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# Motion Control Theory

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Topics

## Closed Loop System

Servo Motors
Servo Drives
Mechanical Gearing
Feedback Types
Motion Controllers
Torque
Inertia
Design Considerations

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Motion Control Theory

Closed Loop
System

3
Definitions
Accuracy
This term defines the ability of the controlled
axes to position an object in a spatial domain.
(how close you can come to the bulls-eye).
Another definition is the ability to reach a
predetermined point in space.
Resolution
Resolution is defined as resolving by the
breaking into parts.
The action of a rotary or linear feedback device
used for control purposes.

Repeatability
The ability to exactly replicate or reproduce a
motion profile as a continuous operation.
This term defines the ability of the controlled
axes to position the controlled object after
several moves
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Definitions

Position Error
The dynamic difference between the position commanded by the controller
and the actual position of the object being moved.
Position Loop
The controller algorithm correcting the difference between the controller
commanded position and the feedback from the controlled axes used to
determine actual position
Speed or Velocity Loop
This loop is typically located in a drive. The function of the loop is to output
the motor torque required to maintain the speed/velocity commanded to the
drive amplifier.
Torque (current) Loop
The loop in the drive amplifier that is responsible for controlling the torque
producing current by comparing the motor actual shaft position (incremental
shaft position is integrated within the controller to determine the shaft
speed/velocity) to the actual shaft position.

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When is Motion Control Required?

## Precise Control of Position

Rule of Thumb: Accuracy of motor shaft less than
5 degrees or linear movement less than .0001.
Precise Control of Speed
Rule of Thumb: Speed regulation of .05% or better
Rapid Acceleration and Deceleration Requirements
Rule of Thumb: Motor acceleration from 0 to 2000 rpm in
less than .5 sec.
Control of Torque
Ability to provide full torque at 0 rpm.

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Example Closed Loop Control System

## Speed Feedback Movement

Table Encoder

Motor
Power Ballscrew

AC/DC Position
Velocity Servo Loop Controller
Loop Amp

0 to 10V DC

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What is a Servo?
A Servo is a control system which, through the use of feedback or internal control,
has the capability for accurate and repeatable control of one or more of the following
dynamic parameters
Position
Velocity
Torque
A Servo Axis is a principal direction along which motion occurs. The machine
hardware (mechanics) that make up that movement.
ROTARY LINEAR

Motor

Ballscrew

Gearbox Ballnut
Pulleys

Motor
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Components of a Motion Control System

Software
Servo Axis

Mechanical
Motion Drive/ Actuator/

Feedback
Transducer

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Motion Control Theory

Servo
Motors

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DC Motor Limitations

## Limitation - Heat in a brush type DC motor must be conducted from

the rotor windings to the case of the motor.
Limitation to how fast a motor can be run using mechanical
commutation...
Brush
Arcing

Rotor
windings

Air gap

Magnet

Commutator
Case

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Servo Motors - Theory

## A brushless servo motor locates the permanent magnets on

the rotor and the windings on the stator...

Permanent Windings
Magnets

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Servo Motors - Theory

## Brushless motor design reduces the problems of heat

dissipation and commutation induced speed limits.

Heat generated in
windings is directly
conducted to motor
case.

Winding is electronically
commutated.

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Servo Motors - Theory

## Also, the rotor inertia is reduced because heavy copper wire

windings are not required.

Magnet material
on rotor is lighter
than copper wire
windings.

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Performance Limitations

## Windings in the stator

Better heat dissipation
Higher continuous torque
Magnets on the rotor
Mechanical commutator
replaced by electronic
commutator in the amplifier
No Commutation Limit
No speed limit due to arc- Intermittent Duty Zone
over
Continuous Duty Zone
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Servo Motors - Properties

## Magnet material properties

Flux Density - B
(Kilo Gauss)
14

12

10

4
Rotor
2 Magnets

12 10 8 6 4 2
De-magnetizing force - H (Kilo Oersteds)

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Rare Earth vs. Ferrite Motors

## Servo motor magnets primarily fall into two classes:

Rare Earth Magnets (Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium-Iron-Boron)
Ceramic Magnets (Ferrite)
Rare Earth Motors fall into two categories:
Medium Inertia Motors
Low Inertia Motors
Rare Earth Magnets considerations.
Lower inertia means higher theoretical acceleration
Stability and Bandwidth become an important consideration
Proper System inertia sizing becomes very critical
Do not exceed 6 to 1 system to rotor inertia (3 to 1 in critical/contouring applications)
when using standard encoder or resolver feedback

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Rare Earth vs. Ferrite Motors
Excellent magnetic properties (up to 30 MGOe).
Lower rotor inertia.
Smaller motor sizes for a given torque
Effective where high response speed, quick acceleration, high
efficiency and small size are required.
Magnetic material is expensive.
Samarium Cobalt and Neodymium material has a limited supply
(only available in a few areas of the world).
The system inertia must also be low (within at least 6 to 1 of motor
inertia). BEWARE! BEWARE! Inertia mismatch means stability
and control problems. System sizing is very critical. (High
resoultion feedback can help expand the range)
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Rare Earth vs. Ferrite Motors

Low cost magnetic material
Virtually unlimited availability
May be easier to match the motor to a system due to inertia.
Inferior magnetic properties (~4 MGOe). More material required to
provide the same flux.
Larger frame size and higher inertia per given torque.
Torque to Rotor Inertia Comparison (Rule of Thumb)
The Rare-Earths ratio of Torque to Rotor Inertia is about 4 times
higher than the standard Ferrite motor.

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Motion Control Theory

Servo Drives

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Servo Drives - Theory

## PWM drive operation - transistor is pulsed on and off

200 Volts

Transistor is pulsed
on and off - low
Power from power dissipation.
DC Bus
Motor 20 Volts

10 Amps

## Transistor Power Dissipation = Much Lower vs Linear supply!!

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Servo Drives - Theory

Period Period

Positive

Zero

Negative
Negative

## PWM Voltage Motor Current

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Servo Drives - Theory

Period Period

75% 25%
Positive

Positive

Zero

Negative
Negative

## PWM Voltage Motor Current

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Servo Drives - Theory

Period Period

Positive

Zero

Negative
Negative

## PWM Voltage Motor Current

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Servo Drives - Theory

## Pulse width modulation - pulse generation:

Carrier
Reference and
Input Reference

+
Comparator
+

PWM Output
Saw Tooth
Carrier

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Servo Drives - Theory

## Pulse width modulation is possible because the

inductance of the motor has a smoothing effect on
the pulses...
Motor
Voltage

Motor
Current

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What makes a Servo Drive Unique?

## Operation without cogging to zero rpm

Controls output Torque to 0 rpm
Always use Motor feedback (velocity and commutation)
Speed Regulation < 0.1% standard with 100% torque disturbance
Velocity Loop Bandwidth > 100 Rads/sec (16Hz)
Motor not included
Digital drive has 40+ Hz typical
Use special permanent magnet servomotors
Current limit and bandwidth control standard
External control/sequencing circuits required

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Servo Drives - Theory

## There are two common methods of servo drive commutation:

Trapezoidal
Sinusoidal

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Servo Drives - Theory
There are two common methods of servo drive commutation:
Trapezoidal
Sinsoidal
Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal refer to the shape of the voltage
waveforms that the amplifier generates...

Trapezoidal

Sinusoidal
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Servo Drives - Theory

## Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal commutation

Trapezoidal Commutation-
Requires only hall effect
feedback of rotor position

Sinusoidal Commutation
Requires encoder or
resolver feedback of rotor
position

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Servo Drives - Theory

Torque

10-15%
Trapezoidal commutation
- Torque ripple
- Only hall effect feedback
required

Torque

Sinusoidal commutation
- Minimal torque ripple
- Encoder or resolver
feedback required

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Motion Control Theory

Mechanical
Gearing

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Definitions

Backlash
The relative movement between interacting mechanical
parts resulting from looseness.
The process of forcing interacting mechanical parts
together to eliminate backlash.
Angular measurement:
60 Arc-minutes = 1 degree of rotation
3600 Arc-seconds = 1 degree of rotation Motion
Dictionary

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Backlash

## A relative movement between interacting mechanical parts,

resulting from looseness when motion is reversed.

Backlash in
tooth profiles

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Gearing

Types
Gearbox, Belt and Pulley, Gear Mechanism
Why?
Torque Increaser (Ratio), Tout = Tin x Z
Speed Reducer (Ratio), nout = nin x Z
Inertia Reducer (Ratio2) , jref = jload / Z2

## Input Gear Reduction Output

(Servomotor) (Application)

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## Most Motion Control Applications require some form of

reduction - Approx. 70%
Torque Multiplication
Inertia Matching
Increased Stiffness
Increased Resolution
Speed Reduction
Utilize Full Motor Characteristics

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Application Considerations

## What is the machine controlling?

Is the machine moving material in space where there is no
In this case torque is the primary concern.
Why am I concerned about inertia mismatch?
What is the customers primary concern?
An application that resists external disturbances during a move
select a motor with higher inertia
Not paying for KW that is simply used to get the motor moving
This was one of the first criteria in the development of rare earth motors
(high torque and very low inertia)

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Gearing Drawbacks

## Can add backlash to the system

Reduces system efficiency
Reduces output speed
requires higher motor speed
Can increase audible noise
Increases cost

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Speed Reduction

## Output speed equals input speed divided by the gearbox

ratio: Vo = VM/Z
Where:
VM = Motor Speed(RPM) = 500 RPM
VO = Output Speed(RPM) = 50 RPM
Z = Gearbox Ratio = 10:1

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Torque Multiplication

## Output Torque equals motor torque times the gearbox ratio

times the gearbox efficiency: TO = TM x Z x e
Where:
TO = Output Torque(In-Lb) = 90 In-Lb
TM = Motor Torque(In-Lb) = 10 In-Lb
Z = Gearbox Ratio = 10:1
e = Gearbox Efficiency(%) = 90 %
You cannot exceed the gearbox output torque specification!

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Torque Multiplication

## 2:1 Speed Reducer

Motor - coupled to
Input gear input of speed
reducer.

## Output gear - twice

the size of input gear
so torque output is
doubled and speed
is halved.

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Inertia Matching

## The reflected inertia as seen by the motor is equal to the total

system inertia divided by the square of the gearbox ratio:
JREF =JL/Z2
Where:
JL = System inertia(In-Lb-Sec2) = 2 In-Lb-Sec2
JREF = Reflected inertia(In-Lb-Sec2) = 0.5 In-Lb-Sec2
Z = Gearbox Ratio = 2:1

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Typical Gearing Technologies

## Parallel Axis Gearing

Spur/Helical
Out
Planetary
Non-Parallel Axis Gearing
In
Worm
Bevel Out
Other In
Belt Driven

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Spur/Helical Gear Technology

## Moderate Backlash Spur

High Stiffness
Very Smooth Operation
96-98% Efficient Per Pass
High Input Speeds
Low Inertia
Excellent back-drive capability Helical

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Planetary Gear Technology

Low Backlash
Very High Stiffness
Smooth Output Torque
90-95% Efficient Per Pass
Input Speeds < 3000 Rpm
Low Inertia
Limit to gear ratios without
staging planetary

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Worm/Bevel Technology
Worm Gear Worm
Low Backlash
Very High Stiffness
40% Efficient, Lower At Start-Up
Moderate Input Speeds, Frictional
Heat
Low Inertia
Poor Back-Drive Capability
Bevel Gear
Spur gear technology but right angle Bevel
Right Angle Torque Transmission
Moderate Backlash
High Stiffness
96-98% Efficient
High Input Speed
Excellent Back Drive Capability

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Belt Driven Technology

## Belt and Pulley for Gear Ratio

High Efficiency - 90%
Minimal mechanical noise
Long life
Potential for stretch
Potential for slip if positive drive
isnt used

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## When selecting or sizing the correct gearhead for an

application,
It is important to first determine whether the application is
of a cyclic or continuous operation.
Whether the application is cyclic or continuous
determines which of a gearheads speed and torque
ratings should be used for proper sizing and selection of
a gearhead (maximum vs nominal ratings).

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Motion Control Theory

Feedback
Devices

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Feedback Devices

## Basic feedback loops:

Current / Commutation Loop
Motor Based Feedback Provides
Commutation Feedback (motor rotor position for AC control)
Can also be used for Velocity & Position Loop feedback
Velocity / Position Loop
Velocity Loop controls speed of motor
Position Loop controls linear or rotary machine position
Velocity Loop could be performed by the Drive
Velocity/Position Loop

Position/ Motion
Velocity Control Servo
Control Drive Axis
Current/
Commutation
Loop
Feedback
Position/
Velocity 53
Feedback Devices

## Sensor devices mounted to the actuator (motor) or

load that detect speed and/or position.

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Feedback Devices

Encoder

Voltage

Encoder Time
Output

## Pulses Indicate Position

Pulses/Sec Indicate Speed

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Incremental Encoder Output

Electrical Characteristics
TTL (5V) or CMOS (12v)
Single Ended
Complementary
Differential Line Driver

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Incremental Encoder Output

## Differential Line Driver

(A+Noise)-(-A+Noise)=A+Noise+A-Noise=2A
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Incremental Encoder Output

## Detecting Rotation Direction

Channel A
Clockwise
Channel B
Rotation
Marker

Channel A
Counterclockwise
Channel B Rotation

Marker
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Incremental Encoder Output

Channel A

Channel B

1X Multiply

2X Multiply

4X Multiply

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Resolvers

## What Are They?

Rotary transformers
Single rotating winding (rotor)
Two stationary windings (stators)
Coupling between rotor and stators varies with shaft
angle
Brushless transformer couples signal to rotor
Provide absolute position over one revolution

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Resolvers

## There are 2 types of Resolvers

Transmitter
Transmitter is excited at the rotor signal.
Position information is read at the SIN and COSINE windings
Receiver is excited at the SIN and COSINE windings and the absolute
position is read from the rotor winding
Functional Differences
Transmitter is more noise immune and requires less
hardware to support.

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Resolvers

## Resolver - (Transmitter style)

Two Phase Stator
Circular Transformer

Sinusoidal
Input Sinusoidal
Output
Sinusoidal
Output

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Resolvers

Winding A
(Sine Winding)
Winding B
(Cosine Winding)

Rotor

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Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine
winding:

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Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine
winding:

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Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine
winding:

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Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine
winding:

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Resolvers

## Resolver Operation Concept - 360o Rotation

0o 90o 180o 270o 360o

Sine Output
Electronics looks
at portion of signal
indicated by green
lines.
Cosine Output

Rotor Signal

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Resolvers

## Resolver Operation Concept - 360o Rotation

0o 90o 180o 270o 360o

Sine value
Sine Output

Cosine value
Cosine Output

## Values are measured by a

comparator and compared to
the reference signal.

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Resolvers

## 0o 90o 180o 270o 360o

Sine value
Sine Output
Resolvers tell you where you are within
1 shaft rotation (Even immediately
after power up).

Cosine value
Cosine Output

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Resolver - Interface

## Tracking Resolver-to-Digital (R/D)

Converter Excitation
Digital counter tracks the Resolver Oscillator
position
Counter provides parallel binary
output representing absolute position
R2
Up to 16 bit resolution typical Tracking
R/D
R4
Converter

Resolver
Binary Angle
Output
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Resolvers vs. Incremental Encoders

Resolvers Encoders
Lower device cost Lower interface cost
Absolute within one rev Variable resolutions
Higher noise immunity Easier to debug
Lower maintenance Easier to ratio together
Passive device
Smaller Package
Less Wires
Higher environmental specs.

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Feedback Devices

## Hall Effect Switches

When a magnet is passed by a Hall effect device, current flows
through it.

Hall Effect
Device
Magnet

S N

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Feedback Devices

## Hall Effect Switches

Hall effect switches are often used as a way to roughly determine
the position of the rotor on a brushless motor.
0o 60o 120o 180o 240o 300o 360o
B

Hall Effect
Devices Hall A
A
N C

Hall B

S
Hall C
Magnetic disk attached
to motor shaft.

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Feedback Devices

## Hall Effect Switches

Rockwell-Automation products combine the A, B, and C signals
into one output called the ABS signal to reduce wire count.

A
N C

ABS
S Signal

ABS Signal

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Feedback Devices

## Hall Effect Switches

Hall effect switch functionality (including the ABS signal)
is now being built into standard optical encoders.

Channel A+
Channel A-
Channel B+
Channel B-
Channel Z+
Channel Z-
ABS

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Feedback Trends

Devices:
Moving towards Motor Based Absolute Encoders
Encoders are approaching resolvers in robustness
Resolution:
Applications demanding 1M to 4M counts/motor rev in
precision applications (CNC, converting, etc.)
Motor based Absolute Encoders:
Want to eliminate homing on power up
Smart encoders that store motor parameters

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Hi-Res Feedback
Hiperface
SRS, SRM Optical Encoder
ST & MT Absolute Versions Sin
F2

Vpps2
_Sin

Vpps2

## Internal Voltage Regulator

Allows long cable lengths (to
Data

300m) _Data

## Excellent Power Supply

Rejection (PSRR)
On Board Temperature Sensor
Plug and Play, on board E2PROM

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Stegmann Hiperface

Process
Data 2 n+2
Channel Counter

## Parameter Motor Rating Label 40H Diagnostics Position Offset

Controller
Channel Absolute Position 42H Event Counter User defined Data
RS 485

Power
7 to 12 VDC Power

SRS/SRM Drive

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Block Diagram of the Stegmann Multi-Turn Encoder

optical pick up
system vector Sin/Cos
controlled operational
LED-current amplifier

1 8 parameter
controller RS 485
driver
mechanical
gearbox with 1 8
customized power supply
magnetic (hall) Linear
pick up system integrated EEprom Regulator
for the multiturn circuit
1 8
function

1 8

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Feedback Devices

only

## Incremental ~1.5 Arc-Min ~32,000 counts 25 G 0o to 100o C

Encoders
Resolvers ~10 Arc-Min ~16,000 counts 50 G -55o to 175o C

Encoders counts

## Hall Effects ~1 Degree ~1/6 Revolution 25 G -10o to 120o C Course rotor

position for
commutation

*Typical values

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Motion Control Theory

Motion
Controllers

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Motion Controllers

## The brain of the system which typically use

microprocessors to accumulate an input command, compare
it to a feedback and make appropriate corrections
Usually one of the following types.
PLC Based
Bus-Based
Integrated Drive/Controller
Stand-Alone
Open Architecture

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Motion Controller Elements

Servos
Steppers
Hydraulics
VFDs

Mainframes
MIS Switches
SPC Indicators
Actuators

Machine
Controller

Sensors
Gauges
Displays Meters
Keyboards Data Acquisition
Touch Screens Proportional Valves
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Motion Controllers Provide

## Precise programmed positions of a load

Precise speed regulation & high acceleration rate control
Precise control of servo motors, stepper motors, hydraulic actuators,
VFDs, Linear Motors
Feedback is often used for position and speed control
Networking to host or peer computer/controllers
Synchronization of multiple moving machine members (axes)
Processing Inputs & Outputs (discrete or analog)

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Motion Control

## Calculate Check for Check for Serial Check Inputs and

Desired Position Faults Commands Set Outputs

Determine
Position Error

## P (Proportional) - For Speed Response.

Apply PID to
Position Error
I (Integral) - For Accuracy - Slow response.
D (Derivative) - For stability and Damping.

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Motion Control Profiles

## What are the critical parameters that must be controlled or

important for a successful completion of a process?
Distance
Velocity
Acceleration
Deceleration
Torque
Inertia
Other Motion profile items
Index
Incremental Move
Absolute Move
Home

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When to use Triangular Velocity Profiles?

Triangular Profile
Accel to speed and decel back to
original speed or zero, rest and repeat Accel Decel
the process as needed.Ex. Pick & Place

0 1 2

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When to use Trap / S-Curve Velocity Profiles?

Constant
Trapezoidal Profile Speed
Accel to constant speed, travel at
constant speed, and decel to zero.
Ex.Cut to Length Accel Decel

0 2
1 time (s)

S-Curve Profile
Accel to speed at a variable rate
(slower first, then faster, then slower),
travel constant speed, decel to zero at a
variable rate (slower first, then faster,
then slower).Ex. Bottling; Train ride at
Airports. 0 1 2 time (s)

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Profiles

## An entire operation can be plotted as multiple velocity profiles,

including time at rest.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 time (s)

Rest or Dwell
Cycle

90
Index Profile

Speed

Constant
Speed Batch

Dwell
Time

An index:

91
Move

D C
B C
A B

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Incremental Move
Go in the direction indicated (+/-) from where you are at the time the command is issued.
The # of units is specified.
A B = +2 2 units positive
B C = +1 1 unit positive
C D = -7 7 units negative

Absolute Move
A B=2 go to a position of 2
B C=3 go to a position of 3
C D = -4 go to a position of -4

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Home

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Home Position
Home position is the base (zero) reference for all absolute moves.
It can be defined anywhere in the travel.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Home Position = all absolute moves are positive (+)

## All moves are CW. No CCW rotation from zero

Home
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Overtravel
Overtravel = Going beyond the physical limits of the machine
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-5 +5
Overtravel limit switches shut down the drive before damage occurs from
crashing into machine limits.

Software overtravel limits are established inside of the hardware overtravel limits
(eg. +4.5, -4.5)
Move to 4 = Travel to 4 units = OK = Move
Move to 10 = Beyond SW OT = No Move

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Resolution

## The smallest increment into which a quantity can be divided

In motion...
Defined by the feedback counts/rev & the smallest
programmable distance.

C B A B C

## -0.0002 -0.0001 +0.0001 +0.0002

Commanded Position
If position A and B look the same to the controller but position C does
not, the positioning resolution of the system is 0.0001

96
Application Accuracy Requirements

## Linear Accuracy is relatively easy to understand

Terms are in linear measurements of fractions of inches
or millimeters
Rotary Accuracy can be addressed in various terms
Units of linear measurements about the circumference of
a roll
Degrees
Minutes 1/60 of a degree
Seconds 1/60 of a Minute
Arc Seconds
1 arc second = 1/3600 of one degree of an arc
Length of arc for a center angle of n= 0.008727d (where d is the diameter)

97
Bandwidth

## The limiting frequency of commands to which an

actuator can respond
The higher the Bandwidth, the more commands / Unit of
time the system can respond to

98
Motion Profiles

Things to Remember

## We are most interested in the torque and speed

required by each application.
Triangular profiles are limited by the maximum speed of
the system.
Trapezoidal profiles can be used when maximum speed
is a limitation.
Trapezoidal profiles are limited by the maximum
acceleration of the system.
S-Curve and Parabolic profiles have smoother speed
transitions but require greater acceleration and
deceleration rates.

100
Motion Control Theory

Torque

110
Torque

## The tendency of a force to produce rotation about an axis.

The turning force applied to a shaft tending to cause rotation
Torque is defined by these two equations:
= FX
Torque = Inertia x rotational acceleration
= Ja
Unit = in.- lb; N m;
Motion
Dictionary

111
Torque

Torque:
Force

## If radius is 16 inches, and

the force applied is 1

## Torque = Force x Radius

Torque = 1 lbs x 16 inches
Torque = 16 inch-lbs

Torque Inertia
Produced

112
Torque

Torque - Example:
Velocity
wmax
T = Jcyl x a = 146.6 in-lbs
Jcyl = .933 in-lbs-sec2

qa

0 1 2 3 4 Seconds Time

113
Torque

## From the Torque/Speed

profile you must
determine:
Peak Intermittent Torque
is within Servo System
capabilities
RMS Torque is within the
continuous operating
region

## Intermittent Duty Zone

Continuous Duty Zone
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Velocity/Torque vs. Time Profile

Vpeak

Desired
Velocity
time
T1
Required
Motor T2
Torque T4
time

Tpeak
T3

t1 t2 t3 t4

Trms T 1 2 t1 + T 2 2 t2 + T 3 2 t 3 + T 4 2 t4
=
t1 + t2 + t3 + t4
115
Motion Control Theory

Inertia

116
Inertia
The product of the weight of an object (W) and the square of
the radius of gyration (K) (how the weight is distributed
around the axis of rotation).
Result = WK2 = Lb - Ft2
The magnitude of inertia is a function fourth power of its
radial dimension. Therefore a small diameter cylindrical rotor
inherently has a much lower inertia than a large diameter
motor.
A smaller Radius part has much less inertia than a larger
Double radius - 24 = 16 times the inertia
Triple radius - 34 = 81 times the inertia
Servo System inertias are generally defined as IN-LB-SEC2

117
Inertia

Inertia - Examples:

## The inertia (how hard it is to rotate an object) is

determined by the length, diameter,and density of
the object.

118
Inertia

Inertia - Examples:

L
r
The inertia of a cylinder
rotating on the axis shown is:

2g 2g

## p = 3.14 L = Length (in) W = weight (lbs)

r = Density (lbs/in3) r = Radius (in) g = 386 in/sec2

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Inertia Calculation using Diameter

Inertia - Examples:

L = 10 inches
r = 3 inches
Steel cylinder (r = .283 lbs/in3)

## Jcyl = pLrr4 = (3.14)(10 in)(.283 lbs/in3)(3 in)4 = .933 in-lbs-sec2

2g (2)(386 in/sec2)

120
Inertia Calculation using Mass

Inertia - Examples:

r = 3 inches
Steel cylinder (W = 80 lbs)

## Jcyl = Wr2 = (80 lbs)(3 in)2 = .933 in-lbs-sec2

2g (2)(386 in/sec2)

121
Torque, Inertia, and Time

Time
Directly Inversely
Proportional Proportional

Inertia Directly
Torque
Proportional

## Torque = Acceleration x Inertia

122
Motion Control Theory

Design
Considerations

123
When is Motion Control Required?

## Precise Control of Position

Rule of Thumb: Accuracy of motor shaft less than
5 degrees or linear movement less than .0001.
Precise Control of Speed
Rule of Thumb: Speed regulation of .05% or better
Rapid Acceleration and Deceleration Requirements
Rule of Thumb: Motor acceleration from 0 to 2000 rpm in
less than .5 sec.
Control of Torque
Ability to provide full torque at 0 rpm.

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Selecting the Correct Motor

## What are the application requirements

Continuous process
Pick and Place
Motion Intensive
Feed to Length
Rotary Shear
Flying Cutoff
Is high Inertia a help or a hindrance
Is the application subject to disturbances
Do axes need to follow a precise path

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Relevant Application Data

## Load / Motor Inertia Ratio

Rigid
Backlash (i.e. Gearbox)
Compliant (i.e. Resonance)
Profile
Fast acceleration / deceleration
Slow acceleration / deceleration
Dynamic Performance required

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Backlash Influences

## Any backlash will have a severe effect on the maximum

achievable gain
From a previous slide :- If the inertia doubles, the gain can
also be doubled thus restoring the bandwidth
But in the middle of the backlash range, the motor and load
are effectively disconnected, so the gain at this point will be
too high. The effect is severe hammering across the
backlash.
The maximum usable gain is that which would be appropriate

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Inertia Ratio and Backlash

## This helps to answer the perennial questions :-

What is the maximum allowable inertia mismatch ?
What is the optimum inertia match ?
The best situation for performance when backlash is present
is a motor that dominates the load :-
Jmotor >> Jload (A high inertia motor helps here)
Even a 1:1 inertia ratio reduces bandwidth by 50%
With a rigidly coupled motor and high resolution feedback
even extreme inertia ratios may perform satisfactorily

137
Coupling and Resonance

## If the load and motor are coupled by a compliant (springy)

coupling, the effect on limiting gain is very similar to that of
backlash so, again, a high inertia motor helps .
At the moment the motor starts to accelerate from rest the
from the motor.
As the motor moves and winds up the spring the load
inertia is felt by the motor.
Note that compliance may exist in the rotating parts or the
motor mounting.

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Acceleration Requirements

## Slow acceleration -- tens of seconds to ramp to speed

Typically used in process lines such as calenders, extruders,
Normally select induction motors since high acceleration is not a requirement
Normal Acceleration
several seconds to attain maximum speed
These applications may require more investigation to determine the correct solution
High acceleration -- complete cycle occurs in milliseconds
requires PID or zero following error system
Includes feed forward and integral terms to keep the proportional error near zero.
There is always a small error
sizing based on motor inertia and gearing

140
Selecting The System

## Carefully identifying the application requirements will allow

you to identify the appropriate motion control components
and a successful application.

141