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Twofingertest,
CaseLaws commonlyreferredtoas
FramingofChargeInCriminalCases YSRAO theVirginityTest,is
CivilLaws
JUDGE beingcarriedoutasa
CompanyLaw Thereissomecriticisminsometrialcourtsthattheimportanttask routineinmany
countries.Thedifference
ConstitutionalLaw
offramingchargeisbeingentrustedtostenosbythetrialjudges.A liesinthemethodof
fortiori, inasmuch as the Supreme Court laid down that the carryingoutthesame.
Consumerlaws purposeofframingachargeistogiveintimationtotheaccusedof Y.SRINIVASARAO,
clear,unambiguousandprecisenoticeofthenatureofaccusation M.AEnglish.,B.Ed.,LL.M. fullstory|sendtofriend
Contractslaws
JudicialMagistrateofIClass
thattheaccusediscalledupontomeetinthecourseofatrial,itis TopperinLL.M
Criminallaw
primarydutyofajudicialofficertoremovesuchcriticismfromthe
Druglaws
Viewarticles | Contactauthor Statistics
minds of litigant public. This article may be helpful to newly
Dubailaws recruitedJuniorCivilJudgesastothisaspect. TotalArticles 1351

Educationallaws The purpose of framing a charge is to give TotalAuthors 3887


Employment/Labour intimation to the accused of clear, unambiguous
laws andprecisenoticeofthenatureofaccusationthat TotalViews 14479923
EnvironmentalLaw theaccusediscalledupontomeetinthecourseof
a trial. See V.C. Shukla v. State Through Totalcategories 40
familylaw
C.B.I.,1980SupplementarySCC92atpage150andparagraph110ofthereport.Eitheritisa
GaylawsandThird warrantcaseorasummonscase,thepointisthataprimafaciecasemustbemadeoutbeforea
Gender charge can be framed. Basically, there are three pairs of sections in the Code of Criminal LawForum
HumanRightslaws Procedure,1973.ThoseareSections227and228whichrelatingtosessionstrialSections239 FreelegalAdvicelawyersForum
and 240 relatable to trial of warrant cases and Sections 2451 and 2 qua trial of summons
Immigrationlaws
cases. The Honble Supreme Court, in Mohan Singh v. State of Bihar, has examined the law Re:Howdoesitwork?
Insurance/Accident relating to charge while highlighting the purpose of framing a charge against the accused in Yesyoucangetdivorce
Claim criminalcases. Oct5,201610:26:07AM
IntellectualProperty
StrictComplyOfSection226OfCr.P.C: Wifenotaccepttalaqnamabypost
InternationalLaw Mybrotherwanttalaqbuthiswifedon't
Trial Judge must insist the prosecution to comply with section 226 of Cr.P.C. if this be done,
JuvenileLaws accusedcanbedischargedincaseofthereisnoprimafaciecase.thus,arrearsofcasescanbe wanttalaq.Somybrothersenddivorce
clearedquickly. letterwithtalaqreasonand2witnesssign
Lawlawyers&legal
Before invoking provisions of Sections 227 and 228 dealing with trials before the Court of bypost.Andsentmoney...
Profession
Session, Courts shall take note of Section 226 which obliges the prosecution to describe the Oct5,20163:54:48PM
LegalAidandLokAdalat
chargebroughtagainsttheaccusedandstatebywhatevidencetheguiltoftheaccusedwouldbe
Legaloutsourcing proved. Re:courtcomissioner
Thanksfordreply,Sinceheisavoidingto
Medialaws appearincourtandarrestwarrantfor
In Satish Mehra v. Delhi Administration and Another [1996 9 SCC 766], a two judge Bench
Medicolegal judgment,itwasobservedthatiftheaccusedsucceedsinproducinganyreliablematerialatthe fufilmentofconsenttermsisissued,whatis
stage of taking cognizance or framing of charge which might fatally affect even the very thewaysothathe...
Miscellaneous
sustainabilityofthecase,itisunjusttosuggestthatnosuchmaterialshouldbelookedintobythe Oct5,201612:05:18PM
Realestatelaws
court at that stage. It was held that the object of providing an opportunity to the accused of
RightToInformation making submissions as envisaged in Section 227 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 for
TaxLaws short,'theCode'istoenablethecourttodecidewhetheritisnecessarytoproceedtoconduct
thetrial.Ifthematerialsproducedbytheaccusedevenatthatearlystagewouldclinchtheissue,
TortsLaw
whyshouldthecourtshutitoutsayingthatsuchdocumentsneedbeproducedonlyafterwasting
WomanIssues alotmoretimeinthenameoftrialproceedings.Itwasfurtherobservedthatthereisnothingin
WorkplaceEquality&
the Code which shrinks the scope of such audience to oral arguments and, therefore, the trial
NonDiscrimination courtwouldbewithinitspowertoconsiderevenmaterialwhichtheaccusedmayproduceatthe
stagecontemplatedinSection227oftheCode.
YetAnotherCategory
TheHonbleSupremeCourtin[19969SCC766],essayedontherationaleofSection226thus:

More Options Section 226 of the Code obliges the prosecution to describe the charge brought against the
accused and to state by what evidence the guilt of the accused would be proved. The Next
Mostreadarticles provisionsenjoinsontheSessionJudgetodecidewhetherthereissufficientgroundtoproceed
Mostratedarticles againsttheaccused.InsodecidingtheJudgehastoconsider1therecordofthecaseand2
thedocumentsproducedtherewith.Hehasthentohearthesubmissionsoftheaccusedaswell
astheprosecutiononthelimitedquestionwhetherthereissufficientgroundtoproceed.
Subscription TheHonbleSupremeCourtin[19969SCC766],essayedontherationaleofSection227thus:
Subscribenowandreceivefree The object of providing such an opportunity as is envisaged in Section 227 of the code is to
articlesandupdatesinstantly. enabletheCourttodecidewhetheritisnecessarytoproceedtoconductthetrial.Ifthecaseends
thereitgainsalotoftimeoftheCourtandsavesmuchhumaneffortsandcost.Ifthematerials
Name
producedbytheaccusedevenatthatearlystagewouldclinchtheissue,whyshouldtheCourt
Email shutitoutsayingthatsuchdocumentsneedbeproducedonlyafterwastingalotmoretimeinthe
name of trial proceedings. Hence, we are of the view that Sessions Judge would be within his
Remove Subscribe powerstoconsiderevenmaterialwhichtheaccusedmayproduceatthestagecontemplatedin
Section227oftheCode.

CopyrightRegistration TheHonbleApexCourt,inthesameruling[19969SCC766],,examinedthepurposeofSection
239andobserved:
SimilarsituationariseunderSection239oftheCodewhichdealswithtrialofwarrantcaseson
ToCopyrightYourBooks,Videos, policereport.In thatsituationtheMagistratehasto affordthe prosecutionand theaccused an
Songs,Scriptsetc
Callusat:9891244487/oremail opportunity of being heard besides considering the police report and the documents sent
at:admin@legalserviceindia.com therewith.AtthesetwoStatetheCodeenjoinsontheCourttogiveaudiencetotheaccusedfor
TopLawColleges decidingwhetheritisnecessarytoproceedtothenextState.Itisamatterofexerciseofjudicial
LawUpdates: mind.Thereisnothinginthecodewhichshrinksthescopeofsuchaudiencetooralarguments.If

http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/article/framingofchargeincriminalcases11221.html 1/5
10/6/2016 FramingofChargeInCriminalCases
the accused succeeds in producing any reliable material at that stage which might fatally affect
#IncomeTax
#Familylaw even the very sustainability of the case, it is unjust to suggest that no such material shall be
#CompanyLaw looked into by the Court at that stage. Here the "ground" may be any valid ground including
#ConstitutionalLaw insufficiencyofevidencetoprovecharge.
#Partnershipfirms
#ImmigrationLaw
#CyberLaw ReasonsForCharge:
#LokAdalat,legalAid&PIL ItisseminaltorefertherulingStateofMaharashtrav.SomNathThapa,19964SCC659.In
#Forms
#Trademarks thisruling,itwasobservedas:beforeadvertingtowhatwasstatedinAntulay'scase,lettheview
#Womanissues expressed in State of Karnataka vs. L. Muniswamy, 1977 3 SCR 113 be noted. Therein,
#MedicoLegal Chandrachud,J.ashethenwasspeakingforeathreeJudgeBenchstatedatpage119thatat
#Consumerlaws
#Criminallaws thestageofframingchargetheCourthastoapplyitsmindtothequestionwhetherornotthereis
#SupremeCourtJudgments any ground for presuming the commission of the offence by the accused. Asframingofcharge
affectsaperson'slibertysubstantially,needforproperconsiderationofmaterialwarrantingsuch
order was emphasised. In one of the case under TADA, the Honble Apex Court held that the
Designated Court should give reasons for framing charges because framing of charges
substantiallyaffectsthelibertyofthepersonconcerned.

ThePurposeOfFramingCharge:
In the ruling of a fourJudge Bench of The Honble Supreme Court in V.C. Shukla v. State
Through C.B.I.,1980 Supplementary SCC 92 at page 150 and paragraph 110 of the report.
JusticeDesaideliveringaconcurringopinion,opinedthatthepurposeofframingachargeisto
give intimation to the accused of clear, unambiguous and precise notice of the nature of
accusationthattheaccusediscalledupontomeetinthecourseofatrial.

HowToInterpretTheWordsInACharge?
WhatToBeDone,IfThereIsAnyErrorInTheFramingOfTheCharge?
Togiveappropriateanswersforthesetwoimportantquestions,Ideemitisapttoseetherecent
ruling of the Honble Supreme Court 2011 in Mohan Singh vs State Of Bihar, wherein it was
observedasinfra:

Thepurposeofframingachargeistogiveintimationtotheaccusedofclear,unambiguousand
precisenoticeofthenatureofaccusationthattheaccusediscalledupontomeetinthecourseof
atrial.SeedecisionofafourJudgeBenchofthisCourtinV.C.Shuklav.StateThroughC.B.I.,
reportedin1980SupplementarySCC92atpage150andparagraph110ofthereport.Justice
Desaideliveringaconcurringopinion,opinedasabove.

17.Butthequestionishowtointerpretthewordsinacharge?Inthisconnection,wemayreferto
theprovisionofSection214oftheCode.Section214oftheCodeissetoutbelow:

214.Wordsinchargetakeninsenseoflawunderwhichoffenceispunishable.Ineverycharge
wordsusedindescribinganoffenceshallbedeemedtohavebeenusedinthesenseattachedto
themrespectivelybythelawunderwhichsuchoffenceispunishable."

18.Theotherrelevantprovisionsrelatingtochargemaybenoticedasunder:

211.Contentsofcharge.1EverychargeunderthisCodeshallstatetheoffencewithwhichthe
accused is charged. 2 If the law which creates the offence gives it any specific name, the
offencemaybedescribedinthechargebythatnameonly.

3 If the law which creates the offence does not give it any specific name, so much of the
definitionoftheoffencemustbestatedastogivetheaccusednoticeofthematterwithwhichhe
ischarged.

4Thelawandsectionofthelawagainstwhichtheoffenceissaidtohavebeencommittedshall
bementionedinthecharge.

5 The fact that the charge is made is equivalent to a statement that every legal condition
requiredbylawtoconstitutetheoffencechargedwasfulfilledintheparticularcase.

6ThechargeshallbewritteninthelanguageoftheCourt.

7Iftheaccused,havingbeenpreviouslyconvictedofanyoffence,isliable,byreasonofsuch
previous conviction, to enhanced punishment, or to punishment of a different kind, for a
subsequent offence, and it is intended to prove such previous conviction for the purpose of
affectingthepunishmentwhichtheCourtmaythinkfittoawardforthesubsequentoffence,the
factdateandplaceofthepreviousconvictionshallbestatedinthechargeandifsuchstatement
hasbeenomitted,theCourtmayadditatanytimebeforesentenceispassed.

215.Effectoferrors.Noerrorinstatingeithertheoffenceortheparticularsrequiredtobestated
inthecharge,andnoomissiontostatetheoffenceorthoseparticulars,shallberegardedatany
stageofthecaseasmaterial,unlesstheaccusedwasinfactmisledbysucherrororomission,
andithasoccasionedafailureofjustice.

464. Effect of omission to frame, or absence of, or error in, charge. 1 No finding sentence or
orderbyaCourtofcompetentjurisdictionshallbedeemedinvalidmerelyonthegroundthatno
chargewasframedoronthegroundofanyerror,omissionorirregularityinthechargeincluding
anymisjoinderofcharges,unless,intheopinionoftheCourtofappeal,confirmationorrevision,a
failureofjusticehasinfactbeenoccasionedthereby.

2IftheCourtofappeal,confirmationorrevisionisofopinionthatafailureofjusticehasinfact
beenoccasioned,itmay

ainthecaseofanomissiontoframeacharge,orderthatachargebeframedandthatthetrial
berecommencedfromthepointimmediatelyaftertheframingofthecharge

binthecaseofanerror,omissionorirregularityinthecharge,directanewtrialtobehadupon
achargeframedinwhatevermanneritthinksfit:

Provided that if the Court is of opinion that the facts of the case are such that no valid charge
could be preferred against the accused in respect of the facts proved, it shall quash the
conviction

19.Whileexaminingtheaforesaidprovisions,wemaykeepinmindtheprincipleslaid down by
Justice Vivian Bose in Willie William Slaney v. State of Madhya Pradesh reported in 1955 2
SCR 1140. At page 1165 of the report, the learned judge observed: We see no reason for
strainingatthemeaningoftheseplainandemphaticprovisionsunlessritualandformaretobe
regarded as of the essence in criminal trials. We are unable to find any magic or charm in the
ritualofacharge.Itisthesubstanceoftheseprovisionsthatcountandnottheiroutwardform.To
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10/6/2016 FramingofChargeInCriminalCases
holdotherwiseisonlytoprovideavenuesofescapefortheguiltyandaffordnoprotectiontothe
innocent."

20. The aforesaid observation of Justice Vivian Bose in William Slaney supra has been
expresslyapprovedsubsequentlybythisCourtinV.C.Shuklasupra.

21.ReferenceinthisconnectionmaybemadetothedecisionofthisCourtinthecaseofTulsi
Ramandothersv.StateofUttarPradeshreportedinAIR1963SC666.Inthatcaseinparagraph
12 this Court was considering these aspects of the matter and made it clear that a complaint
about the charge was never raised at any earlier stage and the learned Judges came to the
conclusion that the charge was fully understood by the appellants in that case and they never
complained at the appropriate stage that they were confused or bewildered by the charge. The
saidthingistruehere.Therefore,theCourtrefusedtoacceptanygrievance relating to error in
theframingofthecharge.

22.Subsequently,inthecaseofStateofAndhraPradeshv.CheemalapatiGaneswaraRaoand
anotherreportedinAIR1963SC1850,thisCourtalsohadtoconsiderasimilargrievance.Both
inthecaseofTulsiRamsupraasalsointhecaseofCheemalapatisuprathechargeswereof
conspiracy. The same is also a charge in the instant case. Repelling the said grievance, the
learnedJudgesheldthattheobjectinsayingwhathasbeensetoutinthefirstchargewasonlyto
givenoticetotheaccusedastotheambitoftheconspiracytowhichtheywillhavetoanswerand
nothingmore.ThisCourtheldthatevenassumingforamomentthatthechargeiscumbersome
butintheabsenceofanyobjection at the proper time and in the absence of any material from
which the Court can infer prejudice, such grievances are precluded by reason of provision of
Section 225 of the Cr.P.C. Under the present Code it is Section 215 which has been quoted
above.

23.ReferenceinthisconnectionmayalsobemadeinthedecisionofthisCourtin Rawalpenta
Venkalu and another v. The State of Hyderabad reported in AIR 1956 SC 171at para10 page
174 of the report. The learned Judges came to the conclusion that although Section 34 is not
addedtoSection302,theaccusedhadclearnoticethattheywerebeingchargedwiththeoffence
ofcommittingmurderinpursuanceoftheircommonintention.Therefore,theomissiontomention
Section34in thechargehasonlyanacademic significance andhasnot in anywaymisledthe
accused.IntheinstantcasetheomissionofchargeofSection302hasnotinanywaymisledthe
accused inasmuch as it is made very clear that in the charge that he agreed with the others to
committhemurderofAnilJha.Followingtheaforesaidratiothereisnodoubtthatintheinstant
case from the evidence led by the prosecution the charge of murder has been brought home
againsttheappellant.

24.InK.PremaS.Raoandanotherv.YadlaSrinivasaRaoandothersreportedin20031SCC
217thisCourtheldthatthoughthechargespecificallyunderSection306IPCwasnotframedbut
all the ingredients constituting the offence were mentioned in the statement of charges and in
paragraph 22 at page 226 of the report, a threeJudge Bench of this Court held that mere
omission or defect in framing of charge does not disable the criminal court from convicting the
accused for the offence which is found to have been proved on the evidence on record. The
learned Judges held that provisions of Section 221 Cr.P.C. takes care of such a situation and
safeguardsthepowersofthecriminalcourttoconvictanaccusedforanoffencewithwhichheis
notchargedalthoughonfactsfoundinevidencehecouldhavebeenchargedwithsuchoffence.
ThelearnedJudgeshavealsoreferredtoSection215oftheCr.P.C.,setoutabove,insupportof
theircontention.

CanConvictionIsSustainableIfThereIsNoCharge?
Toknowanswerforthiswuestion,seerulingMohanSinghvsStateOfBihardecidedin2011.In
thisruling,itwasobservedinpara25asunder:
25.EveninthecaseofDalbirSinghv.StateofU.P.,reportedin20045SCC334,athreeJudge
Bench of this Court held that in view of Section 464 Cr.P.C. it is possible for the appellate or
revisionalcourttoconvicttheaccusedforanoffenceforwhichnochargewasframedunlessthe
courtisoftheopinionthatthefailureofjusticewilloccasionintheprocess.ThelearnedJudges
further explained that in order to judge whether there is a failure of justice the Court has to
examinewhethertheaccusedwasawareofthebasicingredientsoftheoffenceforwhichheis
beingconvictedandwhetherthemainfactssoughttobeestablishedagainsthimwereexplained
to him clearly and whether he got a fair chance to defend himself. If we follow these tests, we
have no hesitation that in the instant case the accused had clear notice of what was alleged
against him and he had adequate opportunity of defending himself against what was alleged
againsthim.

IsItMandatoryToMentionSectionOfLawInTheCharge?
InK.PremaS.Raoandanotherv.YadlaSrinivasaRaoandothersreportedin20031SCC217
the Supreme Court held that though the charge specifically under Section 306 IPC was not
framedbutalltheingredientsconstitutingtheoffencewerementionedinthestatementofcharges
andinparagraph22atpage226ofthereport,athreeJudgeBenchoftheSupremeCourtheld
that mere omission or defect in framing of charge does not disable the criminal court from
convicting the accused for the offence which is found to have been proved on the evidenceon
record.HisLordshipsheldthatprovisionsofSection221Cr.P.C.takes careof sucha situation
andsafeguardsthepowersofthecriminalcourttoconvictanaccusedforanoffencewithwhich
he is not charged although on facts found in evidence he could have been charged with such
offence.ThelearnedJudgeshavealsoreferredtoSection215oftheCr.P.C.,setoutabove,in
supportoftheircontention.

EveninthecaseofDalbirSinghv.StateofU.P.,reportedin20045SCC334,athreeJudge
BenchoftheSupremeCourt,CourtheldthatinviewofSection464Cr.P.C.itispossibleforthe
appellateorrevisionalcourttoconvicttheaccusedforanoffenceforwhichnochargewasframed
unless the court is of the opinion that the failure of justice will occasion in the process. Their
LordshipsJudgesfurtherexplainedthatinordertojudgewhetherthereisafailureofjusticethe
Courthastoexaminewhethertheaccusedwasawareofthebasicingredientsoftheoffencefor
which he is being convicted and whether the main facts sought to be established against him
were explained to him clearly and whether he got a fair chance to defend himself. If we follow
thesetests,wehavenohesitationthatintheinstantcasetheaccusedhadclearnoticeofwhat
wasallegedagainsthimandhehadadequateopportunityofdefendinghimselfagainstwhatwas
allegedagainsthim.

InAnnareddySambasivaReddyandothersv.StateofAndhraPradesh200912SCC546the
SupremecourtdealtwiththesamequestionandreferredtoSection464ofCr.P.C.Inparagraph
55atpage567ofthereport,theSupremeCourtheldthatiftheingredientsofthesectioncharged
withareobviousandimplicit,convictionundersuchheadcanbesustainedirrespectiveofthefact
whetherthesaidsectionhasbeenmentionedornotinthecharge.Thebasicquestionisoneof
prejudice.

http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/article/framingofchargeincriminalcases11221.html 3/5
10/6/2016 FramingofChargeInCriminalCases
The Honble Supreme Court in Rawalpenta Venkalu and another v. The State of Hyderabad
reportedinAIR1956SC171atpara10page174ofthereport.ThelearnedJudgescametothe
conclusion that although Section 34 is not added to Section 302, the accused had clear notice
that they were being charged with the offence of committing murder in pursuance of their
common intention. Therefore, the omission to mention Section 34 in the charge has only an
academic significance and has not in any way misled the accused. In the instant case the
omissionofchargeofSection302hasnotinanywaymisledtheaccusedinasmuchasitismade
very clear that in the charge that he agreed with the others to commit the murder of Anil Jha.
Followingtheaforesaidratiothereisnodoubtthatintheinstantcasefromtheevidenceledby
theprosecutionthechargeofmurderhasbeenbroughthomeagainsttheappellant.

ItisthusclearthatnoprejudicewillbecausedtotheaccusedfornonmentioningofSectionof
lawinthechargewhenalltheingredientsoftheoffenceweredisclosedandtheaccusedhadfull
noticeandhadampleopportunitytodefendhimselfagainstthesameandatnoearlierstageof
theproceedings,theaccusedhadraisedanygrievance.

Toknowmore,thefollowingrulingsareusefulastoframingofChargeinCriminalCases.
1SanicharSahnivsStateOfBiharon26May,2009
2SantokhSinghvsIzharHussainAndAnron25April,1973
3TilakNagarvsTheStateOfMaharashtraon20October,2011
4MaheshAndOrs.vsStateOfM.P.:1988CriLJ1565
5KenaramAliasKinuramMajhivsTheState:1995CriLJ3026
6InRe:SarojavsMadrasHighCourtJudgment.
7K.DhanasekaranvsStateByInspectorOfPolice:20031CTC223
8SureshbhaiJayantilalShahvsStateOfGujara:20053GLR1918
9Tatikayala,AyyappaNaiduAnd...vsStateonAndhraPradeshHIGHCourtJudgment.:1956
CriLJ580
10PublicProsecutorvsK.JalayyaAndAnr:AIR1954Mad303
11StateofUttarPradeshv.ParasNathSingh20096SCC372

Conclusion:
Tounderstandthescopeofsection226,227,228and239ofCr.P.C,itisbettertogothroughthe
observations in Satish Mehra case and Century Spg. & Mfg. Co. Ltd. v. State of Maharashtra
19723SCC282,StateofKarnatakav.L.Muniswamy19772SCC699.Furthermore,after
consideringtheentirelawonthepointofsection120IPC,theHonbleApexCourtinRajivGandhi
murder case State v. Nalini, 1999 5 SCC 253 laid down broad principles to be observed in
framingachargeofconspiracy.Afortiori,besidestheabovelisted11importantjudgments,itis
importanttogothroughtheobservationsoftheHonbleSupremeCourtinDalbirSinghv.Stateof
U.P.RawalpentaVenkaluandanotherv.TheStateofHyderabadreportedinAIR1956SC171
SambasivaReddyandothersv.StateofAndhraPradesh200912SCC546K.PremaS.Rao
andanother v. Yadla Srinivasa Rao and others reported in 2003 1 SCC 217 State of Andhra
Pradesh v. Cheemalapati Ganeswara Rao and another reported in AIR 1963 SC 1850 Willie
William Slaney v. State of Madhya Pradesh V.C. Shukla v. State Through C.B.I. State of
Karnatakavs.L.Muniswamy,SatishMehrav.DelhiAdministrationandAnother[19969SCC
766],and2011rulinginMohanSinghvsStateOfBihar.

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Article Comments

PostedbyJohnBosco.R.onApril22,2016
itisveryniceforthejuniorLawyers.Thanksforthiskindofinformation

http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/article/framingofchargeincriminalcases11221.html 4/5
10/6/2016 FramingofChargeInCriminalCases
PostedbyM.C.NAGARAJAonDecember18,2014
Thanksforyourinformationaboutframingchargesincriminalcases

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