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Qualitative Analysis Notes

Key: [ppt. = precipitate]

1 Reactions of aqueous cations

reaction with
ion
NaOH(aq) NH3(aq)

aluminium, white ppt. white ppt.


Al 3+(aq) soluble in excess insoluble in excess

ammonium, no ppt.

NH4+(aq) ammonia produced on heating

barium,
no ppt. (if reagents are pure) no ppt.
Ba2+(aq)

calcium,
white ppt. with high [Ca2+(aq)] no ppt.
Ca2+(aq)

chromium(III), grey-green ppt. soluble in excess grey-green ppt.


Cr3+(aq) giving dark green solution insoluble in excess

copper(II), pale blue ppt. blue ppt. soluble in excess


Cu2+(aq) insoluble in excess giving dark blue solution

green ppt. turning brown on contact green ppt. turning brown on contact
iron(II),
with air with air
Fe2+(aq)
insoluble in excess insoluble in excess

iron(III), red-brown ppt. red-brown ppt.


Fe3+(aq) insoluble in excess insoluble in excess

magnesium, white ppt. white ppt.


Mg2+(aq) insoluble in excess insoluble in excess

off-white ppt. rapidly turning brown off-white ppt. rapidly turning brown
manganese(II),
on contact with air on contact with air
Mn2+(aq)
insoluble in excess insoluble in excess

zinc, white ppt. white ppt.


Zn2+(aq) soluble in excess soluble in excess

UCLES 2015 9701/33/M/J/15


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2 Reactions of anions

ion reaction

carbonate, CO2 liberated by dilute acids


2
CO3

chloride, gives white ppt. with Ag+(aq) (soluble in NH3(aq))


Cl (aq)

bromide, gives cream ppt. with Ag+(aq) (partially soluble in NH3(aq))



Br (aq)

iodide, gives yellow ppt. with Ag+(aq) (insoluble in NH3(aq))


I (aq)

nitrate, NH3 liberated on heating with OH(aq) and Al foil


NO3(aq)

NH3 liberated on heating with OH(aq) and Al foil;


nitrite,
NO liberated by dilute acids
NO2(aq)
(colourless NO (pale) brown NO2 in air)

sulfate, gives white ppt. with Ba2+(aq) (insoluble in excess dilute strong acids)
SO42(aq)

sulfite, SO2 liberated with dilute acids;


2
SO3 (aq) gives white ppt. with Ba2+(aq) (soluble in excess dilute strong acids)

3 Tests for gases

gas test and test result


ammonia, NH3 turns damp red litmus paper blue
carbon dioxide, CO2 gives a white ppt. with limewater
(ppt. dissolves with excess CO2)
chlorine, Cl 2 bleaches damp litmus paper
hydrogen, H2 pops with a lighted splint
oxygen, O2 relights a glowing splint
turns acidified aqueous potassium manganate(VII) from purple to
sulfur dioxide, SO2
colourless

UCLES 2015 9701/33/M/J/15