PARADIGM SHIFT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Dr.K.Dhamodharan
M.A.,B.L.,M.B.A. M.Sc.,Ph.D

Mr.K.A.Janardhanan
M.A.,M.B.A.,M.Phil(Ph.D) Deputy Registrar (HRM) NI University,India

Hon coordinator
AAI-Deemed University

Abstract
This paper describe that disasters are on the rise and emphasize that planned paradigm shifts to meet this challenge are valid to the extent that they are based on sound disaster mitigation policies and design. The central finding of paper is that significant paradigm shift in disaster management is absolutely needed, but this goal may not be easily or completely achieved. Therefore, Country like India where limited resources and technologies are available preparedness and response operations can never be eliminated as may be unintentionally implied by certain proposals in the academic literature. Progress is both likely and advantageous, however, as long as it is built on - but goes much further than - our efforts of the past. Disaster management is the responsibility of all spheres of government. Disaster management should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose. Organisations should function as an extension of their core business. Disaster management planning should focus on largescale events. Disaster management arrangements must recognise the involvement and potential role of non- government agencies.

Introrduction
The word paradigm shift was first used by Thomas Khun in his book ³The structure of scientific revolution´ in 1962. He argues that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a "series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions", and in those revolutions "one conceptual world view is replaced by another". Think of a paradigm shift as a change from one way of thinking to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis It just does not happen, but rather it is driven by agents of change. Over the years there is a paradigm shift in

government approach from response, relief and rehabilitation to mitigation, prevention, and preparedness .The Government of India has enacted Disaster Management Act 2005 and set in motion a number of initiatives for concerted efforts to manage Disaster in holistic and integrated manner. Of late the subject Disaster management invited the attention of all sections of professionals like Management, Administration, Engineering & Applied sciences. The importance is felt due to mass destruction of life and property more frequently due to natural disaster. So there is an imperative need to reduce such disaster though a tough task but a paradigm shift that leads to an emergency management strategy built on Integrated Emergency Management with a focus on vulnerability rather than hazards. McEntire1 states that natural disasters will always occur, but steps can be taken to reduce factors that increase risk from exposure, increase the ability to withstand disasters, and increase the effectiveness of response and recovery. He argues against mitigation as the sole source of emergency management initiatives. He also stresses the importance of liability reduction and capacity building in emergency management operations. The Government of India realizing the importance of the Disaster management committed to face the issue with the multidimensional approacrh. Honorable Union Minister of Environment and Forests Mr A. Raja in a seminar 2 rightly address the programme of the Government with clarity which claims that Disaster management occupies an important place in the country's policy framework as the poor, underprivileged and women are worst affected by calamities and disasters. The Central government had brought about a paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management which had been included in the 10th Five Year Plan. "The new approach proceeds from the conviction that development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into the development process,"Hon Prime minister Dr.Manmohan singh also favours for
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David McEntire, Ph.D. June 2005 evolutionary and Evolutionary Change in Emergency Management: Assessing Paradigm Shifts, Barriers, and Recommendations for the Profession,Texas (A&M) University 2 The Hindu,Chennai Aug 30,2005

paradigm shift" in disaster management from a "relief-centric" and "post-event" response to a regime that laid greater emphasis on preparedness, prevention and mitigation. Such an approach should place emphasis on improving early warning systems, ensuring the reach and efficacy of dissemination, creating awareness and building capacities at all levels of administration. The draft National Policy on Disaster Management places greater emphasis on efficient management of disasters, rather than focusing on immediate response to disasters," Dr. Singh said in a seminar 3.

Importance of Disaster Management
The paradigm shift of the passage of legislation on disaster management was an important step that represented the country's resolve and determination to respond in a more scientific manner. UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi said more attention should be paid to environment. Expressing concern over damage to coastlines and ignoring soil and seismic conditions before taking up construction work, she said a good and reliable communication system was crucial during a disaster4 The field of Disaster management is finding new tools to manage hazards and to deal with disasters; it is professionalizing and promises to become one of the most challenging occupations in government5

Role of Corporate sector in Disaster Management
Recognizing the importance of integrating the corporate sector and their nodal organizations in disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness agenda, the National Disaster Management Framework drawn up by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India envisages ³involvement of corporate sector in awareness generation and disaster preparedness and mitigation planning´ through sensitization, training and co-opting of the corporate sector and their nodal bodies in
The Hindu, Chennai Nov 20,2006 The Hindu, Chennai Nov 20,2006 5 B. Wayne Blanchard. ³The new role of higher education in emergency management,´ Journal of Emergency Management. Vol. 1., No. 2, Summer, 2003. p. 32
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planning process and response mechanisms. Similarly, the GoI- UNDP Disaster Risk Management Programme also entails promotion of partnerships with the private Sector in awareness generation and sensitization leading to development of disaster risk management plans. 6 The corporates in every country have always played a major role in post-disaster relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts in the affected regions. In India, the contribution of the corporate sector has been notable especially in the aftermath of the devastating super-cyclone in Orissa in 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake (Gujarat) in 200. It is worthwhile to mention here that Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited, a public sector enterprise of the Government of India played great role in Post disaster relef and rehabilitation works after Tsunami in Tamilnadu. The corporate sector possesses huge resources± human, material, technical and financial ± and has significant presence in every region in the country. It also works and interacts with the community very closely and has an important stake in the well-being and prosperity of the community as its own progress and viability is largely dependent upon a resilient and safe community. The accountability of the corporate sector in terms of its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has also increased as the value and reputation of a company is being increasingly adjudged by its social behavior and by its contribution to the economic well-being and development of the communities in which it operates. The corporate sector is an integral part of the society. As a member of the community, it is its responsibility to contribute to sustainable development and to integrate social and environmental concerns in its business operations as well as in its interaction with other stakeholders.

Role of Engineering and Science & Technology in Disaster Management
³Engineering, Science and technology play key roles in monitoring hazards and vulnerabilities, developing an understanding of their continually changing patterns and in developing tools and methodologies for
6 CDCLHRPS ³Disaster Risk Management and the Role of corporate sector, 2007 Ministry of Home Affairs,CII

disaster risk reduction. The dissemination and application of new strategies and measures to protect lives, livelihoods and property within societies experiencing dynamic change are key areas of work for the scientific and technical communities. However, the limitations of science and technology in responding to the fundamental problems of people and political processes in identifying and managing risk factors need to be carefully considered. An over-concentration on technical abilities at the expense of being able to motivate the human aspects that compose the economic, social and political dimensions of societies will continue to provide disappointing results in effective or sustained commitments to risk reduction7. One cannot µfix¶ disaster risk with technology alone. It is also a matter of enacting and enforcing laws, building and maintaining institutions that are accountable, and producing an environment of mutual respect and trust between government and the population.8 Our expanding science and technology base makes possible this concerted cooperative international effort, and communications is a central part of that effort ² for public education, early warning, evacuation and coordination of post-disaster relief. Mass communication is inextricably entwined with disasters and hazard mitigation. Reflecting the public's great interest and concern, the electronic and print media extensively cover natural disasters and significantly affect how and what the public learns about and how it perceives natural hazards. Improving the linkages between the media and disastermitigation researchers and practitioners could prepare the public to act promptly on warnings, helping to mitigate disasters. This could also accelerate the shift of the societal emphasis from post-disaster relief toward predisaster initiatives 9 . At a time when natural disasters are widespread, engineers play a key role. The
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first role of civil engineers for the natural disaster mitigation is the development of technologies for enhancement of infrastructures, such as technologies for the improvement of soft soil, high-performance structures, and warning and rescue systems. The second role is actual construction of infrastructures with high natural disaster resistance. The third role of civil engineers is the involvement in the rescue operation, and restoration and reconstruction works after natural disasters. 10 Construction methods and building codes are changing; current knowledge shapes the direction of these changes.11 The role of engineers and architects is crucial in reducing earthquake risks by ensuring that the construction adheres to the norms of seismically safety. Most casualties during earthquakes are caused by the collapse of structures. Therefore structural mitigation measures are the key to make a significant impact towards earthquake safety in our country.

Public health personnel and Disaster mitigation
Disaster preparedness is an important factor in preventing the loss of lives and minimizing the damage to property during a natural disaster. It is therefore necessary to be knowledgeable of disaster preparedness measures to the health professionals.12 Public health personnel have a key role in natural disaster preparation and response. Before a disaster occurs, they need to have systems in place to identify and track diseases. They must also understand the basic health issues of water and food safety, sanitation, and environmental hazardsPublic health practitioners routinely provide comprehensive programs of health education and preventive care that put them in close contact with those living in the community. They can use their professional skills to develop and evaluate programs for community disaster preparedness before a disaster strikes.
HAMADA, Roles of Civil Engineers for Disaster Mitigation under Changes of Natural and Social Environments, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan 11 Franklin Y.Cheng; 1995 Urban Disaster Mitigation,Pergamon, ISBN-10: 0080419208 12 Rochelle joseph,2010,Disaster Preparedness,
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International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat. Living with Risk. A global review of disaster reduction initiatives .Geneva,July 2002.
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International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. World Disasters Report 2002. Chapter 1, ³Risk reduction: challenges and opportunities 9 STEPHEN RATTIEN, Overseas Development Institute, 2010 Volume 14, issue -01

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After the disaster, they have the ability to help assess its affects on the local population. By adapting their knowledge and skills to these large-scale emergencies, public health professionals can have a significant impact on reducing the negative health effects of disasters. 13 Each hospital should have an emergency preparedness plan to deal with mass casualty incidents and the hospital administration/ doctor trained for this emergency. The curriculum for medical doctors does not include Hospital Preparedness for emergencies. Therefore capacity building through in-service training of the current heath managers and medical personnel in Hospital Preparedness for emergencies or mass causality incident management is essential. At the same time, the future health managers must acquire these skills systematically through the inclusion of health emergency management in the undergraduate and post graduate medical curricula.

organizations, which involve in disaster management, require to access to the right data in the right time to make the right decisions. Majority of the data required for the disaster management are spatial and hence a geographic information system (GIS) can provide that sort of information. A GIS based single-window web based information service provider prototype for Disaster Management Support System has been conceived based on appropriate GIS data, high-resolution remote sensing image, and multi-agency data source. This proposed GIS based disaster management system will use data from various sources like INSAT and IRS, INSAT based cyclone warning system, wide area frequent repeat sensors, high resolution satellite data with turnaround time of few hours, available GIS data with various Govt. departments, recovery, assessment, readiness, response data from various disaster sites during the disaster management through satellite communication from the remote site This application will have different role during different stages of the disaster, like planning, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. This will be a great success in the disaster management in India when police, fire, public health, civil defense and other organizations will implement this application in a coordinated manner at both intra and interorganization at several hierarchy levels.14 While planning the Disaster Management systems the local bodies should be made to become a member of the team. The role of local communities and organizations particularly the Panchayati Raj Bodies in managing natural disasters cannot be over emphasized. In fact the present situation in which the government agencies take the full responsibility for disaster preparedness, rescue, and relief and reconstruction activities does not provide adequate scope for local participation. This has not only increased people¶s dependency on the government but also barred the capacity of the local communities to cope up with the natural disasters. Moreover, due to lack of preparedness and mitigation planning at the local level, especially the Gram Panchayat
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Disaster Mitigation Management systems

Planning

&

Mitigation Plans form the foundation for a community's long-term strategy to reduce disaster losses and break the cycle of disaster damage, reconstruction, and repeated damage. The planning process is as important as the plan itself. It creates a framework for riskbased decision making to reduce damages to lives, property, and the economy from future disasters. Hazard mitigation is sustained action taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and their property from hazards. An ideal Disaster Management System can support the activities related to preparedness, prediction, damage assessment and rehabilitation. Several critical inputs like building, lifeline system, road and hospital location etc. are required in order to take preventive measures through vulnerability analysis, hazard zonation, prior risk assessment, timely and reliable weather forecasts, and advance warnings to minimize loss of life and damage and facilitate timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation of the affected population. Many
Noji, Eric K. (1997). The Public Health Consequences of Disasters. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Dr Sukanta Kumar Jena, (2006) Conceptual Model for Disaster Management in India using GIS ,GTS Info Ltd

level causes considerable problems in the management of disasters. It is necessary to involve the village community and the local governments or Gram Panchayats in the process of Planning for disaster preparedness and mitigation at the local level and encourage their participation in the management of disasters and also in the reduction of their impact.15

Role of Educational Institutions in Disaster Management In a country like India where limited human resources available for mitigation works during emergency situation it is better to make use of the services of the college students. Already NSS/NCC students render remarkable services during the emergency situation. The cause being noble and service oriented, the student community shall be trained to meet the emergency situation.
Now most educational centres are running study programmes of short-term certificate or diploma courses in disaster management. Many institutions and Universities have now started offering the programme in disaster management from Certificate level to post graduate level. These students though undergo the said courses with limited scope of employment after certification or graduation be trained effectively to overcome the situation of emergency. They must be given priority when other things remain equal for selection to the Government postings. Disaster management training is useful for NGOS, social work students or volunteers providing support and rehabilitation measures during disasters. It is also beneficial for the home guard personnel, paramilitary organizations, civil defence personnel, scientists, meteorologists and environmentalists. It proves useful for functionaries of rural development and primary health centres, administrative services and relief workers. The emerging thrust areas in the discipline of disaster management
V Madhava Rao, (2005) Developing Model Plan for Flood Disaster Management and Mitigation at Gram Panchayat Level, National Institute of Rural
Development
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include emergency planning and management, risk and business continuity management, risk assessment, health and safety, relief and developmental engineering and management, health management and rehabilitation. The disaster management course covers topics like risk assessment and preventive strategies, legislative structures for control of disasters, disaster preparedness, disaster communication, measures for disaster mitigation, application of GIS in disaster management, rescue and resuscitation. Specialization can be done in the fields of mining, chemical disasters, and technical disasters etc. 16

Role of NGO¶s in Disaster Management
Experiences with funded NGO¶s reveal the fact that many of them are money minded. News flashed from Medias convey the message that many of the NGO¶s are concerned only with the project proposal for making money while a few are doing yeoman service in times of emergency. Many rehabilitation measures extended for the affected people become futile as it had not reached the poor. However the role of NGO¶s cannot be simply brushed away Emerging trends in managing natural disasters have highlighted the role of NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs) as one of the most effective alternative means of achieving an efficient communication link between the Disaster Management agencies and the affected community. Many different types of NGOs are already working at advocacy level as well as grassroots level; in typical disaster situations they can be of help in preparedness, relief and rescue, rehabilitation and reconstruction and also in monitoring and feedback. The role of NGOs is a potential key element in disaster management. The NonGovernmental sectors that operate at grassroots level can provide a suitable alternative as they have an edge over Governmental agencies for invoking community involvement. This is chiefly because; the NGO sector has strong linkages with the community base, and can exhibit
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Praba (2005) Disaster Management-Role of Colleges, ASCM-Journal p14-16

great flexibility in procedural matters vis-a-vis the government. Based on the identified types of NGOs and their capabilities, organised action of NGOs can be very useful in the following activities in different stages of disaster management.

Pre-Disaster ( First stage)
Awareness and information Training of local volunteers Advocacy and planning campaigns

During Disaster(Second stage)
Immediate rescue and first-aid including Psychological aid Supply of food, water, medicines, and other Immediate materials Ensuring sanitation and hygiene Damage assessment

considerable damage can be minimized if adequate preparedness levels are achieved. Indeed, it has been noticed in the past that as and when attention has been given to adequate preparedness measures, the loss to life and property has considerably reduced. Preparedness measures such as training of role players including the community, development of advanced forecasting systems, effective communications and above all a wellnetworked institutional structure involving the government organisations; academic and research institutions, the armed forces and the NGOs would greatly contribute to the overall disaster management of the region. The government's recent policy changes too reflect the changing approach from rescue and relief to preparedness is certainly a paradigm shift expected.

Post-Disaster(Third stage)
Technical and material aid in reconstruction Assistance in seeking financial aid Monitoring

Conclusion
A systematic approach towards disaster mitigation is the need of the day. Since disasters are a human phenomenon, we can change our ways to reduce our risks. Shifting of focus from hazards to risk management could make our life safer. There is a need to have a paradigm shift in disaster management especially under changing climate. Initiatives such as adaptation to changes, disaster auditing, cross-sectoral risk analysis, regulatory authority (legal framework), knowledge management (community awareness), training and capacity building, training of media personnel, coastal zone management, private±public partnership (PPP), research and development, and last but not the least, establishing rewards or incentives for good management could be undertaken. In disaster situations, a quick rescue and relief mission is inevitable; however

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