recognition of land, culture and inclusion. Service practice in ities for inclusive practice that can be framed within an understanding
Australia can clearly contravene such rights. One clear example of this of the everyday worlds of young people and their interaction with
contravention of rights and the implementation of neo-colonial policy services. Social inclusion practice with these young people needs to be
is the Northern Territory (NT) interventions implemented at the end grounded in both structural and individual measures that are
of the conservative Howard Government in 2007. These federal and encouraged by service cultures otherwise such youth are vulnerable
territory interventions included government takeovers of Aboriginal to being blamed and criminalized for their actions or the situations
town camps, lack of consultation, appropriate housing stock and they nd themselves in. Social justice and the rights of young people
police powers over Aboriginal people. In this case remote and regional require a contextual understanding unencumbered by the prejudicial
Aboriginal communities were not consulted and did not participate in stereotypes or discriminatory practices of neo-colonialism in service
the decision making around these interventions. Interventions that delivery.
under the Rudd Government include the imposition of a discrimina-
tory basics card to allocate material benets such as food and
prohibit alcohol rather than a cash benet that other Australian 6. Implications for service practice and education
citizens who are Centrelink beneciaries receive (ANTaR, 2009).
Paradoxically the impact of this intervention represents largely In framing inclusive practice existing practice literature across
exclusion practices that are in direct contradiction to the current youth work and social work provides a useful guide. Existing service
inclusion agenda of the federal Government. arrangements and practice have remained non-inclusive of the
Studies of those most at risk amongst Aboriginal youth relate to intersectional disadvantages experienced by many of these young
homelessness. Allwood (2001, p3) found in her in-depth study of 19 people. Insensitive attitudes of services to cultural differences are a
Aboriginal Homeless youth in Adelaide that consistent themes came signicant component of non-inclusive services notably those that
out in the life stories of these youth. Two pathways into Aboriginal engage with Aboriginal and with homeless youth. The extent to which
youth instability and homelessness were identied by Allwood: such non-inclusive practices are institutionalised is difcult to
disruption of the parent/child or care-giving relationship at an early measure or quantify though several efforts have been made (AHREOC,
age and/or through crises and conict in the early teenage years. All 2005). Nonetheless, given the depth of structural disadvantage and
related to poor or difcult interactions with services throughout their the youth poverty rate in Australia there is a need for more inclusive
childhood or as young people. Aboriginal youth homelessness regimes in micro-service engagement with vulnerable groupings.
represents a specic case of social exclusion and disadvantage. This A holistic and three dimensional approach to rights can incorpo-
Adelaide study found that those Aboriginal youth who participated rate a subjective view on the experiences and biographies of youth
could all be dened as homeless despite some public arguments that themselves (Ife, 2008). These three dimensions involve: rst gener-
they are homeless because they are a highly mobile population. There ation rights civil and political rights supported by human rights
is a need in such work for interagency or joined up agency work eg advocacy and other campaign work; second generation
collaboration between schools, health centres and youth centres for rights economic, social and cultural rights eg supported by
such youth. Studies have shown that changing program curriculum to individual and group work programs, and organisational capacities;
include appropriate cultural, music and creative arts programs as well and third generation rights collective rights such as economic
as a focus on indigenous languages have had impressive results with development, a cohesive society and environmental rights to clean air
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth and with other youth in and water eg community development and user participation in
terms of sexual health (Philip et al., 2006; Sutherland, 2003). programs. This rights based approach is linked to four inclusive
Several writers on social inclusion for Aboriginal youth have practice areas as outlined in Fig. 2 as suggestive of a mapping of the
emphasised the importance of school retention and education as skills and dispositions of workers in the area. Social work and youth
increasing the life chances and opportunities available to this group. work in Western countries have tended to adopt the status quo of
Sutherland (2003) for example recommended separate Aboriginal liberal individualism and so prioritise the individualising and
Schools in cities as well as regional areas to encourage social legalistic components of rst and second generation rights at the
inclusion. This follows trends in other First Nation communities in cost of the more collective and socially integrative rights of the third
Canada and the USA where social inclusion strategies combine First generation. Fig. 2 offers a holistic or generic approach to practice that
Nation schools with other culturally appropriate and sensitive can help counter this individualising of rights.
M. Wearing / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 534540 539

Fig. 2. Inclusive practice skills and practice dispositions. (Sources: White & Wyn, 2005 in Gronda, 2009, pp1245).

Central to rst generation rights work in community development and gender disadvantages where such identity issues are raised by
is working out strategies to address issues and to challenge existing language and cultural differences in interaction between worker and
social arrangements and developing advocacy practices on behalf of young people (Briggs, 2004). Beyond the template of these more
young people. Strategies involve processes, activities and practices conventional areas, critical rights based and inclusive practice
that arise from specic aims and objectives and are underpinned by approaches provide a challenging second generation approach that
values and principles. Issues of social justice, respect and mutual uses direct action and policy, program and research work. Such a
cooperation remain central organising principles to challenge under- framework can give learning depth in social work and youth work
lying issues for youth such as substance abuse, violence and social education on young people. Individual work can include counselling
alienation. Further services need to demonstrate effectiveness in and case management issues for young people depending on the
adopting broader forms of advocacy and activism on issues. Recent service. These micro skills require specic training and experience,
campaigns in Australia on youth depression, youth anti-violence, and and can be acquired through careful reection and practice in the
drug and alcohol use provide useful examples for educators and area.
practitioners in how to run a successful campaign (YAPA, 2008). The third generation of rights based work would encompass
There are several dimensions and levels of practice and education community development and social development practices (Ife, 2008,
for second generational rights that also require brief consideration. 4447). There are a broad range of actions that can be drawn upon to
Individual, group and organisational practices including family- deliver effective social activism and change with examples such as
oriented practice such as family therapy are a core component of health education and promotion on cancer issues, young women's
youth and social work practice education. Skilled case work is sexual health, combating child abuse and local politics around
required, for example, in the area of cross cultural mental health recreation facilities for young people. Using social activism strategies
work. This is particularly relevant for work with intersectional racial such as forming a community action group and developing a single
540 M. Wearing / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 534540

issue protest can initiate longer term community and social Daley, A., Solomon, S., Newman, P. A., & Mishna, F. (2008). Traversing the margins:
Intersectionalities in the bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. Youth
development strategy around youth rights. At a societal level, there Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 19(3), 929.
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service workers in social activism around multiple or intersectional
Green, S., & Baldry, E. (2009). Invited commentary on After the Apology by Cindy
disadvantage in Australia. Blackstock. Children Australia, 34(1), 2930.
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