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Multivariable process

(Seborg Chapter 18 )

Control Loop Interaction

Single input and single output

Control of Multiple-Input, Multiple-

Output Processes

Multiloop controllers

Modeling the interactions

Relative Gain Array (RGA)

Singular Value Analysis (SVA)

Decoupling strategies

Control of multivariable processes

process variables which must be controlled and a number

which can be manipulated

Note "process interactions" between controlled and

manipulated variables.

Chapter 18

Controlled Variables: xD , xB , P, hD , and hB

Manipulated Variables: D, B, R , Q D , and Q B

Chapter 18

Characterizing process interactions and selecting an appropriate

multiloop control configuration.

system may not provide satisfactory control.

control strategies

Chapter 18

Definitions:

single controlled variable, i.e., a set of conventional feedback

controllers.

or more of the controlled variables.

Multiloop Control Strategy

Typical industrial approach

Consists of using n standard FB controllers (e.g. PID), one for each

controlled variable.

1. Select controlled and manipulated variables.

2. Select pairing of controlled and manipulated variables.

3. Specify types of FB controllers.

Chapter 18

Example: 2 x 2 system

U1 with Y1, U2 with Y2 or

U1 with Y2, U2 with Y1

Chapter 18

Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)

(4 transfer functions required)

Y1 ( s ) Y1 ( s )

Chapter 18

GP11 ( s ), GP12 ( s )

U1 ( s) U 2 (s)

Y2 ( s ) Y2 ( s )

GP 21 ( s), GP 22 ( s )

U1 ( s) U 2 ( s)

written as:

Y1 ( s ) GP11 ( s )U1 ( s ) GP12 ( s )U 2 ( s )

Y2 ( s ) GP 21 ( s )U1 ( s ) GP 22 ( s )U 2 ( s )

Or in vector-matrix notation as,

Y ( s ) GP ( s )U ( s )

Chapter 18

Y1 ( s ) U 1 ( s )

Y (s) , U (s)

Y (

2 s ) U

2 ( s )

And Gp(s) is the transfer function matrix for the process

G P (s )

G

P 21 (s ) G P 22 ( s )

Control-loop interactions

between two or more control loops.

Example: 2 x 2 system

Chapter 18

third feedback loop.

Problems arising from control loop interactions

i) Closed -loop system may become destabilized.

ii) Controller tuning becomes more difficult

Block Diagram Analysis

between a controlled and a manipulated variable depends

on whether the other feedback control loops are open or

closed.

Chapter 18

diagram algebra we can show

Y1 ( s ) (second loop open)

GP11 ( s),

U1 ( s)

Y1 ( s ) GP12GP 21GC 2 (second loop closed)

GP11

U1 (s) 1 GC 2GP 22

Chapter 18

Relative gain array

1) Measure of process interactions

2) Recommendation about best pairing of controlled and

Chapter 18

manipulated variables.

Requires knowledge of steady state gains but not process

dynamics.

Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system

Steady-state process model,

Y1 K11U1 K12U 2

Y2 K 21U1 K 22U 2

Chapter 18

11 12

RGA

21 22

variable and the jth manipulated variable

open - loop gain

ij

closed - loop gain

Scaling Properties:

i) ij is dimensionless

ii) ij ij 1.0

i j

Chapter 18

For 2 x 2 system,

1

11 , 12 1 11 21

K K

1 12 21

K11K 22

In general:

1. Pairings which correspond to negative pairings should not be

selected.

2. Otherwise, choose the pairing which has ij closest To one.

Examples:

Process Gain Relative Gain

Matrix, : Array, :

Chapter 18

K11 0 1 0

0

K 22

0 1

0 K12

0 1

K

21 0 1 0

K11

0

K12

K 22

1 0

0 1

K11 0

K

21 K 22 1 0

0 1

Recall, for 2X2 systems...

1

Y1 K11U 1 K12U 2 11 , 12 1 11 21

K K

1 12 21

Y2 K 21U1 K 22U 2 K11K 22

EXAMPLE:

K K12 2 1.5

K 11

K 21 K 22 1.5 2

Chapter 18

2.29 1.29

Recommended pairing is Y1

and U1,Y2 and U2.

1.29 2.29

EXAMPLE:

K 0.36 0.64

1 . 5 2

Recommended pairing isY with U ,Y with U .

1 1 2 2

EXAMPLE:Thermal Mixing System

Chapter 18

Wh Wc

W Wc Wh

W W Wc Wh

c h

Wh Wc

T W W Wc Wh

c h

controller pairing depends on nominal values of W,T, Th, and Tc.

EXAMPLE: Ill-conditioned Gain Matrix

y = Ku

2 x 2 process y 1 = 5 u1 + 8 u2

y2 = 10 u1 + 15.8 u2

Chapter 18

Adj K

-1

u=K y = y

det K

K11K 22 K11K 22

RGA : 11

K11K 22 K12K 21 det K

effect of det K 0 ?

RGA for Higher-Order Systems:

For and n x n system,

U1 U2 Un

Y1 11 12 1n

Y2 21 22 2 n

Chapter 18

Yn n1 n1 nn

Each ij can be calculated from the relation

ij K ijH ij

Where Kij is the (i,j) -element in the steady-state gain matrix, K:

Y KU

H K 1 T

Note that,

KH

EXAMPLE 18.4 : Hydrocracker

U1 U2 U3 U4

Chapter 18

Y2 0.011 0.429 0.286 1.154

Y3 0.135 3.314 0.270 1.910

Y4 0.215 2.030 0.900 1.919

Singular Value Analysis

K = W S VT

(s1, s2, , sr)

eigenvalues of

KTK (r = rank of KTK)

W,V are input and output singular vectors Columns of W and

V are orthonormal. Also

WWT = I

VVT = I

Calculate S, W, V using MATLAB (svd = singular value

decomposition)

Condition number (CN) is the ratio of the largest to the

smallest singular value and indicates if K is ill-conditioned.

CN is a measure of sensitivity of the matrix properties to changes in

a specific element.

Consider 1 0

K

10 1

(RGA) = 1.0

If K12 changes from 0 to 0.1, then K becomes a singular matrix,

which corresponds to a process that is hard to control.

Chapter 18

RGA and SVA used together can indicate whether a process is easy

(or hard) to control.

10.1 0

(K ) = CN = 101

0 0.1

Hence small changes in the model for this process can make it very

difficult to control.

Selection of Inputs and Outputs

to smallest and look for any i/i-1 > 10; then

one or more inputs (or outputs) can be deleted.

Chapter 18

and evaluate the properties of the reduced gain

matrix.

Example 18.7:

0 .4 8 0 .9 0 0 .0 0 6

K 0 .5 2 0 .9 5 0 .0 0 8

0 .9 0 0 .9 5 0 .0 2 0

0.5714 0.3766 0.7292

W 0.6035 0.4093 0.6843

0.5561 0.8311 0.0066

1.618 0 0

0 1.143 0

0 0 0.0097

V 0.9985 0.0540 0.0068

18

Chapter18

Chapter

CN = 166.5 (1/3)

2.4376 3.0241 0.4135

1.2211 0.7617 0.5407

2.2165 1.2623 0.0458

CN suggests only two output variables can be controlled. Eliminate one input and one output

(3x32x2).

Chapter 18

Chapter 18

Alternative Strategies for Dealing with Undesirable

Control Loop Interactions

2. Select different manipulated or controlled variables.

e.g., nonlinear functions of original variables

3. Use a decoupling control scheme.

4. Use some other type of multivariable control scheme.

Chapter 18

interactions and thus reduce control loop interactions

desired controlled variables.

model (e.g. steady state model or transfer function model)

Chapter 18

Design Equations:

We want cross-controller, GC12, to cancel out the effect of U2 on Y1.

Thus, we would like,

T12GP11U 2 GP12U 2 0

Since U2 0 (in general), then

Chapter 18

GP12

T12

GP11

Similarly, we want G21 to cancel the effect of M1 on C2. Thus, we

require that...

GP 21

T21

GP 22

cf. with design equations for FF control based on block diagram

analysis

Alternatives to Complete Decoupling

Partial Decoupling (either GC12 or GC21 is set equal to zero)

Chapter 18

Process Interaction

Ideal Decouplers:

GP12 ( s )

T12 ( s )

GP11 ( s )

GP 21 ( s )

T21 ( s )

GP 22 ( s )

Variations on a Theme:

Partial Decoupling:

Use only one cross-controller.

Static Decoupling:

Design to eliminate SS interactions

Chapter 18

K P12

T12

K P11

K P 21

T21

K P 22

Nonlinear Decoupling

Appropriate for nonlinear processes.

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