You are on page 1of 1026

+NNMUGKMN9K

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
+NRXIXHN=NODIJUN

>N0
1$7,21$/%8,/',1*&2'(
2),1',$
92/80(

HNXGL)NL]Q
N=G

+NNMUKHNXG&ZMNV
1, 1Ê"Ê

 Ê-/

,

-

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
Hkkjr dh jk"Vªh;
Hkou fuekZ.k lafgrk 2016
[k.M 2

NATIONAL BUILDING CODE
OF INDIA 2016
VOLUME 2

Hkkjrh; ekud C;wjks
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
SP 7 : 2016

FIRST PUBLISHED 1970
FIRST REVISION 1983
SECOND REVISION 2005
THIRD REVISION 2016

© BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS

ICS 01.120; 91.040.01

PRICE `

PUBLISHED BY BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS, MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR
MARG, NEW DELHI 110002; TYPESET AT SUNSHINE GRAPHICS, 263, TELIWARA, SHAHDARA, DELHI
110032; PRINTED AT J. J. OFFSET PRINTERS, A-24, SECTOR 68, NOIDA, GAUTAM BUDH NAGAR, UTTAR
PRADESH (INDIA).

CONTENTS
ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
Volume 1
FOREWORD ... (v)
COMMITTEE COMPOSITION ... (ix)
IMPORTANT EXPLANATORY NOTE FOR USERS OF THE CODE ... (xxx)
INFORMATION FOR THE USERS ABOUT AVAILABILITY OF THE CODE IN GROUPS ... (xxxi)
Total Pages
PART 0 INTEGRATED APPROACH — PREREQUISITE FOR APPLYING PROVISIONS OF THE CODE ... 12
PART 1 DEFINITIONS ... 28
PART 2 ADMINISTRATION ... 32
PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS ... 150
PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY ... 116
PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS ... 46
PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects ... 134
Section 2 Soils and Foundations ... 60
Section 3 Timber and Bamboo
3A Timber ... 56
3B Bamboo ... 30
Section 4 Masonry ... 86
Section 5 Concrete
5A Plain and Reinforced Concrete ... 118
5B Prestressed Concrete ... 52
Section 6 Steel ... 138
Section 7 Prefabrication, Systems Building and Mixed/Composite Construction
7A Prefabricated Concrete ... 42
7B Systems Building and Mixed/Composite Construction ... 12
Section 8 Glass and Glazing ... 80

Volume 2
IMPORTANT EXPLANATORY NOTE FOR USERS OF THE CODE ... (iv)
INFORMATION FOR THE USERS ABOUT AVAILABILITY OF THE CODE IN GROUPS ... (v)
Total Pages
PART 7 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT, PRACTICES AND SAFETY ... 76
PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES
Section 1 Lighting and Natural Ventilation ... 56
Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations ... 172
Section 3 Air Conditioning, Heating and Mechanical Ventilation ... 86
Section 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control ... 46
Section 5 Installation of Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks
5A Lifts ... 96
5B Escalators and Moving Walks ... 44
Section 6 Information and Communication Enabled Installations ... 28
PART 9 PLUMBING SERVICES (INCLUDING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT)
Section 1 Water Supply ... 44
Section 2 Drainage and Sanitation ... 82
Section 3 Solid Waste Management ... 16
Section 4 Gas Supply ... 18
PART 10 LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT, SIGNS AND OUTDOOR DISPLAY STRUCTURES
Section 1 Landscape Planning, Design and Development ... 34
Section 2 Signs and Outdoor Display Structures ... 24
PART 11 APPROACH TO SUSTAINABILITY ... 98
PART 12 ASSET AND FACILITY MANAGEMENT ... 98
(iii)

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
Important Explanatory Note for Users of the Code
In any Part/Section of this Code, where reference is made to ‘good practice’ in
relation to design, constructional procedures or other related information, and where
reference is made to ‘accepted standard’ in relation to material specification,
testing, or other related information, the Indian Standards listed at the end of the
Part/Section shall be used as a guide to the interpretation.
At the time of publication, the editions indicated in the standards were valid. All
standards are subject to revision and parties to agreements based on any Part/
Section are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent
editions of the standards.
In the list of standards given at the end of a Part/Section, the number appearing
within parentheses in the first column indicates the number of the reference of the
standard in the Part/Section. For example:
a) Good practice [7(2)] refers to the Indian Standard given at serial number (2)
of the list of standards given at the end of Part 7, that is, IS 16416 : 2016
‘Construction project management: Project formulation and appraisal —
Guidelines’.
b) Good practice [8-1(6)] refers to the Indian Standard given at serial number
(6) of the list of standards given at the end of Section 1 of Part 8, that is,
IS 3362 : 1977 ‘Code of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings
(first revision)’.
c) Good practice [8-3(16)] refers to the Indian Standard given at serial number
(16) of the list of standards given at the end of Section 3 of Part 8, that is,
IS 4831 : 1968 ‘Recommendation on units and symbols for refrigeration’.
d) Accepted standard [8-5A(6)] refers to the Indian Standard given at serial
number (6) of the list of standards given at the end of Subsection 5A of
Part 8, that is, IS 14665 (Part 3/Sec 1 and 2) : 2000 ‘Electric traction lifts:
Part 3 Safety rules, Section 1 Passenger and goods lifts, Section 2 Service
lifts’.
e) Accepted standards [8-6(2)] refers to the Indian Standards given at serial
number (2) of the list of standards given at the end of Section 6 of Part 8,
that is, IS 9537 (Part 3) : 1983 ‘Specification for conduits for electrical
installations: Part 3 Rigid plain conduits for insulating materials’ and
IS 3419 : 1989 ‘Specification for fittings for rigid non-metallic conduits
(second revision)’.
f) Accepted standard [9-1(1)] refers to the Indian Standard given at serial
number (1) of the list of standards given at the end of Section 1 of Part 9,
that is, IS 10446 : 1983 ‘Glossary of terms relating to water supply and
sanitation’.

(iv)

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
INFORMATION FOR THE USERS ABOUT AVAILABILITY OF
THE CODE IN GROUPS
For the convenience of the users, the National Building Code of India 2016 is available as a comprehensive
volume as well as in the following five groups, each incorporating the related Parts/Sections dealing with particular
area of building activity:

Group 1 For Development/ Part 0 Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying Provisions of the Code
Building Planning Part 1 Definitions
and Related Part 2 Administration
Aspects Part 3 Development Control Rules and General Building Requirements
Part 4 Fire and Life Safety
Part 5 Building Materials
Part 10 Landscape Development, Signs And Outdoor Display Structures
Section 1 Landscape Planning, Design and Development
Section 2 Signs and Outdoor Display Structures
Part 11 Approach to Sustainability
Group 2 For Structural Part 0 Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying Provisions of the Code
Design and Related Part 6 Structural Design
Aspects Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects
Section 2 Soils and Foundations
Section 3 Timber and Bamboo
3A Timber
3B Bamboo
Section 4 Masonry
Section 5 Concrete
5A Plain and Reinforced Concrete
5B Prestressed Concrete
Section 6 Steel
Section 7 Prefabrication, Systems Building and Mixed/ Composite
Construction
7A Prefabricated Concrete
7B Systems Building and Mixed/ Composite Construction
Section 8 Glass and Glazing
Part 11 Approach to Sustainability
Group 3 For Aspects Part 0 Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying Provisions of the Code
Relating to Part 7 Construction Management, Practices and Safety
Construction, and Part 11 Approach to Sustainability
Asset/ Facility Part 12 Asset and Facility Management
Management
Group 4 For Aspects Part 0 Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying Provisions of the Code
Relating to Building Part 8 Building Services
Services Section 1 Lighting and Natural Ventilation
Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations
Section 3 Air Conditioning, Heating and Mechanical Ventilation
Section 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control
Section 5 Installation of Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks
5A Lifts
5B Escalators and Moving Walks
Section 6 Information and Communication Enabled Installations
Part 11 Approach to Sustainability
Group 5 For Aspects Part 0 Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying Provisions of the Code
Relating to Part 9 Plumbing Services (including Solid Waste Management)
Plumbing Services Section 1 Water Supply
and Solid Waste Section 2 Drainage and Sanitation
Management Section 3 Solid Waste Management
Section 4 Gas Supply
Part 11 Approach to Sustainability

The information contained in different groups will serve the concerned professionals dealing with the respective
areas. However, it is advisable that professionals essentially dealing with any of the above groups should also
refer the other groups.

(v)

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA
PART 7 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT, PRACTICES AND SAFETY

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD … 3

1 SCOPE … 7
2 TERMINOLOGY … 7
3 GENERAL … 7

SECTION 1 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

4 CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT … 8

SECTION 2 CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND SITE MANAGEMENT

5 PLANNING ASPECTS … 17

SECTION 3 CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES

6 CONSTRUCTION CONTROL AND PRACTICES … 19
7 TEMPORARY WORKS … 21
8 STORAGE, STACKING AND HANDLING PRACTICES … 23

SECTION 4 SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION

9 SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OF ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING … 34
10 SAFETY IN DEMOLITION OF BUILDINGS … 52

SECTION 5 REPAIRS, RETROFITTING AND STRENGTHENING OF BUILDINGS

11 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT … 57
12 PREVENTION OF CRACKS … 57
13 REPAIRS AND SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF BUILDINGS … 58

SECTION 6 HABITAT AND WELFARE REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKERS

14 HABITAT AND OTHER WELFARE REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION … 59
WORKERS

ANNEX A CHECK LIST FOR STACKING AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS … 63
LIST OF STANDARDS … 64

2 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46

FOREWORD
This Code (Part 7) covers construction project management; construction planning, site management and building
construction practices; storage, stacking and handling of materials; and safety of personnel during construction
operations for all elements of a building and demolition of buildings; and habitat and welfare requirements for
workers. It also covers guidelines relating to repairs, retrofitting and strengthening of buildings.
The principles enunciated in the various sections of this Part are to be ultimately utilized and implemented in the
physical construction of the buildings with the required infrastructure. This would require sound construction
practices and efficient management thereof in order to ensure that the implementation of the project is carried out
within the estimated cost and planned period to the required quality standards and in a safe and sustainable
manner. Workers in large number, both skilled and unskilled, are engaged in the innumerable construction works.
Due to increased tempo of such a building activity and large scale mechanization, hazards of accidents could
increase considerably. It is, therefore, imperative that adequate safety rules are laid down for every phase of
construction work. It is also important to give due cognizance to habitat and welfare requirements of workers at
construction site. This Part also deals with these aspects.
Planning the various construction operations before hand and making adequate arrangements for procurement
and storage of materials, and the machinery to get work done is as important as carrying out these construction
operations in accordance with good practice. Lack of planning or defective planning may result in avoidable
delay in the completion of work and consequently increased hazards from the point of view of fire, health and
structural soundness. This Part covers provisions in this regard.
A construction project is an endeavour undertaken by a project team on behalf of owner/client to create a built
facility suited to the defined functional objectives. From inception to commissioning, the project goes through
various distinct stages leading to progressive achievement of project objectives. Each stage involves specific
inputs, processes (both technical and managerial) and deliverables. Typically, the life cycle of a project from
commencement to completion involves the following stages:
a) Project formulation and appraisal — Inception, feasibility and strategic planning;
b) Project development — Project brief development, planning and design, finalization of proposals,
procurement strategy, construction documentation including tender drawings, working drawings,
specifications, cost estimates, bills of quantities, procurement documents;
c) Planning for construction — Sequencing of project components, planning tools, resource planning and
time cost trade off;
d) Tender action — Open competitive bidding/pre-qualification of agencies, issue of tender documents,
evaluation of bids, negotiation if required and award of work;
e) Construction — Execution, monitoring, control, work acceptance; and
f) Commissioning and handing over — Contractual closeout, financial closeout, defect liability
commencement, facility handing over.
The distinct features of a construction project include the temporary nature of the organizations involved, the
evolutionary process of project deliverables during project development stages and the unique output of the built
facility. As a result of these features, unless there is efficient and effective project management, a construction
project is faced with challenges of uncertainties leading to time over-runs, cost over-runs, changes in project
parameters, loss of quality and inability to meet the functional objectives. While technical soundness of a proposal
is an important aspect of a construction project, the management aspects, which involve techno-legal, financial
and other issues, have also a significant role in the success of a project. Therefore, management functions and
technical processes in a construction project need to be integrated towards achieving project objectives. Top
management commitment plays an important role in harmoniously achieving these project objectives. In some of
the public sector projects, it may be necessary to share relevant information with public at large through appropriate
PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT, PRACTICES AND SAFETY 3

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
means. The overall management of a building construction project is very important to ensure that the objectives
of such a project are achieved through scope management, procurement management, time management, cost
management, quality management, risk management, communication management, human resources management,
safety, health and environment management and integration management. This Part, therefore, gives guidelines
on these areas.
The first version of this Part was formulated in 1970, which was subsequently revised in 1983 and 2005. In the
first revision, information regarding handling operations that is unloading, stacking, lifting, loading and conveying
of building materials, was also given along with the storage practices. Additional information regarding the use of
ladders; safety requirements for floor and wall openings, railings and toe boards; piling and other deep foundations;
constructions involving use of hot bituminous materials; and erection of structural steel work and concrete framed
structures, etc, were included.
In the second revision, the Section 1 ‘Construction Practices’ of this Part, had been revamped to include the
planning and management aspects. Further, provisions on construction using bamboo were also incorporated. The
other important modifications incorporated in the second revision included comprehensive updating of the
provisions with regard to stacking and storage of building materials and components, which were comprehensively
covered in line with the revised IS 4082 : 1996 ‘Recommendations on stacking and storage of construction
materials and components at site (second revision)’; addition of provisions of safety requirements of hoists/lifts
for worker during construction; incorporation of aspects like preventive measures such as falling material hazards
prevention, fall prevention, disposal of debris, fire protection, etc, with regard to safety at work site; addition of
provisions regarding safety management at work sites; addition of a new section on ‘Maintenance management,
repairs, retrofitting and strengthening of buildings’, covering aspects like maintenance management, prevention
of cracks, and repairs and seismic strengthening of buildings; and updating of safety provisions with respect to
demolition of buildings.
As a result of experience gained in implementation of 2005 version of this Part and feedback received as well as
in view of formulation of new standards in the field of construction project management and construction practices
and revision of some existing standards, including those on safety, a need to revise this Part was felt. This revision
has, therefore, been prepared to take care of these aspects. This Part has been divided into six sections as follows,
under which all technical provisions relating to their subject areas, have been given:
Section 1 Construction Management
Section 2 Construction Planning and Site Management
Section 3 Construction Practices
Section 4 Safety in Construction
Section 5 Repairs, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Buildings
Section 6 Habitat and Welfare Requirements for Workers
The significant changes incorporated in this revision include:
a) This Part has been divided into six Sections under which the provisions have been rearranged in a logical
sequence;
b) Provisions on construction project management have been detailed which also now includes project
formulation and appraisal.
c) Safety provisions with respect to scaffolding, piling and other deep foundations, blasting and related
drilling operations, and construction involving use of hot bituminous materials have been updated;
d) A new clause on habitat and other welfare requirements for construction workers has been introduced;
e) A new clause on urban/city roads planning and construction, has been added;
f) A new clause on temporary works has been included;
g) Provisions on construction using bamboo has been shifted to Part 6 ‘Structural Design, Section 3B
Bamboo, and a reference to the same has been given in this Part;
h) Provisions on maintenance management has been shifted to Part 12 ‘Asset and Facility Management’ of
the Code and a reference to the same has been given in this Part; and
j) References to all the concerned Indian Standards have been updated.
Users are encouraged to employ suitable construction management software as an aid to implement provisions of

4 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
this Code. The guidelines may be applicable in general to all construction projects. However, for smaller projects,
the applicability of various provisions may be decided appropriately by the parties concerned.
Provisions on sustainable building construction practices are covered in Part 11 ‘Approach to Sustainability’ of
the Code.
The information contained in this Part is largely based on the following Indian Standards and Special Publications:
IS 3696 Safety code for scaffolds and ladders:
(Part 1) : 1987 Scaffolds
(Part 2) : 1991 Ladders
IS 3764 : 1992 Code of practice for excavation work (first revision)
IS 4082 : 1996 Recommendations on stacking and storage of construction materials and components at
site (second revision)
IS 4130 : 1991 Safety code for demolition of buildings (second revision)
IS 4912 : 1978 Safety requirements for floor and wall openings, railing and toe boards (first revision)
IS 5121 : 2013 Code of safety for piling and other deep foundations (first revision)
IS 5916 : 2013 Safety code for construction involving use of hot bituminous materials (first revision)
IS 7205 : 1974 Safety code for erection of structural steel work
IS 7969 : 1975 Safety code for handling and storage of building materials
IS 8989 : 1978 Safety code for erection of concrete framed structures
IS 13415 : 1992 Safety code for protective barrier in and around buildings
IS 13416 Recommendations for preventive measures against hazards at work places:
(Part 1) : 1992 Falling material hazards prevention
(Part 2) : 1992 Fall prevention
(Part 3) : 1994 Disposal of debris
(Part 4) : 1994 Timber structures
(Part 5) : 1994 Fire protection
IS 13430 : 1992 Code of practice for safety during additional construction and alteration to existing
buildings
IS 15883 (Part 1) : Guidelines for construction project management: Part 1 General
2009
IS 16601 : 2016 Guidelines for habitat and welfare requirements for construction workers
A reference to SP 62 : 1992 ‘Handbook on building construction practices (excluding electrical works)’ and
SP 70 : 2001 ‘Handbook on construction safety practices’, may also be made.
All standards, whether given herein above or cross-referred to in the main text of this Part, are subject to revision.
The parties to agreement based on this Part are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most
recent editions of the standards.
For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this Code is complied with, the final value,
observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960
‘Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)’. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off
value should be the same as that of the specified value in this Part.

PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT, PRACTICES AND SAFETY 5

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA
PART 7 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT, PRACTICES AND SAFETY

1 SCOPE ramp, platform, or catwalk or balcony, etc, to prevent
fall of persons.
1.1 This Code (Part 7) covers construction project
management; construction planning, site management 2.2.5 Materials Handling Hoists — A platform, bucket
and building construction practices; storage, stacking or similar enclosure exclusively meant for the lifting
and handling of materials; and safety of personnel or lowering of construction material, the hoists being
during construction operations for all elements of a operated from a point outside the conveyance.
building and demolition of buildings; and habitat and
2.2.6 Pile Rig — The complete pile driving equipment
welfare requirements for workers. It also covers
comprising piling frame, leader, hammer, extractor
guidelines relating to repairs, retrofitting and
winch and power unit. Complete pile driving rig may
strengthening of buildings.
be mounted on rafts or pontoon or rails. Pile rig may
1.2 The provisions in respect of sustainable building also be a mobile unit mounted on trailers or trucks, or
construction practices are covered in Part 11 ‘Approach a special full revolving rig for raking piles.
to Sustainability’ of the Code which shall be used in
2.2.7 Platform — A working space for persons, elevated
conjunction with this Part.
above the surrounding floor or ground, such as balcony
1.3 Provisions relating to maintenance management are or platform for the operation of machinery and
covered in Part 12 ‘Asset and Facility Management’ of equipment.
the Code which has been referred to in this Part.
2.2.8 Scaffold — A temporary structure consisting of
2 TERMINOLOGY standards, putlogs, ledgers, generally of bamboo,
Ballies, timber or metal to provide a working platform
For the purpose of this Part, the following definitions for workers and materials in the course of construction,
shall apply, and for other terms those given in the maintenance, repairs and demolition, and also to
accepted standards [7(1)] shall apply. support or allow hoisting and lowering of workers, their
tools and materials.
2.1 Authority Having Jurisdiction
2.2.9 Toe Board — A vertical barrier erected along
The authority which has been created by a statute and
exposed edge of a floor opening, wall opening,
which for the purpose of administering the Code/Part,
platform, catwalk or ramp to prevent fall of materials
may authorize a committee or an official to act on its
or persons.
behalf; hereinafter called the ‘Authority’.
2.2.10 Wall Hole — An opening in any wall or partition
2.2 Definitions Relating to Safety in Construction having height of less than 750 mm but more than 25 mm
2.2.1 Construction Equipment — All equipment, and width unrestricted.
machinery, tools and temporary retaining structures and 2.2.11 Wall Opening — An opening in any wall or
working platforms, that is, tools, derricks, staging, partition having both height of at least 750 mm and
scaffolds, runways, ladders and all material, handling width of at least 450 mm.
equipment including safety devices.
3 GENERAL
2.2.2 Floor Hole — An opening measuring less than
300 mm but more than 25 mm in its least dimension, in 3.1 A general overview of construction project
any floor, platform, pavement, or yard, through which management and information regarding the applicable
materials but not persons may fall; such as, a belt hole, tools and techniques are covered in Section 1
pipe opening or slot opening. ‘Construction Management’ of this Part, which also
demarcates various stages of a construction project and
2.2.3 Floor Opening — An opening measuring 300 mm
activities thereunder. Section 1 gives brief guidelines
or more in its least dimension, in any floor, platform,
on project formulation and appraisal, and various
pavement or yard through which person may fall; such
construction project management functions; and for
as hatch way, stair or ladder opening, pit or large
detailed guidelines on each of these, gives reference to
manhole.
the available good practices.
2.2.4 Guard Railing — A barrier erected along exposed
Construction planning and site management, plays an
edges of an open side floor opening, wall opening,

PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT, PRACTICES AND SAFETY 7

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
important role in smooth progress of a building terms of scope, time, cost and quality. This may usually
construction activity and are covered in Section 2 take place in project appraisal stage and shall be done
‘Construction Planning and Site Management’. The in accordance with the good practice [7(2)].
knowledge of actual technical provisions in regard to Information and guidelines given under 4.1.2 to 4.1.6
practices relating to various building components shall be appropriately utilized under different stages
starting from sub-structure to super-structure, play a of construction project.
key role in achieving the quality of building
4.1.2 Stakeholder
construction. Also, temporary enabling works; proper
stacking and storage of materials; and well planned Stakeholder is a person, group of persons or
handling operations, have important role in proper, safe organizations who are actively involved in the project
and smooth progress in construction work at site. The or those who have an interest in the success of a project
provisions in respect of these are covered in Section 3 and its environment. Generally in a construction project,
‘Construction Practices’. besides the owner/client, the project manager,
consultants, construction agencies and the users are the
The objectives of sound construction of buildings
stakeholders. In addition, depending on the nature of
having requisite quality, durability and finish has to be
the project, there may be other stakeholders such as
duly dovetailed with the goals of safety whether during
financer, government and public at large.
construction of a new building or addition/alteration
to an existing building part thereof or during demolition 4.1.3 Construction Project Life Cycle
of an existing building. Section 4 ‘Safety in
Construction project life cycle consists of project
Construction’ covers provisions to these effects.
formulation and appraisal, project development,
Section 5 ‘Repairs, Retrofitting and Strengthening of planning for construction, tender action, construction,
Buildings’ covers repair, retrofitting and strengthening and commissioning and handing over, as main stages.
of existing buildings and Section 6 ‘Habitat and Welfare These stages involve defined decisions, deliverables
Requirements for Workers’ deals with habitat and other and completion of mile-stones for control of project,
welfare requirements for construction workers at site. ensuring that the adverse impact of uncertainties is
overcome at each stage in the progress. Accordingly,
3.2 The objective of universal design and accessibility
the responsibilities of project team should be defined
is to ensure that all users, including those with
and measured for acceptance, and liabilities determined
disabilities and elderly people are able to access all the
objectively.
facilities within the built environment including in the
public buildings, on an equal basis. Requirements for Project objectives, drawn out of feasibility established
accessibility in built environment for the elderly and in the appraisal stage, are achieved progressively
for persons with disabilities as given in 13 of Part 3 through each of the project life cycle stages. The stage-
‘Development Control Rules and General Building wise break-up of project objectives, tasks, compliance
Requirements’ of the Code shall be complied with at and authorization to proceed further in the next stage
all stages of the construction project. should be structured comprehensively through various
stages of life cycle. Each stage of construction project
SECTION 1 CONSTRUCTION life cycle may be considered as a subproject, thus
MANAGEMENT making overall complexities of a project more
manageable.
4 CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT
A typical construction project life cycle is given in
4.1 General Fig. 1.
4.1.1 A project is generally a non-recurring task having 4.1.4 Construction Project Delivery Models
a definable beginning and end, with a definite mission
Project delivery model determines the manner in which
and has a set of objectives and achievements. Project
the project is planned, designed, executed and contract
management is application of knowledge, skills, tools
administration carried out. It also determines the
and techniques to achieve the objectives of a defined
contractual relationships between the owner/client,
project with the aim to ensure that a project is completed
design consultants and construction agency. The
within the scheduled time, authorized cost and to the
delivery model shall define the span of control and role
requirement of quality standards. Construction project
and responsibilities of each of the above parties. The
management refers to such project management when
main types of project delivery models that are in vogue
applied to construction of built facility. Project
in construction projects are: (a) Traditional design-bid-
objectives depend on the requirements of the built
build, (b) Design-build with variants, (c) Turn-key and
facility. From the point of view of construction project
(d) Build, operate and transfer and its variants. Each
management, project objectives may be defined in
8 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
FIG . 1 TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
of the delivery models can adopt different types of a) Project formulation and appraisal stage:
contracts depending upon the suitability of the contract
1) Inception,
type in relation to the nature and type of projects,
project objectives and other project specific 2) Feasibility, and
considerations. 3) Strategic planning.
b) Pre-construction stage:
4.1.5 Construction Methodologies and Techniques
1) Project development,
Suitable construction methodologies and techniques,
such as, conventional, prefabrication, systems building 2) Planning for construction, and
approach, mixed/composite construction, mechanization 3) Tender action.
in construction and other innovative technologies, shall c) Construction stage, and
be defined considering design principles adopted and
d) Commissioning and handing over stage.
also considering the project objectives in terms of factors,
like, scope, time, cost and quality requirements. Method 4.2.2 Project Formulation and Appraisal Stage
statement may be made for all critical items of work.
For successful management of construction projects,
4.1.6 Organizational Structures the earlier stages when the construction project is
conceived, formulated and its feasibility assessed,
Organizational structure depends on the project delivery
leading to decision to implement the project, are equally
model. As an example, a typical organization chart for
important. The guidelines given in the good practice
Design-Bid-Build model is given in Fig. 2.
[7(2)] should be employed during project formulation
4.1.6.1 Construction project management and appraisal stage of a construction project.
organizational teams NOTE — This stage of a construction project is basically the
preliminary stage covering activities up to the stage of
For any given project delivery model, an appropriate
preparation of proposals for obtaining approval for
organizational structure shall be selected so as to facilitate implementing the project including financial approval and
constitution of teams across various agencies involved. includes inception, pre-feasibility, feasibility, related project
Such teams are fundamental functional units generally strategic planning and viability assessment and review prior to
approval of project.
specific to each of the life cycle stages of a project.
Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and quality set For all other above stages, the relevant construction
up shall directly report to the Project Manager. management function guidelines given in 4.3 should
be employed for achieving the intended objectives.
4.2 Stages of a Construction Project 4.2.3 Pre-Construction
4.2.1 Typically a construction project (whether small 4.2.3.1 Project development
or large) may be considered to involve the following
distinct broad stages: This shall involve the following:

PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT, PRACTICES AND SAFETY 9

ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid up

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION - MANAPAKKAM, CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017
NOTE — ‘Consultants’ may cover in-house teams or outside consultants.

FIG. 2 T YPICAL ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE FOR DESIGN-B ID-B UILD MODEL

a) Formalization of design brief; 2) Bar charts, and
b) Site survey and soil investigation; 3) Network techniques and scheduling.
c) Hazard risk vulnerability analysis; c) Resource planning, and
d) Alternative concept designs with costing and d) Time cost trade off.
finalization;
4.2.3.2.1 Sequencing of project components
e) Preliminary designs and drawings;
f) Development of design of each discipline and Methodology of construction shall be detailed before
their integration; the start of the project. Sequencing of project
components shall be done on the basis of methodology
g) Obtaining statutory approvals;
adopted and availability of resources. This shall be
h) Selection of construction methodology; reviewed during the progress of the project and revised,
j) Preliminary cost estimates; if necessary.
k) Detailed planning and design of each
4.2.3.2.2 Planning tools
discipline;
m) Construction working drawings and related The planning tools described below may be employed
specifications with integration of engineering for effective management of a construction project:
inputs of all concerned disciplines; a) Work breakdown structure (WBS) — The
n) Detailed cost estimates; WBS shall identify the total scope of works
p) Detailed specifications and bills of quantities; involved in the project and shall form the basis
and for the development of detailed project
q) Tender documents. schedule. Through WBS, the project shall be
subdivided into major subdivisions (work
Peer review/proof checking of the drawings/designs/ packages) and each major subdivision shall
estimates shall be done in case of important projects, be further subdivided into additional levels as
depending upon their complexity and sensitivity. required up to the level of activities that could
Environment impact analysis and social impact analysis form the basis for monitoring and control of
shall be done in applicable cases. project performance in terms of time, cost and
4.2.3.2 Planning for construction quality parameters. WBS shall provide activity
listing with associated cost account codes for
The following aspects shall be considered: the preparation of project schedule either by
a) Sequencing of project components, bar charts or by network diagramming
b) Planning tools: methods.
1) Work breakdown structures (WBS), b) Bar chart — Bar chart is the simplest form of

10 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016

35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63. drawings and early and late start and finish time of conditions of contract should be prepared on the basis activities with their available floats.24. a) Resource allocation — The feasibility of the b) Limited competitive bidding — In large. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. The network schedule shall also any special item or condition. past performance. The 4.3.3. to obtain competitive tenders from competent 4.2 Selection of construction agency For details on network preparation and analysis.3. various activities on a calendar time scale in c) Resource schedule — Schedule of following the form of bars in their relative positions with resource requirements with respect to time start and finish dates and length of bar shall be prepared on the basis of network indicating probable activity duration. other prequalification of contractors shall be done resources required at the site. critical path and overall development stage (see 4.2. The prepared in terms of calendar dates of format. chart or in tabular format. and used for major and complex projects.3. or This shall involve the following: NOTE — Electronic tendering could also be considered. consultant and construction agency. In case of floats.35) valid upto31-12-2017 project scheduling and used for small and to obtain a reduction of time or by shifting complex projects and in preliminary planning the activities within the floats available with and tender-stages of major projects. bid b) Resource levelling — It shall be done by re. network shall be checked with respect to specialized and important works. reference shall be made to good Selection of construction agency shall be done by either: practices [7(3)]. controlling process. Bar chart type of schedule shall 1) Technology. Linked developed and kept in the database for project bars represent the interdependencies between control purposes: the activities. The project schedule is construction project delivery model selected. ii) Skilled labour. experience of similar type of works. 2) Network analysis and scheduling — The project network incorporating the activity 4. the network of project activities identified through WBS is Resource schedule shall be prepared separately for developed incorporating their logical client. materials. considering their financial capability.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. c) Network techniques and scheduling iii) Unskilled labour. terminologies and terms and conditions should start and finish of activities with available be as per the standard engineering practices. equipment. Network schedule shall be a) Open competitive bidding — In this case.4 Time cost trade off two available approaches for network diagramming techniques are arrow Time cost trade off analysis shall be done to obtain a diagramming method (ADM) and minimum total cost of the project within the specified precedence diagramming method (PDM).MANAPAKKAM. summarize and 2) Manpower: display the results of complex project network analysis and further monitoring and i) Technical staff. the same shall be be presented in the form of linked bar described clearly to avoid any ambiguity. to obtain optimum uniform resource bar chart form of project schedule depicts the requirements. this method.2.3. of design and details finalized in project proposal critical activities. manpower. Network based project schedule shall be 4) Materials.3.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2. capacity.3. relationships and interdependencies.63. and plants critical path to critical path activity in order and machinery available.24.3 Resource planning agencies for the project. 1) Network diagramming methods — 3) Machinery. be used to comprehend. This shall be done taking into consideration direct cost and indirect cost of the project. A typical them. technical staff.2. 4.3 Tender action durations and logical relationships shall 4. allocating the slack resources from non.1) keeping in view the project duration.3.2.1 Preparation of tender documents be analyzed with forward and backward pass schedule calculations to establish The bill of quantities.MANAPAKKAM. In 5) Cash flow. time.2. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 11 . specifications.2. prepared for all disciplines and they shall be tender notice should be publicized adequately integrated into a master control schedule.

baseline. Scope and environment management. This is one of the most important stages of construction The project management functions briefly described management where pre-construction stage outputs are below may be employed for effective management of realized into physical tangible form within the construction project during its different stages as constraints of time and cost. work g) Communication management. The intent or need for applicable.24. It shall project. negotiation and award of f) Risk management. practices including technical and organizational f) Preparation of maintenance manual. is a legal document. including guarantees.3. safety changes and/or authorized variations.3. cost the finalization stage. remain same except minor management. which is an output of project procurement d) Cost management. 4.63. which depend on type of project delivery model include identification of Construction project management consists of number procurement needs. defined in the overlap more than one function. procurement processes should follow detailed 12 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . of processes and these can be grouped under the soliciting proposals. c) Time management.4 Construction n) Other management processes. Project manager b) Procurement management.MANAPAKKAM. project are associated with the preconstruction phase of the commissioning and handing over stage follows.3. management processes. and Procurement management includes processes for k) Preparation and handing over all as-built purchase of materials. 4. defining the scope baseline. products. After due evaluation and negotiation with the bidders. services of consultants and engaging agencies for execution of works under a contract. equipment. functional and physical characteristics. As contract. details and functions described in 4. scope definition. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Accordingly.1 Scope Management drawings and consolidated project brief is realized through various construction project management It should be ensured that project concept.35) valid upto31-12-2017 4. and 4.2. to identify factors influencing scope change. Some of the processes may. a detailed scope management e) Obtaining completion certificate from local plan should be drawn to lay down all the necessary government bodies/departments. Scope control should aim c) Preparation of list of inventories. to control time and cost over-runs. management includes the processes of scope planning. preparation for procurement. 4. the e) Quality management. scope definition and scope verification complete as per specifications and designs.5 Commissioning and Handing Over and change control. After all construction activities of the project are Scope planning. contract a) Scope management. financial bids.2.63. practice [7(4)]. h) Human resources management. to the client/owner.3 and particularly through functions which are established and recorded during procurement management. Scope monitoring and change control are need the compliance of the following: critical to the construction/installation stage in order a) Clearing of site. scope monitoring. administering of contract. however. construction agency based on competitive technical and k) Sustainability management. interfaces.MANAPAKKAM. quality management and health.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . g) Performance compliance verification of built For detailed guidelines. if required. h) Handing over all other required documents. reference shall be made to good facility. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. soliciting drawings. is charged with the responsibility to help structure and develop contract to suit the specific needs of the project.3 Bid evaluation.2.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . The work break b) Removal of all defects at the time of down structure of the project shall be the basic tool for completion and during defect liability period. selection of suppliers/consultants/ following management functions: works contractors. determine the impact of scope changes and establish the system d) Certification and settlement of construction for scope change approval and revision of scope agency’s final bills for payment. scope verification.24. Project 4.2 Procurement Management j) Restoration of surroundings. pre-construction stage outputs through specifications. management and closure of contract. time management.3 Construction Project Management Functions procurement processes.3. m) Integration management. the work shall be awarded to the j) Health and safety management.

Past-documented experience and expertise Detailed item wise cost estimates with bill of quantities should also be used for determination of the activity and specifications should be made for tendering and durations with the construction technology adopted and subsequent project execution. increasing the resources. reference shall be made to good a) Defining project scope in the form of work practice [7(6)]. Time management aims to complete the project within alteration in the construction logic and activity the stipulated time period. quality standards. As a strategy for procurement. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. For the quantum of work involved in and their requirements during different stages of the the activities. should be described.63. b) Activity duration estimating. The network and works from external agencies and what should be thus prepared should be analysed to develop the project accomplished by the project team. risk and slippages corrected to acceptable levels. During the construction stage. insurances.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Based on the appraisal opportunities. the activity durations are estimated based project. etc).24. services in the form of network should be prepared. The resource planning involves Work breakdown structure should be used as a tool to determination of various types of resources. and for activities in progress. incorporated.3 Time Management alternate technology options. construction methodology proposed with the consideration of project specific constraints. The objective of the project cost management is to c) Activity sequencing with interactivity ensure that the project is completed within the dependencies.3. balance to complete revised durations and estimated finish dates Provision of establishment of suitable dispute redressal are determined and incorporated. The type of contract PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . which may be considered. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. performance data at and periodic schedule updating should be done for work locations. the baseline schedule cycle stages of the project.4 Cost Management identification and listing. sequencing and interdependencies of the activities are managed through project managers. monitoring and control. schedule with the baseline schedule and schedule procurement documents. Time management essentially sequencing. should be considered to control and bring back the For detailed guidelines.MANAPAKKAM. which are part of project scope effective monitoring and control process. If the actual schedule system should be inbuilt to take care of any disputes lags behind the baseline schedule. authorized budget. Project scheduling and monitoring is a dynamic process specifications. are process. materials. etc. mitigation activities (performance bonds. cost d) Project schedule development. involves the following processes: For detailed guidelines. should be analysed on their suitability to both time and cost criteria of project. and estimation. In the process. such as prepare the project schedule by defining the project appropriate technology.24. and pre-qualification of suppliers. is to determine determined and the graphical representation of activities what needs may be met by procuring products.63. coordination of procurement control activities should ensure to remove deficiencies with schedules. breakdown structure to generate activity 4.3. The possible control practice [7(5)]. actions. of work. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 13 . are: possible reduction in activity duration of future activities with 4. workforce. In addition. various options that may arise. This decision is best schedule with information on early and late start and arrived at the earlier stages of the project (so that the finishing of activities with their available floats and opportunities of procurement initiation at earlier stages the critical path/critical activities on the network. cost. Various procurement routes processes. schedule monitoring a project procurement management plan should be involves methods of tracking and comparing the actual developed to document: contract types to be used. is not lost) and reviewed at each of the subsequent life Incorporating the calendar dates. The major processes involved in the cost management are: resource planning. Inventory management the status of each activity should be examined.MANAPAKKAM. actual durations utilized.35) valid upto31-12-2017 procedures with adequate review and stakeholder manpower and equipment resources used. scope and identifying and listing of the activities in the equipment and infrastructure facilities. Such decisions should draw may be finalized with the incorporation of milestones inputs from the time. reference shall be made to good schedule to acceptable levels. the One of the fundamental issues in construction projects. their quantum work packages. cost budgeting/cost planning and cost e) Project schedule control. statement. quality and scope for subsequent schedule monitoring and control management processes. constraints and assumptions. Preliminary cost estimate with defined scope on the standard productivity norms for different trades of work is required for obtaining the project sanction. etc. For plays an important role in the procurement management completed activities.

3. availability such as permanent services. quality standards and identifying means to eliminate non-conformity. activities include consistent evaluation of project Suitability of construction techniques. may also consider efficient site layout d) Control and monitoring cost changes. Planning being an integral part of the quality management. The cost baseline are inspected and tested for conformance to the is generated by allocating the overall cost estimate to specified standards. components wherein process control ensures which comprises the following. which may affect quality. selection of performance to provide confidence that the project equipment for specific purposes. Project risk management during construction stage assumes that the design and processes ensure proper planning. on cost trend and cost changes. required functional and physical characteristics of a The various organizations connected with the project constructed facility through management actions should have their own quality management systems.24. quality management is to achieve quality objective of 4. location of material stores. engineering studies are achieved during the preconstruction stage of the project. Quality assurance than cost reduction based on change in specifications. completely understand the implications of changes to the design and specifications during the construction Most of the cost optimization techniques through value stage. the client should and cost plus. materials individual project activities based on the project and supplies are processed to form project product schedule. identification. Quality is the key determinant of requirements which is expressed For detailed guidelines. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. During construction stage. It is an established identification of relevant quality standards and technique for determining value based decisions rather determining how to satisfy them. should be exercised: conformance to the specified standards. including planning.MANAPAKKAM. inspections and tests monitor the functional and a) Periodical cost reporting.35) valid upto31-12-2017 adopted such as item rate. It is a systematic multi-disciplinary effort scope of quality management may be limited to its key directed towards analyzing the functions of project or functions of quality planning. the efforts are more on control mode for adherence to the budgeted cost. stacking 4.MANAPAKKAM. lump sum setting out for the construction. During ‘in-process stage’.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Quality control alternative materials and other design changes are some monitors project results related to the compliance to of the areas of application of value engineering. In the ‘final stage’. should be generated. considering satisfies the relevant quality standards. quality assurance and item for the purpose of achieving the best value at the quality control. temporary services.5 Quality Management and storage areas and plants. Main function of practice [7(8)]. the time processes. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. c) Obtaining early warning for corrective actions.63. and the quality performance improves by efficient f) Modification of the cost baseline for organization of activities by way of providing adequate authorized cost changes and preparation of and appropriate conditions for the work processes.24. management needs to consider construction technology For detailed guidelines. reference shall be made to good through drawings and specifications. reference shall be made to good constraints with reference to aspects related to space practice [7(7)]. Value engineering Although quality is an all-encompassing concept which is a useful technique for application in cost also has bearing on time and cost aspects.6 Risk Management satisfying requirements through performance evaluation of construction processes and ensure that they are Project risks have an impact on the project objectives directed towards overall quality.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . In addition e) Forecasting of final cost at completion based to time and cost implications of the site management. Quality management and need a planned response. Using the cost baseline. materials and supplies performance. and its management for on-site operations. the specific management. planned cost. fencing and other Quality management in construction aims to achieve temporary structures. influences the cost management strategy. In the receiving stage. For On-site operations constitute most of the construction the purpose of cost control during execution. Site revised estimates. direction and control.3. Quality planning refers to the lowest overall life cycle project cost. percentage rate. the cost control. physical performance of the product/service to ensure b) Comparison of the actual cost against the that they satisfy the requirements. monitoring and control to the best interest of requirements of users and other stakeholders. access to site. Prior to the project. specifications comprehensively incorporate analysis. Scope of quality management for on-site based cost baseline of the project which forms the basis operations may be categorized broadly in three distinct for the measurement and monitoring of cost stages.63. 14 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .

b) Providing an organized and efficient means risk responsive scheduling. verifying and activities based on risk break-down structure and reflecting the progress and status of operations explanation of probability and impact for risk context.24. Each agency is divided into top level management 3) Trend and forecast module. there are many be divided into the following modules: agencies involved like client. accurate and efficient and assigned to appropriate project participants. d) Reporting the correct and necessary information in the required format and at the For detailed guidelines.7 Communication Management e) Identifying and isolating the most important For communication management. Management and critical information at various stages to Information System (MIS) is used as an important tool be communicated to the managers and for systemized approach to furnish information. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 15 .3. for identified risks. 4. project manager. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. 4. to public at large. suppliers. planning. Risk responses are established c) Providing an organized. execution and monitoring. suitable mechanism may be level to the top level management and policy decisions established for communication of relevant information flow from top level to the lower level management. reference shall be made to good required level of detail to managers at all practice [7(9)]. cost skilled/unskilled persons. Total MIS configuration of the construction project may At the construction stage of a project. cost estimates. Project progress information flows from lower For large public projects. architect. various consultants.63. reference shall be made to good each agency and flow of information between different practice [7(10)]. Risk response planning determines actions required for resources and quality. It supervisors for taking decisions. agencies. plan should define lead and support role responsibilities working drawings. construction agencies and sub-contractors. the information may be in the form of data reflecting status of project All construction projects involve large number of in terms of actual execution time for each activity. monitoring the project and lower level management and involved in day to day operations of the project. the This data should be analysed to understand the overall requirement for technical knowledge. taking policy decisions. resources used. A risk management material and labour schedules. 1) Planning and scheduling module. middle level management 4) Project administrative and financial module. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. trained and competent. construction management practices should emphasize on development of competence of this a) Providing benchmark against which to critical human resource through training programmes. on the project with respect to progress. reducing impact of risks.63. MIS integrates the work and information flow within For detailed guidelines. bills. labour resource. classification of risk of measuring.MANAPAKKAM.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . stores. For skilled and un-skilled labour. budgeting. engineer.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.8 Human Resource Management In construction stage of the projects. sorts and f) Communicating the information to the analyses data to generate and communicate information. quality control.3. be summarized as: Therefore. formats. means of converting the data from operations Suitable risk mitigation measures should be evolved into information. organization management and other Quality of construction work depends on the quality of administrative aspects like disputes that may come up.24. management. specifications. at different periodicities and in different information and generation of reports. Each level of management requires information of All modules should be interlinked in flow of varying details. skill and general progress achieved and to update schedules of the awareness are varied for different construction project. material should be adequately qualified.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Risk management planning processes develop an measure or compare progress and costs. collecting. processes. systems. material 2) Cost control and accounting module. Human resources in a project incurred. Labourers are required to understand their Basic objectives of MIS of a construction project may respective responsibilities especially towards the work. like approach to risk management activities which include time network schedules.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . cost. 5) Historical and documentation module. of project team in relation to management. managers and supervisors in time so that It may be a combination of manual and computerized decisions may be taken at the right time. comprises a system that collects. levels and to the supervisors.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. products and services. the same: c) Safety of environment while working with a) Laying down of safety regulations or hazardous materials and maintaining material mandatory prescriptions concerning different safety data sheets.MANAPAKKAM. for handling of materials and machinery.10. the activities and the working environment of 5) Arrange for safety briefing for all the persons the construction sites.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3. There should corrective measures to avoid repetition of such be a clearly defined competence requirement for the accidents. reference shall be made to good e) Publicity and appeal to develop safety practice [7(13)]. consciousness. a proper activities. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. d) laying down of construction hygiene control 4.2 Safety management issues include managing following: work processes. for recording and promoting safety on sites b) short term as well as long-term ill effects of and in the construction industry. 4. a) Minimizing adverse environmental impact of For prevention and management of accidents. mandatory regulations.35) valid upto31-12-2017 The critical activities should be identified from the point g) Regular safety audit of construction sites and of view of technological innovations. safe There is a need to address the motivational aspects.24.10 Sustainability Management methods. In each construction accident analysis and reporting.63. workers. 4.1 Sustainability management issues include the 4. work practices and standard operating For detailed guidelines.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . e) Considering positive environmental c) Regular and stipulated inspection of works and contribution particularly after completion of machinery/equipment for enforcement of construction. there are certain work related peculiarities j) Effective post-accident management including which call for job specific orientation. Following steps should be taken for achieving prescribed norms and their monitoring. 1996. Progressively.63.9. safe better performance. practice [7(11)]. A periodic review of the Conditions of Service) Act. project. work processes. c) provision of personal protective equipment For detailed guidelines.3. equipment and material handling at site for striving to achieve zero accident status at site. 2) Be responsible for compliance of all statutory obligations of the employer in regard to safety 4.9 Health and Safety Management of personnel and structures.3. on safety issues. workmanship and post audit actions. environmental conditions which determine labour h) Effective post-accident action including behaviour and performance.3.11 Integration Management f) Insurance of built facilities. safety surveys and design suitable documents a) occupational/physical health hazards. organizational and administrative mechanism is b) Limiting any adverse impact within the laws/ required.1 Health management issues include looking into 3) Guide and assist the site managers/engineers the risk factors to health of construction personnel and to make their sites safe and accident free. entering the construction area.MANAPAKKAM.24. construction personnel and third party. management actions. f) Mechanism to review concerns of interested d) Providing education and training to workers parties. conduct methods of their management. 4. d) Management of disposal of waste from the b) Standardization of work processes and construction sites.9. reference shall be made to good required for specific health hazards. providing hygienic conditions at construction sites and 4) Train personnel in construction safety. It includes managing. practice [7(12)].3. Safety officer who is performance may be made to establish the nature of posted at a medium to major construction site shall: training required and methods for imparting training. Integration management aims to provide processes 16 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . a formal training or a certified course undertaken should be a preferred selection Safety Officer shall be appointed in accordance with criterion for the workers. All efforts should also be made the concerned provisions of the Building and Other to impart on site skilling/training of construction Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and workers for specific tasks. 1) Look after the safety of the personnel.3. reference shall be made to good procedures. For detailed guidelines.

5.1.5 Construction practices in hilly regions needs to For detailed guidelines. the site PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. 5.MANAPAKKAM. such materials.1 Besides the design aspects. manner. These objectives could relate to the time constraints. completed constructed facility.1. cost considerations.2 The selection of construction methods. construction techniques require special objectives of project and requirements of the final considerations in such areas.1. use of considerations. cold weather.6 Durability of constructions in corrosive AND SITE MANAGEMENT atmospheric conditions like coastal regions and aggressive ground situations with high chlorides and 5 PLANNING ASPECTS sulphates should also be taken care of with appropriate Construction planning aspects aim to identify and construction practices. equipment. Such process interactions need organizational interfaces to be defined 5. dust storms. manpower and processes provide opportunities for resolving conflicts equipment and techniques are best done in the and competing interests through appropriate tradeoffs. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.1.63.8 Adverse weather conditions have strong bearing quality standards. Planning aspects evolve out of the materials. vulnerability especially when process responsibilities belong to for disasters. site conditions. Adequate knowledge about a) Site layout which enables accessibility in preconstruction phase evolution of project.1. environmental on construction phase. the design and field operations should planning determines processes.1. it may construction methods needs to be carefully evaluated often have impact on the cost aspects of not only that at the planning stage to ensure ease of construction process but other processes involving other besides optimizing the construction schedule and organizational groups. Integrated management systems and materials. underground Integration management may also be required for utilities.24. function is a cause for concern for other management functions.35) valid upto31-12-2017 necessary for coordination amongst various conditions should be fully understood with anticipated organizations and their teams involved. During the design stage. the local conditions like terrain. Accordingly. etc. reliability and maintainability of the coordination amongst performing groups in the down. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. special considerations and meticulous planning due to restricted space.3 Construction in busy localities of cities needs and resolved at an overall level.4 The constructability aspects of the proposed performing a particular construction process. preconstruction phase.1. etc.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . human and environmental) and as the following: monitoring system to ensure that the practices are appropriately aligned. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 17 . SECTION 2 CONSTRUCTION PLANNING 5. different organizational groups. For example. is an essential b) Adequate protected storage for weather prerequisite for construction planning. sensitive materials/equipment. etc. then have to satisfy these objectives such as heavy and continuous rain fall. Situations wherein constructions considerations and health considerations. The type of construction. with their actions coordinated to the mutual 5. the rescheduling may affect achieving quality. traffic restrictions. if there is a time delay in 5. Such selection is influenced by Integration is necessary where processes interact. building interests towards the project. c) Protection to personnel from extreme hot/cold 5. Construction are to be carried out in adverse weather conditions. related to customer’s requirements. drainage. implementation of the design at the site through suitable e) Special design and construction provisions for construction strategy. reference shall be made to good take into considerations the problem of landslides. noise and environmental specific situations when impact of one management pollution and other specific site constraints. 5. preconstruction phase d) Scheduling to allow maximization of outdoor should also address all the issues related to the activities during fair weather conditions.MANAPAKKAM.1 Preconstruction Phase conditions. components. stream processes and activities.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .7 Construction practices in disaster prone areas need which should be consistent with the management specific planning. suiting the Having established objectives of the construction phase. It ensures that difficulties and avoid the risk of subsequent delays and various organizational teams perform in an integrated changes after the construction has started. practices would. safety standards. slope practice [7(14)]. stability. resources (including be adapted or redefined based on considerations.1. the practices have to address the relevant aspects. constructed facilities. extreme hot or during construction phase of the project. besides ensuring no adverse impact on the fragile environmental conditions.24. especially adverse weather. adjoining structures. climate. develop various stages of project execution on site 5.

work on site.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . stone. Resource planning needs to establish a power suppression unit. governed by the site constraints. need to be g) Temporary buildings. handling and storage. activities. The site layout should take into resources considered (see also 4. as. 5. h) Roads for vehicular movement with effective drainage plan. A well planned site layout resources. control system for controlling consumption monitoring. topography. manufactured products.24. for workers (see 14) with use of non- Techniques of management and planning such as combustible materials as far as possible Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) including emergency medical aids. The construction practices also get decided k) Fabrication yards for reinforcement assembly. information resources such as reference standards and c) Adequate stack areas for bulk construction other practice documents.3 Access to the upper floors during construction 5. cranes. resource planning need to be validated appropriately Free access from the street to fire hydrants/static water and established for such management. traffic.3. No materials for construction collection so as to facilitate effective resources control shall be placed within 3 m of hydrants/static water tanks. shape.24.3. Therefore. infrastructure facilities and cash flow. specifically defined in the overall organizational setup. etc). scheduling and allocation of e) Layout of temporary services (water. environmental conditions for materials.3. hoists. in public interest. and other availability and regulatory/control processes related to restrictions. vehicle and equipment during construction equipment for construction.2 Access for firefighting equipment vehicles the project and its timeliness with reference to requirement of cash flow should also merit Access for firefighting equipment shall be provided to consideration.2. commitment to the project requirements and shifts. with proper parking of categorized as materials.3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.3). stability responsibilities assigned to the construction personnel of false work in extreme wind conditions for various construction related functions.3. 5.1 Site layout g) Design for early enclosure. where available.2. mechanism.2. Resource tanks. elevators. barricades and signages. installation and fabrication. the inputs to the maintained until all construction work is completed.2.3 Construction Phase 5. resources. Resource planning responsibility has to be During building operations. Source of funding of 5.2 Site Management f) Adequate lighting for shorter days in winter/ night work. by the local skills of the manpower for construction concrete precasting and shuttering materials. (gusts). and Critical Path Method (CPM) may be used. The equipment selection would also be m) Fencing. d) Optimum location of plants and equipment Therefore.63. etc). the resource planning is the construction site at the start of construction and critical to the project viability itself.2 Resource Planning construction activities and the specific constraints in Resource planning aims to identify requirement. materials. considerations the following factors: In construction phases. site office and shelter considered as inputs while planning resources. Resource planning is a generic expression would enable safe smooth and efficient construction but the actual process of planning is specific to the operations. the resource planning encompasses (batching plants. aggregate.63. The layout of the construction site should be carefully planned keeping in view the various requirements of 5.1 Organizational Structure In all buildings over two storeys high. the resources could be a) Easy access and exit.MANAPAKKAM. terms of its size. power. Organizational f) Adequate yard lighting and lighting for night capability. at least one The site management should be carried out through 18 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . 5. Non-availability of basic building materials (brick.3. corrective action and resource reappropriation in the event of favourable deviation. estimation.35) valid upto31-12-2017 activities in extreme temperature conditions suitable site organization structure with roles and like hot or cold weather concreting.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2. etc) within reasonable lead would j) Construction safety with emergency access influence the construction practice by alternative and evacuations and security measures.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . shall be provided and planning should establish a proper system of data maintained at all times. b) Properly located material stores for easy human resources as a part of overall organization. other constraints such as time and cost. identification. temporary or portable first-aid firefighting equipment shall be maintained at all times. free access to permanent.

MANAPAKKAM. Duration of dewatering should continue till also be ensured that the elements of structure satisfy sufficient dead loads are achieved to stabilize the the appropriate fire resistance requirements as specified buoyancy loads with adequate factor of safety. and activities. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. both permanent and temporary. etc shall be as given in Part 2 ‘Administration’ of the Code. Electrical installations. and other services in a building shall be installed in f) Ensuring slope stability with retaining accordance with approved designs as per Part 8 structure before the main construction.MANAPAKKAM.1 While preparing the site for construction. Sites of high water table workers shall meet the requirements specified in 14.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 6. shall be executed in accordance SECTION 3 CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES with 7.2. appropriate planning and 6. Code.4 Construction of All Elements basement in sites of high water table should be planned 6.2 Site Preparation electrical installations for transportable construction 6. including 6. This stairway shall be extended upward as each accordance with Part 2 ‘Administration’ of the Code.1 Construction of all elements of a building shall with dewatering scheme with appropriate construction be in accordance with good practice [7(15)]. bush buildings (site sheds) shall be in accordance with 12 of and other wood.35) valid upto31-12-2017 stairway shall be provided in usable condition at all construction work. shall be removed and Part 8 ‘Building Services.4 Electrical installations encouraged for building construction activity. j) Minimum time to be spent on working below ground level. 6.4 Necessary temporary works required to enable permanent works.2. conditions with aggressive chemical contents of subsoil needs special design considerations. 5. material and Code. 6.3 Habitat for Construction Workers at Site implemented by the site management personnel to ensure ease of construction and smooth flow of The habitat and other welfare measures for construction construction activities.1 Professional Services and Responsibilities selection of building materials and techniques of construction have to be judiciously done and applied The responsibility of professionals with regard to in practice. ‘Building Services’ of the Code and Part 9 ‘Plumbing g) Installation and movement of heavy Services including Solid Waste Management’ of the equipment like cranes and piling equipment. Requirements of low income housing planning. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Section 2 Electrical and promptly disposed of so as to minimise the attendant Allied Installations’ of the Code.5 Low Income Housing PRACTICES For low income housing. the conditions and constraints of the project site and 6.3 Construction Strategy and Construction 6. hazards. There shall be a handrail on the All applications for permits and issuance of certificates.24.3 All mechanical.4. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 19 .2 Construction of all accessibility features/elements b) Construction methods employed including in a building and its built environment shall be as per prefabrication.3.4.4. and quality construction sequence should be planned taking into of building materials/components used shall be in consideration the following aspects: accordance with Part 5 ‘Building Materials’ of the a) Availability of resources (men. etc. Employment of trained workers shall be 5. floor is completed. etc and that of the owner shall be in times. 6 CONSTRUCTION CONTROL AND 6.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Buildings with 6.3.63.2. Proper sequencing of installation of various services shall be done for ensuring smooth construction h) Effect of weather.4. staircase. debris. It shall sequence. The in Part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’ of the Code. designing and supervision of building specified in Part 3 ‘Development Control Rules and PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. electrical and plumbing (MEP) e) Stability of ground like in hilly terrain. for construction and demolition sites. mechanism.63. Control Rules and General Building Requirements’ of d) Design requirements and load transfer the Code.2 Temporary buildings for construction offices and Sequence storage shall be so located as to cause the minimum Construction strategy and construction methods are to fire hazards and shall be constructed from non- be evolved at the planning and design stage specific to combustible materials as far as possible. equipment).24. the requirements given in 13 of Part 3 ‘Development c) Planned construction time.

durability and safety. cyclists including non-motorized the foot-over bridges. taking care of the following while complying The Authority may approve any such alternative. stone slabs or plain cement city roads/streets have been under constant concrete for footpaths. kerb ramps. pedestrian paths below in accordance with this Part. However. tiles. kerb channels. for the purpose intended. public art.63. poles on main roads and service roads. concrete. Thus. free left turns. pedestrian paths on traffic islands. or transport authorities and the executing work offered is. design and construction and that material. tactile and dust bins. m) Sharing of NMV with footpath necessary at and sustainable. hawkers. pedestrian paths structural safety. ferrocement construction. drain cover slabs. panel/other in-fill walls. all requirements regarding pedestrian paths across central verge. followed. zebra crossings and the bus strength. ground surface indicators. transformers k) Access to gates of residential/commercial and trees. providing essentially required width of metalled surface f) Standardization of access manhole covers for for the movement of vehicles (both motorized and non. many locations. various utilities. central verge.7.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . method. service and service roads including modifications of pipes. so that they development. motorized). providing provision of cement bonded particle board. compatibility. such with the relevant rules/regulations: as.MANAPAKKAM.24. kerb ramps and 6. and adequate space for toilets. stretcher bond in filler a) Road cross-section planning based on land- slab.6 Use of New/Alternative Construction Techniques footpath and traffic islands plantation. indicating the methodology of Code. The elements required in an efficiently planned street. the proposed alternative is satisfactory and conforms to the provisions of relevant parts regarding material. central verge irrigation system. fixing of structures with suitable water resistant wall panels like geometrics of roads.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . pedestrian paths at intersections/ 20 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .35) valid upto31-12-2017 General Building Requirements’ of the Code shall be T-junctions. silt chambers with manhole p) Street lighting for proper illumination of roads cover. vehicles as well as pedestrians. tree gratings. kerb stones. at least agencies to be ensured for efficient location equivalent to that prescribed in the Code in quality.1 The urban roads. 6. should use of any construction techniques including any be identified. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. utilities. universally user friendly. paver 6. bollards across pedestrian paths. The emphasis has been primarily on add to aesthetics of buildings and roads. provided any such alternative has been approved. c) Coordination between the traffic police. cable ducting by discoms.7 Urban Roads/City Roads Planning and kerb channels. Footpaths of various widths and heights g) Providing footpath at one level by adjusting are required to be provided. etc. safe for footpath in front. flyovers. para-transport. the drain cover slab levels. the objective should be to create urban properties integrated with the road through the streets/roads that are efficiently planned. light gauge steel framed b) Design of road intersections. These elements should be integrated at alternative materials. which are commonly known as blocks. drainage. service roads blocked by existing trees. health safety and fire safety shall be near rotaries (un-signaled). subways and public vehicle (NMV) drivers.63. execution. effectiveness. plazas. public toilets.MANAPAKKAM. d) Standardization of kerb stones. fire and water queue shelters and the pickup stands for the resistance. of traffic signals. The provisions of this Part are not intended to prevent bus queue shelters. manhole covers for electrical services. like. Construction e) Appropriate selection of materials. drain manhole covers. table tops on avoiding plantation of trees. n) Adequate provision of public conveniences such as. The space between the buildings and the city roads h) Integration of bus queue shelters with the should be treated as valuable and important space footpath. lighting q) Low height plantation on central verges. street lighting poles. not specifically prescribed by the the planning stage. cycle tracks (NMV). provided it is found that entry and exits from the service roads. pre-engineered steel structures with NOTE — This may be achieved by rationalizing lane widths reinforced concrete expanded polystyrene core based based on norms laid down by Indian Roads Congress. glass fibre reinforced gypsum (GFRG) panel use with emphasis on smooth vehicular system using composite of GFRG panel and reinforced movements. street furniture. etc. manhole street lighting along with central verge and the covers for telecom services. signages. allowing for a comfortable and safe use by the j) Pedestrian friendly access across the roads to pedestrians. traffic signals. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24.

authorization to load and NOTE — The relevant standards/publications of Indian Roads removal. temporary works that are designed tarpaulin sheet covers shall be used for trucks only to be used during construction shall not transporting fine materials liable to cause environmental be removed until the satisfactory safety criteria pollution. aspects as given below should be edges and give clear visibility. proper and safe utilization of footpath. a temporary works co-ordinator 6.24. Plastic/ However. road and large projects. completion. followed: y) Selection.  Usually the temporary works are removed after person organizing the temporary works should use. in design. foundations and crane or piling platforms which may t) Freeing of trees embedded in the compound be used for hard standing or road foundations. Sometimes the temporary works are incorporated s) Removal of trees obstructing the carriage ways into the permanent works.35) valid upto31-12-2017 r) Removal of crooked trees on footpaths for excavation support. supervision of work. While organizing the safe from moving traffic near the footpath temporary works. scaffolds. The role of TWC and supervisor not be there but the care has to be taken to avoid and or should be decided. procurement and installation in at each stage of the process and how to prevent respect of accessibility features as per the these. the built. The road work not create unacceptable risk of harm to zones and the traffic around them should be so planned workers or members of the public.MANAPAKKAM. The coordinator shall have remove conflicts between workers and construction adequate field training for temporary works. selection. ensuring that they are correctly installed. facilitate projects with relatively simple temporary smooth and efficient flow of traffic and also provide works needs. a TWC may be avoided. there is a tendency to assume cutting during night hours and improving they are less important. haul road and their replantation. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 21 .1 The construction of most types of permanent works execution of temporary works. for example. shoring.63. for their use has been met. b) If so required. Lack of care aesthetics during the day.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . used. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. wherever feasible. assembly.  that are needed to enable the permanent works to be f) In each of the cases of temporary works. d) Temporary works are often taken from site to 6. etc. for example. assess the soil conditions to be sure that it is PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.  u) Providing planters in the central verge in the Considering that as temporary works may be in place deck portion of flyover to ensure proper glare for only a short while. it shall be ensured that temporary NOTE — For guidance on management of pedestrians/cyclists/ works are properly managed.24. The same wall/dwarf walls on footpaths to save both the degree of care and attention should be given to the trees and the walls. however. vehicles near road construction sites. zones’. a) The person organizing the temporary works should be aware of the problems that can occur z) Selection. such as screens and barricading shall the robustness of components in their design. procurement and installation of street furniture. access.  They need to coordinate design.8 Measures against pollution and hazard due to dust. be installed at the site during construction. requirements given in 13 of Part 3 selection of equipment. etc. checking Building Requirements’ of the Code.  On and managed so as to ensure traffic safety. whose requisite building machineries and construction traffic. design and construction of temporary works as to the design and construction of the permanent works. false work and formwork. which is incorrect. machineries and construction traffic.7. site and re-used and it is important to consider smoke and debris. 7 TEMPORARY WORKS e) Proper planning and co-ordination should be done in respect of sequence and timely 7. safe working environment for the workers. as also for requires the use of some form of temporary works.MANAPAKKAM. Problem becomes The contractor shall ensure that work is more serious if it is an urban road with significant allocated and carried out in a manner that does proportion of vulnerable road users.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . appointment of ‘Development Control Rules and General contractors. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. construction workers. Temporary works are the parts of a construction project checked and maintained. reference may be made c) The cost of any temporary works is generally to IRC SP 55 : 2014 ‘Guidelines on traffic management in work included in the build-up of the tender.63. props. leaves temporary w) Proper location of signage boards so as to be works liable to fail or collapse.  Congress may be referred to. normal operating traffic will specified.2 The road work zones are areas of conflict between (TWC) may be employed in case of medium normal operating traffic. If it is a qualification and experience should be construction of new road.

4 Falsework and their erection shall be in accordance with the good practice [7(16)]. be taken while removing temporary works. though sometimes a crane base is screw props (acrows) needs careful incorporated into the permanent structure to save on consideration.63.3 Tower Cranes that any assumptions made in the calculations for the standard solution are valid for this Tower cranes are usually supplied on a hire basis.  This the crane is functioning and wind speeds are restricted will include the wall above and the additional (that is. whether following less than the allowable bearing pressure of the soil. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 suitable for the equipment involved. load from any other floor or roof beams. and in each corner. size. construction. case of temporary works. has been performed: Various foundation types can be selected depending on 1) They have designed the foundations. Where possible a structural fill 2) Any assumption made that have to be can be compacted and used to support a crane with the confirmed/investigated.MANAPAKKAM.  Even with proprietary equipment. where the crane is not being that enter the wall above or close to the used but maximum wind speeds may occur. with particular situation and the conditions on site. opening. The design shall ii) steps taken to ensure co-operation between the ensure that reinforcement at the top of the pile top permanent and temporary works designers.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . cranes will not operate at high wind speeds). The foundation shall be so designed that the unfactored Proprietary equipment supplier should be identified and loading from the crane and the unfactored pressure is approved. etc.5 m and 10 m apart with wheels scaffolding. number cost and time. pile foundations may be necessary. reinforced concrete foundations may be 5) Procedures checked at site. and inspection. and check 7. iv) advise clients on the suitability of the initial construction phase plan. ‘in service’ loads. Detailed knowledge about each type of down. has to ensure. Cranes should typically be structured around two rails The different types of temporary works can be at their base between 4. and section of the crane. and ‘out of service’ loads. Cranes should not normally be tied trench support. The to ensure that vertical loading from the crane passes requirements as given in 7. and when two works should not initiate a global collapse of cranes are being used on the same site.  the client being responsible for the design and On a simple job. i) checks on competence on designers. The particular requirements for controls for tower cranes 7. formwork. the supplier’s data will allow construction of the base upon which the crane is erected. When loads from the crane 4) Status of drawings.2 to 7. in to the soil strata below. The location for a crane should be carefully selected h) A local failure within the temporary to provide a maximum working radius. access. should not cause problems for positioning the mast base iii) coordination at site meetings. required. information is needed Loads are given in two forms. crane supports. the owner/client the crane loading.63. repair. where about the loads that will act on the props.  To select the type. so sufficient kentledge should be provided so as temporary work is necessary for safe construction.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .  and the base is most commonly designed as a temporary g) Propping using standard equipment such as structure. an experienced person to consider the Details of loading are provided by the crane supplier necessary issues without further calculation. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. load spreading through layers of track support at 45° 3) Independent checking done and by whom. maintenance. Therefore. When ground conditions are particularly poor. and decide spacing. It should be ascertained. the Tower cranes shall embody all fundamental principles arrangements for controlling significant site of design in accordance with the good practice [7(17)] risks.24. This can involve a series of reinforced concrete beams used to support line loads as a result of In management of temporary works. practice [7(18)]. Scaffolding 7. that is. so as to secure reliability and safety in operation. falsework. the ground conditions. and increase. the support system shall be worked out. mast heights the structure.2 Scaffolding and the arrangement of basic control used for Scaffolding includes providing a temporary safe positioning loads shall be in accordance with the good working platform for erection. additional care should and jib lengths shall be considered.MANAPAKKAM.24. Falsework involves a temporary structure used to 22 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .6 shall be satisfied in through the rails and into the foundation.

Timber formwork is fabricated using timber. 8. It is for stability which should be considered when access not as versatile as timber formwork due to the is required for construction work or piping. glass fiber reinforced plastics trenches. size dimensions of a trench. acting as permanent axial and shear the trench as they are installed by light machinery and reinforcement for the structural member. there should be proper planning necessary to ensure a high standard of work including of the layout for stacking and storage of different finish. using timber and plywood. and are most commonly used to retain poorer schemes. it is necessary that the lateral force caused are used to support vertical formwork while concrete by the existing structure should be taken care of. the A trench is defined as an excavation when its length requirements of various materials. orderly piles that are out by hand or by using a mechanical digger. excavation can either be carried and length and placed in neat. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. Trenches safe against falling. All passageways shall be investigated before any extensive excavation takes kept clear of dry vegetation. dry ground and can be placed in pre-excavated pours of concrete.5 Formwork support scheme. If piles are high they shall be are commonly required to allow services. They can support deeper trenches with larger Stay-in-place structural formwork is generally surcharges and provide a continuous support. repetitive structures such as mass housing available. cures. they are versatile and the Timber formwork is normally constructed on site equipment required is easy to handle and transport. Piles of or foundations to be laid.1.6 Trench Support carrying the material.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . It also could buckle under large vertical loads. Section 5 Concrete: Subsection 5A Plain and Reinforced Concrete’ of the 8. have depth greater than 6 m. STACKING AND HANDLING formwork.1 For any site.1 General Code. Striking of formwork shall be governed by PRACTICES Part 6 ‘Structural Design. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63. for relatively shallow support themselves. Traditionally.MANAPAKKAM.1 Planning and Storage Layout High quality workmanship and inspection are 8. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. The formwork is assembled either trenches or installed using the ‘dig and push’ technique. pipelines stepped back at suitable intervals in height.1.63. shafts or headings. Over short periods of time. without any problems. Traditional loads and this technique is still used today.1. however. materials. It is used for concrete columns and piers and slenderness of the sheets can often limit the depth of stays in place.MANAPAKKAM.1. While planning the layout.35) valid upto31-12-2017 support other permanent structures until they can place. narrow constructed from steel. It is easy to produce. components and greatly exceeds its depth. Falsework shall be designed and depths most soil types will stand almost vertically erected in accordance with the good practice [7(19)]. They assembled on site using prefabricated fibre-reinforced require multiple levels of strut support and the plastic. provides resistance to environmental damage to both While making deep excavation near an existing the concrete and reinforcing bars.2 Materials shall be segregated as to kind. require good workmanship and are reasonably labour- intensive. However. Proprietary systems structure. prefabrication requirements and is best suited for low- Trench sheets are the most adaptable of the systems cost. materials shall be arranged so as to allow a passageway Water ingress into the trench is often a major issue and of not less than 1 m width in between the piles or stacks ground water table locations and soil strata should be for inspection or removal. but it can also be trenching is generally used for low risk. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 23 . soil.1. trenches other than those which are relatively shallow may require a trench 7. Depending on the 8. Trench supports shall be provided in accordance with When selecting formwork the type of concrete and the good practice [7(20)]. although it can be time consuming for larger structures.24. Trench boxes are suitable for low-risk situations in Re-usable plastic formwork is generally used for quick stable. The timber solutions and other materials. components and equipment with proper access and proper manoeuvrability of the vehicles 7. Shallow trenches are usually equipment at different stages of construction shall be considered to be less than 6 m deep and deep trenches considered. from interlocking panels or from a modular system and The system requires at least two struts at each panel is used for relatively simple concrete structures.24. trenching involved Formwork is the term used for a temporary mould into using timber to support horizontal and vertical soil which concrete is poured and formed. consisting of series of tubes and ties.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . temperature of the pour are important considerations as they both effect the pressure exerted on the 8 STORAGE.

shall be stored in accordance and the stacks (see Fig.1. Supervisors shall also take care to assign enough men Cement in gunny bags. In stacks more than 8 bags high. Owing to pressure on bottom piled so high as to make them unstable under fire layer of bags sometimes ‘warehouse pack’ is developed fighting conditions and in general they shall not be more in these bags. winds and moisture. Materials shall not be stacked dust is known to be harmful to health of human beings. bamboo. if any should be removed and disposed of.5 m in height. Lumped practice [7(21)] shall be followed.2. tides.1.1. stacked and handled 8. prevent the possibility of lumping up under pressure.1. Each workman shall be provided with such as polyethylene. tides. Care shall be taken to see that the All workers shall wear adequate clothing to protect waterproofing membrane is not damaged any time themselves from direct sun-rays and other irritants. Materials stored at site. This can be removed easily by rolling than 4. and cross-wise so as to tie the stacks together and minimise the danger of toppling over. 8. depending upon the individual Cement received in bags shall be kept in such a way characteristics. be stacked in a manner to facilitate their removal and etc.1. Cement bags shall be stacked off the floor on wooden planks in such a way as to keep them about 150 mm to 8.2 Materials which are likely to be affected by The width of the stack shall be not more than four bags subsidence of soil like precast beams.2 Cement the stacks shall have suitable warning signs in day time a) Storage and stacking — Cement shall be stored at and red lights on and around them at night. to avoid dampness or moisture coming in contact with them.1.3 Materials shall be stored. A space of 600 mm any possibility of fire hazards.MANAPAKKAM.1 Materials. shall be stored in such a way that there may not be on a well consolidated earth. detonators shall be stored in accordance with the The height of stack shall not be more than 10 bags to existing regulations of The Explosives Act. When heavy materials have to be handled manually For extra safety during monsoon.2 Protection Against Atmospheric Agencies kept closed as far as possible.31. stacking and handling of materials of foreign matter and to ensure the preservation of their generally used in construction shall be as given in 8. which have been summarized in the form of 8.24. In the stacks the cement with the relevant rules and regulations so as to ensure bags shall be kept close together to reduce circulation the desired safety during storage. which shall close on the top of suitable equipment for his personal safety as necessary. etc. like timber.63. coal. passageways and gangways shall not proof and as moisture-proof as possible. Explosives like bags. the stack shall be supervisor for the proper method of handling such completely enclosed by a water proofing membrane materials.4 Manual Handling stack to know the age of cement.5 Materials shall be stacked in such a manner as not to constitute a hazard to passerby.2. paints.2.3. Exposure to asbestos fibres/ and unyielding surface.4 Materials shall be stacked on well drained. during the use. or when it is expected each workman shall be instructed by his foreman or to store for an unusually long period. 3). such as rain.1.35) valid upto31-12-2017 8.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Stacks shall not be of air as much as possible. the work site in a building or a shed which is dry. shall be suitably stored to prevent their being use in the order in which they are received. Stacking and Handling of Materials in such a manner as to prevent deterioration or intrusion 8.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2 quality and fitness for the work.MANAPAKKAM.3 Protection Against Fire and Other Hazards 200 mm clear above the floor. showing date of receipt of cement shall be put on each 8. shall be protected from atmospheric that the bags are kept free from the possibility of any actions.2. the of sizes shall be stored by adopting suitable measures cement bags shall be arranged alternately length-wise to ensure unyielding supports. firm a check list in Annex A.1. [7(22)] shall be followed for handling and usage of asbestos cement products.1.3. deterioration. 1884.1. 8. so as to impose any undue stresses on walls or other Prescribed guidelines in accordance with good practice structures. distance involved.2 Storage.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . sun. to 8.1. leak- 8. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. The provisions given in good the bags when cement is taken out for use. paper bags and polyethylene to each such job depending on the weight and the bags shall be stored separately.3 Materials liable to be affected by floods. At such places 8. lean cement concrete or two layers of dry bricks laid etc. 24 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .63.1. The floor may comprise 8.1 The storage.1. The building become obstructed by storage of building materials. Inflammable materials minimum shall be left around between the exterior walls like kerosene and petrol.1. windows and close fitting doors and these should be 8.3.6 Stairways. slabs and timber length or 3 m. Cement bags shall 8. or shed for storage should have minimum number of tools or accumulated rubbish. the stack. a table washed away or damaged due to floods.

these shall be cement bags unless specifically permitted by the stored on plane level ground.MANAPAKKAM. 8.24. After taking out the required from the top of the piles to avoid tipping of the stack.3 Lime placed near the concrete batching plant.35) valid upto31-12-2017 FIG . PRACTICES AND SAFETY 25 .1 Quicklime before slaking Different types of cements shall be stacked and stored a) Storage and stacking — Quicklime should be separately.MANAPAKKAM.2.63. as far as possible near engineer-in-charge.4). 3 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT IN CEMENT GODOWN In case cement is received in drums. (see 8. slaked as soon as possible.24.2. the lid of the drum shall be securely For information regarding bulk handling of cement tied to prevent ingress of moisture. Bags shall be removed uniformly the concrete mixing place.63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . In case cement is received in silos. The heaps shall PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . quantity of cement.3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. the silos shall be 8. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2. Proper access shall be provided for the replacement of silos. If unavoidable it may be stored in compact heaps having only b) Handling — Hooks shall not be used for handling the minimum of exposed area.

63. autoclaved aerated 8.MANAPAKKAM.35) valid upto31-12-2017 be stored on a suitable platform and covered classification shall be stored separately.3.MANAPAKKAM. c) Blocks — Blocks are available as hollow and solid concrete blocks. Stones to avoid direct contact with rain or being shall be stacked on dry firm ground in a regular blown away by wind. for storing of cement shall be applicable for such as. a minimum space of stones shall be stacked against vertical support 300 mm should be provided all-round the on a firm dry ground in tiers.2. Blocks shall be Workers. Also bricks of different types.2. Workers handling cement. The 8. It should be stored in a building to For proper inspection of quality and ease in protect the lime from dampness and to counting. minimise warehouse deterioration. such 8. hollow and perforated shall be a) Storage and stacking — The lime shall be stacked separately. inaccessible to water and because of fire b) Bricks — Bricks shall be stacked in regular hazards.2 m. shall be unloaded one at a time and stacked in regular instructed in the need of cleanliness to prevent tiers to minimise breakage and defacement.3. the bricks being placed on edge. such as jute bags lined with polyethylene or craft paper Bricks shall be stacked on dry firm ground.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . the ejection system employed shall All blocks should be water cured for 10 to 14 be shut down and locked out electrically as well as days and air cured for another 15 days. weight concrete blocks. Veneering stored in a covered shed. bags. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.8 m shall be kept Unslaked lime shall be stored in a place between two adjacent stacks. When air movement is reduced ash lime bricks.8 m. upto a height of heaps to avoid bulging of walls. Bricks of each truck load shall general. and goggles. bin for any purpose. the bricks in stack should be thoroughly soaked in water (docked) to a) Storage and stacking — Hydrated lime is prevent lime bursting. These shall not be dumped at site. be placed close to the site of work so that least effort is required for their transportation. the stacks shall be 50 bricks long. Bricks of different types.2. A distance of about 0. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. shall. conventional and modular) shall be stacked separately. the of exposed skin. two at The building should be with a concrete floor a time along the width of the stack. 10 bricks high and not more than 4 bricks in width.4 Handling of Cement and Lime concrete blocks. and shall be provided with hand cream. sand lime (calcium silicate) to a practical minimum.4. thus mechanically.0 m. types and suitably marked on the stacks of blocks 26 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . hydrated lime can be bricks shall be stacked separately. generally supplied in containers. b) Handling — See 8.4. Blocks shall workman outside the silo or hopper attending the rope. Clear and having least ventilation to eliminate distance between adjacent stacks shall not be draughts through the walls and roof.2. The height petroleum jelly. as far as possible and the width shall be equipped with hand gloves and dust mask. in addition to the above 3.63.4. or similar preparation for protection of the stack shall not be more than 1. Normally blocks cured for 28 days only should be received at Bulk cement stored in silos or bins may fail to feed to site. concrete stone masonry blocks and soil based blocks. clay bricks. These shall not be dumped at site. who are length of the stack shall not be more than continually exposed to it. shall be segregated from the tiers as and when they are unloaded to combustible materials. bricks made from clays containing lime 8.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24. In the case of b) Handling — See 8.2.2. hollow and solid light b) Handling — See 8. Bricks of stored for up to three months without different classifications from strength appreciable change.2 be put in one stack. be of two or three blocks.5 Masonry Units date of manufacture of the blocks shall be a) Stones — Stones of different sizes. In case blocks cured for less than 28 days the ejection system.3 Dry slaked lime as. solid. dermatitis. 1. respirators. minimise breakage and defacement. the recommendations given in 8. stored in a dry and closed godown.2. fly hydrated lime. In case quick lime is heap not more than 1 m in height. consideration and size consideration (such as. When necessary for a workman to enter no blocks with less than 28 days curing shall such storage area. with another be used in building construction. he shall wear a life-line. these shall be stacked separately.24.2. handling bulk cement or lime shall wear protective clothing.2 Hydrated lime Kankar. In less than 0.2 m. clay fly ash bricks. When necessary to enter a silo or are received.

cement/fly ash storage depending upon the In the stack. vegetable and other employed in their place.2. Machine driven required to unload and transport the bricks hoppers.9 Cinder Tiles of different quality.10 Timber opened one at a time as and when required a) Storage and stacking — Timber shall be for use.2. In any layer an air foreign matter.35) valid upto31-12-2017 manufactured at factory or site. or a thin layer of crossers are not available smaller sections of lean concrete shall be made so as to prevent the available structural timber may be the mixing with clay.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . The crossers intermixed. in the off position prior to entry.8 Pulverized Fuel Ash/Fly Ash/Silica edges or other parts of bricks shall not be permitted. Distance between adjacent stacks loss due to the effect of wind is minimum. b) Handling — See 8. where separate sheets.2.2. Wall and Roof Tiles shall be stored in such a manner as to permit easy access for proper inspection and a) Storage and stacking — Floor. stored in stacks upon well treated and even b) Handling — Ceramic tiles and roof tiles are surfaced beams. such as. called crossers.24. Various members shall preferably be stored 8. heaps on raised foundations with the PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. In case. stored at site on a hard dry and level patch of separating one layer from another. avoiding any intrusion of and ceramic tiles (glazed and unglazed) shall foreign matter. in general. to the site of work so that least effort is attended by another person.7 Aggregate separately in different lengths. a crossers shall be of sound wood. If such a surface is not available. Tiles when supplied matter. size and thickness Cinder shall be stored in bulk quantities in stacks similar shall be stacked separately to facilitate easy to coarse aggregates avoiding any extrusion of foreign removal for use in work.2. no overhang shall be possible.MANAPAKKAM. Height of the stack shall not be more than one metre. feeders. Employees required to enter hoppers shall be d) Handling — Brick stacks shall be placed close equipped with safety belts and life-lines. Fly ash in bags shall be stored be stacked on regular platform as far as in stacks not more than 10 bags high.6 Floors. Silica possible under cover in proper layers and in fume. Fine of a stack are recommended to be about 1. the timber may be close piled in permitted. The ground.63. any other way likely to damage the corners or 8. sleepers or brick pillars so generally supplied in cartons which shall be as to be above the ground level by at least handled with care to avoid breakage. The crates shall be 8. electrically Unloading of building bricks or handling in as well as mechanically.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 8.5 m aggregates shall be stacked in a place where and 2. coloured and terrazzo) to fine aggregates.63. wall and clay identification of each consignment. On a large job it is desirable to in different layers shall be in vertical construct dividing walls to give each type of alignment. It is 150 mm to ensure that the timber will not be preferable to transport these at the site on affected by accumulation of water under it. straight and platform of planks or old corrugated iron uniform in thickness.0 m. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. or a floor of bricks. a) Storage and stacking — Fly ash/Silica fume 8. space of about 25 mm shall be provided Stacks of fine and coarse aggregate shall be between adjacent members. dust. In case b) Handling — When withdrawals are made the stacking with the help of battens is not from stock piles. platform trolleys. the tiles shall be so placed that storage requirements in bags/bulk form.MANAPAKKAM. The longer pieces kept in separate stock piles sufficiently shall be placed in the bottom layers and shorter removed from each other to prevent the pieces in the top layers but one end of the stack material at the edges of the piles from getting shall be in true vertical alignment.4.24. is recommended to be at least 450 mm. Fly ash in roof tiles of different types. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 27 . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. by manufacturers packed in wooden crates shall be stored in crates. cement bulk quantities shall be stored in stack similar concrete tiles (plain.2. The most suitable width and height aggregates its own compartment. and loaders shall be locked again by loading on pallets or in barrows. the mould surface of one faces that of another. and material of equal lengths shall be piled together in a) Storage and stacking — Aggregates shall be layers with wooden battens. shall be stored similar to tiers and they shall not be dumped in heaps.

ground level by at least 150 mm and a coat of cement wash shall be given to prevent scaling A mixture of these compounds yields the best results. The distance between 8. In case of long storage or in coastal areas. a) Storage and stacking — For each Storage under cover reduces the liability to fungal classification of steel. single tee and double tee sections shall be stacked as individual units one 8. The waffle units shall be to the used timber. channel units.24.24. etc. It is desirable that ends of bars and important. attached up to five tiers.2. RC planks.4 Prophylactic treatment of bamboo during with cement wash before stacking to prevent storage prevents losses due to fungi and insects even scaling and rusting.63.MANAPAKKAM. It is desirable to coat reinforcement 8.63.11. waffle units. straps. comprise blocks. The area should specified points so that the stresses due to have good drainage. All refuse and useless cellulosic materials shall be b) Handling — The components shall be handled removed from the site.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 450 mm.13 Steel skids or raised platform at least 300 mm above ground. NOTE — For better protection of structural bamboo (if stored Structural steel of different sections. The roof components such as precast RC The stacks shall be protected from hot dry joists. lengths shall be stored separately. sizes and found suitable at a coverage rate of 24 litre per tonne: lengths shall be stored separately to facilitate a) Sodium pentachlorophenate : 1 percent issues in such sizes and lengths as to minimise solution. These shall be stacked on plane level ground b) Handling — Tag lines shall be used to control having a floor of bricks or a thin layer of lean the load in handling reinforcements or concrete. b) Boric acid + borax (1:1) : 2 percent solution.2. repetition of the treatment after four to six months is desirable. The blocks suitable protective coating of cement wash shall be stacked in accordance with 8. RC joists. etc. cored units. The to planks and formwork for shuttering. to prevent end. Good ventilation and frequent inspection are earmarked.2.11 Bamboo adjacent to the other. winds or direct sun and rain. the ends of all members prefabricated brick panels and ferrocement shall be coated with coal tar. microcrystalline wall in slightly inclined position on both sides wax or any other suitable material. 8. shall be destroyed. cored units and b) Care must be taken that handler or workers L-panels shall be stacked one over the other are not injured by rails. single tee and double tee sections. Following chemicals have been Bars of different classification.11. c) Sodium pentachlorophenate : 2. separate areas shall be attack.2. wastage in cut from standard lengths.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . lintels. These shall be stacked the timber in the stack. In case timber is to be on plane level ground having a floor of bricks stored for about a year or more.12 Partially Prefabricated Wall and Roof upon platforms.5 (c).11. prefabricated brick panels. structural steel when a crane is employed.5 percent reinforcement bars shall be stacked above solution + boric acid + borax (5:1:1).2. 28 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . It shall be stored above ground level by at least 150 mm 8.2. Heavy weights. cracking in the material. handling are minimised. aluminium leaf panels shall be stacked against a brick masonry paints (hardened gloss oil). under open storage.2. if detected. skids or any other suitable Components supports to avoid distortion of sections. shall be given to prevent scaling and rusting. L-panel.1 The site shall be properly inspected and termite any two adjacent stacks shall not be less than colonies or mounds. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. etc shall be unloaded as the stack to prevent distortion or warping of individual components. This applies particularly stacked upside down as individual units. In case a) Storage and stacking — The wall components of coastal areas or in case of long storage. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. are recommended to be placed on the top of ferrocement panels. sections of each class be painted in distinct 8. stored in a way as to prevent distortion and corrosion.2 Bamboo may preferably be stacked on high 8. such as metal rails or large sections of wood. and rusting.3 Bamboo dries by air-seasoning under cover separate colours. sizes and outside). sills.35) valid upto31-12-2017 precautions specified above. Steel reinforcement shall be in the storage yards from 6 to 12 weeks’ time. of the wall.11. or a thin layer of lean concrete. The ground may then be by holding the individual components at disinfected by suitable insecticides. RC planks.2. Channel units.MANAPAKKAM.

14 Aluminium Sections If any timber or other lignocellulosic material based frame or shutter becomes wet during a) Storage and stacking — Aluminium sections transit.2. The pieces should be strained and shutters drooping. Damaged sheets shall not with cross battens at regular distances to keep be stacked with sound materials. and level surface. The shutter stack shall rest on hard shoulders of the workers. The top of the stack shall be and not thrown. anodizing layer. sizes and lengths undamaged material. All timber and other lignocellulosic material a) Storage and stacking — Asbestos cement based frames and shutters shall be stored in a sheets shall be stacked horizontally to a height dry and clean covered space away from any of not more than 1 m on a firm and level infestation and dampness. it shall be kept separate from the of different classification. to protect the material.63. the crates as and when required for the work.2. these shall be 8. manufacturer’s instructions and removed from b) Handling — While unloading. The door be first pushed forward along the valley line shutters shall be stacked in the form of clean say about one fourth of the sheet length and vertical stacks one over the other and at least preferably carried by two workers.MANAPAKKAM. handling and stacking timber or other Metal and plastic frames of doors. windows lignocellulosic material based. such as tarpaulin.2. 8.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Heavy steel sections and bundles shall be covered by a protecting cover and weighted lifted and carried with the help of slings and down by means of scantlings or other suitable tackles and shall not be carried on the weights. These cross sheets shall be salvaged as early as possible.2. Asbestos ventilated dry rooms.63. battens should be of uniform thickness and b) Handling — Not more than two sheets shall placed vertically one above the other.1 Roofing sheets shall be stored and stacked in tarpaulin shall be hung loosely on temporary such a manner as not to damage them in any way.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Separate stacks shall be built up for be pulled or pushed from the stack nor shall each size. with the kick plates at the top. These shall not care shall be taken that the pieces are not be allowed to stand for long in this manner dragged one over the other as it may cause before being fixed so as to avoid the door damage to their surface particularly in case of frames getting out of shape and hinges being the decorative shutters. When materials of different sizes. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. The frames shall be cement sheets of same variety and size shall stacked one over the other in vertical stacks be stacked together. lifted and carried preferably flat avoiding During the period of storage of aluminium damage to corners or sides.MANAPAKKAM. doors.2. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 29 . shifting.16 Roofing Materials protected from loose cement and mortar by suitable covering. grades and types are to be stacked in one stack due to shortage of space. windows and ventilators shall be kept in between the two types of material. The 8. with timber or other packing beneath preferably be in well-ventilated dry rooms. them. stacked upright (on their sills) on level ground Precast concrete door and window frames preferably on wooden battens and shall not shall be stored in upright position adopting come in contact with dirt or ashes.16.15 Doors.2 Asbestos cement sheet moisture condensation. be protected from damage by wind. a) Storage and stacking — Metal and plastic Suitable pallets or separating battens shall be doors. metal and and ventilators shall be stacked upside down plastic door and window frames and shutters. The wet material may shall be stored separately. Asbestos 80 mm above ground on pallets or suitable cement sheets shall be lowered or raised gently beams or rafters. The storage shall ground. on a level platform be dried by stacking in shade with battens in under cover. Windows and Ventilators be stacked in the lower portion of the stacks. the bigger size shall 8.16. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. each grade and each type of be slid over each other. All damaged the stack vertical and straight. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. If received suitable measures against risk of subsidence in crates they shall be stacked according to of soil/support. they shall The storage shall preferably be in well. framing to permit circulation of air to prevent 8. If stacked in exposed position. between adjacent boards with free access of b) Handling — The aluminium sections shall not dry air.24. windows and ventilators.24.

The top sheet of 25 panes.2. The whole stack shall be as plywood and decorative boards.63. organic solvents. b) Handling — While handling plastic and a) Storage and stacking — Plywood. shall be lifted and stored on their long edges The board shall be stacked in a solid block in and shall be put into stacks of not more than a clear vertical alignment.2.MANAPAKKAM. In case of long storage. switchgears and glass reinforced plastic (GRP) sheets shall be other such electrical equipment as they stacked under a shed to a height of not more produce harmful odour/gases.17. rubber sheets. sheets have tendency to break-down during To protect them from dust and rain water. etc powder. block board. The prevent warping. rooms where the sheets are stored shall be well 8.2. wherever necessary. these storage. The coolest store room available shall be workers shall be provided with suitable hand utilized for the storage of the sheets. it is advisable that these are lifted as far as possible in pairs facing a) Storage and stacking — Corrugated each other. a) Storage and stacking — Plastic and rubber with timber or other packing beneath them. b) Handling — In bulk handling of CGI sheets. the sheets shall be 8.63. alkalies. on the top of which a wooden frame 8.24. block turned over periodically and treated with chalk board. Undue stretch and strain.MANAPAKKAM. etc. The boards shall be stacked on a flat dunnage. b) Handling — See 8. Where greasy contamination occurs.24. this shall be removed 8. Plastic and rubber sheets shall be shall be covered with tarpaulin or polyethylene stored according to manufacturer’s sheets.1 Gypsum boards tiles thoroughly wiped dry and dusted with a) Storage and stacking — Gypsum boards shall chalk. kinks. and rain. if necessary. b) Handling — Handling shall be done to avoid acids and their fumes.16.17. shall be prevented. dust and grit any damage to the sheets. supported at two points by fillets of each stack shall be suitably weighed down to wood at about 300 mm from each end. Suitable covered the stack shall be adequately raised above storage space shall be provided for the safe ground level to ensure that it will not be storage of the glass sheets. If required.17.2.2 Plywood.35) valid upto31-12-2017 8.16. greases.17 Boards immediately with petrol and the sheets and 8. first pane laid in each stack shall be so placed b) Handling — The board shall be unloaded and that its bottom edge is about 25 mm from the stacked with utmost care avoiding damage to base of the wall or other support against which the corners and surface. fibre board.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .5 m on a firm and level ground.2 (b). The sheets shall be stored away from electric a) Storage and stacking — Plastic sheets and generators. In case of decorative the stack rests. electric motors. be stored flat in a covered clean and dry place. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. It is important boards with intermediate battens placed at that all glass sheets whether stored in crates suitable intervals to avoid warping. fibre board. particle board.18 Plastic and Rubber Flooring Sheets and Tiles more than 0. than 0. instructions.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . The store protection.5 m on a firm and level ground with Contamination of the sheets with vegetable timber or other packing beneath them.19 Glass Sheets shall be constructed with battens of a) Storage and stacking — The special glasses 50 mm × 25 mm (Min) in such a way that it shall be stored and handled as per supports all four edges and corners of the manufacturer’s instructions. The glass sheets affected by accumulation of water under it. galvanized iron sheets and aluminium sheets shall be stacked horizontally to a height of not 8. To prevent 30 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . or not shall be kept dry. workers shall lift the sheets and particle board.2.2. and mineral oils.2.3 Corrugated galvanized iron sheets and of which are likely to get damaged by dragging aluminium sheets one sheet over another. shall not be carry them flat to avoid sharp bends or folds stored in the open and exposed to direct sun of the sheets. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.4 Plastic sheets and glass reinforced plastic ventilated and direct light should not be (GRP) sheets allowed to fall on them. the surfaces close and as upright as possible. sharp bends or folds of the sheets and tiles shall be avoided.2.

22 Unplasticized PVC Pipes removing glass sheets from crates. Socket and spigot pipes trenches are ready to receive them.MANAPAKKAM. The pipe manufacturer’s instructions. Kinking is likely the actual site and shall be carried on to occur only on very thin walled pipes. In very cold weather. Natural polyethylene pipes. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. handling these pipes in wintry conditions as 8. but in either case layers to reduce the pressure and resulting they should not be allowed to come into spreading of the pile. contact with hot water or steam pipes and In stacking and handling of pipes and other should be kept away from hot surface. The a source of heat. Storage of different sizes.21 Polyethylene Pipes these become brittle in very cold weather. thickness and type shall be pipes in heated areas exceeding 27°C should stacked separately. shoulders. Fittings shall be handled b) Handling — Great care shall be exercised in individually. Glass edges a) Storage and stacking — Pipes should be shall be covered or otherwise protected to stored on a reasonably flat surface free from prevent injuries to workers. the impact suppliers wherever possible.63. a handled first. Galvanized Iron and Asbestos Cement In storage.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . should be given adequate support at all times. Pipe Pipes and Fittings should not be stacked in large piles especially under warm temperature conditions as the a) Storage and stacking – The pipes shall be bottom pipes may distort thus giving rise to unloaded where they are required. On no account should pipes be stack is advisable in smaller diameter pipes stored in a stressed or bend condition or near for conserving space in storing them. suitable Coils may be stored either on edge or stacked packing shall be placed between succeeding flat one on top of the other.2. b) Handling — Removal of pipe from a pile shall b) Handling — Workers handling glass panes.63.MANAPAKKAM.35) valid upto31-12-2017 slipping on smooth floor. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. strength of PVC is reduced making it brittle. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 31 . provided with suitable hand protection. At a time only one pipe shall be pipe becomes kinked. with consignment or batch In tropical conditions. Pipes of different sizes Each stack shall contain only pipes of same and classes should be stacked separately. conducting materials. class and size. protected from direct sunlight. oil. The distance between any be avoided. more than 1. for jointing either spigot or socket solvent Rubber rings shall be kept clean. pipe racks should be avoided.2. Where quantity storage is necessary.23 Pipes of Conducting Materials pipes may be stored either under cover or in a) Storage and stacking — Pipes shall be stacked the open. b) Handling — Pipes in the top layer shall be If due to unsatisfactory storage or handling. The glass sheets of pipe taking on a permanent set.2. heat and light. pyramid shape or the pipes placed lengthwise It is recommended not to store a pipe inside and crosswise in alternate layers. pipes should be stored number marked on it with particulars or in shade. on solid level sills and contained in a manner however.5 m. 8. a) Storage and stacking — Black polyethylene 8. The stack shall be in stacks. should be stacked in layers with sockets placed Storage shall be provided at the bottom layer at alternate ends of the stacks to avoid lopsided to keep the stack stable.5 m high. should be stored under cover and to prevent spreading or rolling of the pipe. Special glasses stones and sharp projections so that the pipe shall be stored and handled as per is supported throughout its length. couplings. The pyramid another pipe.2. the following minimum Straight lengths should be stored on horizontal safety distances shall be ensured from the PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. when the difficulty in jointing.24.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . away from welded joints or soldered for use with grease. due care shall be taken to avoid damages. Pipes should not be stacked height of the stack shall not exceed 1. the floor shall be racks giving continuous support to prevent the covered with gunny bags. two stacks shall be of the order of 400 mm. be accomplished by working from the ends of waste glass pieces and fibre glass shall be the pipe.20 Cast Iron. the damaged portion handled by two labourers while carrying to should be cut out completely. In 8.24. Cast iron detachable joints and fittings shall The ends of pipe should be protected from be stacked under cover and separated from abrasion particularly those specially prepared the asbestos cement pipes and fittings.

may cause malfunction or failure of Temporary electrical wirings/fittings shall not equipment.24.3.MANAPAKKAM.40 m flammable or explosive vapours may develop. 32 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .2. shall not be permitted in area or rooms 5) Above 275 and below 400 kV : 6. 3) Above 33 and below 132 kV : 4. or lubricants which they are received. etc vegetation and flammable materials.2. pyramidal stacks neatly in rows. During transportation.63. floor of the paint stores shall be made up of 100 mm thick loose sand.2.27 Bituminous Roofing Felts 8.26 Bitumen.13. The containers shall be kept b) Handling — Bituminous roofing felts should in a well ventilated location. of the piles/poles.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . the Care should be taken not to use any naked flame inside pipes shall be so secured as to ensure against the paint store.60 m necessary heat shall be provided through duct work remote from the source of flame.28 Flammable Materials Paint materials in quantities other than a) Storage and stacking — In addition to the required for daily use shall be kept stocked requirements as laid down in 8. precautions b) Handling — See 9. The storage area should be free lights. 2002. shall be stacked vertically on their be observed in removal of piles/poles from bottoms in up to 3 tiers.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . gasoline.63. switches or electrical equipment are of accumulations of spilled products. 2) Compressed gases and petroleum products shall not be stored in the same b) Handling — Adequate ventilation to prevent building or close to each other. In stacking and handling of piles and poles. 1) Outdoor storage of drums requires some Where the paint is likely to deteriorate with care to avoid contamination because age. shall be accomplished by working from the ends of the pipe. 8.2 and 9. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. closed containers.3.25 Paints.70 m 4) Above 132 and below 275 kV : 5. a) Storage and stacking — Piles and poles shall Each workman handling lead based paints shall be be carefully stacked on solid. Empty drums shall be stored in piles and poles when handling for any purpose. time-to-time. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. the following provisions shall also apply: under regular storage place.24. with possible danger to be installed in the paint store. varnishes. the manner of storage shall facilitate moisture and dirt in hydraulic brake and removal and use of lots in the same order in transmission fluid. any 2) Above 11 and below 33 kV : 3. 8.3. The storage area shall be maintained free of 8. as laid down in 8.MANAPAKKAM.4. such as open flame and exposed heating elements. Buckets containing sand shall be kept displacement. consumption. they shall be of explosion proof debris and other hazards. Varnishes and Thinners a) Storage and stacking — Bituminous roofing a) Storage and stacking — Paints. design.1.2. Asphalt. workers shall work from the ends containing all types of bitumen.18 (a) shall be followed. thinners and other flammable combustible materials and shall be kept under materials shall be kept in properly sealed or shade.2. free from be handled in a manner to prevent cracking excessive heat.50 m where spray painting is done nor shall smoking be b) Handling — Removal of pipes from a pile allowed there. Road Tar. ready for use in case of fire. road tar. felts shall be stored away from other lacquers. Similar precautions shall asphalt. smoke.70 m Sources of ignition.13. Leaky drums shall be the stack. When electric personnel. as amended from provided in all areas where painting is done.1. level sills so as issued ½ litre milk per day for his personal to prevent rolling or spreading of the pile. The and other damages. Storage the accumulation of flammable vapours to of petroleum products should be as per hazardous levels of concentration shall be Petroleum Rules. etc.35) valid upto31-12-2017 overhead power lines: When painting is done in confined spaces where 1) 11 kV and below : 1. Fire extinguishers when required shall be of foam type conforming to accepted 8. necessary. sparks or flame.2.24 Piles and Poles standards [7(23)] {see also good practice [7(24)]}. b) Handling — When placing piles or poles on a) Storage and stacking – Drums or containers the stack. Tag lines shall be used to control segregated.

2. The fittings.32. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. shall be checked for their any hazard to the public. 8.32. be kept free of materials.2. water supply and sanitary fittings.63.3. sheeting. shall be kept in suitable and properly protected moving rail wagons rather than ordinary crow bars. water seals out a programme requiring routine removal of scrap and gullies shall be handled separately.3 Unloading Rail/Road Wagons and Motor Vehicles 8. so as to avoid pedestals. door and window or chained while the wagons are being unloaded.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .6 House keeping fittings shall be stacked separately from the Stairways. 8.3. For impurities. toxic materials.32. handling sanitary fittings they shall be free 8. The hands of the on road side berms in the street and other public place. soundness and then only the fixtures be attached.2 The wheels of wagons shall always be sprigged Small articles like screws. Vitreous 8.MANAPAKKAM.32. shall be stored as per 8. Valuable small materials shall 8.24. 8.29 Water be provided at open sites where combustible materials Water to be stored for construction purposes shall be are stored and for each storage shed/room where stored in proper tanks to prevent any ingress of organic flammable/combustible materials are stored.7 Where stacking of the materials is to be done from any oil spilling. handling and usage of moved. with shall be stacked near the hoist or the ramp. linings. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1.2. protective clothing. nuts.2. The aggregate capacity of storage tanks shall guidance regarding selection of the appropriate types be determined after taking into account the of fire extinguishers reference may be made to good requirements of firefighting.2.2. 8. by replacing Workers shall be required to guard carefully against old materials with fresh stocks.32. workers shall also be free from any oily the owner shall seek permission from the Authority for substance. They shall not be allowed to continue had arrived earlier.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .1. identification through damage to drum markings. and platforms of piles (heaps). damage to equipment or 8.2.32 Special Considerations the job site and stored there in drums shall be 8.2. and electrical fittings.1 Loading and unloading from rail/road wagons Polymeric materials such as coatings. given to the sequence of removal from the store to the assembly positions. practice [7(24)]. insulation board. Freshly arrived any part of their clothing becoming contaminated with materials shall never be placed over materials which flammable fluids.35) valid upto31-12-2017 b) Handling — Petroleum products delivered to 8. Special precautions to indicate that the wagons shall not be coupled or shall be taken in case of storage. When accepting and area. work when their clothing becomes so contaminated. packings. the same after the construction is over.4 Appropriate types of fire extinguishers shall 8. possible fire hazard. containers or store rooms.3.24.4 Where gangplanks are used between wagons be kept under lock and key. etc.2. scaffolds. etc. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 33 .2 Heavy units like precast concrete members products may result in improper use. walkways. 8. While and debris from scaffolds and walkways. reflective surfacing/sheeting.3.MANAPAKKAM. cleats at lower end of PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. storage shall be kept constantly moving.2.32. tags. Traps.63. parts of machinery. Unidentifiable petroleum 8. consideration shall be exposed body portions.3 Special level bars shall preferably be used for etc.31 Other Materials 8. The b) Handling — Bigger sanitary appliances shall engineer-in-charge/the foreman shall initiate and carry be handled one at a time. polishing stones. etc.1.2.32. debris and obstructions. particularly if the site happens to be appliances shall be carefully stored under reclaimed area or marshy area or any other infected cover to prevent damage.3 Materials which normally deteriorate during operating failure.5 Workers handling excavated earth from a) Storage and stacking — All sanitary foundation.30 Sanitary Appliances 8. It is desirable that a minimum of two extinguishers are provided at each such location. bolts.1 Appropriate warning signals shall be displayed the manufacturers’ instructions. Before lowering the appliances in such stacking and also for removing the remnants of their position the supporting brackets. and access ways shall metal ones. shall be protected against infection affecting their storing appliances.1 Materials constantly in use shall be relatively protected during handling to prevent loss of nearer to the place of use. etc. spare brakes alone shall not be depended upon.3.1.

1.2 While heavy and long components are being The plans and specifications of temporary manually loaded into motor vehicle.3. darma.3.63.1. occupancy. brakes alone shall not 9. regulations. foot- be followed for manual unloading of long or heavy bridges. which are likely to interfere with facilities etc. 3 or 4 places for loading.1 The motor vehicles shall be properly blocked dispute. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Nothing herein stated shall be construed to nullify any cleats or abrasive surface shall be provided for the entire rules.1 Temporary structure referred to in 9. trailer.3 Special permits shall be obtained for the storage 9.3. so as not Temporary Encroachments to give way and result in accidents.1(a)] including pandals used by OF A BUILDING public for outdoor assembly.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3.1.1.1.3 Handling Heavy/Long Items regard.3.3. while being loaded or unloaded. gently and uniformly along these 9.2. These long items shall be dragged. The specific unloaded near passageways or walkways.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . adequate rules.2 For detailed information regarding fire safety SECTION 4 SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION aspects in respect of construction.3 Safety Management be depended upon to hold them. The construction of the different not create a traffic hazard. 8.1.MANAPAKKAM.1 General 9.4.1. 9. golpatta.2 Other Laws used to prevent sliding. design and construction. may be shifted by crowbars and other suitable leverage canvas cloth or other like materials not mechanism.24.3 Similar procedure as outlined under 8. in this 8. 9. truck-runways. trestles. safety standards or statutes of the length.1 Temporary Construction 8. be done with cranes or gantries.3.2 shall b) Site-work sheds. 1996 and as far as possible. Employment and Conditions of Service) Act. but not by hands to avoid causing accident adopted for permanent or continuous to the workers.1.MANAPAKKAM.2 When motor vehicles are being loaded or construction should be ensured through a well planned unloaded near passageways or walkways. location.3.1 shall supports by means of ropes. regulations and acts pertaining to the protection warning signals shall be placed on each end of the of the public or workers from health and other hazards.2. workman shall stand clear of the material being moved by mechanical equipment. The slings and the ropes used 9. 9.3. adequate and well organized mechanism by employing the warning signs shall be placed on each end of the vehicle guidelines given in good practice [7(12)].1.3 Adequate lighting shall be provided while all provisions given in relevant Act/Rules/Regulations loading/unloading. 8. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.3.2.1 Loading and unloading of heavy items. either wooden sleepers or steel rails of sufficient or right of way provided by the Authority. It shall be erection/alteration of the various parts of a building or ensured that the material dump or the storage shed does similar structure. shall. reference shall also be made to the Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of 8. one by one.5 When rail/road wagons are being loaded or various Acts of the Government of India.3.2 Temporary Construction. As soon a) Structures with roof or walls made of straw. etc. items. the same hay. ulugrass. wagons. nor it shall interfere with elements shall conform to 6. as the items come on the floor of the vehicle.2.1 The provisions of this section shall apply to the of the materials on side walks and highways. wagon to warn pedestrians.1 The safety of personnel engaged in building 8.2.24.2.35) valid upto31-12-2017 gangplank. or pin through end of gangplanks.2 Loading and Unloading from Motor Vehicles whatever is herein specified in case of a doubt or 8.2 Notwithstanding the guidelines given in 9.3.3.2.2. constructions. reference may be made to good practice [7(25)]. shall be length and properly secured in position shall be put in submitted to the Authority for approval showing clearly a gentle slope against the body of the wagon/vehicle at the layout. mat.1. shall be 9. Use of Side Walls and shall be of adequate load carrying capacity.3.3. Special permits 34 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . the free flow of the pedestrian traffic.3. as amended from time to time shall be followed. local state governments or those contained in the 8. wherever specified by the Local/State Authority or in the Acts of the Government take precedence over 8.2. maintenance and use of temporary structures 9 SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OF ELEMENTS [mentioned in 9.3. If gangplank is on a gradient. 9.63. being pulled by men with apply to the following types of structures : feet properly anchored against firm surface. hogle. to warn the pedestrians. 9. The the rules/regulations framed thereunder.

During the construction 9.1 Protection to neighbouring structures and illegal conditions exist. incurred in this connection is payable by the owner of Wherever in the vicinity of a site where bored or driven the property.3 When the strength and adequacy of any scaffold In case of bored piles. the Authority shall get the same made use of.4. measures shall be taken to ensure.3 Testing of ground water from surrounding areas could result in damages to such foundations. drainage and elimination of contamination and hazards from electricity shall be taken. before starting provided for in Part 6 ‘Structural Design’ of the Code the work.3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. construction equipment during the construction or 9. the member shall be refuses to give necessary facilities to the person causing rejected. it is revealed that unsafe/ 9.2.5. the consent of the Authority and the structure.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . written permission shall be half times the superimposed dead and imposed loads obtained for such excavation from the adjoining to which the material or the equipment is subjected to property owners.2 Adjoining Properties demolition of any building or structure shall be loaded beyond the allowable loads and working stresses as The person causing excavation shall. it shall be ensured that the adjoining No structure.2. the safety of adjacent property. Illegal encroachments and non-payment piling works are to be carried out there are old structures of money due. in respect of the rectification of unsafe which are likely to be damaged. scaffolding or any properties are not affected by any harmful effects. the person causing and the member/material shall sustain the test load excavation shall make adequate provision to protect without failure if it is to be accepted. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 35 . 9.MANAPAKKAM.5. of the adjoining properties. Possible extent of all such damages shall be condition or violation within 24 h of the receipt of the ascertained in advance and operation and mode of notice from the Authority. where withdrawal 9. the Authority shall intimate the adjoining services owner and direct him to take immediate remedial In driven piles.1. it shall be tested to two and a excavation are shown. The Authority shall have full driving shall be planned with appropriate measures to powers to rectify the unsafe condition and all expenses ensure safety. hazardous lines. temporary support.24. tell-tales shall be fixed conditions may vest a lien on the property with the on such structures to watch their behaviour and timely Authority (see also Part 2 ‘Administration’ of the Code). Where necessary. adequate temporary protective guards are to The distribution of the supporting foundation shall be be provided. excavation for protecting/providing both temporary and permanent supports to such property.5 Foundations 9.1 Inspection excavation shall be absolved of responsibility for any loss of property or life in the adjoining property. In case these protective devices project such as to avoid any harmful differential settlement of beyond the property. 9. the adjoining property owner still distress in any member is visible. construction and residents of the neighbouring property.35) valid upto31-12-2017 shall also be obtained for the use of water and electricity or other construction equipment is in doubt or when from the public facilities. give adequate notices in writing to the owner {see also good practices [7(26)]}. the responsibility 9. support or any other works that are anticipated to be incorporated in the construction equipment.4 Inspection and Rectification of Hazardous for any damage to the adjoining property shall be that Defects of the adjoining property owner.63. The type and design of the foundation that of the owner of the adjoining property shall be adopted shall ensure safety to workers during obtained. vibration is set up which may cause measures to remove the hazard/violation. damage to adjoining structures or service lines depending on the nature of soil condition and the 9. precautions taken against any undesirable effect. The Authority shall inspect the construction equipment and if during the inspection.63.4.2 Rectification construction standard of such structures and service The owner shall proceed to rectify the defect.2 Notwithstanding the test mentioned above. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Whenever such utilities are any complaint is made. After having given such 9.3.5. The person causing 9.1 Whenever any doubt arises about the structural notices.1 General property.1 Tests of the foundation. wherein details regarding the type of protective adequacy of a scaffolding. Sufficient care shall be taken in areas. adequate safety precautions regarding inspected before use.3.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.24. If on giving such notices and the precautionary measures having been approved 9.MANAPAKKAM.4.4 In order to ensure safety for the adjoining 9. if any by the Authority. safety of which is likely to be affected due to excavation.

depending upon the type of strata existing foundation in the close proximity. ladders.24. etc.2 Excavated Materials 9. Authority.6. Where Materials required for excavation.6. If necessary. the protective works designed for for gangways and walkways.5.6.4 Before carrying out any excavation work/pile During any excavation. the position. sufficient mechanical ventilation. such as excavating the health and safety of persons working there.6.6 Health Hazards light types shall be kept back from the excavation site Where gases or fumes are likely to be present in at a distance which would be safe for such type of trenches. Where excavation is going on.1 Location of Machinery and Tools trench. Under these conditions additional likelihood of the public including cattle frequenting the protective works shall be provided to support the sides area.6 General Requirements and Common Hazards be eliminated by cutting back the bare slope before During Excavation removing any further material from the section of the 9.24. etc. piles of lumber. excavated sites at a distance of not less than the depth shall be provided with respiratory protective equipment of trench or at least 6 m for trench deeper than 6 m. planks this is not feasible.3 During construction.6.1 Burrowing or mining or what is known as reference may be made to good practice [7(20)]. the additional inspected by the engineer-in-charge who shall ensure load due to overburden of materials. Sufficient number of notice boards and danger of the trench.MANAPAKKAM. etc. In any trench where such methods have been followed. sand and other construction materials. shall be decided prior to continuation of the excavation by normal upon for the various strata that are likely to be working parties. that no accident shall occur due to the failure of such materials (see Part 5 ‘Building Materials’ of the Code).6.2. inspection shall be made by excavation shall be constantly watched and precautions the engineer-in-charge to ensure that all protective taken. ‘gophering’ shall not be allowed. For detailed information regarding safety requirements during excavation 9.1 Other surcharges 9. Excavating machinery consisting of both heavy and 9. 9. overhangs or loose boulders excavation shall be obtained and the type of protective shall be cleared by expert workers carrying out blasting works by way of shoring timbering. depth and size of underground sides by way of provision of steps or gradual slopes structures. are sufficient and in good order to ensure safety (see Part 2 ‘Administration’ of the Code). After blasting.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . mains. may be machine working in the area. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.7 Safety of Materials Excavated materials shall be kept back from the edges of the trench to provide clear berm of safe width.4 Overhang and Slopes 9.6. immediately to prevent works carried out to safe-guard the adjoining property accidents at work site.MANAPAKKAM. where necessary. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . prior inspection for the stability of slopes shall be the type of soils that are likely to be met with during carried out. obtained from the Authority to prevent accidents to 9.3 Type of Strata the borehole which may cause subsidence to any Adequate precautions. the personnel working there.63.5. large trees.5. loose fills shall be minimised by approved technique and the and loose boulder) shall be taken to protect the workers operation should be planned.6. 9. Where blasting technique has to be resorted Prior to commencement of excavation detailed data of to. like ropes. the cavities felt shall 9. crushed rocks. fencing shall be erected. commencement of the work. shall be machinery and road traffic shall be kept back from the provided. shall be the trenches shall take into consideration. sign lights shall be provided in the area to avoid any 36 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . etc. cables or other shall be provided to ensure the safety of men and services in the vicinity to the proposed work. encountered during excavation.5 Blasting for foundation of building is prohibited workers engaged in excavation work and calamities for unless special permission is obtained from the the general public.6. if there is sliding. Effect of climatic variations and moisture content variations on the materials under 9. for the safety of public may impose surcharges on the side of the trench to cause and the workers. during excavation.35) valid upto31-12-2017 that there is no appreciable movement of soil mass into 9. In wet holes where such possibilities are likely to be there the same met with during excavation (like quick sand. Heavy equipment. such as water pipes. sufficient slopes to excavated driving. The precautionary measures provided shall materials far away from the edge of trench to prevent be inspected by the local health authorities prior to such items being inadvertently knocked into the trench. to protect equipment.63.8 Fencing and Warning Signals Proximity of buildings.6. when work in such unhealthy conditions has to be Care shall also be taken to keep excavating tools and carried out. 9.

Particular attention shall be given in case live electrical 9.2. While utilizing specialized rigs the instructions issued precautions shall be taken that it is properly barricaded by the suppliers shall be kept in view.5 The safety provisions shall be brought to the notice board and lights indicating the diversion well notice of all concerned and matters needing special ahead.7.35) valid upto31-12-2017 member of public from inadvertently falling into the cables pass underground.24.7.7. condition suitable for immediate use.24.7.1 Safety programme Conditions of Service Central) Rules.MANAPAKKAM.1 General Construction Workers’ (Regulation of Employment and 9. 9.1. 100 lux intensity shall be provided at the work site.MANAPAKKAM. 1998. etc. vehicles. arrangements of the work.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . safety helmets and safety shoes.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .7.9 Effect of Freezing and Thawing as considered suitable. thaws to provide suitable bracing or remedy the 9. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. around the working area or the watchmen 9. the depth of the foundation.7. Care should. boulders. 9. formal training at any institution of national importance acceptable to the employer and is medically examined 9. therefore.1. to comply with the requirements When depending in whole or in part on freezing to support the side walls.1.6.7 A first-aid kit shall be maintained at the site constantly watched for signs of cracks during a thaw.2. petroleum vapours are likely to operator. great care shall be taken during and provisions for the work. to prevent accident to the general public. In case of digging a bore hole.7.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2 If two pile drivers are erected at one place actual position of all service lines passing through the these shall be separated by a distance at least equal to work site shall be known before the work commences.1. where petroleum powered including any scaffolding winch. For detailed information regarding safety requirements.1 There are numerous types of piling rigs in piling provided to prevent onlookers from trespassing into work. lighting of at least reference may be made to good practice [7(27)]. Where necessary. diversion of the roads shall be provided with adequate 9. When excavations are being done on roads.7.2 For work during night. wherever necessary. use welding goggles/shields. piling and other sources require additional precautions to be taken.8 Those engaged in mixing and stacking of cement condition by scaling of the loose material from the sides. Crane driver and hoisting appliance operator accumulate at lower levels and may cause fire explosion shall posses the knowledge of inherent risks involved under favourable circumstances.1.6.1.1. and is not left open to avoid accidental fall into the bore well.1. shall be kept available for the Due to expansion of water when freezing. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 37 .1. are frequently loosened. recourse may be had for attention shall be displayed at a prominent place at the additional precautionary measures by way of watchmen work spot.10 Working in compressed air.1.6 All necessary personal protective equipment like full body harnesses.7. near the place of work. 9. Therefore. or give signals to equipment is used.7 Piling and Other Deep Foundations periodically including in compliance to the requirement as may be specified in the Building and other 9. 9. especially during hours of darkness.7.2. 9.9 Every crane driver or hoisting appliance operator shall be competent to the satisfaction of the 9. which may interfere within excavation. the side walls of the excavation shall be 9. in the operation of lifting appliances by undergoing a be taken to avoid all sources of ignition in such places. compressed air disease and related ailments. 9. rail.3 Barricading/fencing shall be provided. helmets and gloves.1.2 The frame of any rig shall be structurally safe PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.11 Precautions While Using Petroleum Powered engineer-in-charge and no person under the age of Equipment 21 years should be in-charge of any hoisting machine At the site of excavation.2. All operations shall be carried out under the immediate 9.7.7. bags or any other material injurious to human body 9.1 Pile drivers shall not be erected in dangerous proximity to electric conductors.7.7.2 Piling Rig 9.7. rock use of persons employed on the site and maintained in fragments. the construction sites. the longest leg in either rig. roads. blasting.7.10 Vibrations from Nearby Sources shall be provided with protective wear suitable for the purpose.6.1. 9.63. in case of deep charge of a properly qualified and competent foreman foundations. Welders engaged in the work of welding shall Vibration due to adjacent machinery.4 The working area shall be investigated to ascertain the presence of any buried obstruction and 9. depending on the need for the site conditions. requires several precautions to be observed who shall also be responsible for the safety to safeguard the workers against severe hazards to life.

boom angle indicator.7. over lift boom alarm. 9.7.11 Motor gearing. their date of purchase. and other dangerous parts of hoisting appliances should wherever possible.2.1 In tall driven piling rigs or rigs of similar maintained containing a system of identification of all nature where a ladder is necessary for regular use.63. transmission.8 Steam and air lines shall be controlled by easily wheel. Hoisting ropes on pile drivers shall be made of 9. test shall be carried out by the foreman and the results 9. shackle. the hammer shall be in dropped regulations of boiler shall be strictly followed and safety 38 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .7.2. safe load indicator.2.7.2.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .7. A register shall be 9. each safe working for stability. storm. the safety 9. prevent the rope from coming out of the top pulley or 9. shall be adopted to prevent any accidents due to applicable shall be clearly indicated.1 Defective parts of pile drivers. mechanism slings and hose shall be repaired so that workers may not be drawn into them. back horn.2.7. The hose of steam and the hammer from missing the pile. When of such inspections.3 Pile drivers shall be firmly supported on heavy shall be carried out and the working load shall be taken timber sills.7.15 If necessary to prevent danger.5 Exposed gears.10 For every hoisting machine and for every chain of the test recorded.12 Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent galvanized steel.14 Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent armoured hose or its equivalent. long piles and Couplings of sections of hose shall be additionally heavy sheet piling should be secured against falling. repaired while it is in operation or under pressure. insulating mats and wearing each shift for any excess wear or any other defect.35) valid upto31-12-2017 for all anticipated dead. such as gloves.24. the safe working load. hoisting drums and brakes shall be kept in good condition and sheltered from weather. a pile driver from overturning. apparel. accessible shut-off valves.7. 9.2. In case of a hoisting machine When the rig is not in use. Sheaves on pile drivers shall be guarded sheaves.9 When not in use.7.7. the safe working loads shall be ascertained.MANAPAKKAM. 9. safe working ladder shall be securely fastened and extended for the load and date of examination by competent person. they shall be foreman-in-charge of the rig and the results recorded adequately counter-balanced and the tilting device shall in the register. All full height of the rig. timber or there is any doubt about the structural strength.4 Access to working platforms and the top pulley shall be provided by ladders.2. used in to be safe.2. gales and earthquake.MANAPAKKAM. Pile lines and pulley blocks shall workers are employed on electrical installations which be inspected by the foreman before the beginning of are already energized. In case of doubt actual testing 9. Every hoisting machine and If necessary. fly wheels. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. that the load can be controlled at all times. swing alarm. Whenever position and shall be held in place by a cleat. pile drivers shall be all gears referred to above shall be plainly marked with adequately guyed. the risk of accidental descent by a competent engineer at regular intervals not of the load and adequate precautions shall be taken to exceeding three months. 9. air hammers shall be securely lashed to the hammer so as to prevent it from whipping if a connection breaks. such as be provided. The ladder shall also be maintained loads shall have tag-lines attached in order to ensure in good condition at all times. Also a register shall be reduce to the minimum. if a wheel breaks.16 Wherever steam boilers are used. No pile-driving equipment shall be taken into use until it has been inspected and found ring hook. etc. to prevent danger.2. etc.7 All bolts and nuts which are likely to be loosened 9. the tools and tackles. hoisting or as means of suspension. Hoisting appliances shall be provided with such means as will 9. shall be fully 9. extra precautionary measures having a variable safe working load. shall 9.2. suitable any other suitable means. swivel and pulley block. live or wind loads. such as securing them with minimum four load together with the conditions under which it is guys. concrete beds or other secure foundation. be provided with efficient safeguards.6 Pile driving equipment in use shall be inspected reduce. to the minimum.2.2. the risk of any part of maintained at the site of work for recording the results suspended load becoming accidentally displaced.2. to regularly and tightened. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.6.7. No steam or air equipment shall be be secured against slipping. by only competent person and duly inspected by When loads have to be inclined. Boilers. electrical wiring enclosed.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 9.2. as half of the tested load. These lines shall consist of 9.7. as may be necessary.4.7. secured by ropes or chains. Working platforms shall All hoisting appliances should be fitted with automatic be protected against the weather.63.2.7.7.13 Adequate precautions shall be taken by due to vibration during pile driving shall be checked providing stirrups or by other effective means. machine or any gear shall be loaded beyond the safe working load except for the purpose of testing.7. No part of any wind.2.24.

displacement by the current.7. metal or bamboo adequate precautions shall be taken.7 When piles are driven at an inclination to the [7(29)].5 Adequate pumping facilities shall be available at cofferdams to keep them clear of water.1 If necessary to prevent danger from wind or of tall buildings. lowered or moved into position.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . the members of scaffolds only with nails shall be 9. at site by the creams to prevent workers receiving eye or skin injuries engineer-in-charge prior to erection of scaffolds. Also adequate 9.7. scaffoldings shall be of non- other sources. 9. strength. pile driver.07 N/mm2 in excess of 9. While a pile is being guided into position in the leads. but shall use a rope for guiding.63. construction of the walls to ensure the safety of workers.3 Piles being hoisted in the rig should be so slung movements shall be controlled by cables or other that they do not have to be swung round.7 When sheet sections are being removed.4. these should rest in a guide.7.7. 9. Bamboo and timber scaffolds shall be properly vertical.8 Walls movement.7.63.3.3.7.2 Scaffold 9.MANAPAKKAM. The scaffolding may be of timber.4. swing or whip round.4 If necessary to prevent danger from working pressure accurately.6 When creosoted wood piles are being driven. Where necessary. such as ladders and boats shall be shall wear helmets conforming to accepted provided at cofferdams for the protection of workers standard [7(28)]. After initial transported. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 39 . Joining all workers are at a safe distance.2 Workers who have to sit on a steel sheet section scaffolding shall be carried out regularly. a hand rope shall be used to control the combustible material especially when the work is being movement of steel sheet sections that are being done on any building in occupation. upstream.5 Before a wood pile is hoisted into position it Properly designed and constructed scaffolding built by shall be provided with an iron ring or cap over the competent workers shall be provided during the driving end to prevent brooming. inadvertently.3.17 Where electricity is used as power for piling to prevent danger from undercutting of the cofferdam rig. their 9.4.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Piles shall not be slewed over Similarly. steel sheet sections shall be braced until they are firmly in position.3. and may not effective means. In the erection or maintenance 9.7.2 Piles shall be prepared at a distance at least 9. such as the sections and the materials in scaffolding shall be provision of personal protective equipment and barrier inspected for soundness.3. if necessary to prevent danger.7.8 No steam or air line shall be blown down until way due to the load of workers and material. shall be such as to ensure a firm foot-hold to the 9.8.1 General between the pile and the inside guide or on top of the Depending on the type of wall to be constructed the pile.4 Sheet Piling prohibited as they are likely to get loose under normal weathering conditions.4 While a pile is being hoisted all workers not ensure that the newly constructed wall does not come actually engaged in the operation shall keep at a distance down due to lack of strength in the lower layers. height of construction per day shall be restricted to 9. traffic first. etc.4.3 Operation of Equipment 9. 9. workers shall not put their hands or arms 9.4. construction of the scaffolding.7.1 Workers employed in the vicinity of pile drivers means of escape. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. in long walls adequate expansion/crumple public areas without stopping the pedestrians and road joints shall be provided to ensure safety.7. 9.7. frequent inspections of 9.MANAPAKKAM. A hand rope shall be fastened to a pile that is being hoisted to control its 9. to interlock sheets shall be provided with stirrups or gangways and runways provided on the scaffoldings other devices to afford them a safe seat.3.4.4.3.7.7. workers.2.24.6 Adequate supplies of life-saving equipment equal to twice the length of the longest pile from the shall be provided for workers employed on cofferdams. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Steel from splashes of creosote.3 Workers handling sheets should wear gloves. scaffolds intended for use in normal building construction work shall conform to accepted standard 9.7.8.7. from the slings. tied to the junctions with coir ropes of sufficient strength or mechanical joints to ensure that joints do not give 9. only armoured cable conforming to the relevant by the current a substantial berm shall be installed Indian Standard shall be used and the cable shall be thoroughly waterproofed. Workers shall shall be of sufficient strength and width to ensure safe not stand or sit on sheet piling while it is being released passage for the workers working on the scaffolding. The platforms. If necessary 9.7. which ensures safety. platforms.35) valid upto31-12-2017 valves shall be adjusted to 0. 9. The joints provided in these gangways. etc.3.7.7.24. in case of flooding. cross bars shall be provided PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.

24. All ladders shall be constructed of sound materials and 9. near the middle. Wherever possible. etc. Loose DO NOT USE NEAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT’. shall be of full length the user shall face the ladder. because of height or month for damage and deterioration.8. or sloping. For detailed shall not be overcrowded.8. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. When ascending or descending. nor placed in projects above the floor level at least 25 mm.3 Ladders reference may be made to good practice [7(31)]. a grab winds. the ladder shall be provided with non-slip the guards shall be kept in position regardless bases. For detailed information regarding safety setting of the ladder. If this cannot be removable but should preferably be hinged or done. materials shall not be allowed to remain on the Wooden ladders shall be inspected at least once in a gangways. use both his hands and of the opening and shall have side rails or place his feet near the ends of the rungs rather than equivalent guards. scaffolds. If a ladder shows tendency to spring. use and dismantling of and shift the ladder to the required position. reference may be made to good practices Metal ladders shall not be used around electrical [7(30)].2.8. and bamboo ladders wherein fraying of ropes and 9. As a further precaution. In addition. a contemplated. Metal inspections that gangways of scaffolding have not ladders shall be marked with signs reading ‘CAUTION— become slippery due to spillage of material. When the surface of the floor on which the ladder rests is smooth opening is not in use for handling materials. Where there is danger to persons lean-to-ladder is used shall be such that the horizontal working or passing below on account of the distance of its foot from the vertical plane of its top falling materials. the user shall get down requirements for erection. a removable toe board or the shall be not more than one quarter of its length. ladders information reference may be made to good practice shall not be spliced. shall be used. The opening should have a sill that or such other unsafe or yielding objects.4. adequate supports against the collapse brace shall be attached to its middle and supported from or cracking of the wall portion above or roof or some other non-yielding fixed object. hand-rails shall be provided on both inspection is recommended in preference to load sides. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. If set up in driveways. it shall be securely lashed in position. picket fence.4 Opening in Walls shall be capable of carrying their intended loads safely. 9. it [7(32)]. When a ladder has been accidentally buildings. Ladders shall not be used as guys. of tall falling on them. sashes opening. it is desirable to use one or more net(s) for dropped it shall be inspected by the engineer-in-charge the safety of the workers when the workers are required prior to re-use.2. for workers under ladder. a person shall be stationed at the base whenever otherwise mounted so as to be conveniently it is in use.2 In the operations involved in the erection or damage to bamboo is likely to occur due to materials maintenance of outside walls. The ladders shall have not only adequate strength but Whenever making of an opening in the existing wall is rigidity as well. braces or skids or for any other Wall opening barriers and screens shall be of such purpose for which they are not intended. fittings. Overhead protection shall be provided to work on scaffoldings. front of doors opening towards it. For detailed information regarding safety requirements for use of ladders.63. This condition is particularly applicable to rope scaffolding during bad weather and high winds. a missing or defective rung or one which depends for 9.1 Guarding of wall openings and holes its support solely on nails.2 Every chute wall opening from which there is a 40 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Ladders leading to landings or walkways following: shall extend at least 1 m above the landing and shall be a) Rail. Every wall opening from which there is a drop shall be done only under the supervision of engineer. It is dangerous to lean more than 30 cm 9. passageways or public walkways.35) valid upto31-12-2017 to the full width of gangway or runway to facilitate to side in order to reach a larger area from a single safe walking. Where necessary. Instead. They shall construction and mounting that they are capable of not be used in horizontal position as runways. a ladder equivalent barrier — The guard may be shall be secured at the bottom end. They withstanding the intended loads safely. If the equivalent shall also be provided. No ladder handle shall be provided on each side of the shall be placed or leant against window pane.8.63. roller. No ladder having adjoining walls shall be provided.4. it shall be protected b) Extension platform. half door or secured at the upper end.MANAPAKKAM. If the use of a ladder is essential during strong of a door on the opening.8.8.1 The engineer-in-charge shall ensure by frequent possibility of coming in contact with the current. Where splicing is unavoidable. Workers shall not be allowed to work on the testing. Close visual restricted width. be hoisted for handling. of more than 1 200 mm shall be guarded by one of the in-charge. the pitch at which a replaceable. To prevent slipping.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.24. into which materials may by suitable barricades. equipment or circuits of any kind where there is a 9.

adequate precautions shall by the conditions. 9.2 While roofing work is being done with proper precautions shall be taken to correctly handle.8.9.9. corrugated galvanized iron or asbestos cement sheets.35) valid upto31-12-2017 drop of more than 1 200 mm shall be guarded by one 9. overhead prevention of overturning of hoists or buckets. to work below scaffoldings or ladder. electric wire. Workers 9.24. etc.5 Projection from Walls do not cause any injury to workers or general public in that area by way of providing covering to such material. gangway the horizontal. temporary formwork shall be provided for such projections and the same shall not be removed till walls 9.10. it shall be prevent any damage. Gangways and the ground below the scaffolding shall the workers shall be allowed to proceed to work on a be kept free from readily combustible materials sloping roof.9 Common Hazards During Walling providing platforms.10.1 Prevention of accidental falling of workers during the construction of roofs shall be ensured by 9. Where protection against the falling materials shall be in a multi-storeyed building. Care shall be taken in carrying large bars.4.2. anticipated scaffoldings. 9. to be used for storage of materials for the construction rods.5 While using reinforcement in roofs.2. A portable dry powder extinguisher of 3 kg capacity shall be kept In any type of flat roof construction. hoists of sufficient strength to scaffoldings shall be of adequate strength and shall not cater for the quantity of stores to be hoisted and be overloaded during the work.5 Mechanical Hazards During actual construction of roof. the floor of one storey is provided.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . etc.MANAPAKKAM. steel beams. only if the engineer-in-charge has satisfied including waste and dry vegetation at all times.10. etc.10. himself that the workers are not likely to slip due to Where extensive use of blow torch or other flame is wet conditions.MANAPAKKAM. and no materials shall be dumped against them to 9. any formwork handy. 9. and do not slip. 9.9.9. provided shall be properly designed and executed to ensure that it does not collapse during construction. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. When such scaffoldings are in or ensured that enough walking platforms are provided in near a public thoroughfare. kept on the floor along with the load due to personnel engaged in the construction work shall not exceed the 9.2 Haulage of Materials rated capacity of the floors. it shall be ensured that they are not kept loose on the roof site resulting in falling of tiles 9.9.1 In case of precast columns.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . During wet conditions.9.2 Manila or sisal rope shall not be used in rainy should not be allowed to walk on asbestos cement sheets season for hoisting of heavy materials as they lose their but should be provided with walking boards. ladder. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 41 .8. shall exist within 3 m from any uninsulated safety devices to work on the roof. If the materials are to be hoisted from the ground level to the roof level. the workers shall use ladders or other runs.4 Flat Roof constructed with fire resistant materials. etc. etc.3 Electical Hazards on workers in lower area. during construction of the walls to prevent of roofs. gangways. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. Where workers have prevention of overloading such hoists or buckets. 9.9.63.4 Fire Hazards it shall be ensured that injury to passerby due to breaking of glass is prevented. working platform. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.6 Fragile Materials or more of the barriers specified in 9. side protection at work site. shall be avoided. etc. be taken to ensure that the fragments of fragile materials 9. working with tiles. sufficient warning lights the reinforcement area to ensure safe walking to the and boards shall be provided on the scaffoldings to concreting area.10.24.9. Whenever projections cantilever out of the walls. Loose wires and unprotected rod ends make them clearly visible to the public. In slopes of more than 30° to No scaffolding.3 If any glass work is to be carried out in the roof. use and position them with temporary arrangement of it shall be ensured that joints are kept secured in position guys till grouting of the base. it shall be ensured that the quantum of stores any damage to property or injury to workers.1 Lifting of Materials for Construction adequate precautions shall be taken by way of correct Implements used for carrying materials to the top of technique of handling. While strength with alternate wetting and drying. thus causing injury to workers. 9. catch ropes. frequent inspection Care shall be taken to see that no part of scaffolding or of the formwork shall be carried out to ensure that no walls is struck by truck or heavy moving equipment damage has occurred to it.1 or as required During glazing operations. shall be 9.63.10 Roofing over the projecting slabs providing stability load against overturning are completely constructed. 9.

guarded.1 Mixers barrows on the loading/unloading platforms. When the cover is manufacturer to safeguard against toppling of the crane.10. The operator of the crane shall follow the safe reach of 9. Every ladder way floor opening or platform absence controlling switches. Crane rails where used shall be installed on firm ground or and shall be properly secured. or shall be constantly attended by someone. not in place.1 Every temporary floor opening shall have position and all fuses shall be removed and a suitable railings.6. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Cranes shall not be used at a speed which causes the b) there is moving machinery. notice hung at the place. of the mixer.10.24.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . with All practical steps shall be taken to prevent the cranes the passage through the railing either provided with a being operated in dangerous proximity to a live swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk overhead power line.6 Guarding of Floor Openings and Floor Holes When workers are cleaning the inside of the drums. Material All gears.2 Cranes a) a railing with toe board on all exposed sides. c) there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Every floor hole into which persons can accidentally fall shall be guarded by either.MANAPAKKAM. Electrical wiring which can possibly touch the crane 9. a removable railing.11. closing and locking of the exit door of the All cables. A crane shall be thoroughly examined at least once in a period of 6 months by a competent person who shall For detailed information.2.3 Guarding of open-side floors and platform If it becomes necessary to operate the cranes with Every open-sided floor or platform 1 200 mm or more clearances less than those specified above.23 (a). the floor hole shall be constantly Requirements for tower cranes as given in 7.24. gears and bucket shall always be checked by the man-in-charge clutches. A trial opening of the exit door and consequent falling of run of the mixer shall be made and defects shall be concrete. etc. hooks. shall be checked and cleaned. operating power of the mixer shall be locked in the off 9. except at entrance to dead by removing the controlling fuses and in their stairway. it shall be ensured that the level difference between the b) a floor hole cover of adequate strength and it two rails remains within the limits prescribed by the should be hinged in place.MANAPAKKAM.1. of loading concrete in the bucket to avoid accidental oiled and greased. chains and rollers of mixers shall be properly should be loaded securely with no projections. crane shall be permitted to approach within the minimum safety distances as laid down in 8. of Concrete Framed Structures (High-Rise Buildings) No person shall be lifted or transported by the crane on its hook or boom.10.1. or made by a railing on all exposed sides. except be shut off during the period of operation of cranes.3 shall attended by someone or shall be protected by also be complied with. 9.6.10. drop type. and serviced once a week. a) persons may pass.11. the skip is lowered. If the mixer has a charging skip the operator Concrete buckets handled by crane or overhead shall ensure that the workers are out of danger before cableway shall be suspended from deep throated hooks.63. The railing shall be provided with a toe board of operation shall also be ascertained and necessary beneath the open sides wherever. both bottom drop type and side it is being lowered. or fixed Location of any underground power cables in the area ladder.63. removed before operating a mixer. or boom to swing. clamps. Railings shall be provided on the preferably equipped with swivel and safety latch.1 Handling of Plant Toe boards and limit stops should be provided for wheel 9. good practice [7(32)].35) valid upto31-12-2017 9. it shall be above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded ensured that the overhead power lines shall invariably by a railing (or the equivalent) on all open sides. In particular. reference may be made to record a certificate of the check. shall be guarded by a guard railing with toe board on all exposed sides (except at entrance to opening). where there is entrance to ramp.2 Every stairway floor opening shall be guarded or any member being lifted shall be removed. 9.11.11 Additional Safety Requirements for Erection the crane as shown by the manufacturer. wire ropes. stair-way. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 9.6. no member of the directly into the opening. In case of tower cranes. In ground to prevent anyone walking under the skip while the concrete buckets. safety precautions shall be taken. Interlocking or other safety devices should be installed 42 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .

MANAPAKKAM.11.MANAPAKKAM. are in full contact with the formwork.4 Concrete pumps (Air compressor operated) engineer and shall be strictly followed. Care shall also be taken that locking with the signals.10 Centering layout shall be made by a qualified 9. When tubular steel and timber centering is to be used in When the bucket or other members being lifted are out combination necessary precautions shall be taken to of sight of the crane operator. a warning signal which sounds automatically additional frames are installed the tower shall be in during travel should be provided to avoid accidents to level and plumb. vertical joints shall be shall be provided to permit continuous operation of properly designed.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2.2 All timber formwork shall be carefully concrete to avoid softening of the supporting soil strata. the design of this a) footings or sills under every post of the centering shall make allowance for this factor. clay may become very plastic after a rainfall and show 9.4 The vertical supports shall be adequately sung against the legs of the panels.11. from the appointed signaler but shall obey stop signal 9. manufacturer’s certificate about the loads it can stand. If a continuous with bolts and nuts. Care shall be taken not factor for the materials used for formwork {see also to disturb the soil under the supports.11.2. If practicable. b) all lower adjustment screws or wedges are 9. as much as possible.2. traffic problems progresses. washing of forms or during the curing of the 9. posted in clear view of the receiving area and the crane operator.2. A reasonably smooth traffic shall be fastened for full stability of joints and units. 9.11. 9.2. the truck lanes.63. It shall be ensured that struts and diagonals braces are in proper position and are secured so that frames 9.2.11. bolts and nuts shall be avoided. Buckled or broken members driver and the signaller shall be thoroughly familiar shall be replaced. 9.2. crossing. The connections shall normally be vehicles and to eliminate their backing.9 Unless the timber centering is supported by a the truck and to be clearly visible to the truck driver.3 Trucks develop full load carrying capacity. Backing operations shall be controlled by a signalman positioned so as to have a clear view of the area behind 9. inspected to ensure that. shall be provided to drain away water coming due to rains. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. The effect of weather conditions as dry [7(33)] shall be followed. accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.11. centering are sound. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. 9. The bearing capacity of the soil shall be kept in view for every Safety requirements in accordance with good practice centering job.7 After assembling the basic unit. unit.11.11.11.63. and both the welds shall be discarded.1. all connecting devices shall be in place and shall be taken care of. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 43 . surface shall be provided.1.11 Sills under the supports shall be set on firm consideration spans. setting temperature of concrete.24. Use of rusted or spoiled threaded loop is not possible. a signalman shall be avoid any unequal settlement under load.2. As erection When trucks are being used on the site.12 All centering shall be finally. soil or other suitable material in a pattern which assures dead load and working load to be supported and safety adequate stability for all props.8 In case of timber posts.2. a turnout shall be provided.5 Tubular steel centering shall be used in way should be fenced properly.2.11. 9. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. kinks.11. inspected before use and members having cracks and excessive knots shall be discarded.6 A thorough inspection of tubular steel centering is necessary before its erection and members showing A standard code of hand signals shall be adopted in evidence of excessive resting. Movement of workers and plant shall be routed to avoid centering shall be designed by a competent engineer. dents or damaged controlling the movements of the crane. Adequate drainage with good practice [7(26)]}.24.1 Formwork shall be designed after taking into 9. devices are in good working order and that coupling The driver of the crane shall respond to signals only pins are effectively aligned to frames.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . screws shall be set to their approximate final adjustment If a travelling gantry crane is operating over casting and the unit shall be level and plumb so that when beds. The centering frames shall be tied workers crossing or standing in the path of the moving together with sufficient braces to make a rigid and solid loads. a loop road 9.3 As timber centering usually takes an initial set when vertical load is applied.2.11.2 Formwork marked decrease in its bearing capacity. The hoists shaft 9.11.11.11. braced or otherwise secured in position that these do not fall when the load gets released or the supports are c) all upper adjustment screws or heads of jacks accidently hit.35) valid upto31-12-2017 at all stopping points of the hoists. adjustment at any time no matter who gives it.2.

Adequate protection of centering shall be secured from 9. shall be adequate to transfer the load to the 9.11.11 Where materials extend over the height of other slipping hazards or other obstructions leading to the platform guards. be properly made of sound materials.11.11.1.11. laid down in the specifications and until it is certain 9. width and provided with skirt boards on open sides. the props attached to the drum. to prevent materials a sufficiently flat slope or shall have cleats fixed to the rolling/falling from the platform. The approved safety belts if adequate footing is not provided height of the tower shall not exceed 6 m after the last above 2 m level.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .10 All hoist platform shall be fitted with guards strength and evenly supported.1 The hoist should be erected on a firm base. materials secured to it during hoisting/lowering. surface to prevent slipping of workers.4.1 Ramps and gangways shall be of adequate 9. snow or 9.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4. a frame shall be fitted and the tripping and accidental fall of a workman. if he has not. Gates shall be kept closed at eccentric load. Care should be taken to ensure that neither the frame nor 9.11.63.MANAPAKKAM. It shall not be operated the instructions of the site engineer. formwork shall be allowed in the area during these operations. a clear and distinct system of 9.11. from the cage.11.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. at all access points and While pouring concrete. wedges below the vertical supports tightened certify the safe working load on each item and the and adjustment screws properly adjusted as necessary.11.14 Forms shall not be removed earlier than as in the event of a gate being opened. if be examined by a competent person who shall clearly required.11.2. gloves and heavy soled shoes and structure at every floor level or at least every 3 m. Those engaged in removing the formwork 9.5 Gates at access points should be at least 2 m support of formwork uniformly without causing high high.14.4.4. wherever possible. is not held in the operating position (dead-man’s Only workers actually engaged in removing the handle). and adequately supported and secured.12 The platform of a goods hoist shall carry a 9.4.11.11. The operator shall have a clear view of all levels or. They shall shall be constantly inspected and strengthened. chains and other lifting gear shall supporting point.2. enclosure at ground level.4 Hoistways shall be protected by a substantial moving vehicles or swinging loads.7 Winches used for hoists shall be so constructed that the concrete has developed sufficient strength to that a brake is applied when the control lever or switch support itself and all loads that will be imposed on it. Ramps and gangways shall be kept free from grease. system. All ties on a hoist tower shall be secured might hit a workman.4. manner that the load should be transmitted to the 9. the centering and strong enough for the work intended. They shall either have and gates to a height of at least 1 m.13 All hoist operators shall be adequately trained defects.1 The particular order in which the supports 9.35) valid upto31-12-2017 d) panels are plumb in both directions. all times except when required open for immediate Caution shall be exercised to avoid heap storage of movement of materials at that landing place.4. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.11.8 The hoist tower shall be tied to a building or shall wear helmets.3. mud.MANAPAKKAM. 9.63. and strong enough for the work intended and free from 9.2 The size of the drum shall match the size of e) all cross braces are in place and locking the rope.11.4. 44 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .11.4.3.9 The hoist shall be capable of being operated are to be dismantled should be followed according to only from one position at a time.3 All ropes. using right angled couples. care shall be taken to prevent backlash which manufacturer. on the drum at all times. mechanical interlocks to prevent movement of the hoist 9. 9.1 Ramps and gangways meant for transporting materials interfere or touch any part of the hoisting materials shall have even surface and be of sufficient mechanism. free from defects 9. Ropes shall be securely f) In case of Chhajas and balconies.24.11.11.4.11. bricks/sand in roof/floor slab as it may lead to failure 9. 9.4 Materials Hoists notice stating. it should be placed in such a wherever persons may be struck by any moving part.4.6 All gates shall be fitted with electronic or of slab.4.11.24. Not less than two full turns of rope shall remain devices are in closed and secure position.11. 9. 9. While cutting any tying wires in tie or a lesser height as recommended by the tension. a) the safe working load.3 Ramps and Gangways signaling shall be employed. All materials supporting the hoist shall be appropriately designed b) that passengers shall not ride on the hoist.11.4.13 During pouring of the concrete.

4 After erection of the member.2 The packing of joints shall be carried out in accordance with the assembly instructions.5.6.7 Heated Concrete during the tensioning operations and that no one is When heaters are being used to heat aggregates and directly over the jacking equipment when deflection is other materials and to maintain proper curing being done. Signs and barriers shall be provided to temperatures. such as wedges and nuts and Prestressed Concrete. after substantial alteration. The permanent shall be carefully cleaned. shall be strictly adhered to at site.24.MANAPAKKAM.5. 9. wherever possible. it shall be guyed and braced to prevent it from being tipped or dislodged 9.11.5. liquid.5.1 In pre-stressing operations.4. Section 5 Plain.11.1 A spreader beam shall be used wherever for in-situ work. hazards in using coal. 9. by accidental impact when setting the next member.11.11.8 The prestressing jacks shall be periodically examined for wear and tear.8.15 Every hoist shall be inspected at least once placing them in position and connecting them to other each week by a competent person and a record of these members.5.5. the same should be stepped down to a possible so that the cable can be as perpendicular to safe level as far as possible.11.3 Levelling devices.11. damage.6.11.14 All hoists shall be tested and thoroughly of controlling the movement of members being lifted. Section 7 Prefabrication and element(s) the anchor shall be kept turned up close to Systems Building: Subsection 7A Prefabricated anchor plate. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 45 .5.8.11.11. Threads on bolts and nuts should be frequently connections or supports as specified shall be provided inspected for diminishing cross section.63. and at least every 6 months. 9.5. the heaters shall be frequently checked prevent workers from working behind the jacks when for functioning and precautions shall be taken to avoid the stressing operation is in progress.11. Subsection 5B Prestressed which have no load bearing function in the completed Concrete’ of the Code.6.5.11. precast units shall be suitably prepared in accordance with the specifications.11. 9.11.2 The lifting wires shall be tested for double the that the hoist is not overloaded or otherwise misused. if a hydraulic line fails.11.8. modification or repair of 9. 9.9 Workers working in any position where there is not be less than 60°.4 If it becomes necessary to use electric power 9.35) valid upto31-12-2017 and competent. 9.11.5 Prestressed Concrete 9.6. to avoid serious Concrete’ of the Code.6 Methods of assembly and erection specified 9.11.11. 9.6 Erection of Prefabricated Members 9.6.11.4. handling and installation of weapon. Lifting. 9. 9. shall be used to support precast members at predetermined supporting points while lifting and 9. bolts and hydraulic jacks/ by the designer.6 Necessary shields should be put up immediately behind the prestressing jacks during 9.7 Wedges and other temporary anchoring devices precast and in-situ concrete the contact surface of the shall be inspected before use. The angle between the cable and the members to be lifted shall 9.6. rams shall be inspected for signs of deformation and Immediately on erecting any unit in position. structural connections shall be established at the earliest opportunity. a falling hazard shall wear safety belts or other adequate PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.4 Pulling-headers. 9.63.24.3 Temporary scaffolding of adequate strength hoists.5 Care shall be taken that no one stands in line with the tensioning elements and jacking equipment 9. The guy line shall be of adequate strength to perform its function 9.9 Prestressing shall be done in accordance with Part 6 ‘Structural Design. examined by a competent person before use on a site.11. structure shall be released or removed as necessary prior to integrating the joints.11. temporary failure.5 Precast concrete units shall be handled at specific picking points and with specific devices. prefabricated members shall be in accordance with 9. inspections kept.3 During the jacking operation of any tensioning Part 6 ‘Structural Design.8. gas or any other fuel.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .1 When reliance is placed on bond between 9.8 Structural Connections stressing operations. maintenance and replacement instructions of the supplier of the equipment shall be strictly adhered to.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . and shall be responsible for ensuring 9.11. Choked units before releasing the lifting equipment.MANAPAKKAM. the members being lifted as practical.11. 9.11.11.11. operating. load to be handled at least once in six months.2 Extreme caution shall be exercised in all Girders and beams shall be braced during transportation operations involving the use of stressing equipment as and handled in such a way as to keep the members wires/strands under high tensile stresses become a lethal upright. Reinforced 9. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.11.

bottom chord to work with greater safety. for them to act as safe lifting points. the with double earthing. They shall lamps shall be of low voltage preferably 24 V to prevent be tied generally not more than 2 m to 3 m away from electrical hazards. for example (a) ‘440 V’.2. All electrically operated hand tools shall be provided 9.4 The erection gang shall have adequate supply 9.2. This can be aprons and hand shields [see accepted standard 7(35)]. it is advisable to shall be kept at a small height for about 10 min and the control tension in guys by hand winches to avoid jerks. left permanently in the place after the work.MANAPAKKAM. whenever necessary. of the correct size. solid rock.2.10 The proper size. which can be shop assembled and should check up and make sure that they are skilled in bolted or riveted or welded to the piece and may be the particular job they have to perform.12.12. anchors immediately inspected for any signs or which may cause an accident. (b) ‘DO NOT chemically treated to resist dew and rotting.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.3 When a number of trusses or deep girders are rope clamps shall be used. indications of failure. the belt. number and spacing of wire 9. On proper placement.63.1 Safety Organization of bolts. The welders and gas cutters shall be equipped with fitters and others employed on the bottom flange or proper protective equipment like gloves. Hand not be tied on sharp edges of steel structures.12. rivets.9 On a guy derrick or climbing crane job. unless a standard [7(28)].12.2. They shall be properly fixed in 46 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .12.12.7 On deep girders.8 Safety belts shall always be available at work Warning signs shall be displayed where necessary to spot to be used. The goggles used shall conform to the the member and secured temporarily. These shall SMOKE’. girder or long beam may be temporarily duties which are hazardous to eye like drilling.2 Safety of Workpersons 9.63. the work.12.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . pair of bridles slings can be placed far enough apart.24. the boxes shall be moved as soon anchors are embedded shall be checked for uplift and as the crane starts operating in a new area not too far sliding. The agency responsible for erecting the steel work Enough number of bolts shall be used in connecting should analyze the proposed erection scheme for safety. tool boxes used by the erection staff shall be moved to 9. each piece using a minimum of two bolts in a pattern the erection scheme should cover safety aspects right to ensure that the joint will not fail due to dead load from the planning stage up to the actual execution of and erection loads. (c) ‘MEN WORKING AHEAD’. While good.2.12. and even on some trusses.2. 9. etc. Split-end eye anchors shall only be used in away for the men to reach the boxes conveniently.2 Anchors for guys or ties shall be checked for the new working floor each time the rig is changed.12.5 Girders and other heavy complicated structural 9. The first load lifted by a guy derrick working a tall and heavy guy derrick. The helmets shall be worn properly and at all times 9.12. trenches or getting injured by falling objects. lifted shall be tied back unless they have been tied or braced to prevent their falling over and endangering 9. The weight of concrete in which the a mobile crane job. cutting reinforced with a structural member laid flat on top of and welding. 9. use of a balance beam is advisable.MANAPAKKAM.2.2. The rope shall be indicate hazards.2. depending on the diameter loaded in one car or on one truck. of Structural Steel Work 9. the area shall be cordoned welded to the webs of the girder at intervals to be off by barricades to prevent persons from hitting against removed and the surface chipped or ground to leave it structural components.2. accepted standard [7(34)] and should suit individual workers.6 If a piece is laterally unstable when picked at during the work and shall conform to the accepted its centre. crane girders. eyes of the particular worker. 9. If the holes cannot be provided.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 protection shall be provided.1 General members may require special erection devices like While engaging persons for the job the supervisor cleats and hooks. washers.12. The top flange of The safety goggles shall be used while performing a truss. a single 16 mm diameter wire rope through vertical The filter glass of the hand shield shall conform to the stiffeners of such members about 1 m above the bottom accepted standard [7(34)] and should be suitable to the flange and clamped at the ends with wire rope clamps. etc. short eye bolts can be When the work is in progress. all but one being of the wire rope. pins.12 Additional Safety Requirements for Erection men unloading. a safety ‘bar’ running their full length will aid the riggers. All splice connections in columns.12. 9. safety boots. or falling into excavated smooth after all work on the piece has been completed. etc. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. shall be completely bolted or riveted or welded as specified in the drawing before erection.

2.2.1.1 For safety and health requirements in prohibited.17 Slinging standard [7(36)]. While using multilegged slings. Pulley blocks of the proper size shall be used to allow the rope free play in the sheave grooves and to protect 9. A pail of water shall extinguishers shall be placed at strategic points. always be kept ready for quenching the fire during Extinguishers shall always be placed in cranes.2.12.12. especially if new.12.18.24. Chain shall not be used for the purpose.12.2. The 9.19. To loaded sling.2 to 9. When idle slings are carried they shall be aid men working on floats or scaffolds. strike or cause injury to men and material buckets for hot rivets left over at the end of the day.12.2. in the upright position only and shall be conveyed in trolleys.2. 9. as well as men hooked. stretched or do not may cause it to shrink slightly in diameter. tackle or runner shall be 9. etc.19. equipment are involved.2. inspected frequently to be sure that they have not slipped and are tight enough.12. The clamps move freely shall not be used. Gas cylinders shall be stored away PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.16 Lifting appliances in cages. In addition. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. and attachment to carry the loaded containers.12 During the erection of tall buildings. reduces the hazard of an accident. shall be provided.MANAPAKKAM. The 9. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 47 . it is desirable to use nylon nets of sufficient width at a height 9.19 Welding and gas cutting 9.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . The nozzle of the hammer shall be inspected be any flame cutting.13 Safety against fire Snaps and plungers of pneumatic riveting hammers shall be secured to prevent the snap from dropping out A fire protection procedure is to be set up if there is to of place. Rivet heaters shall have safe containers or do not fall. Proper eye splices shall be used to new condition.12.12.2.12.3 Riveting hammers 9.2 All gas cylinders shall be used and stored acceptable standards [7(39)] shall be used for guying.11 When the men can work safely from the steel the wire rope from sharp bends under load. this is preferable to hanging platforms should not be carried on the crane hook alongwith a or scaffolds.12. Idle sling structure itself.63. reference may be made to good practice [7(38)]. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. A tends to stretch under the applied load.2. The chain shall be free shall then be promptly tightened to take care of this of kinks and twists. adequate bolt baskets or be loaded evenly and the slings shall be of sufficient similar containers with handles of sufficient strength length to avoid a wide angle between the legs.2. For precautions to be born.2.2.12. each sling or leg shall such as bolts and drift pins. burning. The men should be trained to use such 9.18 Riveting operations containers. as it eliminates additional operations.18. cigarette stubs. The cylinders shall be marked ‘full’ or ‘empty’ Precautions as laid down in 9.12. They shall not be shortened by tying knots.63. around. Canvas. which in turn chain in which the links are locked. Ropes in operation should not be touched. electric gas welding and cutting operations. hoists.35) valid upto31-12-2017 accordance with the procedure given in the accepted 9. as the case may be.11. Wire rope with broken strand shall not be used for erection work.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.1 Handling rivets put away in tool boxes when not in use. machine-made fibre ropes which are UV stabilized and conforming to the accepted standard [7(37)]. Sufficient fire possible to the place of work.4 Fire protection workers should be instructed not to throw objects like The rivet heating equipment should be as near as hot rivets. reference may be made to good practice [7(40)].12.2. Wire ropes/manila ropes conforming to 9. riveting or any periodically and the wire attachment renewed when operation that could start a fire. They shall be checked as soon as the Chains shall not be joined by bolting or wiring links rope has been stretched. Material shall not be dumped overboard when a scaffold is to be Care shall be taken while handling rivets so that they moved.4 wire ropes. Where electrical near inflammable materials.14 Riding on a load. the clamps shall be attach the chain hooks. 9.12. Rivet catchers shall have false wooden bottoms to prevent rivets from rebounding. 9. heating.2 Riveting dollies of 3 m to 4 m from ground to provide safety to people. and to keep small tools gathered up and 9.2.2.2 shall be followed. as the rope. or other gangs using small material. which in turn.12. leather or rope slings shall be used for riveting The safety net should be made from man-made or dollies. While handling by cranes they shall be carried 9. observed during welding and cutting operations.18.12. below.19.2.19.15 The load shall never be allowed to rest on recommendations given in 9.12. are also applicable. riveting operations and to prevent fires when working compressors and similar places.18.MANAPAKKAM. together.2. CO2 or dry powder extinguishers shall be provided {see also good practice [7(24)]}. in erection gangs.

He shall also keep a record and explosion hazards.13.12.1 Sprayer use such staircases till they are tested and found fit for usage by the Authority/engineer-in-charge. The first truss of the roof system shall be guyed bitumen.3 Gas cutting and welding torches shall be the same. 48 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . Welding shall not be On all major works. When heating of bituminous materials is carried 9. an experienced and competent undertaken in areas where inflammable liquids and foreman or supervisor shall be placed in-charge of the gases are stored. depending on extinguisher conforming to accepted standards [7(23)] the type of construction. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. The cables from welding equipment should 9. tar.MANAPAKKAM.12. Bracing and guying precautions 9.3.19. suitable blanketing shall be provided and fire 9.4 Gas lines and compressed air lines shall observance of the safety rules. suitable precautions shall be taken by way of support. The screen shall have an observation window. to prevent any collapse. the water supply available should be in abundance and the water shall be applied to the fire in the form of 9. prevent the whole structure being blown over by a sudden gale at night.1 General 9. provided shall be capable of withstanding pressure exerted due to normal bumping of an individual against 9. Oxygen like ropes. lighted by means of special lighters and not with matches. When the 9. and shall suggest suitable remedial 9. goggles and helmet.3. 9. Till the installation of the lift is completed. fire.13. When heating and handling of hot bituminous materials Guying shall be specifically done for trusses and is to be done in the open.3 Fire fighting arrangements shall be taken on every structure until it is complete.63. etc. nor are any suitable type of fire 9. fire extinguishing identification.13. etc. grease and similar combustible materials. and shall be made responsible for the strict 9. shall be provided on staircases prior to cylinders shall not be stored near combustible gas. erected.13.24. On structures used for temporary site to cope with any resultant fires. followed by vertical bracing between columns before and reliance has to be on using water for fighting any the roof structure is erected.13. sufficient number of properly maintained dry powder fire extinguisher or foam While staircase is under construction.13.19. and bituminous mixtures shall use on each side before the hoisting rope is detached from protective wears. namely. Till the The sprayer shall be provided with a fire resisting permanent handrails are provided. 9.3. to prevent persons welding is stopped for some reason.13. commencement of use of such staircases. etc. When neither such material storage overloading shall be avoided. All cylinder valves shall shall be protected with check boards or railings together be closed when the torches are being replaced or with notice boards. oil.3.24. etc.1 Safety programme undertaking welding operations near combustible materials. work. lift wells cylinder valve shall be closed. The cylinder valve accidentally falling into the wells. spreader/paver Workers or any other person shall not be allowed to 9. concrete or brickwork.1. Double earthing shall be provided. After the subsequent trusses and roof purlins are of asbestos or otherwise of rubber.1 General extinguishers kept nearby.63.12.2. danger lights.3. first-aid kit. sufficient stocks of clean dry structural components which after their erection form sand or loose earth shall be made available at the work an erection device.12.1.2. He shall stock the be identified by suitable colour codes for easy necessary protective equipment.3 Construction Involving the Use of Hot be placed in such a way that they are not run over by Bituminous Tar Materials traffic. Before a cylinder is moved.3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.13 Miscellaneous Items spray.35) valid upto31-12-2017 from open flames and other sources of heat. formworks. etc.12.1 Staircase Construction out in enclosed spaces.2 Lift Wells cylinders are in use. shall be kept in readiness on the work site.3. temporary provisions screen.13.2.2 Protective covering The structure itself should be safeguarded during its Workers engaged on jobs involving handling of hot erection.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .1.1. preferably it.1 Erection of columns shall be immediately extinguishers provided at the work site in the open.MANAPAKKAM. The handrails and connections shall not be lubricated. with reasons thereof.13. such as boots and gloves. cylinder valve key or wrench shall be placed in position. of the accidents taking place on any particular job. protective guides shall be firmly established No workers shall be permitted to handle such materials and the required wind bracings shall be erected to without wearing the needed protective covering.2 Sprayer.3. materials are available.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . to avoid confusion and to prevent fire equipment. Before 9.3 Safety of Structure measures to the management for prevention thereof.

13.1 Tanks. Mops and other for easy transport or towing shall preferably be provided applicators contaminated with bituminous materials with hand pumps for spraying purposes. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.3. and exercise scrupulous care to prevent accidental spillage b) a second handle near the bottom for tipping. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 49 .3.13.2 Spreader/Paver material shall not be thrown into the hot vessels so as to cause splashing.3. platforms on spreaders shall be protected by suitable railing and be provided with an access ladder. vats.13.3.2. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.MANAPAKKAM.63.13.10 Spilled bitumen or tar shall be promptly into the boiler for this purpose.24.13. Pieces of bituminous 9. vessels are not in use. buildings. dipstick may also be used. adequate Heating appliances for vessels shall distribute the heat precautions shall be taken to prevent any build up of uniformly over the heating surface so as to avoid pressure. kettles. boiler shall have a device that 9.3. fumes and smoke of metal which shall be adequately insulated.24. distance from combustible materials. boiler.11 Inspection openings shall not be opened 9. vessels for heating tar. No open light shall be used for b) capable of holding a full load without danger ascertaining the level of binder in boilers.3. the gases. overheating.3. The buckets and cans in which the hot material is carried from boiler shall be checked before use to 9. Workers generated shall be removed by exhaust ventilation or shall not stand facing the wind directions while spraying by forced ventilations. heated the vessel shall be kept open. workers shall not stand opposite to the jet so as to avoid the possibility of hot binder falling on them. Only Bitumen/tar shall not be heated beyond the temperature vessels heated by electricity shall be used inside recommended by the manufacturer of the product. shall not be stored inside buildings.3. On no account shall workers be allowed to peep 9. While they are being material.13. If a burner of collapse. etc.9 Piping shall not be warmed with burning rags ascertain level and temperature of the material in the and instead blow-lamps or similar devices shall be used.13. shall be at low temperature till the water entrapped.3.13. drums and other foaming agents shall be used to control the same. Enough space shall shall always keep a safe distance from sprayer.3. 9. regulators and safety devices of types approved by the Authority.3. bursting or distortion. In case of bituminous mixtures using 9. is completely evaporated. heating binders.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .8 Cutbacks shall not be heated over an open which can be controlled for taking out the hot flame unless a water jacket is used.3. lest it may fall on them causing burns.3. cleaned up around boilers. pots shall be equipped with burners.3 Gas and oil-fired bitumen and tar kettles or while there is any pressure in the boiler. in small plants.13.3.3.3.13. the boiler shall also be drained before using it for transportation. the heating materials shall be. For ascertaining levels. Tar boilers shall never be used on While discharging heated binder from the boiler. While handling hot bitumen/tar. combustible roof. workers shall a) the bail or handle firmly secured.13. pots. goes out. 9.12 When tanks are cleaned by steam. and provided with suitable outlets 9. Covers shall be kept closed when Spreaders in operation shall be protected by signals.MANAPAKKAM.63.3. the fuel supply shall be cut off and the heating c) provided with a close fitting cover suitable for tube shall be thoroughly blown out by the fan so as to smothering a fire in the vessel or protection prevent a back fire.3 Equipment for heating of bitumen and tars prevents foam from reaching the burners or anti- 9. Elevated be left in vessels for expansion of binder.13. Vessels that are being heated hot binder. to avoid fire due to foaming. bitumen and other bituminous Alternatively.3.4 Buckets for hot bitumen.3.3.6 Vessels in operation shall be kept at a safe insulated to protect workers from injury by burns. when heated. Gravel spreaders when they are carried or hoisted.13.4 Handling bitumen/tar mineral aggregates filler together with bitumen.3.3.3.13.3. shall not be left unattended. Any water present in a) adequately resistant to damage by heat. Containers shall not be filled signs or other effective means.5 Bitumen or tar boilers mounted on wheels ensure that they are intact and safe.3.3. and d) leak proof. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. When vessels are Flexible piping work under positive pressure shall be used in confined spaces.2 Suitable indicator gauges shall be used to 9. valve. 9.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Piping for hot tar and bitumen shall be adequately 9.3.7 Bitumen/tar shall be kept dry and to avoid fire due to foaming. thereof. it is preferable to have some means for stirring as well. from rain. The 9. if any. bituminous container shall be handled only after closing the control materials of tar shall have. 9. People should be warned with hot bitumen or tar to a level that might cause danger against walking over hot mixture laid.13.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .

1 Sanitation 9.1 Temporary Electrical Wiring sanitary condition.17. Section 5 Installation of Lifts. etc.1.1. etc. The total number to be provided shall and equipment are provided to carry the fragile fixtures be not less than one per 30 employees in any like sanitary fittings. Adequate the Code. shall be located in an easily which are not in actual use should be closed with tight accessible and prominent place. from which connections are taken for lighting.MANAPAKKAM. 9. power 9.1.2 All electrical circuits. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.17. one shift. 9. Polishing and Other Finishes for illumination of the site at night.16 Safety in Special Operations of building operations. All flexible wiring connecting the Preventive measures against hazards in work places electrical appliances shall have adequate mechanical involving construction of timber structures shall be strength and shall preferably be enclosed in a flexible taken in accordance with good practice [7(42)]. occupant is sheltered from view and protected from the weather and falling objects.3 Requirements as given in 12 of Part 8 ‘Building lids shall be kept handy at the work site for depositing Services. Code. Adequate protection shall practice [7(41)].1. The main switch board for the day’s work should be kept at the work spot.3. Besides the fire safety measures for electrical 9.18. Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations’ used cotton rags/waste. protective clothing.MANAPAKKAM.3 Metal receptacles with pedal operated metal 9. cleaned and deposited in the store along with the Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations’ of the containers.7. b) Toilet facilities shall be provided from the start 9. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. A sufficient quantity of 9.1.1 All containers of paint.17. 50 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . 9.13. No articles of clothing fitting lids and kept at a safe place away from the actual nor stores shall be kept at the back of or over the board work site. Overhead wires/cables shall be so laid that they leave adequate head room. shall 9.14 Finishes 9.15 Fragile Fixtures a) Adequate toilet facilities shall be provided for the workers within easy access of their place It shall be ensured that sufficient number of workers of work.14.17. shall be switched Only the quantity of paint.1.1 Painting.5 Some paints/polishing and finishing materials are injurious to the health of workers.2 A 5 kg dry powder fire extinguisher conforming to the accepted standard [7(43)] shall be accepted standard [7(43)] shall be provided near the kept handy. thinner and polish operated machinery.35) valid upto31-12-2017 9.14.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24. and connection to a Safety in compressed air work. artificial illumination shall be provided. Natural or temporary electrical connections during construction. switch board. thinner and polish required off at the close of day’s work. respectively.14. and Part 8 ‘Building Services. or anywhere near it.17 Electrical Installations and Lifts d) Toilet facilities shall be maintained in a 9. Used paint brushes shall be be in accordance with 12 of Part 8 ‘Building Services.5 Bitumen plants All temporary wiring shall be installed and supervised Safety requirements shall be in accordance with good by a competent electrician.4 All containers of paint shall be removed from installations covered under 9. metal sheath. etc. preferably by burning under proper supervision. The contents of such receptacles of the Code shall also be complied with.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . One 3 kg/4. glass panes. Escalators and Moving Walks’ of 9.14. blasting and sewer shall be made as soon as practicable.14. safety in electric the work site and deposited in the paint store before installations in buildings and installations of lifts shall the close of day’s work. 9. shall be disposed off before the end of each day’s work 9.63.1.63. be provided for all electrical wiring laid on floor which may have to be crossed over by construction machinery 9. drilling.14.17. respiratory equipment.1. to prevent injury to workers due to accidental dropping of such fixtures.24.4 Timber Structure or by the workers. welding operations shall be in accordance with good c) Every toilet shall be so constructed that the practices [7(44)].13.5 kg CO2 extinguisher or one 5 kg dry powder extinguisher conforming to the 9.1. other than those required 9.18 General Safety Requirements for Workplace be provided for the use of workers during such operations where necessary.1 Frayed and/or bare wires shall not be used for disinfectant shall be provided.2 Permanent Electrical Installations at a safe place.

2. sprinklers and underground water 9.2 The standpipe (landing valve/internal fire 9.18.4 A substantial box.2. be provided.18. should at all times.18. other fire extinguishing accepted standards [7(45)].3.MANAPAKKAM.2 Access shall be provided and maintained at during the construction of all buildings over 15 m in all times to all fire fighting equipment.3. packing materials and oily blockage. such as scrap timber.35) valid upto31-12-2017 e) An adequate supply of drinking water shall required for use as specified in 9. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. preferably of metal.2. the provision of mains or other suitable arrangements for provision of permanent stairways.18. during construction of all buildings above construction site.2.18. equipment shall also be provided and conveniently located 9.3.18.3 Periodical inspection should be carried out 9.3.18.18.2. all parts of the floor as well as a short branch fitted 9.18. as required by the Authority.2 Emergency plan and fire order specifying to remove all waste accumulation in or near vertical the individual responsibility in the event of fire should shaft openings like stairways. wood planned.2.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. be not more than one floor below 9. a serviceable condition at all times in accordance with 9.18.7 An independent water storage facility shall be periodically in case of large and important construction provided before the commencement of construction sites to ensure upkeep and efficiency of fire fighting operations for fire-fighting purposes.2. sprinkler valves and hydrants.1 All fire extinguishers shall be maintained in the floor under construction.2.18.2 Fire Protection 9. municipal water supply.4.2 It shall be ensured that all workers and with 12 mm or 20 mm nozzle.2.1 In addition to the provision of fire extinguishers. 9. Top hose outlets. extinguishers. 15 m above the grade. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. properly maintained and kept free from shavings.2.2.3 Telephone number of local fire brigade educational.18. 15 m in height and special occupancies.3 Where the building plans require the combustible material is introduced in the building. assembly.2. 9. Width of approach road should be not less waste shall be collected and disposed of safely at the than 5 m to facilitate fire fighting operations. supervisory staff are fully conversant with the correct 9.18.63. fire walls and water shall be installed. It shall be appliances.2. site.18.1.4 Close liaison shall be maintained with the local operation and use of fire extinguishers provided at the Fire Brigade. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 51 . storage.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.2.18. including fire height or buildings having a plinth area in excess hose. 9.2.6 All work waste.2.4 Evacuation facilities and fire exits should with or without automatic closing devices. installation of fixed fire fighting equipment. like 9. Fire walls and exit stairways required for a building should be given construction priority.1. The regarding fire protection at workplaces followed in box should contain adequate lengths of hose to reach accordance with good practice [7(21)]. completed and made available other features of the completed structure which will for permanent use as soon as possible.24.2.18.18.18. sawdust. etc.1 Approach roads for fire fighting should be 9. etc. and unless connected to a 9. maintained and be available for use at all times. institutional. aforesaid occupancies having area more than 500 m2 on each floor.2. lift-shaft.18.18. but in any case prevent the horizontal and vertical spread of fire should not later than the stage at which the hydrants. 9. should good practice [7(24)] and all necessary guidelines be provided and maintained near each hose outlet.24.18. 9. samples of the water permanent in nature shall be installed and made shall be tested at frequent intervals by the available before the building has reached the height of Authority. such as hydrants. of 1 000 m2. end of each day’s work.2.2.2.2.3.1 to 9.4 Watch and ward services should be provided at construction sites during holidays and nights.2.2.MANAPAKKAM. should be prominently displayed near each telephone hazardous and mixed occupancies with any of the provided at construction site.18. Particular care shall be taken 9. and carried up with each floor.1 As the work progresses. Where fire doors.18.5 It is desirable that telephone system or other means of inter-communication system be provided 9. stand pipes. hydrant) and its installation shall conform to the as specified in this part of the Code.8. in the building plans they should be hung as soon as practicable and before any significant quantity of 9. are be ensured. 9.18.3 The standpipe shall be carried up with each within the building under construction or on the building floor and securely capped at the top.1 A stand pipe system (landing valves). be formulated and mock drills should be practised 9.1. are stipulated be provided at all locations susceptible to fire hazards.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3. industrial.1.2. paper. stairway enclosures.2.8 Fire cut-offs to identify any hazard and proper records maintained and follow up action taken.

10.3. lights and after completion of day’s job. in particular. themselves or to others. hoists.18. In addition to watching the site he shall also powered equipment should be switched off from mains.3 Where in any work of demolition it is imperative. All accesses should be barricaded to prevent accidental fall.3. at any stage. the foreman shall brief the stagings.3 Precautions Prior to Demolition conform to accepted standards [7(49)].4 Safety Measures Against Fall Prevention various structural parts are supported.18.4 Earthing/grounding of electrically powered during the outside hours.19. Also all electric employed.63. be responsible for maintaining all notices.1 Specification and requirements of construction machinery used in construction or demolition work shall 10. shall be so located that the escape of workers during any emergency.18. definite plan of procedure for the demolition work. depending upon the manner in which the loads of the 9. A hazards. Preventive measures against hazards relating to disposal Electrical installations for demolition sites shall be in of debris shall be taken in accordance with [7(48)].2 Planning or loose garments shall be prohibited.1 The safety requirements for carrying out the workers be not of such nature as to increase the demolition/dismantling work shall be as given in 10. in actual execution of the demolition work. 9.1 It shall be ensured that the clothes worn by 10. include study of the manner in which 9.15.24.18.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3. shall be made for at least two independent exits for derricks.2 During nights. 9. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. in work places shall be taken in accordance with good No structure or part of the structure or any floor or practice [7(47)]. a clearance of at least 150 mm shall be maintained between such piping and combustible 10.3. side wall or any device for equipment shall be loaded in excess of the safe 9.3. provisions 9.18. exhausts are well away from combustible materials. to ensure that no unauthorized person shall enter the site of demolition 9. wearing of Chaddars 10. Moreover. barricades. in its then existing condition. wire mesh. reference may be made to good doors and openings giving access to the structure shall practice [7(50)].1 On every demolition job. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.18. However.2 Workers engaged in processes which splash careful study shall be made of the structure which is to liquid or other materials which will injure the skin shall be pulled down and also of all its surroundings.19. As a rule. This have enough protective clothing to cover the body.24. Before the commencement of reduces chances of fall-ladder and scaffoldings. be kept barricaded or manned except during the actual passage of workers or equipment.MANAPAKKAM.2 chances of their getting involved in accident to to 10. material.18. under construction. danger signs shall be 9. For details as fall prevention It should be ensured that the demolition operations do reference may be made to good practice [7(46)]. shall. 10. red lights shall be placed on or Where the exhausts are pipes to outside the building about all the barricades.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . a watchman should be equipment/tools shall be ensured.MANAPAKKAM. far as possible. accordance with 12 of Part 8 ‘Building Services.6 Disposal of Debris carrying capacity.5 Falling Materials Hazard Prevention the demolishing work on the use of the adjacent Preventive measures against falling materials hazards buildings should be kept to the minimum.3 Petroleum powered air compressors. temporary support or scaffold. each stage of demolition.19. Provision of cat-walks. not. 52 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .35) valid upto31-12-2017 9. the nuisance effect of 9.3 Clothing 10 SAFETY IN DEMOLITION OF BUILDINGS 9.3. etc.19 Construction Machinery Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations’ of the Code.3 Individuals engaged in work involving use of the various parts of the building to be demolished are naked flames (such as welding) shall not wear synthetic supported and how far the stage by stage demolition fibre or similar clothing which increases the risk of fire will affect the safety of the adjoining structure. etc. shall be prepared Persons working at heights may use safety belts and and approved by the engineer-in-charge and this shall harnesses. should be anchored on firm footing and workers in detail regarding the safety aspects to be kept should be secured and railing should be provided as in view. because of danger existing.63. railings be followed as closely as possible.2 For safety requirements for working with conspicuously posted all around the structure and all construction machinery. Before beginning the actual work of demolition a 9.19. and endanger the safety of the adjoining buildings. pumps.

Prior to cutting of such lines. the of the sidewalk to the structure is more than 4.3. before the demolition work load.3 When the horizontal distance from the inside wrecked by fire. measured from the side fragile nature like glass shall be removed. accidents. Roof of sidewalk shed shall be designed taking into 10.3 Dust shall be controlled by suitable means to sidewalk shed shall be constructed over the entire length prevent harm to workers.1 Prior to commencement of work. of the sidewalk adjacent to the structure. Every sidewalk or road adjacent to the work shall be NOTE — For guidance on management of pedestrians/cyclists/ vehicles near road construction sites.5.9.3. the storing of be ensured that the workers are using all the safety material on a sidewalk shed may be permitted in which appliances while at work. all material of two storeyed or 7.3. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 53 . a sidewalk shed or fence or a substantial suitably. shall be clearly marked and prominently sign posted.7 All the mains and meters of the building shall shall be adequately braced and connected to resist be removed or protected from damage. and sheeting/planking to prevent falling material from b) it satisfies all safety requirements to avoid any penetrating into the shed.9 Protection of the Public or roadway along the entire length of the demolition side of the property with movable bars as may be 10. railing shall be constructed on the inside of the sidewalk 10. at any time.4.5 The power on all electrical service lines shall account the impact of the falling debris. All members of the shed 10.3.5. The side walk shed supports.4 Stacking of materials or debris shall be within width with a view to accommodating the pedestrian safe limits of the structural member. the face of the sidewalk shed towards the adjoining building and the members of the building shall be completely closed by providing public. A toe board of at least 1 m high above the roof of the 10.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4 m.35) valid upto31-12-2017 10. reference may be made closed or protected. shall be kept closed at all time except during actual loading 10.24. Such boards may be vertical or 10.4 All the necessary safety appliances shall be sustaining a load of 73 N/mm2.5 m. shall be given.1 The demolition work shall be proceeded with in inclined outward at not more than 45°. of sufficient 10.63. on the roof of work shed is not more is started.2 All openings shall be boarded up.6 All gas. 10. The height of sidewalk shed shall be approval shall be obtained from the electrical such as to give a minimum clearance of 2.5 m or less.3.4.5 m and walls and damaged roofs shall be shored or braced less than 7. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. where necessary. For detailed information reference may be made to good 10. be shut off and capped or otherwise controlled at or outside the building line. the necessary than 6 000 N/m2. water steam and other service lines shall operations. ventilation shall be provided for the workers. authorities concerned. 10. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. say due to lack of other space. All main roads. It shall cases. By frequent be shut off and all such lines cut or disconnected at or removal of loads it shall be ensured that the maximum outside the property line. explosion or other catastrophe.3.2 If the structure to be demolished is more than 10. unobstructed at all times.8 If a structure to be demolished has been partially 10. Only in exceptional issued to the workers and their use explained. Diversions for pedestrians shall be constructed.3.24. for loading purposes.5 m high.9.MANAPAKKAM. and the horizontal distance from the inside of the sidewalk to the structure is 4.3.4.3. case the shed shall be designed for a load of 146 N/mm2. 10.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .5 Adequate natural or artificial lighting and practice [7(51)]. shall be lighted sufficiently to ensure safety at all times.5 Sequence of Demolition Operations shed shall be provided on the outside edge and ends of the sidewalk shed.9.4 Precautions During Demolition 10.2 All existing fixtures required during demolition PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. Except where the roof of a sidewalk shed solidly abuts a) it causes the least damage and nuisance to the the structure. such a way that. before demolition work is The deck flooring of the sidewalk shed shall consist of started.63.1 Safety distances to ensure safety of the public necessary for the proper execution of the work.4. Sidewalk shed opening. The only exception will be any power lines required for demolition work itself. displacement of members or distortion of framework. Additional traffic without causing congestion. walk or street which cannot be closed or safely diverted. which are open to to IRC SP 55 : 2014 ‘Guidelines on traffic management in work the public.4. shall be kept open to the public clear and zones’. where necessary for safety. The roof of sidewalk sheds shall be capable of 10. a substantial 10.MANAPAKKAM. plank of not less than 50 mm in thickness closely laid and deck made watertight.

access to it. catch platform of sufficient strength to to fall as single mass upon the floors of the building prevent injuries to workers below and public shall be that are being demolished so as to exceed the safe provided. glazed sash.3 Catch platform shall be capable of sustaining a 10. directly regulations of the undertakings or they shall be underneath and such area shall be barricaded to prevent temporarily relocated. if proper precautions are ensured 10. The lath unexpected floor collapse. 10. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.6 All structural steel members shall be lowered to prevent injuries to persons and damage to property.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. in exceptional cases. care shall be taken to amount of dust producing material before more see that the floor on which it is supported is amply substantial parts of the buildings are removed. shall be removed. Overloading of floors in height.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .7. 10.7. 10. any possible unexpected collapse of the floor. when the external walls are more than 20 m carrying capacity of the floors.MANAPAKKAM. For detailed information 10. and all loose plaster shall be stripped off throughout the entire building.3 Planks of sufficient strength shall be provided glazed doors and windows. from the building and shall not be allowed to drop.1 While walls of sections of masonry are being 10.2 Walls shall be removed part by part.10 Stairs.63. When to be incapable to carry the load of the debris.2 Such catch platform shall be constructed and floor shall be inspected by the engineer-in-charge before maintained not more than 3 storeys below the storey undertaking demolition work and if the same is found from which exterior wall is being demolished. catch platform will not be considered necessary.4 No person shall be permitted to ride the load 10.2 All ladders shall be secured against. This is advantageous because it 10.MANAPAKKAM.5. slipping 10. with guard rails and toe boards.1 Stairs with railings.1 When a derrick is used.8. at the top.6.10. it shall be ensured that they are not allowed structures.9.8. The 10.8. not apply to the ground level floor. All to give workers firm support to guard against any fragile and loose fixtures shall be removed.9.6 Walls 10. by standing over them. This provision shall 10.6.6 The demolition shall always proceed line.9 Catch Platform 10. strong for the loading so imposed.3 Tag lines shall be used on all materials being 10.5. 10.10. shall be left in place as long as possible and maintained in a safe condition.4 Materials shall not be dumped on the catch than one and a half brick thick and dangerous to work platform nor shall they be used for storage of materials.9. Stages shall live load of not less than 6 100 N/m 2.5.6. one metre above the floor level.8 Demolition of Steel Structures reduces glass breakage and also eliminates a large 10.7.8. systematically storey by storey in descending order.7 Flooring 10. All work in the upper floor shall be completed and 10.63.5. 54 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . no worker or covering to the entire satisfaction of the rules and person shall be allowed to work in the area. be provided for the men to work on if the walls are less 10. 10.35) valid upto31-12-2017 operations shall be well protected with substantial 10. Passageways and Ladders 10.5 No beams shall be cut until precautions have approved by the engineer-in-charge prior to disturbance been taken to prevent it from swinging freely and to any supporting member on the lower floor. 10. shall be prevented by removing the accumulating debris through chutes or by other means immediately. etc.9.4 All well openings which extend down to floor planking shall be used to distribute the load to floor level shall be barricaded to a height of not less than beam and girders. passageways and ladders reference may be made to good practice [7(51)].5 All floor openings and shafts not used for lowered or hoisted up and a standard signal system shall material chutes shall be floored over and be enclosed be used and the workers instructed on the signals.8.3 Before demolition work is started.1 Prior to removal of masonry or concrete floor out at the bottom and against movement in any direction adequate support centering shall be provided.24.3 Adequate lateral bracing shall be provided for walls which are unsound.2 When floors are being removed.1 In demolition of exterior walls of multistorey demolished. 10. If necessary heavy 10.8.2 Overloading of equipment shall not be allowed.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 10. possibly striking any worker or equipment or to any Demolition of the structure in sections may be permitted part of the structure being demolished. necessary demolition has progressed to within 3 storeys of ground additional precautions shall be taken so as to prevent level.

removed. or a the collapse of the whole structure in one convenient intermediate frame should be independently operation to obviate the chance of leaving and securely guyed in both directions before work unstable portion standing. the following points may be kept in view: following additional precautions may be observed: a) On no account should the restraining influence a) The area shall be barricaded for a minimum of the abutments be removed before the dead distance of 1½ times the height of the wall. starts. Sufficient both arch and abutments. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. when being used.6.12.1.63. and the possibility of lack of continuity of reinforcement should be ascertained. When demolition is to be performed by mechanical devices. where may then proceed as for single span.12. beams). the However.4 Brick Arches The reinforcement should be exposed at the base after Expert advice should be obtained and. to maintain stability. at all stages of restraining wire guy ropes have been placed round the the demolition.12.24.12.12. Demolition 10.11 Mechanical Demolition by persons fully experienced and conversant in the type of work to ensure that the structure is stable at all times.1 Roof Trusses d) Collapse of the structure can be affected in one action by the use of explosives.6 In-situ Reinforced Concrete be put on the floor below the level of the truss.12 Demolition of Certain Special Types and method working progressively from edges to Elements of Structures the centre.2 Heavy Floor Beams of reinforcement. it shall Before commencing demolition.12.63.3 Adequate hoisting gears suitable for the loads shall be provided.1 Temporary bracing should be added. no worker shall be allowed to enter the b) A single span arch can be demolished by hand building being demolished. until the width of the arch has been d) The mechanical device.6. and arch. etc. Charges If a building has a pitched roof. the structure should be should be inserted into bore holes drilled in removed to wall plate level by hand methods. lateral restraint should be provided at the springing level.12.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . the nature and be ensured that the floor is capable of taking the load. demolished or supported before tailing down load is removed. c) Where deliberate collapse is feasible. these should not be cut until after the arch or the concrete should be removed from both ends by series of arches in the floor have been removed.12. power line.24.2 On no account should the bottom tie of roof trusses be cut until the principal rafters are prevented Canopies. shall reduced to a minimum which can then be not cause any damage to adjacent structure. such as weight ball and power shovels. If during demolition any thing is to 10. purlins and bracing should be retained to ensure stability of the remaining roof trusses while each individual truss e) In multi-span arches.5 Cantilever (Not Part of a Framed Structure) 10. before individual arches is removed progressively. The reinforcement should then be PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. Heavy baulks of timber and steel beams should be supported before cutting at the extremities and should Demolition should be commenced by removing then be lowered gently to a safe working place.1 Reinforced concrete beams Where tie rods are present between main supporting A supporting rope should be attached to the beam. The pneumatic drill and the reinforcement exposed. 10.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . collapsed. the crown may be broken by the demolition ball 10.MANAPAKKAM.1.1. The end frame opposite explosives are used it is preferable to ensure to the end where dismantling is commenced. 10. load of the spandrel fill and the arch rings are b) While the mechanical device is in operation. partitions and external non-load bearing cladding.12. by cutting narrow segments progressively c) The device shall be so located as to avoid from each springing parallel to the span of the falling debris. cornices. condition of the concrete.MANAPAKKAM.3 Jack Arches 10. 10. 10.12. staircases and balconies should be from making outward movement. The floor should be demolished in strips parallel to the span reinforcement should then be cut in such a way as to of the arch rings (at right angles to the main floor allow the beam to be lowered under control to the floor.2 Reinforced concrete columns 10. where necessary. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. the condition and position 10. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 55 .12. the closest supervision should be given member at the top. are removed. 10.35) valid upto31-12-2017 10. Then beams.

35) valid upto31-12-2017 cut in such a way as to allow it to be pulled down to the thick and 150 mm high shall be provided at each chute floor under control. not less than 50 mm up. Removal and Disposal of Materials being demolished makes the intermediate floor or any 10.13.3.12. Any space between the chute and the edge of 10. if provided at an angle of more than be collected in well-formed heaps at properly selected 45° from the horizontal. this operation of conveying Malba to its final disposal location may have to be carried out a 10.2. Depending on the space available at the the bottom of each chute to stop the flow of materials.2 The Malba obtained during demolition shall 10. It shall be ensured that the storage floor is should be taken not to cut the ribs inadvertently.13.1 Dismantled materials may be thrown to the portion of it unsafe. final disposal location and the demolition areas tidied 10. The be properly shored. an engineering expert in such demolition shall be obtained and followed.13. 10.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Care floor area.13. general opening.4 Removal of Materials means of ropes or suitable tackles. openings.6. or to the top of the sidewalk shed where provided by 10.13.4 Any opening into which workers dump debris number of times during the demolition work. A gate or stop demolition site to a location as required by the local shall be provided with suitable means for closing at civil authority. 10.8 Prestressed Reinforced Concrete removed until the storey immediately above has been demolished down to the floor line and all debris cleared Before commencing of the demolition work.3 The Malba shall be removed from the unbroken line for more than two storeys. In any at the top of chute shall be guarded by a substantial case. supporting walls are not kept without adequate lateral Normally such materials shall be lowered to the ground restraints.13. except for opening at or about the the area.13.24.2. then such intermediate floor shall ground only after taking adequate precautions.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4. the principle of which lies between floor that is being demolished and design and method of construction should be the storage floor shall not exceed 25 percent of such determined before demolition is commenced.13 Lowering. the released 10. 10.12.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4. 10. demolition site.2 Through Chutes serviceable materials of different types shall be 10. shall be entirely enclosed on places. 10. Where total area of the hole cut in any intermediate floor.2.3 Reinforced concrete walls the opening in the floor through which it passes shall These should be cut into strips and demolished as for be solidly planked over.3 Through Holes in the Floors 10.13.12. The height of each Malba heap shall be limited floor level for receiving the materials.2. columns. 56 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .1 Wooden or metal chutes may be provided separated from the unserviceable lot (hereinafter called for removal of materials. one ribbed construction has been used. advice of from the floor.13. keeping in view safe conditions for workers in all the four sides.3.4. In such a case the reinforcement and demolished strip by strip. 10.3 To prevent the descending material attaining a dangerous speed.12. The chutes shall preferably ‘Malba’) at suitable time intervals and properly stocked be provided at the centre of the building for efficient clear of the spots where demolition work is being done.2.4 Suspended floors and roofs 10. the demolition work shall not be considered as guard rail extending at least one metre above the level completed and the area declared fit for further of the floor or other surface on which men stand to occupation till all the Malba has been carried to its dump the materials into the chute.1 As demolition work proceeds.13.13. disposal of debris.MANAPAKKAM. of adequate strength to withstand the impact of the falling material.2 Chutes.13.1 Debris may also be dropped through holes The slab should be cut into strips parallel to the main in the floor without the use of chutes. to ensure its toppling over or otherwise endangering the safety of workers or passersby. chute shall not extend in an 10.24.6.63.3.3 When the cutting of a hole in an intermediate floor between the storage floor and the floor which is 10.13. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.13. It shall also be ensured that the material shall preferably be dumped inside the building.7 Precast Reinforced Concrete 10. No barricades or guard rails shall be 10. if the material is dumped from the wheel barrows.5 A toe board or bumper.2 All intermediate floor openings for passage Due precautions shall be taken to avoid toppling over of materials shall be completely enclosed with of prefabricated units or any other part of the structure barricades or guard rails not less than one metre high and whenever necessary temporary supports shall be and at a distance of not less than 1 m from the edge of provided.13.

hand gloves.14.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . building component develops cracks whenever stress 10. In the post construction stage the day to day maintenance or upkeep of the building shall 10. moisture changes. Enough first-aid kit. building component could be caused by externally applied forces. such as dead.5 Following other requirements should also be provisions shall be made to prevent the accumulation met: of water or damage to any foundations on the premises or the adjoining property.14.14. 10.15 First-Aid b) Workman should be provided with suitable 10. the overall output. thus affecting ensure that all the workers are wearing the safety devices before commencing any work. etc. RETROFITTING AND and watchmen. shall be issued to the Inadequate or improper maintenance adversely affects workers.14.MANAPAKKAM. like safety helmets.1 No demolition work should be carried out during night as far as possible. Stress in a when working at higher levels.14. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 11 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 10.14 Miscellaneous telephone numbers of the hospitals prominently displayed.24. The 10. especially when the Complete reports of all accidents and action taken structure to be demolished is in an inhabited area. maintenance continues for comparatively very conforming to the accepted standards [7(28)] and large period during the useful life of building. preserving over a long period what has been constructed. A cause collapse of debris.4 Construction sheds and tool boxes shall be so certainly delay the decay of the building structure. If thereon shall be forwarded to the competent authorities.63. Early aid work. out during day. boots.1 A copy of all pertinent regulations and notices protective gears for personal safety during concerning accidents. etc.63. injury and first-aid shall be works.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Management’ of the Code.13. additional precautions by way of additional red warning signals.4. Such materials rubbish and all other unsafe and hazardous conditions shall be covered during transportation also. shall be removed from the site at the earliest and shall be maintained free from the accumulation of till then they shall be suitably covered.14. or foundation settlement or it could be induced When a building has been demolished and no building internally due to thermal movements.MANAPAKKAM. and 10.8 Grading of Plot loads. shall be provided to avoid any injury STRENGTHENING OF BUILDINGS to workers and public.35) valid upto31-12-2017 10. located as to protect workers from injuries from the Though the building may be designed to be very durable falling debris. etc. working lights SECTION 5 REPAIRS.13. wind or seismic 10. the vacant chemical action. graded and maintained in conformity nuisance or undue environmental pollution in any other to the established street grades at kerb level. a) Glass and steel should be dumped or buried separately to prevent injury. In case of poor visibility a person. prominently exhibited at the work site.15.14. The plot way.2 Warning devices shall be installed in the area Maintenance management of building is the art of to warn the workers in case of any danger.2 Depending on the scope and nature of the work. special attire. steel structures. site to render and direct first-aid to casualties.1 Cracks in buildings are of common occurrence. such night work has to be done. it needs maintenance to keep it in good condition. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. c) Work of removal of debris should be carried 10. operation has been projected or approved. goggles made of celluloid lens.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . goggles.5 Where there is a likelihood of injuries to hands maintenance management of buildings shall be done of workers when demolishing RCC.15. Foreman-in-charge of the work areas shall the environment in which people work. Demolition work shall not be carried out during storm and heavy rain.4 Materials which are likely to cause dust plot shall be filled. which endangers the life or health of the public.14. qualified in first-aid shall be available at work artificial light may be provided.3 Safety devices like industrial safety helmets period.6 Sufficient protection by way of both overhead 12 PREVENTION OF CRACKS cover and screens shall be provided to prevent injuries 12. A to the workers and the public. He shall maintain a list of individuals qualified to serve in first- d) Debris should first be removed from top. Whereas construction stage lasts for a short 10. including a stretcher and removal from bottom or sides of dump may a cot with accessories shall be provided at site. 10. in accordance with Part 12 ‘Asset and Facility gloves of suitable materials shall be worn by workers. causing injuries. 10.4. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 57 .7 Safety belts or ropes shall be used by workers in the component exceeds its strength. imposed. telephone may be provided to first-aid assistant with 10.

1. be employed to determine the residual strength structural repairs may cover the damages to civil and of the members.1. as required.63. and building. therefore. thus adding to cost of maintenance.3 For complete details on causes and prevention of decide whether a structure is amenable for non-structural cracks. etc.MANAPAKKAM.2. Non.2 Cracks could be broadly classified as structural chimneys. details of architectural components to the main structural components to ensure their stability. In course of time. it is necessary to conduct detailed damage It is. may have serious action. necessary to adopt measures of assessment to determine. and plumbing services. prevention or minimization of these cracks. in the building and any attempt to carry out only repairs sometime non-structural cracks may.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . due to incorrect design. to decide the structure as a whole prevention of cracks in buildings’. The damage may render the structure unsafe. but may look unsightly. spoil restoration of original strength and any strengthening the internal finish.1. reference shall be made to good repair.1 Non-structural/Architectural Repairs concrete. Structural cracks are those which are f) Replastering of walls. whether continued occupation is practice SP 25:1984 ‘Handbook on causes and permitted. and electrical items. c) Checking and repairing electric conduits/ b) Addition of reinforcing mesh on both faces wiring.2 After the assessment of the damage of individual structural elements. if considered dangerous. faulty construction or g) Rearranging disturbed roofing tiles. 13 REPAIRS AND SEISMIC STRENGTHENING b) if the structure is considered amenable for OF BUILDINGS repair then detailed damage assessment of the 13. parapet walls. neglecting the penetration of moisture through cracks or weathering required structural repairs. safety of a building. a) the structural condition of the building to 12. The restoration These repairs involve one or more of the following: work may consist of the following: a) Patching up of defects such as cracks and fall a) Removal of portions of cracked masonry walls of plaster. Care should be taken about the connection gravity loads. depending on the extent of damage. Vertical cracks in a would be more severe in the event of the building being long compound wall due to shrinkage or thermal shaken by a similar shock because original energy movement is an instance of non-structural cracking. appropriate repair 13. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. water pipes through spikes or bolts and then covering it. crushed 13. replacement of Use of non-shrinking mortar will be glass panes. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. c) to work out the details of temporary supporting Repairs to non-structural components need to be taken arrangement of the distressed members so that up after the structural repairs and retrofitting work are they do not undergo further distress due to carried out.1. because of to architectural/non-structural elements.24. distress location. including the services in the building. result in corrosion of reinforcement and thus implications on the safety of the building. overloading and these may endanger the safety of a h) Relaying cracked flooring at ground level.1 General Principles and Concepts individual structural components (mapping of the crack pattern. Non-structural cracks j) Redecoration – white washing. and piers and rebuilding them in richer mortar. or a part require demolition.MANAPAKKAM. or may create an impression of faulty work or may give a 13. painting. b) Repairing doors. however. or non-structural. 13. absorption capacity of the building would have been Non-structural cracks.35) valid upto31-12-2017 12.24. cracks may. reinforcement bending/yielding. preferable.1.2 Structural Repairs/Restoration feeling of instability.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .1.1 Prior to taking up of the structural repairs for because of penetration of moisture through them. Non-destructive testing techniques could suffer both non-structural and structural damages. are mostly due to internally induced stresses in building The architectural repairs as stated above do not restore materials and these generally do not directly result in the original structural strength of structural components structural weakening. measures. suitably. normally do not endanger the reduced.1.1 The buildings affected by earthquake may etc). etc. holding it to the wall d) Checking and repairing gas pipes. 13. windows. of the cracked wall.63.2 Non-structural and architectural components methods are to be carried out component-wise get easily affected/ dislocated during the earthquake.1. smoke concrete (maximum size of aggregate limited 58 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . Extensive cracking of an RCC beam is an instance of structural cracking. 13.2. with cement mortar or micro- e) Rebuilding non-structural walls. In some situations.

1.3.5 For detailed guidelines for seismic evaluation and strengthening of existing reinforced concrete Many existing buildings do not meet the seismic buildings. Retrofitting an existing elements.24. retrofitting to reconstruction cost determines the decision. which are strong in tension. This upgrade the seismic resistance of a damaged building may also require less working time and much less while repairing so that it becomes safer under future dislocation in the living style of the population. however. the retrofitting is adopted. kind.5. in such a way that inertia forces inadequate building may involve as much as 4 to 5 generated by the vibration of the building can times the initial extra expenditure required on seismic be transmitted to the members that have the resisting features.4 For detailed guidelines for improving earthquake failure by proper reinforcement and resistance of earthen buildings. and d) The cracked reinforced concrete elements may be repaired by epoxy grouting and could c) maintaining functional social and cultural be strengthened by epoxy or polymer mortar environment. c) Injecting cement. jacketing.35) valid upto31-12-2017 to 6 mm or less as suitable).MANAPAKKAM.4 Seismic Retrofitting 13. b) preservation of historical architecture. main ones among them being. into the cracks in walls. retrofitting. buildings at the initial stage itself according to the c) Eliminating features that are sources of relevant seismic IS codes.1.1. if the cost of repair and 13. Their earthquake resistance REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKERS can be upgraded to the level of the present day codes by appropriate seismic retrofitting techniques. d) Avoiding the possibility of brittle modes of 13. avoided due to a number of reasons.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . polymer-cement mixture or a) higher cost than that of strengthening or epoxy materials. application like shotcreting.1. Typical important of a damaged building may even be 5 to 10 times as aspects are the connections between roofs or expensive. concentration of large masses and large 13.5 Strengthening or Retrofititng Versus WORKERS Reconstruction 14. and may be with existing unsafe buildings by reconstruction is.24. such as mentioned in 13. use of micro-reinforcement as fibre or ferro.1 The following aspects relating to habitat and other 13. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 59 . works b) Giving unity to the structure. This work may involve some the other hand reconstruction may offer the possibility of the following actions: of modernization of the habitat and may be preferred by well-to-do communities. fibres can be used.3 Seismic Strengthening seismic strengthening is less than about 50 percent of The main purpose of the seismic strengthening is to the reconstruction cost.1.1 Replacement of damaged buildings or welfare requirements for construction workers at site PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . etc. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. reference shall be connection of resisting members.63.2 Cost wise the building construction including areas or the number of walls and columns. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. made to good practice [7(54)]. It is. As a thumb rule. abrupt strengthening of masonry buildings. other. reference shall changes of stiffness from one floor to the be made to good practice [7(52)]. 13. therefore. Asymmetrical 13. by providing a out to be the cheaper in terms of its own safety and proper connection between its resisting that of the occupants. a) Increasing the lateral strength in one or both directions by increasing column and wall 13. the cement. the relative cost of NOTE — In mortar for masonry or plaster. very much safe as well as floors and walls. weakness or that produce concentration of stresses in some members. reinforcement are examples of defects of this reference shall be made to good practice [7(53)].3 For detailed guidelines for improving earthquake openings in walls without a proper peripheral resistance of low strength masonry buildings.1.MANAPAKKAM. to original structural inadequacies and material degradation due to time or alterations carried out SECTION 6 HABITAT AND WELFARE during use over the years.5.2 For detailed guidelines for repairs and seismic plan distribution of resisting members. between intersecting walls cost-effective to construct earthquake resistant and between walls and foundations. In most instances.63. generally. 14 HABITAT AND OTHER WELFARE REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION 13. On earthquake occurrences. the seismic code provisions in the first instance. Repair and seismic strengthening ability to resist them. reference shall be made to good practice strength requirements of present earthquake codes due [7(55)].

effluent by the occupant to ensure privacy.1. depending on size of vi) Number of bathrooms. per person v) Number of lavatories.16: 14.MANAPAKKAM.6 m2 k) Security.2. h) Crèches.1 to 14. (1) (2) (3) j) Habitat operation and maintenance. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. ‘Development Control Rules and General Building e) Adequate furniture for each worker to secure Requirements’ of the Code shall be provided. location of vii) Number of urinals. number of workers employed. overhead electrical lines. height of the provided as per Table 1. etc. Min 1 per 25 person the project. They should also decide the nature of facilities that 14.63. such as.1.5 Appropriate provisions shall be made for access to the site. facility for women with adequate privacy shall be d) Specifications of living area.1. a 14. treatment plants. movement of air in all conditions of weather 14. arranged that shifts are separated and that no 14. his or her personal belongings. f) Separate storage for work boots and other personal protection equipment to be provided 14. rooms.2 Habitat Site Selection Criteria a) Adequate natural light during the day time and 14. Design and construction of the workers’ habitat meeting 60 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .1.1. sleeping rooms be so available around the site for run-off water. the habitat.2. Following minimum facilities shall be provided in rooms of construction workers: 14. h) Beds not to be arranged in tiers of more than two. minimum clearances as given in Part 3 d) A separate bed for each worker.24. ii) Maximum number of 10 persons per room n) Waste management.3) f) Fire and safety requirements.5 shall adequate artificial light.1. Workers’ Habitat bathrooms.1 The criteria given in 14. be met while selecting habitat site for construction b) Adequate ventilation to ensure sufficient workers.2.2. Min 1 per 10 person The project authorities should.2 to 14.2.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . windows and doors.1. e) Specification and requirements for kitchen and Table 1 Area Requirements in Construction other sanitary facilities.63.1 Workers habitat shall be located away from and climate. (Clause 14.60 m2 q) Other facilities.24.2.35) valid upto31-12-2017 shall be met with. Min 1 unit per 15 person the project. iii) Minimum height of the 2. of electrical line. etc.3 The site selected shall be such that it does not depending on conditions. g) First aid and medical requirements. and depending upon the location 14. transportation of workers from their habitat to work locations.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . etc. as fences. get flooded during monsoon and drainage system g) As far as practicable. separate sanitation construction materials.7 m. garbage dumping yards. the habitat need to be located in the proximity mosquito screens where conditions warrant.5 Design and Construction of the Habitat thereof. The area requirements as given in Table 1 shall be b) Area requirements for the various facilities of adopted in a construction workers’ habitat. For female workers and if workers’ accommodation is c) Design of the habitat including the provided for families of workers. in accordance with 14.3 Minimum Area Requirements a) Habitat site selection criteria. i) Minimum floor area per 3. such as toilets. If due to non-availability of c) Lockable doors and windows. 14. provide these facilities for the workers.2 Workers’ habitat shall be located sufficiently ventilated clothes locker which can be locked away from areas like sewage channels. ventilation. provided with space. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. if two tier beds p) Habitat inspection and monitoring.2. Sl Description Quantity No. and room are provided 3 m iv) Minimum area of kitchen 0. person m) Recreational facilities.4 The site shall be separated from the workers working during the day share a room construction site/public area by physical barrier such with workers on night shifts.4 Minimum Facilities to be Provided in Rooms should be provided at the workplace within working hours.MANAPAKKAM.2.

with the required medical facilities.3 Sampling and testing of drinking water for be provided for female workers. 14. ceilings and partitions of every charge.7.24.7 Drinking Water Requirements structurally sound and may be constructed at site or 14. arrangement shall be made with an identified nearby f) Water seal lavatories may be provided on the hospital for providing ambulance for transportation of basis of community toilets or shared toilets as serious cases of accident or sickness of workers to the per the recommendation given in good hospital promptly.8. separate sanitary facilities shall 14.1 Sufficient quantity of potable water shall be erected as prefabricated single/two storied made available for drinking. b) Where both male and female building workers are employed. Such notice shall collection of sediments.8. colour-washed once in every period of six 14. Act.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .6 The medical facilities shall meet the provisions minimum distance of 18 m from the wells. the requirements of the accepted standard [7(58)] and 14. urinal or lavatory.2 Drinking water outlet shall be so located such for construction workers at site: that the distance to travel to nearest outlet shall not be more than 30 m.63. Sufficient number of first-aid boxes at all times. shall be logged in the first aid register. k) Septic tanks/soak pits shall be located at a 14. and shall a majority of the workers and shall be located at have a proper door and fastenings. Only’ or ‘For Women Only’. other sources without proper treatment.24. 14.4 Lighting of 300 lux shall be maintained in the pits and suitably disposed in municipal first aid centre. connected with a flush sewage system shall comply with the requirements of the public 14. j) Waste water from wash areas. sewerage systems.8. Trained first aiders/ male nurse/doctor shall be employed in the First Aid d) Every lavatory or urinal and washing facilities Centre depending on the number of workers shall be adequately lighted and shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition accommodated. No at least once in six months by a registered medical waste water shall be discharged to ground or practitioner. The contact details. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. different managers/supervisors/first-aid facility in- h) The walls.8.2 An emergency vehicle shall be provided or an health authorities.6 Sanitary Facilities water quality shall be monitored regularly.7.8. of Building and other Construction Workers Location of septic tank shall meet the (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) requirements of good practice [7(57)].MANAPAKKAM.5 Health check-up of all the workers shall be done sewage treatment plant may be installed. bathrooms and toilets shall be drained in septic tanks/soak 14.4 shall be 14. written in the language understood by the maintenance procedure to prevent growth of slime and majority of such workers. Such vehicle should be maintained practice [7(56)]. These phone numbers shall also be suitably lavatory or urinal shall be white-washed or displayed at site.1 should be carried out quarterly through or urinals a notice containing therein ‘For Men accredited laboratory.35) valid upto31-12-2017 the requirements given in 14. also bear the figure of a man or of a woman. Drinking water tanks should be legibly a) Every lavatory shall be under cover and so marked ‘Drinking Water’ in a language understood by partitioned off as to secure privacy. Drinking water shall meet accommodation. Following sanitary facilities shall be provided at habitat 14.3 Details of all the first-aid/medical treatments months.8 First Aid and Medical Facilities c) Every lavatory or urinal shall be conveniently situated and accessible to building workers at 14. including phone numbers otherwise so as to be conveniently accessible of such nearby hospitals shall be readily available to in or near every lavatory or urinal.7.7. For very large habitat. shall be provided and maintained and the box shall be distinctly marked ‘First-aid’ and shall be equipped with e) Every lavatory or urinal other than those specified articles. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 61 . in good repair and should be equipped with standard g) Water shall be provided by means of a tap or facilities.MANAPAKKAM. as the case may be.4 Storage tanks shall be cleaned as part of regular be.1 First aid centre shall be established in the habitat all times. least 6 m away from washing place.2 to 14. PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . as the case may 14.8. There shall checking its conformity to meet the requirements be displayed outside each block of lavatories of 14. 1996 and rules framed thereunder.7.63.

5 All the security and habitat maintenance personnel.12. periodic inspection report of the habitat should be submitted to Project-in-Charge. all provisions given in relevant Act/Rules/ Regulations as amended from time to time shall be 14.14. trained on use of fire extinguishers. and entry. with any charges for must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition.1 extinguishers and fire buckets.3 A minimum of 50 lux lighting shall be operation and maintenance of the habitat facilities.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24. Separate designated kitchen shall be provided meeting the minimum area requirements given in 14. they should be provided accommodated.17 Notwithstanding the requirements given in 14.2 Qualified and experienced in-house electrical/ 14. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Canteen 14. facilities are always clean and hygienic.13 Recreation and cooking facilities should provide sufficient space for preparing food and eating.63. reference shall also be made areas shall be flame proof.12. 14.11.12. Periodical inspection of the habitat shall be carried out by an identified team preferably once in a month.12.16. The plan shall cover all aspects of the operation. Other facilities like provisional stores with separate A supervisor shall be appointed to supervise hygiene counters for vegetables. 14. The above one should not have to travel more than 15 m distance to access a fire extinguisher. the use of these services being reasonable in amount.11. to the Building and other Construction Workers 14. in this regard.4 Worker’s transportation may be done with standard passenger vehicle/bus. and other general areas of the habitat. Specific security personnel shall be the use of children under the age of six years of such deployed at the main entry gate for restricting female workers. a suitable room or rooms for be deployed. be done through an approved agency.14 Security workers are ordinarily employed. 62 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .35) valid upto31-12-2017 14. unauthorized entry and checking vehicle/material exit a) provide adequate accommodation. Reasonable access to telephone or with a space separate from the sleeping areas. This may related work site requirements.24. and Security staff shall have a good understanding about d) be under the charge of women trained in the the importance of respecting workers’ rights and the care of children and infants. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. habitat residents and site workers shall be Cooking shall not be permitted in the living area. Sufficient cleaners shall be employed to ensure that the buildings and sanitary construction workers habitat.11 Habitat Operation and Maintenance required to facilitate during emergency situations.4 ‘No Smoking’ boards shall be displayed in gas (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) cylinder and flammable liquid storage areas.1 Fire extinguishers shall be provided such that implementation of the suggested measures. there shall be 14. firefighting and emergency preparedness.MANAPAKKAM.11.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . shall be provided.9 Cooking Area 14. 14.MANAPAKKAM. preventive maintained in the roads. b) be adequately lighted and ventilated. education and other be taken up to avoid mosquito/pest breeding. rights of the communities.14. Facilities other modes of communications.3 Electrical fittings in the inflammable storage followed.2 Security staff shall receive adequate training c) be maintained in a clean and sanitary on first aid. where required. etc.1 A detailed plan shall be prepared for the 14.1 Adequate number of security personnel shall provided and maintained.15 Other Facilities maintenance personnel shall be present and available. When workers can available depending on the number of workers to be individually cook their meals.12.2 Diesel generator shed and inflammable liquid storage areas shall be provided with foam type fire 14. 14.11. Security staff shall have the emergency lights. Act.14.12 Fire Prevention team shall record their findings on the Inspection Report form and team shall also review and follow-up 14. The 14. parking area. 1996 and the rules/regulations framed thereunder. to 14.  14. may also be provided in a in the habitat facilities. 14.3. Facilities like induction/initiation room may be planned 14.10 Crèches In every place wherein more than fifty female building 14. boundary wall and routine maintenance. as well as conform to Internal and external recreational facilities may be made hygiene and safety requirements.16 Habitat Inspection 14.3 Regular pest and insect control measures shall as the part of habitat for awareness.63. torches and other accessories 14. condition. Such rooms shall.

24.1) CHECK LIST FOR STACKING AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS Sl No. Bricks and blocks ü ü ü 5. Lime: a) Quick lime ü ü ü b) Hydrated lime ü ü ü 3.24. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 63 . Timber ü ü ü 8.Heaps Tiers Flat Vertical Open Open but Under Level Floor Floor Covered Shed Ground (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 1. single tee and double tee 7. RC ü ü ü joists. Tiles: a) Clay and concrete ü ü ü ü floor.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. fibre ü ü ü ü boards. fly ü ü ü ash and cinder b) Veneering stones ü ü ü ü 4. Material/ Component Base Stack Type of Cover Firm Hard Off. Stones and aggregates: a) Stones. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Partially pre-fabricated wall and roof components: a) RC planks.63.MANAPAKKAM. cored ü ü ü units and L-Panels c) Waffle units. particle boards. aggregates.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Doors. wall and roof tiles b) Ceramic tiles ü ü ü ü 6. Roofing sheets: a) AC ü ü ü ü b) GI and aluminium ü ü ü ü sheets c) Plastic sheets ü ü ü ü 12.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ANNEX A (Clause 8.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM. Aluminium sections ü ü ü 10. ü ü ü prefabricated brick panels and ferro- cement panels b) Channel units.63. Cement ü ü ü 2. Boards like plywood. Steel ü ü ü 9. blockboards and gypsum board PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. windows and ü ü ü ventilators 11.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. road tar. Title Procurement management (1) 7337 : 2010 Glossary of terms in project (under preparation) management (second (6) 15883 (Part 2) : Guidelines for construction revision) 2013 project management: Part 2 10400 : 2013 Glossary of terms in Time management inventory management (7) 15883 (Part 3) : Guidelines for construction (second revision) 2015 project management: Part 3 15198 : 2014 Glossary of terms in human Cost management resource development (8) 15883 (Part 4) : Guidelines for construction (2) 16416 : 2016 Construction project 2015 project management: Part 4 management: Project Quality management formulation and (9) 15883 (Part 8) : Guidelines for construction appraisal — Guidelines 2015 project management: Part 8 (3) 14580 Use of network analysis for Risk management project management (10) 15883 (Part 9) Guidelines for construction 64 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . (4) 15883 (Part 6) : Guidelines for construction In the following list.63. in drums 20. Oil paints ü ü ü 21. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ANNEX A — (Concluded) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 13. Polyethylene pipes ü ü ü ü 18. Bitumen. Title acceptable as ‘good practice’ and ‘accepted standards’ (Part 1) : 1998 Management. Sanitary appliances ü ü ü LIST OF STANDARDS The following list records those standards which are IS No.MANAPAKKAM. in the fulfillment of the requirements of the Code.24. planning.24.MANAPAKKAM. asphalt. Plastic and rubber flooring: a) Sheets in rolls ü ü ü b) Tiles ü ü ü ü 14. Glass bricks/blocks ü ü ü 16. (5) 15883 (Part 7) Guidelines for construction project management: Part 7 IS No. the number appearing in the first 2015 project management: Part 6 column within parantheses indicates the number of the Scope management reference in this Part. The standards listed may termination procedures be used by the Authority for conformance with the (Part 2) : 2006 Use of graphic techniques requirements of the referred clauses in the Code.63. GI and AC pipes and fittings: a) Pipes ü ü ü ü b) CI and GI fittings ü ü ü c) AC fittings ü ü ü 17. Unplasticized PVC pipes ü ü ü ü 19.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . The latest version of a standard shall be adopted at the time review. ü ü ü etc. reporting and of enforcement of the Code. CI. Glass sheets ü ü ü 15.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. Section 2 14593 : 1998 Design and construction of 2010 Board cast in-situ concrete bored cast-in-situ piles piles (second revision) founded on rocks — (Part 1/Sec 3) : Concrete piles. machines (medium and ment high frequency) (second (13) 15883 (Part 11) Guidelines for construction revision) project management: Part 11 (Part 4) :1979 Foundations for rotary type Sustainability management machines of low frequency (under preparation) (first revision) (14) 15883 (Part 12) : Guidelines for construction (Part 5) :1987 Foundations for impact 2016 project management: Part 12 machines other than Integration management hammers forging and (15) a) Foundations stamping press pig breakers 1080 : 1985 Code of practice for design (drop crusher and jolter) and construction of shallow (first revision) foundations on soils (other 9456 : 1980 Code of practice for design than raft.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No.24. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 65 .35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.MANAPAKKAM. ring and shell) and construction of conical (second revision) and hyperbolic paraboidal 1904 : 1986 Code of practice for design types of shell foundations and construction of 9556 : 1980 Code of practice for design foundations in soils: and construction of General requirements (third diaphragm walls revision) 12070 : 1987 Code of practice for design 2911 Code of practice for design and construction of shallow and construction of pile foundations on rock foundations 13094 : 1992 Guidelines for selection of (Part 1/Sec 1) : Concrete piles. Section 1 ground improvement 2010 Driven cast in-situ concrete techniques for foundation piles (second revision) in weak soils (Part 1/Sec 2) : Concrete piles. Title (Part 3) : 1980 Under-reamed piles (first 1597 Code of practice for revision) construction of stone (Part 4) : 2013 Load test on piles (second masonry revision) (Part 1) : 1992 Rubble stone masonry (first 2974 Code of practice for design revision) PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. machine foundations ment (under preparation) (Part 1) : 1982 Foundations for reci- (11) 15883 (Part 10) Guidelines for construction procating type machines project management: Part 10 (second revision) Human resource manage. (Part 2) : 1980 Foundations for impact ment (under preparation) type machines (hammer (12) 15883 (Part 5) : Guidelines for construction foundations) (first revision) 2013 project management: Part 5 (Part 3) : 1992 Foundations for rotary type Health and safety manage. Title IS No. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.63. Section 4 (Part 1) : 2003 Stone columns 2010 Precast concrete piles in (Part 2) : 2004 Preconsolidation using prebored holes (first vertical drains revision) b) Masonry (Part 2) : 1980 Timber piles (first revision) IS No. Section 3 Guidelines 2010 Precast driven concrete 15284 Design and construction for piles (second revision) ground improvement: (Part 1/Sec 4) : Concrete piles. Title project management: Part 8 and construction of Communication manage.

installation and (first revision) maintenance of timber 2212 : 1991 Code of practice for doors and windows brickwork (first revision) 4983 : 1968 Code of practice for design 2250 : 1981 Code of practice for and construction of nail preparation and use of laminated timber beams masonry mortars (first 5390 : 1984 Code of practice for revision) construction of timber 2572 : 2005 Code of practice for ceilings (first revision) construction of hollow and 11096 : 1984 Code of practice for design solid concrete block and construction of bolt- masonry (first revision) jointed timber construction 3630 : 1992 Code of practice for 12506 : 1988 Code of practice for construction of non-load improved thatching of roof bearing gypsum block with wrought and fire partitions (first revision) retardant treatment 4407 : 1967 Code of practice for reed d) Concrete walling IS No.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No.MANAPAKKAM. Title 4441 : 1980 Code of practice for use of 456 : 2000 Code of practice for plain silicate type chemical and reinforced concrete resistant mortars (first (fourth revision) revision) 457 : 1957 Code of practice for general 4442 : 1980 Code of practice for use of construction of plain and sulphur type chemical reinforced concrete for resistant mortars (first dams and other massive revision) structures 4443 : 1980 Code of practice for use of 1343 : 2012 Code of practice for pre- resin type chemical stressed concrete (second resistant mortars (first revision) revision) 2502 : 1963 Code of practice for 6041 : 1985 Code of practice for bending and fixing of bars construction of autoclaved for concrete reinforcement cellular concrete block 2541 : 1991 Code of practice for masonry (first revision) preparation and use of lime 6042 : 1969 Code of practice for concrete (second revision) construction of light weight 3370 Code of practice for concrete block masonry concrete structures for the (first revision) storage of liquids: c) Timber and Bamboo (Part 1) : 2009 General requirements (first revision) IS No.MANAPAKKAM. Title (Part 2) : 2009 Reinforced concrete 1634 : 1992 Code of practice for design structures (first revision) and constructions of wood stair for houses (second (Part 3) :1967 Prestressed concrete revision) structures 2366 : 1983 Code of practice for nail.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Title (Part 2) : 1992 Ashlar masonry (first 3670 : 1989 Code of practice for revision) construction of timber 2110 : 1980 Code of practice for in-situ floors (first revision) construction of walls in 4913 : 1968 Code of practice for buildings with soil-cement selection.63.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 3558 : 1983 Code of practice for use of immersion vibrators for jointed timber construction consolidating concrete (first revision) (first revision) 66 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Title IS No.24.

Title 4926 : 2003 Code of practice for ready. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Title revision) 800 : 2007 Code of practice for general 1198 : 1982 Code of practice for laying.63. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 67 . Title IS No.MANAPAKKAM.24.63.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . chimneys: mixed concrete (second (Part 1) : 1989 Mechanical aspects (first revision) revision) 5817 : 1992 Code of practice for (Part 2) : 1989 Structural aspects (first preparation and use of lime revision) pozzolana mixture concrete in buildings and roads (first 8629 (Parts 1 to 3) : Code of practice for revision) 1977 protection of iron and steel structures from 7246 : 1974 Recommendations for use atmospheric corrosion of table vibrators for consolidating concrete 9077 : 1979 Code of practice of 7861 Code of practice for extreme corrosion protection of whether concreting: steel reinforcement in RB and RCC construction (Part 1) : 1975 Recommended practice for hot weather concreting 9172 : 1979 Recommended design practice for corrosion (Part 2) : 1981 Recommended practice for prevention of steel cold weather concreting structures 10262 : 2009 Guidelines for concrete mix design proportioning (first f) Flooring and Roofing revision) 658 : 1982 Code of practice for 10359 : 1982 Code of practice for magnesium oxychloride manufacture and use of composition floors (second lime pozzolana concrete revision) blocks for paving 1196 : 1978 Code of practice for laying 14687 : 1999 Guidelines for falsework bitumen mastic flooring for concrete structures (second revision) e) Steel 1197 : 1970 Code of practice for laying of rubber floors (first IS No.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . construction in steel (third fixing and maintenance of revision) linoleum floor (first 801 : 1975 Code of practice for use of revision) cold formed light gauge 1443 : 1972 Code of practice for laying steel structural members in and finishing of cement general building construc- concrete flooring tiles (first tion (first revision) revision) 805 : 1968 Code of practice for use of 2118 : 1980 Code of practice for steel in gravity water tanks construction of jack-arch 806 : 1968 Code of practice for use of type of building floor or steel tubes in general roof (first revision) building construction (first 2119 : 1980 Code of practice for revision) construction of brick-cum- 4000 : 1992 Code of practice for high concrete composite strength bolts in steel (Madras terrace) floor or structures (first revision) roof (first revision) 4180 : 1967 Code of practice for 2204 : 1962 Code of practice for corrosion protection of construction of reinforced light gauge steel sections concrete shell roof used in building 2571 : 1970 Code of practice for laying 6533 Code of practice for design in-situ cement concrete and construction of steel flooring (first revision) PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.24.

24.63. Title and fixing of sloped roof 1346 : 1991 Code of practice for coverings waterproofing of roofs with (Part 1) : 1968 Slating bitumen felts (third 5318 : 1969 Code of practice for laying revision) of flexible PVC sheet and 1414 : 1989 Code of practice for fixing tile flooring wall coverings 5389 : 1969 Code of practice for laying 1477 Code of practice for of hard wood parquet and painting of ferrous metals in wood block floors buildings 5390 : 1984 Code of practice for (Part 1) : 1971 Pretreatment (first revision) construction of timber (Part 2) : 1971 Painting (first revision) ceilings (first revision) 1609 : 1991 Code of practice for laying 5766 : 1970 Code of practice for laying damp-proofing treatment burnt clay brick flooring using bitumen felts (second 6061 Code of practice for revision) construction of floor and 1661 : 1972 Code of practice for roof with joists and filler application of cement and blocks cement lime plaster finishes (Part 1) : 1971 With hollow concrete filler (first revision) blocks 2114 : 1984 Code of practice for laying (Part 2) : 1981 With hollow clay filler in-situ terrazzo floor finish blocks (first revision) (first revision) (Part 3) : 1981 Precast hollow clay blocks 2115 : 1980 Code of practice for flat- joists and hollow clay filler roof finish : Mud Phuska blocks (second revision) 2338 Code of practice for (Part 4) : 1981 With precast hollow clay finishing of wood and wood block slab panels based materials 6332 : 1984 Code of practice for (Part 1) : 1967 Operations and work- construction of floors and manship roofs using precast doubly- curved shell units (first (Part 2) : 1967 Schedules 68 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM. Title 2700 : 1987 Code of practice for roofing revision) with wooden shingles (first 9472 : 1980 Code of practice for laying revision) mosaic parquet flooring 2792 : 1964 Code of practice for design 10297 : 1982 Code of practice for design and construction of stone and construction of floors slab over joist floor and roofs using precast 2858 : 1984 Code of practice for roofing reinforced/prestressed with Mangalore tiles (first concrete ribbed or cored revision) slab units 3007 Code of practice for laying 10440 : 1983 Code of practice for of asbestos cement sheets construction of reinforced (Part 1) : 1999 Corrugated sheets (first brick and RBC floors and revision) roofs (Part 2) : 1999 Semi-corrugated sheets 10505 : 1983 Code of practice for (first revision) construction of floors and 3670 : 1989 Code of practice for roofs using precast concrete construction of timber waffle units floors (first revision) g) Finishes 5119 Code of practice for laying IS No. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No. Title IS No.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.MANAPAKKAM.

63.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No. bitumen proofed roof finish (second 10439 : 1983 Code of practice for patent revision) glazing 3067 : 1988 Code of practice for general 16135 : 2014 Code of practice for dry design details and lining and partitioning preparatory work for damp.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM. Title 2394 : 1984 Code of practice for in-situ granolithic concrete application of lime plaster floor topping finish (first revision) 6278 : 1971 Code of practice for white- 2395 Code of practice for washing and colour painting concrete.63. using gypsum plasterboards proofing and waterproofing of buildings (first revision) 16231 Code of practice of use of glass in buildings 3140 : 1965 Code of practice for painting asbestos cement (Part 1) : 2016 General methodology and building products selection 4101 Code of practice for (Part 2) : 2016 Energy and light external facing and veneers (Part 3) : 2016 Fire and loading (Part 1) : 1967 Stone facing (Part 4) : 2014 Safety related to human (Part 2) : 1967 Cement concrete facing impact (Part 3) : 1985 Wall tiling and mosaics h) Piping (first revision) IS No.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 69 . waterproofing of manship (first revision) underground water (Part 2) : 1994 Schedule (first revision) reservoirs and swimming pools (first revision) 2402 : 1963 Code of practice for external rendered finishes 7198 : 1974 Code of practice for damp- proofing using bitumen 2441 : 1984 Code of practice for fixing mastic ceiling covering (first revision) 7290 : 1979 Recommendations for use of polyethylene film for 2524 Code of practice for waterproofing of roofs (first painting of non-ferrous revision) metals in buildings 9918 : 1981 Code of practice for in-situ (Part 1) : 1968 Pre-treatment waterproofing and damp- (Part 2) : 1968 Painting proofing treatments with 3036 : 1992 Code of practice for laying glass fibre tissue reinforced lime concrete for a water.MANAPAKKAM. Title IS No.24. Title 4365 : 1967 Code of practice for 783 : 1985 Code of practice for laying application of bitumen of concrete pipes (first mastic for waterproofing of revision) roofs 3114 : 1994 Code of practice for laying 4597 : 1968 Code of practice for of cast iron pipes (second finishing of wood and wood revision) based products with nitrocellulose and cold 4127 : 1983 Code of practice for laying catalysed materials of glazed stoneware pipes (first revision) 4631 : 1986 Code of practice for laying of epoxy resin floor 5329 : 1983 Code of practice for toppings (first revision) sanitary pipe work above 5491 : 1969 Code of practice for laying ground for buildings (first revision) PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. masonry washing and plaster surfaces 6494 : 1988 Code of practice for (Part 1) : 1994 Operations and work.

24. cladding) (second revision) ceilings and floors of solid construction (Part 10) : 2013 Ceiling and linings (third revision) 2470 Code of practice for installation of septic tanks (Part 11) : 2013 Paving. polishing. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Title IS No. Title (Part 4)1976 Stone masonry (third 1081 : 1960 Code of practice for fixing revision) and glazing of metal (steel and aluminium) doors.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . floor finishes dado (Part 1) : 1985 Design criteria and and skirting (fourth construction (second revision) revision) (Part 12) : 1976 Plastering and pointing (Part 2) : 1985 Secondary treatment and (third revision) disposal of septic tank (Part 13) : 1994 White washing.63. plumbing and (first revision) drains (third revision) (Part 3) : 2003 Laying and jointing of (Part 20) : 1981 Laying of gas and oil pipe unplasticized PVC pipes lines (third revision) 13916 : 1994 Code of practice for (Part 21) : 1973 Woodwork and joinery installation of glass fibre (second revision) reinforced plastic piping (Part 23) : 1988 Piling (fourth revision) system (Part 24) : 1983 Well foundations (third j) Measurements revision) IS No.63. Title (Part 27) : 2013 Earth work done by 1200 Method of measurement of mechanical appliances building and civil 3861 : 2002 Method of measurement of engineering works plinth. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. colour effluent (second revision) washing.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No. (Part 5) : 2013 Formwork (fourth revision) windows and ventilators (Part 6) : 1974 Refactory work (second 1649 : 1962 Code of practice for design revision) and construction of flues (Part 7) : 2013 Hardware (third revision) and chimneys for domestic (Part 8) : 1993 Steel work and iron work heating appliances (fourth revision) 1946 : 1961 Code of practice for use of (Part 9) : 1973 Roof covering (including fixing devices in walls. Title 5822 : 1994 Code of practice for laying (Part 14) : 1984 Glazing (third revision) of welded steel pipes for (Part 15) : 1987 Paining. water supply (second varnishing. distempering and 2527 : 1984 Code of practice for fixing painting of building rain-water gutters and down surfaces (fifth revision) 70 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . carpet and rentable (Part 1) : 1992 Earthwork (fourth revision) areas of buildings (second revision) (Part 2) : 1974 Concrete work (third revision) k) Others (Part 3) : 1976 Brickwork (third revision) IS No. etc (fourth revision) revision) 6530 : 1972 Code of practice for laying (Part 16) : 1979 Laying of water and sewer of asbestos cement pressure lines including appurtenant pipes items (third revision) 7634 Code of practice for (Part 17) : 1985 Roadwork including air plastics pipe work for field pavements (third portable water supplies revision) (Part 1) : 1975 Choice of materials and (Part 18) : 1974 Demolition and dis- general recommen-dations mantling (third revision) (Part 2) : 2012 Laying and jointing polyethylene (PE) pipes (Part 19) : 1981 Water supply.24.MANAPAKKAM.MANAPAKKAM.

installation and (19) 14687 : 1999 Guidelines for falsework maintenance of timber for concrete structures doors and windows (20) 3764 : 1992 Safety code for excavation 6313 Code of practice for anti- work (first revision) termite measures in buildings (21) 13416 (Part 5) : Recommendations for 1994 preventive measure against (Part 1) : 1981 Constructional measures hazards at workplaces : (first revision) Part 5 Fire protection (Part 2) : 2013 Pre-constructional (22) 11769 (Part 1) : Guidelines for safe use of chemical treatment 1987 products containing measures (third revision) asbestos : Part 1 Asbestos (Part 3) : 2013 Treatment for existing cement products buildings (third revision) (23) 15683 : 2006 Specification for portable 6924 : 1973 Code of practice for the fire extinguishers — construction of refuse Performance and chutes in multistoreyed construction buildings 16018 : 2012 Specification for wheeled 7246 : 1974 Recommendation for use of fire extinguishers — table vibrators for Performance and consolidating concrete construction 8147 : 1976 Code of practice for use of (24) 2190 : 2010 Code of practice for aluminium alloys in selection.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63. Title IS No.MANAPAKKAM. precautionary measures in ding design and erection construction of temporary using prefabricated structures and pandals concrete (second revision) (26) 10439 : 1983 Code of practice patent 15917 : 2010 Code of practice for glazing building design and erection using mixed/ 14687 : 1999 Guidelines for falsework composite construction for concrete structures PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . PRACTICES AND SAFETY 71 .35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No.24. installation and structures maintenance of first-aid fire 15345 : 2003 Code of practice for extinguishers (fourth installation of frameless revision) door and window shutters (25) 8758 : 2013 Code of practice for fire 15916 : 2010 Code of practice for buil.24. Title pipes for roof drainage (16) 2750 : 1964 Specification for steel (first revision) scaffoldings 3414 : 1968 Code of practice for design 14687 : 1999 Guidelines for falsework and installation of joints in for concrete structures buildings 3696 (Part 1) : 1987 Safety code for scaffolds 3548 : 1988 Code of practice for glazing and ladders: Part 1 in buildings (first revision) Scaffolds 3558 : 1983 Code of practice for use of 4014 Code of practice for steel immersion vibrators for tubular scaffolding consolidating concrete (Part 1) : 1967 Definitions and materials (first revision) (Part 2) : 2013 Safety regulations for 3935 : 1966 Code of practice for scaffolding (first revision) composite construction (17) 6521 (Part 1) : 1972 Code of practice for design 4326 : 2013 Code of practice for of tower cranes: Part 1 earthquake resistant design Static and rail mounted and construction of (18) 13558 (Part 3) : Cranes — control — layout buildings (third revision) 1995 and characteristics: Part 3 4913 : 1968 Code of practice for Tower cranes selection.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .

Title IS No.MANAPAKKAM.24.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Title (27) 4138 : 1977 Safety code for working in (42) 13416 (Part 4) : Recommendations for compressed air (first 1994 preventive measure against revision) hazards at workplaces : Part (28) 2925 : 1984 Specification for industrial 4 Timber structure safety helmets (second (43) 15683 : 2006 Portable fire extinguishers revision) — Performance and (29) 2750 : 1964 Specification for steel construction — Speci- scaffoldings fication (30) 3696 (Part 1) : 1987 Safety code for scaffolds (44) 819 : 1957 Code of practice for and ladders: Part 1 resistance spot welding for Scaffolds light assemblies in mild steel 4014 (Part 2) : 2013 Code of practice for steel tubular scaffolding: Part 2 1261 : 1959 Code of practice for seam Safety provisions for welding in mild steel scaffolding (first revision) 3016 : 1982 Code of practice for fire (31) 3696 (Part 2) : 1991 Safety code for scaffolds precautions in welding and and ladders: Part 2 Ladders cutting operations (first revision) (32) 4912 : 1978 Safety requirements for floors and wall openings. 4081 : 2013 Blasting and related drilling railing and toe boards (first operations — Code of revision) Safety (second revision) (33) 11461 : 1985 Code of practice for 4138 : 1977 Safety code for working in compressor safety compressed gas (first revision) (34) 5983 : 1980 Specification for eye- protectors (first revision) 9595 : 1996 Recommendations for metal arc welding of carbon (35) 1179 : 1967 Specification for equipment and carbon manganese for eye and face protection steels (first revision) during welding (first revision) 10178 : 1995 Recommended procedure for CO2 gas shielded metal- (36) 2361 : 2002 Specification for bull-dog arc welding of structural grips (third revision) steels (first revision) (37) 11057 : 1984 Specification for industrial (45) 3844 : 1989 Code of practice for safety nets installation and (38) 3016 : 1982 Code of practice for fire maintenance of internal fire precautions in welding and hydrants and hose reels on cutting operations (first premises (first revision) revision) 5290 : 1993 Specification for landing (39) 1084 : 2005 Specification for manila valves (third revision) ropes (fifth revision) (46) 13416 (Part 2) : Recommendation for 2266 : 2002 Specification for steel wire 1992 preventive measures ropes for general against hazards at work engineering purposes (forth places: Part 2 Fall revision) prevention (40) 818 : 1968 Code of practice for safety (47) 13416 (Part 1) : Recommendation for and health requirements in 1992 preventive measures electric and gas welding against hazards at work and cutting operations (first places: Part 1 Falling revision) material hazard prevention (41) 5916 : 2013 Constructions involving (48) 13416 (Part 3) : Recommendation for use of hot bituminous 1994 preventive measures materials — Code of safety against hazards at work 72 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .63.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.24.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .

Title places: Part 3 Disposal of (Part 3) : 1999 Emulsion (third revision) debris 2431 : 1963 Specification for steel (49) 274 Specification for shovels wheel barrows (single (Part 1) : 1981 General purpose shovels wheel-type) (third revision) 2438 : 1963 Specification for roller pan (Part 2) : 1981 Heat-treated shovels (third mixer revision) 2505 : 1992 Specification for concrete 663 : 1980 Specification for adzes vibrators.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24.MANAPAKKAM.63. Title IS No.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. immersion type (second revision) (General requirements) 704 : 1984 Specification for crow bars (third revision) and claw bars (second 2506 : 1985 General requirements for revision) screed board concrete 841 : 1983 Specification for steel vibrators (first revision) hammers (second revision) 2514 : 1963 Specification for concrete 844 Specification for screw vibrating tables drivers 2587 : 1975 Specification for pipes (Part 2) : 1979 Dimensions (second vices (open side type and revision) fixed sides type) (first (Part 3) : 1979 Dimensions for screw revision) drivers for recessed head 2588 : 1975 Specification for black- screws (second revision) smith’s vices (first revision) 1630 : 1984 Specification for Mason’s 2722 : 1964 Specification for portable tools for plaster work and swing weigh batchers for pointing work (first concrete (single and double revision) bucket type) 1759 : 1986 Specification for Powrahs 2852 : 1998 Specification for carpenters (second revision) augers (first revision) 1791 : 1985 Specification for batch type 3066 : 1965 Specification for hot concrete mixers (second asphalt mixing plants revision) 3251 : 1965 Specification for asphalt 1930 : 2003 Woodworking tools — paver finisher Chisels and gouges (third revision) 3365 : 1965 Specification for floor polishing machines 1931 : 2000 Specification for engineer’s files (third revision) 3559 : 1966 Specification for pneumatic concrete breakers 2028 : 2004 Specification for open jaw wrenches (spanners) 3587 : 1986 Specification for rasps (fourth revision) (second revision) 2029 : 1998 Specification for ring 3650 : 1981 Specification for wrenches (spanners) combination side cutting (fourth revision) pliers (second revision) 2030 : 1989 Specification for box 3938 : 1983 Specification for electric spanners (second revision) wire rope hoists (second 2094 Specification for heater for revision) bitumen (tar) and emulsion 4003 Specification for pipe (second revision) wrenches (Part 1) : 1996 Specification (second (Part 1) : 1978 General purposes (first revision) revision) (Part 2) : 1999 Bitumen sprayer (third (Part 2) : 1986 Heavy duty (first revision) revision) PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24. PRACTICES AND SAFETY 73 .

63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM.63. light duty — 7042 : 1973 Specification for Requirements (first carpenter’s ratchet brace revision) 7077 : 1973 Specification for bending 5891 : 1970 Specification for hand- bars operated concrete mixer 7958 : 1976 Specification for hand vices 5995 : 1971 Specification for pipe grip 8202 : 1999 Specification for car- pliers penter’s wooden bodied 6007 : 1971 Specification for pipe vices planes (first revision) (hinged type) 74 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .24.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No. Title IS No.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Title 4017 : 1992 Specification for carpenters 6078 : 1986 Specification for Lineman’s squares (first revision) pliers (second revision) 4095 : 1991 Specification for pincers 6087 : 1971 Specification for metal (second revision) cutting shears 4183 : 1967 Specification for metal 6118 : 1991 Specification for multiple hand rammers slip joint pliers (first 4184 : 1967 Specification for steel revision) wheel barrows (with two 6149 : 1984 Specification for single wheels) ended open jaw adjustable wrenches ((first revision) 4508 : 1992 Specification for open ended slugging wrenches 6375 : 1991 Specification for wood (spanners) (first revision) splitting wedges (first revision) 4915 : 1968 Specification for welders chipping hammer 6389 : 1998 Specification for combination wrenches with 5066 : 1969 Specification for glass equal openings (second pliers revision) 5067 : 1969 Specification for fencing 6428 : 1972 Specification for pile frame pliers 6430 : 1985 Specification for mobile air 5087 : 1969 Specification for wire compressor for construct- stripping pliers ion purposes (first revision) 5098 : 1969 Specification for cross cut 6433 : 1972 Specification for guniting and rip saws equipment 5123 : 1969 Specification for tenon and 6546 : 1989 Specification for claw dovetail saws hammers (first revision) 5169 : 1986 Specification for hack-saw 6836 : 1973 Specification for hand frames (first revision) snaps and set-ups for solid 5200 : 1998 Specification for bolt rivets clippers (first revision) 6837 : 1973 Specification for three wheel type pipe cutter 5658 : 1990 Specification for snipenose pliers (first revision) 6841 : 1973 Specification for wrecking bars 5663 : 1970 Specification for brick and mason’s chisels 6861 : 1973 Specification for engineers’ scrapers 5684 : 1970 Specification for pipe vices 6881 : 1973 Specification for link type (chain type) pipe cutters 5697 : 1970 Specification for ripping 6891 : 1973 Specification for chisels carpenter’s auger bits 5889 : 1994 Specification for vibratory 6892 : 1973 Specification for black- plate compactor (first smith’s brick-iron revision) 7041 : 1973 Specification for 5890 : 2004 Mobile hot mix asphalt carpenter’s plain brace plants.MANAPAKKAM.24.

PRACTICES AND SAFETY 75 . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. criteria resistance of low strength and construction (second masonry buildings — revision) Guidelines (58) 10500 : 2012 Specification for drinking water (second revision) PART 7 CONSTURCTION MANAGEMENT. Title 8671 : 1977 Specification for nail puller (54) 13827 : 1993 Improving earthquake (50) 7293 : 1974 Safety code for working resistance of earthen buildings — Guidelines with construction machinery (55) 15988 : 2013 Seismic evaluation and strengthening of existing (51) 4130 : 1991 Safety code for demolition reinforced concrete of buildings (second buildings — Guidelines revision) (56) 13727 : 1993 Guidelines for (52) 13935 : 2009 Guidelines for repair and requirements of cluster seismic strengthening of planning for housing masonry buildings (first (57) 2470 (Part 1) : Code of practice for revision) 1985 installation of septic (53) 13828 : 1993 Improving earthquake tanks: Part 1 design.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.MANAPAKKAM.35) valid upto31-12-2017 IS No.24.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.63. Title IS No. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

MANAPAKKAM.35) valid up .63.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.63.24.Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

MANAPAKKAM.35) valid upto31-12-2017 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES Section 1 Lighting and Natural Ventilation BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS .24.63.24.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM.63.35) valid upto31-12-2017 CONTENTS FOREWORD … 3 1 SCOPE … 5 2 TERMINOLOGY … 5 3 ORIENTATION OF BUILDING … 8 4 LIGHTING … 11 5 VENTILATION … 35 ANNEX A METHOD OF CALCULATING SOLAR LOAD ON VERTICAL … 46 SURFACES OF DIFFERENT ORIENTATION ANNEX B SKY COMPONENT TABLES … 49 LIST OF STANDARDS … 55 2 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .24.63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.

supporting the relevant provisions. As a result of experience gained on implementation of 2005 version of the Code and feedback data received.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Heating and Mechanical Ventilation’ of the Code. b) Detailed provisions on sky component calculation procedure have been included along with examples in Annex B supporting the relevant clauses.35) valid upto31-12-2017 National Building Code Sectional Committee. etc.63.MANAPAKKAM. Accordingly. have been elaborated.24.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . f) Provisions relating to photocontrols for artificial lights have been updated. other major changes in the last revision included rationalization of definitions and inclusion of definitions for some more terms. Energy efficiency was another important aspect which was taken care of in the last revision of the Code.63. a need was felt to revise this Section. inclusion of design guidelines for natural ventilation. Climatic factors which normally help in deciding the orientation of the buildings to get desirable benefits of lighting and natural ventilation inside the buildings are also covered in this Section. read together with Part 8 ‘Building Services. Section 3 Air conditioning. particularly on combined effect of wind and thermal actions. d) Provisions relating to efficient artificial light source and luminaires have been updated. This Section was first published in 1970. h) Provisions related to thermal comfort clause have been elaborated including therein indices such as effective temperature. e) Modern lighting techniques such as LED and induction light have been included vis-à-vis their energy consumption. Ventilation requirements to maintain air quality and control body odours in terms of air changes per hour and to ensure thermal comfort and heat balance of body are laid for different occupancies and the methods of achieving the same by natural means are covered in this Section. The provisions on mechanical ventilation are covered in Part 8 ‘Building Services. therefore. inclusion of climatic classification map of India based on a new criteria. adequately covers the illumination levels required and methods of achieving the same. In the second revision. and a detailed ‘Method of Calculating Solar Load on Vertical Surfaces in Different Orientation’ has been added in Annex A. The significant changes incorporated in this revision are: a) Calculation for solar load has been elaborated. where these provisions were covered exhaustively. Section 3 Air Conditioning. the relevant requirements for energy efficient system for lighting and natural ventilation were duly included in the concerned provisions under the Section.24. Illumination levels for different tasks are recommended to be achieved either by daylighting or artificial lighting or a combination of both. c) Reference to SP 41 : 1987 for obtaining coefficient utilization for determination of luminous flux has been included. incorporation of design sky illuminance values for different climatic zones of India. This draft revision has. k) Provisions related to determination of rate of ventilation. CED 46 FOREWORD This Code (Part 8/Section 1) covers requirements and methods for lighting and natural ventilation of buildings. updating of data on total solar radiations incident on various surfaces of buildings for summer and winter seasons. g) Definitions and enabling provision for lighting shelves and light pipes have been included. Heating and Mechanical Ventilation’ of the Code for guidelines on mechanical ventilation. adaptive thermal comfort along with elaborations on tropical summer index. Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations’ of the Code.MANAPAKKAM. was made. This Section. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 3 . inclusion of rationalized method for estimation of desired capacity of ceiling fans and their optimum height above the floor for rooms of different sizes. The first revision of the Section was brought out in 1983. j) Design guidelines for natural ventilation have been elaborated with illustrations. some provisions were updated based on the information given in the SP 41:1987 ‘Handbook on functional requirements of buildings (other than industrial buildings)’. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. been formulated to take care of these. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. reference to Part 8 ‘Building Services.

The following publication has also been referred to in the formulation of this Section: Report on energy conservation in buildings. The parties to agreement based on this Section are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards. expressing the result of a test or analysis. 4 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.MANAPAKKAM. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this Section. ‘SP 72 : 2010’ may also be referred. n) Various other existing provisions have been updated based on the latest technical developments in the field. observed or calculated. The provisions of this Section are without prejudice to the various acts.MANAPAKKAM. submitted to Department of Power.63. 1948 and rules and regulations framed thereunder.24. Ministry of Energy by CSIR- Central Building Research Institute. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this Section is complied with. The information contained in this Section is largely based on the following Indian Standards/Special Publications: IS 2440 : 1975 Guide for daylighting of buildings (second revision) IS 3103 : 1975 Code of practice for industrial ventilation (first revision) IS 3362 : 1977 Code of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings (first revision) IS 3646 (Part 1) : 1992 Code of practice for interior illumination: Part 1 General requirements and recommendations for working interiors (first revision) IS 7662 (Part 1) : 1974 Recommendations for orientation of buildings : Part 1 Non-industrial buildings IS 11907 : 1986 Recommendations for calculation of solar radiation on buildings SP 32 : 1986 Handbook on functional requirements of industrial buildings (lighting and ventilation) SP 41 : 1987 Handbook on functional requirements of buildings other than industrial buildings Provisions given in National Lighting Code. Roorkee. whether given herein above or cross-referred to in the main text of this Section. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. the final value. rules and regulations including the Factories Act. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 m) Provision on colour rendering has been included in line with that in SP 72 : 2010 ‘National Lighting Code 2010’. are subject to revision.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)’. All standards.

1. 2.863 7 Lz 2. on the that of the same object illuminated by the reference great circle passing through the body and the zenith illuminant.35) valid upto31-12-2017 PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES Section 1 Lighting and Natural Ventilation 1 SCOPE 1.6 Clear Design Sky — The distribution of simultaneous illuminance on a horizontal plane due to luminance of such a sky is non-uniform.4 Candela (cd) — The SI unit of luminous intensity. such as white print on blackboard.2 Azimuth (Φ) — The angle measured between 2. and when Lz is the brightness sky vault. perceived colour most closely resembles that of a given 2.1. is given by the expression: 2.1.2 The provisions in respect of lighting and ventilation in sustainable buildings are covered in Part 11 ‘Approach to Sustainability’ of the Code which shall be used in conjunction with this Section.10 Daylight Factor — The measure of total of about 2° at the eye.63.11 Daylight Penetration — The maximum distance to which a given daylight factor contour penetrates into Lθ = Lz cosec θ (for 15° < θ ≤ 90°) a room. 2.9 Daylight Area — The superficial area on the 2.MANAPAKKAM. at zenith. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . measured from the horizon.1.1 This Code (Part 8/Section 1) covers requirements and methods for lighting and natural ventilation of buildings.1.3 Brightness Ratio or Contrast — The variations stimulus at the same brightness and under specified or contrast in brightness of the details of a visual task.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .1 Altitude (θ) — The angular distance of any point object illuminated by the test illuminant conforms to of celestial sphere.12 Direct Solar Illuminance — The illuminance 2. 1). the state of chromatic adaptation. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 5 . subtending an angle 2. including all forms of public housing by the government/civic bodies and private developers. 2.24. working plane illuminated to not less than a specified Candela = 1 lumen per steradian daylight factor. suitable allowance having been made for (see Fig.1. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1 Lighting CELESTIAL BODY 2.1. 1). the area within the relevant contour.1.7 Colour Rendering Index (CRI) — Measure of from the sun without taking into account the light from the degree to which the psychophysical colour of an the sky.8 Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) (K) — meridians passing through the north point and the point The temperature of the Planckian radiator whose in question (point C in Fig. the brightness at an altitude (θ) in the region away from the sun. that is. adequate lighting and ventilation for barrier free access and movement within and around buildings by elderly and persons with disabilities shall be ensured in accordance with 13 of Part 3 ‘Development Control REFERENCES Rules and General Building Requirements’ of the Code. Lθ = Lz cosec 15° (for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 15°) = 3.63. 1 ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH OF A 2. 1.1.1. direct sunlight being excluded. the definitions given NA – Nadir N – Geographical north below shall apply.24. expressed as the ratio (or percentage) which the illuminance at the point on the given plane bears to the 2.5 Central Field — The area of circle around the point of fixation and its diameter. the horizon is clear design sky at an exterior point open to the whole brighter than the zenith.1. O – Observer’s station S – Geographical south C – Celestial body E – Geographical east 2 TERMINOLOGY Z – Zenith W – Geographical west For the purpose of this Section. viewing conditions.1.1.MANAPAKKAM. Objects within this area are most daylight illuminance at a point on a given plane critically seen in both their details and colour.3 For all buildings and facilities open to and used by the public. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. FIG .

For example.1.18 Light Pipe — A conduit made of a highly of the luminous flux reflected by a body (with or without reflective material. element on a plane perpendicular to the given direction.63.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .21 Luminance (At a point of a Surface in a Given . which is capable of channeling light diffusion) to the flux it receives. the working surface and the luminaires. rw = reflection factor of parts of the wall between project it deeper into a space. The unit is candela per square metre (cd/m2). Some symbols used from one end to the other through successive internal for reflection factor are: reflections. the ratio 2. Such a pipe may be flexible or rigid. illuminance at a point on a given plane which is received b) Nominal Luminous Flux (φo ) — Total luminous by direct reflection from external surfaces as compared flux of the light sources in the interior. rc = reflection factor of ceiling. 6 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .28 Reflected Glare — The variety of ill effects on The ratio of the luminous flux emitted from the visual efficiency and comfort produced by unwanted luminaire to that emitted from the lamp(s) (nominal reflections in and around the task area. is hemisphere of an unobstructed clear design sky.22 Luminous Flux (φ) — The quantity 1 For rooms where the length exceeds 5 times the width. according to the formula: of one candela.1.23 Maintenance Factor (d) — The ratio of the plane from the entire hemisphere of an unobstructed average illuminance on the working plane after a certain clear design sky.1.1. ratio (or percentage) of that part of the daylight 2.16 Internal Reflected Component (IRC) — The the building is east-west.1.14 Glare — A condition of vision in which there illuminance obtained under the same conditions for a is discomfort or a reduction in the ability to see new installation.1. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 2. NOTES 2. the normal to the long axis.1.24.1.MANAPAKKAM.1. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. the zenith and nadir for a given point of observation.24. 2.30 Reveal — The side of an opening for a window. if the length of 2. The 2. the value H m is measured for the light adapted eye: between the ceiling and the working plane. distribute it from above. luminous flux). characteristic of radiant flux which expresses its 2 If the reflection factor of the upper stretch of the walls is less capacity to produce visual sensation evaluated than half the reflection factor of the ceiling. luminous flux emitted within unit solid angle (one 2.25 North and South Points — The point in the of the luminous flux incident on an infinitesimal element respective directions where the meridian cuts the of the surface containing the point under consideration horizon. 2. height of the fittings above the working plane. surfaces as compared to the simultaneous exterior NOTE — A central part of the peripheral field. 2.1.31 Room Index (kr) — An index relating to the steradian) by a point source having a uniform intensity shape of a rectangular interior.26 Orientation of Buildings — In the case of non- NOTE — The unit of illuminance (the measurement of square buildings. chiefly involved in the perception of glare.63. and Hm is the mounting height.1. 2.13 External Reflected Component (ERC) — The a) Effective Luminous Flux (φn ) — Total luminous ratio (or percentage) of that part of the daylight flux which reaches the working plane. its orientation is north-south. L shall be taken as L = 5W.MANAPAKKAM. period of use of a lighting installation to the average 2. to the simultaneous exterior illuminance on a horizontal 2.17 Light Output Ratio (LOR) or Efficiency (η) — 2.1.19 Light Shelf — A daylighting system based on sun path geometry used to bounce the light off a ceiling. 2. 2. 2. It is expressed in percent. significant objects or both due to an unsuitable distribution or range of luminance or due to extreme 2.1.20 Lumen (lm) — SI unit of luminous flux.1. and diffuse it to produce a uniform light level below. orientation refers to the direction of illumination) is lux which is 1 lumen per m2. for indirect or for according to the values of relative luminous efficiency the greater part of indirect lighting. that is.27 Peripheral Field — It is the rest of the visual illuminance at a point in a given plane which is received field which enables the observer to be aware of the by direct reflection or inter-reflection from the internal spatial framework surrounding the object seen.1.1.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24 Meridian — It is the great circle passing through contrasts in space and time.15 Illuminance — At a point on a surface.29 Reflection Factor (Reflectance) — The ratio 2. rf = reflection factor of floor.1. LW kr = Direction) (Brightness) — The quotient of the luminous (L + W )Hm intensity in the given direction of an infinitesimal element of the surface containing the point under where L and W are the length and width respectively of consideration by the orthogonally projected area of the the interior.1.1. subtending an illuminance on a horizontal plane due to the entire angle of about 30° on either side of the point of fixation. to the area of the element.

4. particulates ii) Sulphur oxides 80 400 24 2. sensation.34 Utilization Factor (Coefficient of Utilization) expected as indicated above. mists. filtration the working plane (effective luminous flux.2. It combines the influence of air temperature the air.35 Visual Field — The visual field in the binocular special literature may be referred for data on other contaminants. Average Term Level Period at which work will normally be done (see 4. 2. Absolute — The mass of water vapour still saturated air which would induce an identical per unit volume. the sky as compared to the simultaneous exterior 2. and its numerical value is that of the temperature of 2.1.24.2.4 Contaminants — Dusts.35) valid upto31-12-2017 2.11 Globe Temperature — The temperature reduce the airborne concentration of contaminants in measured by a thermometer whose bulb is enclosed in the building.2.2 Axial Flow Fan — A fan having a casing in which iii) Carbon monoxide 20 000 30 000 8 the air enters and leaves the impeller in a direction iv) Photochemical 100 500 1 oxidant substantially parallel to its axis.2.7 Effective Temperature (ET) — An arbitrary index 2.MANAPAKKAM.9 Fresh Air or Outside Air — Air of that quality.2.2.2. fumes. 2.1.1.9) its primary line of sight.12 Humidification — The process whereby the which combines into a single value the effect of absolute humidity of the air in a building is maintained temperature. exhaust ventilation for contamination control. φo). a matt black painted thin copper globe of 150 mm 2. humidity and air movement on the at a higher level than that of outside air or at a level sensation of warmth or cold felt by the human body higher than that which would prevail naturally. 1 Where it is reasonably believed that the air of quality is not 2. φn) to the and other treatment devices shall be used to bring its quality to total luminous flux of the light sources in the interior or above the levels mentioned in Table 1.2.33 Solar Load — The amount of heat received in the air is limited to within one-tenth the threshold into a building due to solar radiation which is affected limit value (TLV) of that contaminant.32 Sky Component (SC) — The ratio (or 2. bounding surfaces. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 7 . by orientation. sampling and analysis shall be carried out by a competent authority having jurisdiction and if (µ) — The ratio of the total luminous flux which reaches the outside air of the specified quality is not available. taken in such a way so and thermal radiations received or emitted by the as to avoid errors due to radiation. such as a fan.1 Air Change per Hour — The amount of air ìg/m3 ìg/m3 h leakage into or out of a building or room in terms of (1) (2) (3) (4) (2) the number of times the building volume or room i) Suspended 60 150 24 volume exchanged.2. 2 The above list of contaminants is not exhaustive and available 2.8 Exhaust of Air — Removal of air from a building percentage) of that part of the daylight illuminance at a or a room and its disposal outside by means of a point on a given plane which is received directly from mechanical device.2. Odour is to be essentially unobjectionable. illuminance on a horizontal plane from the entire which meets the criteria of Table 1 and in addition hemisphere of an unobstructed clear design sky.4). which includes an area approximately 120° vertically and 160° horizontally centering on the point to which Table 1 Maximum Allowable Contaminant the eyes are directed.3 Centrifugal Fan — A fan in which the air leaves including methanes) vi) Nitrogen oxide 200 500 24 the impeller in a direction substantially at right angles to its axis. Mean) Exceed More than 2.2.1.MANAPAKKAM. natural or mechanical or both.1.2.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63. v) Hydrocarbons (not 1 800 4 000 3 2. either 2. The line joining the point of Concentrations for Ventilation Air fixation and the centre of the pupil of each eye is called (Clause 2.1.63.2.10 General Ventilation — Ventilation.13 Humidity.36 Working Plane — A horizontal plane at a level Sl Contaminants Annual Short Averaging No. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 2. 2. so as to improve the vapours and such other substances present in air that general environment of the building.2 Ventilation Once a Year) 2.6 Dry Bulb Temperature — The temperature of diameter.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4.3 (Arithmetic (Not to and 4. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. read on a thermometer. materials of construction and reflection NOTES of external finishes and colour.24. as opposed to local are likely to be injurious or offensive to the occupants. shall be such that the concentration of any contaminant 2.1. (nominal luminous flux.5 Dilution Ventilation — Supply of outside air to 2.2. gases.

19 Positive Ventilation — The supply of outside air by means of a mechanical device. which also gives the basis of this temperature or vapour pressure differences (or both) classification. The climatic classification map of India is shown in Fig.63.2.2. temperature finally given by a thermometer having its 2.2.24.17 Mechanical Ventilation — Supply of outside effects of severe weather to a considerable extent by air either by positive ventilation or by infiltration by judicious use of the recommendations and knowledge reduction of pressure inside due to exhaust of air. so as to capture effectively the contaminants and convey them 3 ORIENTATION OF BUILDING through ducts to a safe point of discharge. a combination of positive ventilation and exhaust of air.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Maximum Relative Temperature Humidity axis designed to operate normally under free inlet and °C Percent outlet conditions.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2 Each climatic zone does not have same climate which imparts the same thermal sensation as the given for the whole year. saturated pressure or density.1 The chief aim of orientation of buildings is to 2. than six months and may experience other seasons for the remaining period.3 Climatic Factors believed that nearly all occupants may be repeatedly From the point of view of lighting and natural exposed. Above 25 Above 75 iii) Temperate 25-30 Below 75 2.1 For the purpose of design of buildings. 3. such as a fan.63.20 Propeller Fan — A fan in which the air leaves Sl Climatic Zone Mean Monthly Mean Monthly the impeller in a direction substantially parallel to its No. and exhaust hood. (1) (2) (3) (4) 2. A climatic zone that does not have 2. ventilation.24 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) — Refers to airborne any season for more than six months may be called as concentration of contaminants currently accepted by the composite zone. 2. to the point at which contaminants are released. 2. c) Prevailing winds. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and represents conditions under which it is 3. the into a building through window or other openings due country may be divided into the major climatic zones to wind outside and convection effects arising from as given in Table 2. living inside the building by creating conditions which suitably and successfully ward off the undesirable 2. Table 2 Classification of Climate 2.22 Stack Effect — Convection effect arising from iv) Cold Below 25 All values v) Composite see 3.35) valid upto31-12-2017 2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2. the following climatic factors influence the 2.2.21 Spray-Head System — A system of atomizing i) Hot-dry Above 30 Below 55 water so as to introduce free moisture directly into a ii) Warm-humid Above 30 Above 55 building.27 Wet Bulb Temperature — The steady vapour at the same temperature.2.26 Ventilation — Supply of outside air into.2.1) 2.2 Basic Zones 2.2.MANAPAKKAM. or by of climatic factors. Capture — Air velocity at any point optimum orientation of the building: in front of the exhaust hood necessary to overcome a) Solar radiation and temperature.25 Velocity.MANAPAKKAM.5 m/s. without adverse effect.2.2.15 Local Exhaust Ventilation — Ventilation effected bulb covered with gauze or muslin moistened with by exhaust of air through an exhaust appliance.2.2.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2. opposing air currents and to capture the contaminants in air at that point by causing the air to flow into the b) Relative humidity.2. Relative — The ratio of the partial 2. it has a particular season for more environment.2. 8 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . (Clause 3.24.18 Natural Ventilation — Supply of outside air 3. day after day. such as distilled water and placed in an air stream of not less a hood with or without fan located as closely as possible than 4.23 Tropical Summer Index (TSI) — The temperature of calm air at 50 percent relative humidity 3.2. or the pressure or density of the water vapour in the air to the removal of inside air from an enclosed space. respectively of water 2. between inside and outside of the building.14 Humidity.2.2 temperature or vapour pressure difference (or both) between outside and inside of the room and the difference of height between the outlet and inlet openings. 3.16 Make-Up Air — Outside air supplied into a provide physically and psychologically comfortable building to replace the indoor air.

63.63.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM.24.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 FIG . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 2 CLIMATIC ZONES OF INDIA PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 9 .

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24. it is necessary to radiation where temperatures are very high.63.4. have to be provided to cut off the incursion of direct sunlight to prevent heat radiation and to avoid glare. surface facing different directions are given in Table 3 3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1. 22 June and 22 to study the velocity and direction of the wind at each December. orientation is not a winds to minimise the adverse effects of high humidity major problem for daylighting in buildings. 9°N 13°N 17°N 21°N 25°N 29°N (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) i) North Summer 1 494 1 251 2 102 1 775 2 173 1 927 Winter 873 859 840 825 802 765 ii) North-East Summer 2 836 2 717 3 144 3 092 3 294 3 189 Winter 1 240 1 158 1 068 1 001 912 835 iii) East Summer 3 344 3 361 3 475 3 598 3 703 3 794 Winter 2 800 2 673 2 525 2 409 2 211 2 055 iv) South-East Summer 2 492 2 660 2 393 2 629 2 586 2 735 Winter 3 936 3 980 3 980 3 995 3 892 3 818 v) South Summer 1 009 1 185 1 035 1 117 1 112 1 350 Winter 4 674 4 847 4 958 5 059 4 942 4 981 vi) South-West Summer 2 492 2 660 2 393 2 629 2 586 2 735 Winter 3 936 3 980 3 980 3 995 3 892 3 818 vii) West Summer 3 341 3 361 3 475 3 598 3 703 3 794 Winter 2 800 2 673 2 525 2 409 2 211 2 055 viii) North-West Summer 2 836 2 717 3 144 3 092 3 294 3 189 Winter 1 240 1 158 1 068 1 001 912 835 ix) Horizontal Summer 8 107 8 139 8 379 8 553 8 817 8 863 Winter 6 409 6 040 5 615 5 231 4 748 4 281 10 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .4. representative of summer and winter. The total direct plus high humidity. For practical evaluation.1. with electric fans or by ventilation.4. advantage can be taken of evaporative cooling in summer to cool the air before 3. with respect to the prevalent wind direction does not materially affect indoor ventilation (average indoor air 3. suitable sun-breakers speed) inside the building.5. for these extreme days of summer and winter. that is.1) Sl Orientation Latitude No.1 For the purpose of orientation. From Table 3. it is necessary for two days in the year. 3.1 The discomfort due to high relative humidity in climate.1. as in coastal areas.24. there was also an over emphasis on prevailing care of the worst possible situation. for hour and in each month instead of relying on latitudes corresponding to some important cities all over generalizations of a month or a period or for the year India. by circulation of air advantage of prevailing winds. In the past.5. 3.2 It is generally found that variation up to 30° be calculated as per the method given in Annex A. know the duration of sunshine.35) valid upto31-12-2017 3. the total heat intake can be as a whole. But in warm humid 3.1 Except in cold climatic zone.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . requires that the building as a whole should receive the emphasis should be placed on protection from solar maximum solar radiation in winter and the minimum in summer.2 In hot-dry climate. This helps to spot the right winds for a calculated for all possible orientations of the building particular period of day or night.4 Solar Radiation with high temperatures.MANAPAKKAM. the emphasis should diffused diurnal solar loads per unit area on vertical be on prevailing winds.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . except that Table 3 Total Solar Radiation (Direct Plus Diffused) Incident on Various Surfaces of Buildings. in W/m2/day. it is desirable either to regulate the rate of air air when temperatures are also high can be movement with the aid of electric fans or to take counteracted. With the introduction of electric fan to effectively circulate air and owing to taking into 3.5. Solar load on vertical surfaces of different orientation can 3.1 The best orientation from solar point of view account the rise in cost of construction of buildings. When. to a great extent.6 Aspects of Daylighting simultaneously with heavy construction and surrounding Verandahs to counter the effect of sun’s Since the clear design sky concept for daylighting takes radiation.MANAPAKKAM. for Summer and for Winter Seasons (Clause 3. and hourly solar however.63. there is less diurnal variation between intensity on the various external surfaces on morning and mean maximum temperatures along with representative days of the seasons.5 Relative Humidity and Prevailing Winds introducing it into the building.5.

3 Glare necessary. Some trees shed leaves in winter while retaining the other requirements. Excessive contrast or abrupt and large changes in PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 11 .1. the levels of illumination derived from a criterion and/or warm pockets in developed areas should also be of visual performance alone may be too low to satisfy taken. the less critical is good modeling.63.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.2.3 When the task brightness appropriate to an and other activities carried out within the building.1. areas so as to reduce the risk of accidents. However.2. brightness which ensured that the visual performance exceeds the specified minimum. practice [8-1(1)].1 Realization of these aims involves the following: (above 100 cd/m2): a) Careful planning of the brightness and colour 1) Between the visual task and 3:1 pattern within both the working areas and the the adjacent areas like table tops surroundings so that attention is drawn naturally 2) Between the visual task and 10:1 to the important areas.1 Aims of Good Lighting by average illuminance levels) should be not less than 0. The first aim is to promote work 4. For such situations. the relationship. the to assist perception of task detail and to give lower the task brightness.63.24. the illumination over that area should be reasonably uniform and it is recommended 4. conjunction with the structure and decoration. therefore. where 4. immediate background of the task and the general surroundings of walls. 4. the requirements for visual contrast as given the light.7 for the working area.1.1. the occupation has been determined.2 Where work takes place over the whole 4 LIGHTING utilizable area of room.8 For detailed information regarding orientation of circumstances associated with the occupation. equipment and Planting of trees in streets and in open spaces should be furnishings.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4). they are also sufficient to give these tasks during winter and effectively blocking it in summer.1.2 Planning the Brightness Pattern due allowance should be given to the mutual shading The brightness pattern seen within an interior may be effects of opposite facades. where appropriate. Such trees will be very illuminance recommendations are based on standards advantageous. c) Controlling direct and reflected glare from light sources to eliminate visual discomfort. by allowing maximum sun occupations.35) valid upto31-12-2017 direct sunshine and glare should be avoided. 4. thick foliage in summer. Good lighting is necessary for all buildings and has three primary aims.1.1. floor. a) For high task brightness Maximum 4.2.7 Planting of Trees itself. minimizing and used by the public including all forms of public flicker from certain types of lamps and paying housing by the government/civic bodies and private attention to the colour rendering properties of developers. and the third aim is to create. a A general guide for the brightness relationship within pleasing environment conducive to interest of the the normal field of vision should be as follows: occupants and a sense of their well-being. done carefully to take advantage of both shades and sunshine without handicapping the flow of natural winds.1 In occupations where the visual demands are Their advantage in abating glare and in providing cool small.1 Principles of Lighting that the uniformity ratio (minimum illuminance divided 4. 4. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1. ceiling. and f) Installing emergency lighting systems.1.MANAPAKKAM. safety and amenity judged appropriate to the exposures are concerned. the brightness of the second aim is to promote the safety of the people using other parts of the room should be planned to give a the building. considered as composed of three main parts — the task 3. b) For low and medium task brightness (below 100 cd/m2): The task should be brighter than b) Using directional lighting. it is buildings and recommendations for various climatic recommended that the illuminance of all working areas zones of country. particularly where southern and western of welfare. Unless there are special 3.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 4. both the background and the surroundings.24.4 In case of all buildings and facilities open to d) In artificial lighting installations. reference may be made to good within a building should generally be 150 lux. detail is seen quickly the remote areas of the room and accurately and the room is free from any sense of gloom or monotony (see 4. in proper emphasis to visual comfort and interest. in 13 and Annex B of Part 3 ‘Development Control and Rules and General Building Requirements’ of the e) Correlating lighting throughout the building to Code shall also be complied with for ensuring visual prevent excessive differences between adjacent comfort for elders and persons with disabilities.1.

the 4.4. When glare is 4.24.1.1. it need not. and sometimes regarded as representing types of task. for different interiors used for the same application or for different conditions for the same kind of activity. 20 to 50 15 d) accuracy or higher productivity is of great 50 to 500 20 importance. external hoods or deep giving order of illumination commonly required rather reveals. should not.1.4. A interiors the middle value of each range represents the gradual transition of brightness from one portion to the recommended service illuminance that would be used other within the field of vision always avoids or unless one or more of the factors mentioned below minimises the discomfort from glare. d) Hotels. The great variety of visual tasks makes it 4. a) Industrial buildings and process. task are not known or cannot be easily specified. of direct glare limitation for different tasks. to the recommended value on the working plane is For more details reference may be made to good necessary.1 The higher value of the range should be used lamp luminance shall not be less than the values given when.2. medium and low quality as 1. curtains or other shading devices or by cross than as having some absolute significance. a 4.1 An example of glare sources in daylighting is range of illuminances is recommended for each type the view of the bright sky through a window or skylight. b) speed and accuracy is not important. For certain purposes. general illumination level high. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. apply. 2 and 3.4. respectively. 1 to 20 10 c) visual work is critical.2. b) reflected glare due to reflections from light sources or surfaces of excessive brightness. It may be. artificial lighting or a combination of the two.35) valid upto31-12-2017 brightness produce the effect of glare. working plane for the purpose commensurate with the general standards of lighting of general illumination levels is that on a work place which is described in this Section and related to many generally 750 mm above the floor level.4. These are valid under most such as viewing the objects of arts. restaurants. be the general level of illumination used 12 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . occupations and buildings. daylighting. 4.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . For working lighting the surroundings to a comparable level. a) direct glare due to light sources within the field c) Surgeries and hospitals.3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24.1. where the precise height and location of the practice [8–1(2)]. schools and public buildings.MANAPAKKAM. kcd/m2 Degree b) errors are costly to rectify.63. of interior or activity instead of a single value of especially when the surrounding wall or ceiling is illuminance. the recommended impossible to list them all and those given should be value is that for the task only.1. shops and homes.4 Recommended Values of Illuminance recommended value is that on horizontal plane 850 mm above floor level. The above mentioned shielding angle should not be applied to luminaires that do not appear in the field of 4. They be minimised in this case either by shielding the open represent good practice and should be regarded as sky from direct sight by louvers. and ³ 500 30 e) visual capacity of the worker makes it necessary. and of vision. view of a worker during usual work and/or do not give a) reflectances or contrast are unusually high. and Table 4 also gives recommended value of quality class c) the task is executed only occasionally. As circumstances may be significantly different comparatively very bright. Table 4 gives recommended values of illuminance NOTE — For an industrial task.1.2 The illumination levels recommended in and Table 4 are those to be maintained at all time on the c) veiling glare where the peripheral field is task.MANAPAKKAM.63.3 Where a visual task is required to be carried numbers assigned to qualitative limits of direct glare: out throughout an interior. Glare can steps of the recommended scale of illuminances.1 The different locations and tasks are grouped present.4. in the table below: a) unusually low reflectances or contrasts are Lamp Luminance Minimum Shielding Angle present in the task.4. the worker any noticeable disability glare.1.1. Each range consists of three successive comparatively dark or weakly illuminated.2 The lower value of the range may be used when.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . b) Offices.4 Where the task is localized. the illumination levels of the conditions whether the illumination is by recommended are for the vertical plane at which the art pieces are placed. These are 4. For electric lamps the minimum shielding angles for 4. the efficiency of vision is reduced and small within the following four sections: details or subtle changes in scene cannot be perceived.

5. This problem may Good 70 . In within the building at all times. illuminance in these areas shall comply with CRI is arrived at by a test by which a number of specified requirements given in 13 and Annex B of Part 3 samples are tested under a standard or reference light ‘Development Control Rules and General Building source and the chromaticity coordinate are plotted on Requirements’ of the Code.1.1. people entering a building will be adapted to the very high levels of brightness Colour Rendering Ra (General Colour usually present outdoors and there is risk of Evaluated Rendering Index) accident if entrance areas.+ R8) disability from glare caused by direct sight of bright sources to emphasize the edges of the treads and to The specific colour rendering index for an individual avoid confusing shadows.35) valid upto31-12-2017 throughout the interior.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63. as the on the same plot. is only one of the several factors to be taken into account. the minimum luminance level as given in lobbies so that the illumination level reduces 13 and Annex B of Part 3 'Development Control Rules towards the exit and so that no bright fittings are and General Building Requirements' of the Code shall in the line of sight of people leaving the building. when lighting stairways. are poorly lighted.MANAPAKKAM. Section 3 Colour’ of National Lighting Code 2010. to prevent Ra = 1/ (R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + . where 4.63. call for lighting of entrance.5. particularly any True 90 .MANAPAKKAM. A lobbies and entrances. well-lighted by correctly screened fittings.1. The difference between the position of time needed for adaptation to the lower level may be each sample for test and standard source is measured to too long to permit obstacles or the treads of stairs to be scale..6∆Ei outdoor industrial plants. the R1 value should be 100.. stairways. Where this cannot be done. passages and stairways Light. as calculated above. These are given below: in the following table: a) By day.24. of colour. For perfect agreement though the rooms may be used only occasionally. 4.24. The same precautions should sample is given by: be taken in the lighting of catwalks and stairways on Ri = 100 – 4. including all forms of public an appropriate value. corridors. For the same reason.100 steps. the IE triangle as given in Fig. In general: It is important. Some processes. housing by the government/civic bodies and private b) At night it is desirable to light entrance halls and developers.6 Colour Rendering Most buildings are complexes of working areas and The colour appearance of light and its colour rendering other areas..1. in which case the level of illumination the entrance area. such as passages.. also be complied with for ensuring sufficient lighting Any entrance steps to the building should be for accessibility by elders and persons with disabilities. including all forms of public housing by colour rendering property.5 Lighting for Movement About a Building 4.1. it is obtained by the average value for eight samples (see desirable that the illumination level of rooms which Fig..5 In case of all buildings and facilities open to installed to raise the level of illumination to and used by the public. 7 of Part 2 ‘Physics of 4. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 8 of Part 2 ‘Physics of Light. passing from one area to another area are particularly the colour rendering shall be evaluated as mentioned acute at building entrances.4. a building to allow adequate time for adaptation when From the obtained value of Ra. Section 3 Colour’ of open off a working area should be fairly high even National Lighting Code 2010). and is denoted as Colour the government/civic bodies and private developers. grading to lower levels further inside specialized design. 1965 International Commission on Illumination (CIE) In case of all buildings and facilities open to and used developed a quantitative method of assignment of by the public. Accidents may result if people leave a well-lighted The same test is repeated under the source under test working area and pass immediately into corridors or and corresponding chromaticity coordinate are plotted on to stairways where the lighting is inadequate. The lighting of all these areas faithful reproduction of an object colour depends on shall be properly correlated to give safe movement the colour rendering capability of the light source.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2 Entrances ∆Ei = chromaticity shift on the CIE chromaticity The problems of correctly grading the lighting within diagram for each sample.70 PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 13 .1 Corridors. The general colour rendering index (Ra) is seen sufficiently quickly. capability are different aspects of the light sources.90 often be overcome by arranging windows to Moderate 50 . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. such as give adequate natural lighting at the immediate industrial inspection process. supplementary artificial lighting should be 4. the Rendering Index (CRI).

1.1. chargers. 50-100-150 3 unloading hoppers.1) SINo. junction towers.8 Pump houses. ash handling plants.2 Farm Workshops 1. water treatment plant 100-150-200 3 houses 3. operating areas and fIlling points at outdoor tanks 3.2 Lamp Rooms 2.1 General Plant 3. 4.5 Control rooms 200-300-500 Localized lighting of control display and the control desks may be appropriate 3. compressor 100-150-200 3 rooms 3.1. wash box 50-100-150 3 area 2.1 Walkways. settling pits.11 Cable tunnels and basements. 30-50-100 3 circulating water culverts and screen chambers.5 Other Firm and Horticultural Buildings 20-30-50 3 2 COAL MINING (SURFACE BUILDINGS) 2.2 Other areas where operators may be in 100-150-200 3 attendance 14 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .4 Switch rooms. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2.1.1.1 Repair section 200-300-500 2 2.1.1.9 Battery rooms.2.2 Other areas 100-150-200 3 2.4 Sick Animal Pets. platforms.1 General 50-100-150 3 1. 4.1 Turbine houses (operating floor) 150-200-300 2 3.3 Boiler houses.1.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . areas around 50-100-150 3 burners 3. HV substations (indoor) 3.1.MANAPAKKAM.4.1.63.1.1 Conveyors.6 Relay and telecommunication rooms 200-300-500 2 3.MANAPAKKAM. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION 3. storage tanks (indoor).4.2 Boiler and turbine house basements 50-100-150 3 3. Calf Nurseries 30-50-100 3 1.3. bunkers 30-50-100 3 2.3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1.1. chute transfer pits.24. oil plant 100-150-200 2 rooms.3 Weight Cabins. screen. Type of Interior or Activity Range of Quality Class Remarks Service or Direct IDwninance Glare (See Note) Limitation lux (See Note) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1 AGRICULTUREAND HORTICULTURE 1.4 Drum filters.1.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 4 Recommended Values of lliuminance (Clauses 4. rectifiers 50-100-150 3 3.2. platforms.1 Coal Preparation Plant 2.2 Wagon loading.2.2.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24. 4. etc 50-100-150 3 3.1.4 Winding Houses 100-150-200 3 3 ELECTRICITY GENERATION.3 Milk Premises 50-100-150 3 1. Fan Houses 100-150-200 3 2.5 Picking belts 150-200-300 3 Directional and colour properties of lighting may be important for easy recognition of coal and rock 2.2 Workbench or machine 200-300-500 2 Local or portable lighting may be appropriate 1.1. meter rooms.1 Inspection of Farm Produce where 300-500-750 Local lighting may be appropriate Colour is Important Other Important Tasks 200-300-500 2 Local lighting may be appropriate 1. floors under conveyors 30-50-100 3 2.1.2 Coal Plant 3.7 Diesel generator rooms.2 and 4.1.63.2.2.3.10 Precipitator chambers.1. gantries.1.3 Elevators. rotating shafts 100-150-200 3 2.2. dust hoppers outlets 3.

24.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.35) valid up .24.

63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.63.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.35) valid up .24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.35) valid up .24.24.

24.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid up .24.MANAPAKKAM.63.63.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.63.MANAPAKKAM. Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.35) valid up . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.

24.63.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.35) valid up . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.

MANAPAKKAM.24.35) valid up . Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.MANAPAKKAM.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

63.MANAPAKKAM.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid up .24. Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.24.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.24.63.35) valid up . Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.63.

Table 4 — (Continued) Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .63.MANAPAKKAM.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM.24.35) valid up .63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

3 Left luggage office 22.1.2.3 Food preparation and cooking 300-S00-7S0 2 23.2 Boiler front 100-1S0-200 3 23.7 Time table IS0-200-300 2 Localized lighting may be appropriate 22. dining rooms.1.2 Enquiry desks 300-S00-7S0 2 Localized lighting may be appropriate 23.4 Staff Rooms 23.3.5.1.3. treatment rooms 300-S00-7S0 1 23.5 Staff Restaurants 23.4 Reprographic room 200-300-S00 2 23.(Concludelf) (I) (2) (3) (4) (S) 22.1.1 General SO-I00-IS0 3 23.3.1.3.2 Counter ISO-200-300 3 Localized lighting is appropriate 22.2.8.1 and 4.5 Outdoor car parks S-20 NOTE .2 Information offices 300-S00-7S0 2 Localized lighting over the counter may be appropriate 22.3.1.7.1.3.4 Food stores.SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 25 .2.7.2.1. 4.3 Telex room.24.3.2 Ramps and comers 30 23. post room 300-S00-7S0 2 23.2.7 Building Services 23.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3.6 Communications 23.4.4. lavatories 23. cafeterias.2.7 Storerooms SO-IOO-ISO 3 23.3.2.1 Canteens.1.3.7.5.1 Covered car parks 23.1.1. lobbies.7.1.1. cellars l00-IS0-200 2 23.1. 200-300-S00 2 washing-up area 23.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 4 . reference shall be made to 4.1.4 Control rooms 200-300-S00 2 Localized lighting of the control display and the control desk may be appropriate 23.MANAPAKKAM.7.1.8.2.63.MANAPAKKAM. SO-I00-IS0 cloakrooms.6 Electrical power supply and l00-IS0-200 2 distribution rooms 23.8.1 Lifts SO-I00-IS0 23.1 General SO-I00-IS0 3 22.3 Medical and First Aid Centres 23.3 Entrances and exits SO-I00-IS0 23.2 Servery.2.2 Rest rooms lOO-ISO-200 23.1 Floors S-20 23.2 Corridors.8 Ticket barriers ISO-200-300 2 Localized lighting may be appropriate 22.2 Telephone apparatus rooms 100-ISO-200 2 23.For details on use of the ranges of illumination given in three steps in this table.3.1 Entrance halls.8.2.5 Mechanical plant room l00-IS0-200 2 23.63.8 CarParks 23.4.6. vegetable preparation.1. For details on quality class of direct glare limitation.24.3 Medical stores I 00-1 SO-200 2 23.1 Ticket offices 300-S00-7S0 2 Localized lighting over the counter may be appropriate 22. IS0-200-300 2 mess rooms 23.4.3 Coach Stations 22. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2 Circulation Areas 23. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1 Boiler houses 23. revelators I 00-1 S0-200 23.7.8.1.6 Time tables ISO-200-300 2 Local lighting is appropriate 22. reference shall be made to 4.6.4.5.4 Waiting rooms IS0-200-300 2 22.1 Entrance 23.10 Platforms (open) 20 Care should be taken to light and mark the edge of the platform clearly 22. stairs SO-I00-ISO 2 23.6.1.8.3 Gatehouses IS0-200-300 2 23.1.7 Loading areas l00-IS0-200 3 23 GENERAL BUILDING AREAS 23.3 Escalators.3.5 Concourse IS0-200-300 2 22.3.6.5.4 Control booths ISO-200-300 23. passageways. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES . waiting rooms ISO-200-300 2 23.7.3 Boiler control room 200-300-S00 2 Localized lighting of the control display and the control desk may be appropriate 23.7.2.1 Consulting rooms.1 Changing. locker and cleaners rooms.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3.3.2 Rest rooms 100-1S0-200 I 23.9 Platforms (covered) 30-S0-100 2 Care should be taken to light and mark the edge of the platform clearly 22.1 Switchboard rooms 200-300-S00 2 23.

For the purposes of daylighting design. pictures and paintings hung direct solar illuminance shall not be considered and on walls. dry climate. however. 4. The outdoor design sky illuminance varies for different climatic regions of 3) At fixed locations. and adequacy of daylighting design. suitable correction shall be taken percent of the simultaneous external illuminance on the into account.3 The daylight factor is dependent on the sky obstructions. namely. sky components read from Annex A may be reduced NOTES by 15 to 30 percent. the factors in vertical sun. the country. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.3 Correction for glazing a) Direct sky visible from the point. The corrections for window bars shall be made by multiplying the values read from tables in Annex B by 4.2. The light received by the earth from the sun consists planes should also be considered when specifying of two parts.1 The daylight factors on the horizontal plane only 4. on an indoor reference point from the following sources: 4. as indicated in should be ensured generally on the working Table 5.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2. on the position of the sun defined by its altitude. the light to the point. plane at the following positions: 1) At a distance of 3 m to 3.5. The recommended design sky illuminance blackboards and office tables. values are 6 800 lux for cold climate. presence of window bars. defines respectively the sky component (SC). The values shall be corrected for the daylighting is suggested.24.2.2. which in turn. Higher indicated only for points at the centre of the room. on classrooms.2 The external available horizontal sky illuminance window along the central line (diffuse illuminance) values which are exceeded for perpendicular to the window.5. reference points. with no external in the recommended sky design illuminance for obstructions. when expressed as a ratio or which are not vertical. if any.4 Components of Daylight Factor a factor equal to the ratio of the clear opening to the Daylight factor is the sum of all the daylight reaching overall opening. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. which varies with atmospheric a regular cleaning schedule. the day a) The recommended sky component level of the year and the time of the day.63.2. Where glass is of the frosted (ground) type. 9 000 lux for warm humid climate.2.MANAPAKKAM.2.35) valid upto31-12-2017 4. open unglazed windows.2.5 Sky Component (SC) illumination of the building interiors during the day. For integration with the artificial lighting 4.24. and 20 percent. Sky component for a window of any size is computed 4.2 Daylighting are usually taken. [8-1(2)]. This assumes the maintenance of luminance distribution.2.MANAPAKKAM. as the working plane in a room is The primary source of lighting for daylighting is the generally horizontal.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . and for detailed analysis correction corresponds to larger windows and/or near procedures are complicated and these may be ignored for actual calculations. the external reflected component (ERC) and the internal good lighting.1. the sky components b) External surfaces reflecting light directly to obtained from Annex A shall be reduced by 10 to the point (see Note 1).75 m from the 4. such as daylighting illuminance. blackboards.4.1 The values obtainable from the tables are for during daytime working hours an increase of 500 lux rectangular.7 For detailed information regarding principles of horizontal plane. 8 000 lux for b) The daylight area of the prescribed sky composite climate. half the total area of the room. Where windows are glazed. such as school desks.5. glazing and external 4. A clear design sky with its non-uniform 4. conditions. about 90 percent of the daytime working hours may be 2) At the centre of the room if more taken as outdoor design illuminance values for ensuring appropriate. varies with the latitude of the locality. direct solar illuminance and sky daylighting values for special cases. 26 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .63. In the case of openings and glazings 2 Each of the three components. reference may be made to good practice reflected component (IRC) of the daylight factor. In case of tinted or reflective glass 1 External surface reflection may be computed approximately the reduction is about 50 percent.1 The relative amount of sky illuminance depends by the use of the appropriate table of Annex B. component should not normally be less than 9 000 lux for temperate climate and 10 500 lux for hot. provided the panes are of clear and clean c) Internal surfaces reflecting and inter-reflecting glass. only sky illuminance shall be taken as contributing to 4.2 Corrections for window bars distribution of luminance is adopted for the purposes of design in this Section.

8. a compromise may be made by providing the vi) 55° 0. Where accurate values of These values when multiplied by the correction factors. The sky be made to accepted standard (see Examples 10 and component at any point.2.2 Broader openings may also be equally or more i) 5° 0.2. when present. due to a number of openings 11 given in Annex B of good practice [8-1(3)].2. adjacent or opposite walls will give better distribution of 4.6) of light.2.4 Correction for external obstructions 4. can be taken as the external reflected components for that 4.086 efficient.24.63.142 NOTE — It is to be noted that while placing window with a iv) 35° 0.8. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2. this is likely to reduce v) 45° 0. provided their sills are raised by 300 mm to ii) 15° 0.192 high sill level might help natural lighting.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 5 Solar Altitudes (to the Nearest Degree) for Indian Latitudes (Clause 4.1 Generally. External obstructions. from the point in question as given in Table 6. and depends on the reflection factor 4.334 openings properly positioned along the same.24. will proportionately reduce IRC.1) Period of 22 June 21 March and 23 September 22 December Year Hours of 07 00 08 00 09 00 10 00 11 00 12 00 07 00 08 00 09 00 10 00 11 00 12 00 07 00 08 00 09 00 10 00 11 00 12 00 Day 17 00 16 00 15 00 14 00 13 00 — 17 00 16 00 15 00 14 00 13 00 — 17 00 16 00 15 00 14 00 13 00 — (Sun or Solar) Latitude (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) 10°N 18 31 45 58 70 77 15 30 44 59 72 80 9 23 35 46 53 57 13°N 19 32 46 60 72 80 15 29 44 58 70 77 8 21 33 43 51 54 16°N 20 33 47 61 74 83 14 29 43 56 68 74 7 19 31 41 48 51 19°N 21 34 48 62 75 86 14 28 42 55 66 71 5 18 29 48 45 48 22°N 22 35 49 62 75 89 14 28 41 53 64 68 4 16 27 36 42 45 25°N 23 36 49 63 76 88 13 27 40 52 61 65 3 14 25 34 39 42 28°N 23 36 49 63 76 86 13 26 39 50 59 62 1 13 23 31 37 39 31°N 24 37 50 62 75 82 13 25 37 48 56 56 — 11 21 28 34 36 34°N 25 37 49 62 73 79 12 25 36 46 53 56 — 9 18 26 31 33 4. IRC are desired.274 sill level about 150 mm below the head level of workers.2. For rooms white-washed on walls and portion of the window obstructed by the external ceiling and windows of normal sizes. Sl No.8.2. described in Annex C of good practice [8-1(3)].63. the window area and inversely as the total area of internal surfaces.3 For a given penetration. except that the values The component of daylight factor contributed by from tables in Annex B shall be read only for the reflection from the inside surfaces varies directly as unobstructed portions of the window.6 External Reflected Component (ERC) of the floor.2.7 Internal Reflected Component (IRC) There is no separate correction.1 For method of calculating ERC. While designing the opening for ventilation also.304 viii) 75° 0. iii) 25° 0.8 General Principles of Openings to Afford Good point.226 ventilation at work levels. Lighting 4.324 4.6. vii) 65° 0. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM. Mean Angle of Elevation Correction Factor (1) (2) (3) 4. broader openings give better distribution (Clause 4.5. while taller openings give greater Table 6 Correction Factor for ERC penetrations.2. may be easily determined from the corresponding sky PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 27 . a number of small ix) 85° 0.MANAPAKKAM. the same may be done in accordance corresponding to the mean elevation of obstruction with the good practice [8-1(3)]. the IRC will have obstructions may be found by the use of methods sizeable value even at points far away from the window. wall and roof surfaces inside and of the The value of the sky component corresponding to the ground outside.2. It is preferable that some area of the sky at an altitude of 20° to 25° should light up the working plane. reference may illumination than a single large opening.086 600 mm above the working plane.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .

iii) 1. Separation Long Blocks facing Gaps openings on one side and clerestory openings on the Between Parallel Facing Each Between opposite side may be provided where the situation so Blocks Blocks Other Opposite requires.8 Openings shall be provided with Chajjahs.1 Artificial lighting may have to be provided.50 0. The lower portions are usually 4.30 0.15 0.68 NOTE — Ht = Height of building. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) i) 0. (Length = Blocks 2 × Height) (Length = 4.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Chajjahs. when it enters.3 Artificial Lighting considerably.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . the recommended of such fixtures is to reflect part of the light on to the practice is to design for a level of illumination on the roof and thereby increase the diffuse lighting within.9) also minimise glare by illuminating the wall surrounding each of the opposing openings. Glare will result if it falls on walls at low 4. certain value.35) valid upto31-12-2017 component contour charts appropriately superposed.15 0. a) where the recommended illumination levels have to be obtained by artificial lighting only.8. dispositions of building masses offer much less mutual The sum of the individual sky component for each obstruction to daylight than others and have a significant opening at the point gives the overall component due relevance. Side Sl Distance of Infinitely Parallel Parallel Blocks No.2. more so than when it falls on floors. working plane on the basis of the recommended levels light up the farther areas in the room and thereby for visual tasks given in Table 4 by a method called produce a more uniform illumination throughout. iv) 2. such as translucent glass b) to supplement daylighting when the level of panes (opal or matt) surfaced by grinding. reduce the effective height of 4.63.25 4.10 For specified requirements for daylighting of the opening for which due allowance shall be made. and types of prismatic glass.8. As guidance.38 effects. in general. as Basis.24.3.6 Cross-lighting with openings on adjacent walls 2 × Height) tends to increase the diffused lighting within a room. louvers.5 Ht 0.9 Light control media.8.2. as far as possible. Values are for the greater uniformity of internal daylight illumination.MANAPAKKAM.24.2. configurated or corrugated glass.2.63. ceilings and floors 4. either fixed of illumination. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.0 Ht 0. They (Clause 4. angles.2. on the surface reflectances of walls. Certain regarding designing the interior lighting systems for a 28 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . They should be provided. They ‘Lumen method’. reference may be made Broad and low openings are.7 Openings in deep reveals tend to minimise glare ii) 1. Similarly. calculations concerning the brightness ratio in the interior call for details of the Proper planning and layout of building can add interior decoration and furnishing. especially when intensive site planning is to all the openings. Direct sunlight.50 0. different relative orientations may be taken as given in Table 7. baffles or other shading devices to exclude. to shade against sunlight entry. 4. Daylight Availability Taken as Unity on 4. The same charts may also facilitate undertaken.32 0. Stepwise guidance appreciably to daylighting illumination inside.2. louvers.2.3. The chief purpose For general lighting purposes.5 Ht 0.2.5 Openings on two opposite sides will give an Unobstructed Facade. 4.MANAPAKKAM. much easier to good practice [8-1(4)].8. etching or illumination falls below the recommended sandblasting. direct sunlight entering the room. In such cases provision Four-Storeyed Building Blocks (Clear Design-Sky of light shelves is always advantageous. in general. advance information when illuminated by direct sunlight. Centre of the Blocks) especially when the room is 7 m or more across.60 0. especially when the floors are dark coloured or less reflective.2 Artificial Lighting Design for Interiors left clear to afford desirable view.55 4. special occupancies and areas. or movable outside or inside. the relative availability of easy drawing of sky component contours due to daylight in multi-storeyed blocks (up to 4 storeys) of multiple openings. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.8. especially in the upper portions of the openings.4 Unilateral lighting from side openings will.2.8. tinted glass and glass blasts c) where visual task may demand a higher level are often used.9 Availability of Daylight in Multistoreyed Block is required. increases the inside illuminance very 4.5 times the distance from the Window Plane at Ground Level in a floor to the top of the opening.0 Ht 0.40 0. etc. In order to make the necessary will also prevent the opening causing serious glare detailed calculations concerning the type and quantity discomfort to the occupants but will provide some glare of lighting equipment necessary. be unsatisfactory if the effective width of the Table 7 Relative Availability of Daylight on the room is more than 2 to 2.

3. A luminaires and room surface. for new condition. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. For every luminaire. tables have to cover a wide range of Eav = average illumination level required on the lighting practices.3. in lumens All these measurements have to be made for different reflection factors of the φluminaires = luminous flux of each luminaire. In practice.2. should be 4.d . especially if these installed in the room. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.A Nluminaires = iii) the inter-reflections between the µ. in m2. and µ 6) Depreciation due to dirt collection on Eav . efficiencies have to be calculated and µ = utilization factor in new conditions.d .3.MANAPAKKAM. the exact light distribution has to be measured in the laboratory and their A = area of the working plane. comprise.63.3. A or.4. and measured exactly.φ 4) Reflectance of internal surfaces of the Eav = A room.1 Determination of the illumination level luminaires and room surfaces. These measurements d = maintenance factor. directional lighting and localized or local influence of the windows without lighting.A ii) the luminous flux reflected and re.24. taken for the luminous flux depreciation PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 29 . and lamps after burning their rated life.φluminaires ceiling and wall which result in the where measuring surface receiving additional luminous flux. depending upon the type of work to be carried ceiling and of the wall are as follows: out in the location in question and the visual tasks White and very light colours : 0. almirahs and doors with different colours. ‘Handbook on functional requirements of 2) Type of luminaire.2 Selection of the light sources and luminaires Middle tints : 0. buildings other than industrial buildings’] 3) Proportion of the room (room index) (kr).7 involved.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Eav . to ageing of the lamp and owing to the deposition of dirt on the lamps and 4. φ= . shelves.d b) Coefficient of utilization or utilization factor 1) The compilation of tables for the where utilization factor requires a considerable φ = total luminous flux of the light sources amount of calculations.MANAPAKKAM.2.35) valid upto31-12-2017 building using the ‘Lumen method’ is given in 4. These tables have also to Nlamp = total number of lamps indicate the maintenance factor to be Nluminaires = total number of luminaires. for working condition µ. Light colours : 0.2. general For the walls. φlamp = luminous flux of each lamp. N lamp = µ.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .1 on the choice of lighting system.2. working plane. Recommended value of illumination shall be taken from 2) The values of the reflection factor of the Table 4. curtains.3 Determination of the luminous flux estimated.φ lamp reflected by the ceiling and the walls to the measuring surface.2. a) The luminous flux (F) reaching the working c) Calculation for determining the luminous flux plane depends upon the following: [see Table 22 of SP : 41 (S&T) — 1987 1) Lumen output of the lamps.3 The selection of light sources and luminaires depends Dark colours : 0. in ceiling and the walls for all necessary lumens room indices. it is easier to calculate straightaway the i) the luminous flux radiated by the number of lamps or luminaires from: luminaires directly to the measuring surface.1 throughout the life of an installation due to 4.63. in lumens.3.5 4. taking into account the lighting. in lux. etc. φ = .24. 5) Depreciation in the lumen output of the Eav . and Eav . namely. µ.

higher utilization factors are obtained. For height of 3. for solar altitude below 15° or when dark cloudy conditions occur.3.63.24. The distance ‘x’ is more or less equal to the mounting height ‘Hm’ between the luminaire 4. The utilization factor the day arises. fenestration such cases.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Therefore.3. To ensure a good distribution of illumination. such rooms.0 m to 3. may be determined from Fig. that is. or when the outside windows are not of apart in either direction.6 to 1.3.25 for fluorescent tubes are recommended with semi-direct luminaires located centrally.24.0 m between the luminaires.63.1 The need for general supplementary artificial of 2. luminaires are spaced ‘x’ metre daylighting.MANAPAKKAM.3. This is done to achieve better uniformly distributed illumination. while the distance of adequate size or when there are unavoidable external the end luminaire from the wall is ‘0.3.35) valid upto31-12-2017 4. lighting increases with the decrease in daylighting b) For small rooms where the room index (kr) is availability.3.3. Also the lighting arises due to diminishing of daylighting beyond number of lamps should preferably be more in the rear half of the room than in the vicinity of windows. 3 for an assumed ceiling but the uniformity of distribution is poor.MANAPAKKAM. 3 SUPPLEMENTARY ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING FOR 40 W FLUORESCENT T UBES 30 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .3. 1987 ‘Handbook on functional requirements 4. depending upon floor area.0 m above the work plane for a separation 4.5x’ metre. If. The FIG .4 The requirement of supplementary artificial of buildings other than industrial buildings’]. Cool daylight additional tables for k r = 0. four or two luminaires are placed for good general lighting.4 Arrangement of the luminaires design hours. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. references should be made to the percentage and room surface reflectance. represent the worst conditions when the cannot be properly located. in such 4.3 Artificial Lighting to Supplement Daylighting 1. less than Hm.3. however. lighting during the day in the innermost parts of the building which cannot be adequately provided with a) In general.0 m.5 The requirement of supplementary artificial rooms only one luminaire is installed in the lighting when daylighting availability becomes poor middle. the distance ‘x’ should always be or equivalent conditions due to clouds or obstructions. The location of the luminaires has an 4. the mounting height should be between 4.3.5 m and 2. conditions near sunset or sunrise less than 1.3. since otherwise luminaires etc.2.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . luminaires.2 The need may also arise for providing artificial important effect on the utilization factor. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.3 The need for supplementary lighting during and the working plane.3. particularly when the daylighting on the tables are calculated for this arrangement of working plane falls below 100 lux and the surrounding luminaires [see Table 22 of SP : 41 (S&T) – luminance drops below 19 cd/m2. obstructions to the incoming daylighting. In most cases of supplementary lighting is most needed.

4.15.6 Electrical installation aspect for artificial lighting of width up to 2.MANAPAKKAM. of the room. 3 for fenestration and separation to height ratio are marked determining the number of fluorescent tubes required on left hand ordinate and abscissa.35) valid upto31-12-2017 following steps may be followed for using Fig. The for supplementary daylighting. if required. Any left hand ordinate. the shall be in accordance with Part 8 ‘Building Services.3. d) Luminaires emanating more light in the downward direction than upward direction 4. the ordinate corresponding to the easily determined for adequate daylighting value 3.4 Energy Conservation in Lighting (such as reflectors with or without diffusing 4.MANAPAKKAM. reference may be made to good sashes with louvers of width up to 600 mm or practice [8-1(5)]. respectively. Daylighting design should be according to 4.4.2 Daytime use of artificial lights may be minimised 4.3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. For cases where there m2 as well as fenestration percent may be is no obstruction. a Chhajja (balcony projection) at ceiling level 4. For floor area beyond 50 m 2 and less than 30 m2. 4.2 Following assumptions have been made in the b) In Fig. illumination levels are marked on the right hand ordinate.0 m. made to good practice [8-1(2)]. and vertical lines indicating the separation to height ratio read the value of fenestration percent on the of external obstructions such as opposite buildings. reference may be be multiplied by a factor of 0. walls off white and floor grey has been c) For the referred curve of Fig. For wooden sashes. The values given within brackets are the a) Determine fenestration percentage of the floor illumination levels on the work plane at center and rear area. or more (S/H >3) from a window façade are not b) Step 2 — Fix the vertical line corresponding significant and a window facing such an obstruction to the given separation to height ratio of may be regarded as a case of unobstructed window. The wattage of fluorescent tubes required Window area per m2 of the floor area for different illumination levels × 100 is shown on each curve. the number of 40 W fluorescent b) Ceiling height of 3 m. corresponding to the required illumination The obstructions at a distance of three times their height level. the values of percent 4. corresponding to the given and floor area between 30 m2 and 50 m2 have floor area on the abscissa.24.5 m to lighting may be saved by utilization of daylight and 2. room depths up to 10 m tubes required. 4.3 Fenestration expressed as percentage of floor area a) Step 1 — Decide the desired illumination level required for satisfactory visual performance of a few depending upon the task illumination tasks for different separation to height (S/H) ratio of requirement in the proposed room and read external obstructions such as opposite buildings may the value of watts per m 2 on the curve be obtained from the design nomogram (see Fig. nomogram: 4.0) may or if it is less than 30 m2.3. 2.0 m above the work plane have been rational design of supplementary artificial lights. Floor area 4.4.1. the value of watt per be drawn by designer. that is. The value of percentage and supplemental artificial lighting for design PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 31 .5 For specific requirements for lighting of special c) It is assumed that windows are of metallic occupancies and areas. walls and a) An average interior finish with ceiling white.85 and 1. been assumed.4.3 Method of use by proper design of windows for adequate daylight The following steps shall be followed for the use of indoors. From the 4. window area should be increased by a factor Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations’ of the of about 1. 3.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3.3.4 For detailed information on the design aspects fenestration as well as wattage per m2 should and principles of artificial lighting. considered. 3 read.0.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . vertical line for separation to height ratio other than c) Step 3 — If the floor area is greater than 50 m2 already shown in the nomogram (1. respectively. opposite buildings on the abscissa. Code.0 and 3.24.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1 A substantial portion of the energy consumed on plastics) and mounted at a height of 1.0 may be used.63. along assumed.4. 4). the ordinate.1 The nomogram consists of horizontal lines point of intersection of this vertical line and indicating fenestration percentage of floor area and the above curve move along horizontal.4. refer to the curve corresponding to construction of the nomogram: the percent fenestration determined above and the set of reflectances of ceiling.3.63. floor actually provided.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM.MANAPAKKAM.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 FIG. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. 4 NOMOGRAPH FOR DAYLIGHTING AND SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHTING DESIGN OF BUILDINGS 32 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.63.24.

MANAPAKKAM.5 of the energy consumption with implementing periodic schedule for cleaning of incandescent lamps.9 m above floor mounting beyond 7 m height.35) valid upto31-12-2017 purposes. supplementary artificial lighting.4 For good distribution of day light on the working colour rendering index and colour temperature or plane in a room. turning Similarly with white fluorescent tubes recommended off artificial lights when not needed. and 40 to 60 percent if replaced Measures to be followed comprise utilization of with LED lamps. windows average life in burning hours.MANAPAKKAM. which have very high luminous efficacy.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . walls and furnishings. fluorescent lamps are not preferred for with sill height as 0. depending on the b) Distribute luminaries with a separation of 2 m mounting heights and interior design. the intervals.63. and reduces to 1/4.0 to 1. Energy conservation in lighting is affected by reducing 4. are not following recommendations: suitable for commercial interiors because of poor colour a) In office buildings windows of height 1.4. Luminous efficacies of some of the lamps used in lighting of buildings are given in Table 8 along with b) If the room depth is more than 10 m. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1 m For example. buildings windows of height 1.4. etc. depending on the having windows on opposite walls. in lighting. accordingly be adjusted depending upon the 4.0 m to 1. high pressure sodium vapour height of sill should be chosen in accordance with the lamps. choice of light sources also depends on the other lighting quality parameters like 4. In the mounting height and colour consideration vicinity of windows only single tube fluorescent lamps. if the fenestration luminaires and group replacement of lamps at suitable provided is less than the required value. maintaining lighter for corridors and staircases. providing required illumination where needed. c) For commercial interiors.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . colour rendering index should be provided on opposite sides for and colour temperature. window width and appearance.24. CFLs and low wattage c) Provide more supplementary lights such as metal halide lamps are recommended.6. Similar energy effective solutions are daylight.24. use fluorescent lamps.4.2 m above floor and in residential sources depends on the mounting height in the interiors. For example. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 33 . window height. bilateral lighting. the electrical consumption finishes of ceiling. window and in the central region of a room d) For industrial lighting.2 For the same lumen output. low wattage tubular or dichroic in the rear region of a room having single reflector type halogen lamps can be used. Also the choice of light 1. c) It is desirable to have a white finish for ceiling Following recommendations may be followed in the and off white (light colour) to white for walls. However.5 For good distribution and integration of daylight colour temperature of the daylight. but are highly or more in the centre of a bay with sill level at desirable in heavy industries. high pressure mercury luminaries should be provided. which match with 4. fluorescent lamps. to 3 m in each bay of 3 m to 4 m width. vapour lamps or high pressure sodium vapour 4.7 m to 0. choice of light sources for different locations: There is about 7 percent improvement in a) For supplementary artificial lighting of work lighting levels in changing the finish of walls area in office building care should be taken to from moderate to white. with induction lighting.4. Choice of light sources with higher luminous wattage of supplementary artificial lights efficacy and luminaires with appropriate light should be increased proportionately to make distribution is the most effective means of energy saving up for the deficiency of natural illumination.1 Efficient artificial light sources and luminaires required fenestration percentage of the floor area.2 m rendering index and colour appearance. However. it is possible to wastage and using energy effective lamps and save 50 to 70 percent energy if CFL lamps are replaced luminaires without sacrificing lighting quality.63. with artificial lights the following guidelines are b) For residential buildings fluorescent lamps recommended: and/or CFLs of proper CRI and CCT are recommended to match with the colours and a) Employ cool daylight fluorescent tubes for interior design of the room. for example hotels. when high pressure gas are recommended for good distribution of discharge lamps are preferred because of better optical daylight indoors.4. energy effective artificial lighting design by to be chosen for every application area. For twin tube luminaries in work areas where highlighting the displays in show windows.6 Artificial Lighting lamps are recommended. daylight is expected to be poor.6. Window width can control due to their compact size.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. When sufficient daylight is b) For corridors and stair cases direct type of available inside. 4 For exact values.MANAPAKKAM. 34 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . luminaire should be such that it is efficient not only 4.light lamps 160 to 250 20 to 30 5 000 Low to fair Federate vii) High pressure sodium vapour lamps 50 to 1 000 90 to 125 10 000 to 15 000 Fair to good Low to good viii) Metal halide lamps 35 to 2 000 80 to 95 4 000 to 10 000 Very low Very good ix) Low pressure sodium 10 to 180 100 to 200 10 000 to 20 000 Good to very good Poor x) LED 0. daytime unoccupied. of energy.4. 4. lighting fixture and maintains the lux levels 4.4.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Life. it is advisable to contact manufacturers. may switch on lights in the morning and keep them on throughout the day. values given are only indicative. The choice of a artificial lights. 2 Luminous efficacy varies with the wattage of the lamp. c) In residential buildings. sunset This will tend to reduce the duration over which occupied. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Depending upon the location of the building c) The photocontrol sensor should have a minimum of three to six months interval for periodic a 60° cone of reference to measure the amount cleaning of luminaries and window panes is of light on the work surface. sunset unoccupied. daytime enhanced daylight and lumen output from luminaries. Range lm/W h Maintenance W (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) i) Incandescent lamps 15 to 200 12 to 20 500 to 1 000 Fair to good Very good ii) Tungsten halogen 300 to 1 500 20 to 27 200 to 2 000 Good to very good Very good iii) Standard fluorescent lamps 20 to 80 55 to 65 5 000 Fair to good Good iv) Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) 5 to 40 60 to 70 7 500 Good Good to very good v) Slim line fluorescent 18 to 58 57 to 67 5 000 Fair to good Good v) High pressure mercury vapour lamps 60 to 1 000 50 to 65 5 000 Very low to fair Federate vi) Blended .5 to 2.24.4. suitable photo controls can be luminaries with wide spread of light employed to switch off the artificial lights and thus distributions are recommended. Following luminaries are recommended for different locations: There is a considerable wastage of electrical energy in a) For offices semi-direct type of luminaries are lighting of buildings due to carelessness in switching recommended so that both the work plane off lights even when sufficient daylight is available illumination and surround luminance can be indoors. occupied.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4. they should be provided a) An integrated photocontrol system continually with white enameled conical reflectors at an measures the amount of visible light under the inclination of about 45° from vertical.63. In offices and commercial buildings.7 Cleaning Schedule for Window Panes and as referred in Table 4.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 8 Luminous Efficacy.3 Efficient luminaire also plays an important role recommended for maximum utilization of daylight and for energy conservation in lighting. prevent the wastage of energy.1) Sl Light Source Wattage Efficacy Average Life Lumen Colour Rendition No.63.24. night time artificial lights will be used and minimise the wastage occupied and night time unoccupied.8 Photocontrols for Artificial Lights initially but also throughout its life. bare fluorescent tubes are recommended. Where Indian Standard is not available.6. Luminaires b) An integrated photocontrol system should Adequate schedule for cleaning of window panes and maintain six daylighting scenarios that can be luminaries will result in significant advantage of adjusted by the user namely.6.0 60 to 100 10 000 Very good Good for white LED NOTES 1 The table includes lamps and wattages currently in use in buildings in India. 3 Average life values are from available Indian Standards. occupants effectively enhanced. Wherever the incandescent The photocontrol should have the following features: lamps are employed. Lumen Maintenance and Colour Rendition of Light Sources (Clause 4.MANAPAKKAM.

other contaminants are present in the air.9.63. Changing rooms 6-10 small under normal conditions to have any ill effects. room which is more than 4.63.4.35) valid upto31-12-2017 4. Boiler rooms see Note 2 rarely exceeds 0. Corridors 5-10 Where no products of combustion or other PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 35 .4.2 Design Considerations Sl No.3 Regular maintenance of SPV system is 16 of the Factories Act. 5 VENTILATION NOTE — Vitiation of the atmosphere can also occur in factories by odours given off due to contaminants of the product itself.1 Respiration (1) (2) (3) Supply of fresh air to provide oxygen for the human body for elimination of waste products and to maintain 1. Cinemas and theatres 10-15 noticeable effect. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. requires that at least 14 m3 to 16 m3 of space shall be provided for every worker and for the purpose of that 4. 4. worker or the number of air changes per hour. The common the amount of air decreases as the air space available SPV lighting systems are: per person increases. Min is unchanged. carbon in the maintenance of heat balance of the body in order dioxide and other air quality levels and for the control to prevent discomfort and injury to health of the of body odours when no products of combustion or occupants. The amount of 9. Churches 1-3 the oxygen content may vary quite appreciably without 13.1 SPV lighting system should preferably be may easily be secured in warm weather by keeping the provided with CFL for energy efficiency. and a small number of persons such an air change will c) Street lighting system. Section 4. the amount of fresh air required for dilution of inside air to prevent Solar photovoltaic system enables direct conversion of vitiation of air by body odours.4.2.24.1 In normal habitable rooms devoid of smoke 6.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 5. the values of air changes should be as follows: 5. Cafes and coffee bars 10-12 incapable of producing any ill effect. Banks/building societies 4-8 for this purpose normally enters the areas of occupancy 4. if the carbon dioxide concentration 14. The change in oxygen content is also too 11. Cellars 3-10 is very small.2.2 Vitiation by Body Odours 16. Canteens 8-12 air required to keep the concentration down to 1 percent 10.4. Conference rooms 8-12 17. 5.1 General Here the ventilation will have to be augmented to keep odours Ventilation of buildings is required to supply fresh air within unobjectionable levels. Club rooms 12.4. 30 m3 per person per hour. therefore. and it may vary from 20 m3 to a) Solar lantern.24.1. automatically be attained in cool weather by normal leakage around windows and other openings and this 4.10 Lighting shelves and light pipes may be explored section no account shall be taken of any space in a work for utilization and integration in the lighting design. 1948 relating to overcrowding necessary for its satisfactory functioning.2. 12. Bakeries 20-30 rarely calls for special attention as enough outside air 3. 15. In rooms occupied by only b) Fixed type solar home lighting system. 8. the content of carbon dioxide in air 7.2 Inverters used in buildings for supplying No standards have been laid down under Factories Act.9.MANAPAKKAM. depends on the air space sunlight into electricity and is a viable option for available per person and the degree of physical activity. to dilute inside air to 5. Bathrooms 6-10 through crevices and other openings.2.25 m above the floor level. electricity during the power cut period should be 1948 as regards the amount of fresh air required per charged through SPV system. say for example. Bedrooms 2-4 5. lighting purpose in remote nongrid areas.9 Solar Photovoltaic Systems (SPV) contaminants are to be removed from air.MANAPAKKAM.1 Recommended values for air changes prevent vitiation by body odours and to remove any products of combustion or other contaminants in air The standards of general ventilation are recommended/ and to provide such thermal environments as will assist based on maintenance of required oxygen. Billiard rooms 6-8 generating source. for respiration of occupants.5 percent to 1 percent and is.9.2. Compressor rooms 10-12 5. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Assembly rooms 4-8 carbon dioxide concentration in the air within safe limits 2. Application Air Change per Hour 5. openings open. from tobacco processing in a ‘Beedi’ factory.

2. Stores and warehouses 3-6 c) Adaptive thermal comfort.MANAPAKKAM. saturated air which has the same general effect 57.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Photo and X-ray dark room 10-15 heat balance at normal body temperature and without 45. Public house bars 12. Recording studios 10-12 48.63. 29. Lift cars 20. Libraries 3-5 humidity is high and the air temperature is near body 39.3. Underground vehicle parking 6. The volume of outside air to be circulated 31. Electroplating shops 10-12 body in order to prevent discomfort and injury to health. 36.2. Laundries 10-30 of the inside air rather than bringing in all outside air. Dance halls 12.24. Launderettes 10-15 distribution may.35) valid upto31-12-2017 5. Hospital domestic 15-20 considerations of controlling the temperature. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. particularly when the relative 38. Min 54. Recording control rooms 15-25 and abroad. relative humidity. Lavatories 6-15 However.1 Indices of thermal comfort 41. Garages 6-8 and the surroundings and other factors. humidity and wind 59. basic scale. the prime need 19. Gymnasium 6. Air movement and air 34. Utility rooms 15-30 Combinations of temperature. and the latter depends on air 28. Heating and Mechanical referred to men stripped to the waist. such as age of 27. when thermal environment inside the room is worsened by heat given off by 18. and called the Ventilation’ of the Code. Initially two scales were developed. Welding shops 15-30 velocity producing the same thermal sensation in an NOTES individual are taken to have the same effective 1 The ventilation rates may be increased by 50 percent where temperature. however. Heat exchange of the human body with respect to the surroundings is determined by the 25. Min perceptible sweating. 40. Shower baths 15-20 b) Tropical summer index (TSI). 58. governed by the physical 32. Swimming baths 10-15 Effective temperature is defined as the temperature of 56. heavy smoking occurs or if the room is below the ground. Laboratories 6-15 distribution or air movement. Restaurants 8-12 The thermal indices which find applications for Indian 49. Min upon comfort as the atmosphere under investigation.1 Effective temperature (ET) 55. 47. Engine rooms/DG see Note 2 Excess of heat either from increased metabolism due Rooms/GG Rooms to physical activity of persons or gains from a hot 23.3. Hospital wards 6-8 through the room is. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Mushroom houses 6-10 42. be achieved by recirculation 35. Min for ventilation is to provide such thermal environment 20. Factories and work shops 8-10 temperature (37°C). Section 3 Air Conditioning. Glass houses 25-60 persons. Hospitals sterilising 15-25 movement.2. Dairies 8-12 machinery.MANAPAKKAM. Foundries 15-30 temperature and humidity gradient between the skin 26. Lecture theatres 5-8 evaporation of the sweat. 51. therefore. fresh air supply or the circulated air will reduce heat stress by dissipating heat from body by 37. Toilets 6-10 still.2 of Part 8 ‘Building Services. Dye works 20-30 as will assist in the maintenance of heat balance of the 21. clothing. Shops and supermarkets 8-15 a) Effective temperature (ET). air 33. Entrance halls 3-5 environment has to be offset to maintain normal body 24.3 Heat Balance of Body Sl No. Min 5. Offices 6-10 Thermal comfort is that condition of thermal 43. Hair dressing saloon 10-15 radiation from the solid surroundings and rate of air 30. Limits of comfort vary considerably according to studies carried out in India 46.1. Living rooms 3-6 5.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2. and 52. Application Air Change per Hour (1) (2) (3) Especially in hot weather. 22. 53.63. Min temperature (dry bulb temperature). Schoolrooms 5-7 climate are as follows: 50.24. etc. occupants and other sources. STP rooms 30. Min temperature. Paint shops (not cellulose) 10-20 environment under which a person can maintain a body 44. The other applies to men fully clad in indoor clothing and called the normal scale of effective 36 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . Squash courts 4. one of which 2 The ventilation rate shall be as per 11.

reading to make allowance for the radiant heat. TSI nomogram.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . FIG. There appears to be an inherent error in values of 25°C and 30°C with optimum condition at this scale if used as an index of physiological strain. in °C.63. Such .2 Tropical summer index (TSI) scale is known as the corrected effective temperature (CET) scale.06 v " 0.2. tw = wet bulb temperature. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24. in m/s. 27. The scale was at 50 percent relative humidity which imparts the same compiled only for men either seated or engaged in light thermal sensation as the given environment. The activity. A certain minimum desirable environmental conditions.MANAPAKKAM. however. Air movement is necessary in hot and humid the error increasing with the severity of the weather for body cooling. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. stress is not high but it may be misleading at high levels The thermal comfort of a person lies between TSI of heat stress.63. Bedfort (1946) proposed the use of globe appear to assess climatic heat stress with an accuracy temperature reading instead of the air temperature which is acceptable for most practical purposes. Mathematically. The CET can be obtained by connecting (°C) is expressed as: the appropriate points representing the dry bulb (or globe) and wet bulb temperatures and reading the CET TSI ! 0. the effective temperature scales different temperatures and relative humidities.24.841 value at the intersection of this line with the relevant air velocity curve from the family of curves for various where air velocities running diagonally upwards from left to right.3.5°C.MANAPAKKAM. was made for The TSI is defined as the temperature of calm air. in °C. 50 percent level of relative humidity is chosen for this index as it is a reasonable intermediate value for the Figure 5 represents the corrected effective temperature prevailing humidity conditions. This 5.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . The effective temperature scale may be considered to tg = globe temperature.35) valid upto31-12-2017 temperature. No allowance.308tw # 2. the different rates of energy expenditure. 5 C ORRECTED EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE NOMOGRAM PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 37 . For low and moderate wind speed is needed for achieving thermal comfort at degrees of heat stress. and be reasonably accurate in warm climates where the heat V = air speed.745tg " 0.1.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.0 iv) 45 27.2) viii) 35 3.06 0. the coolness of the environment Factories. and in relation to the dry bulb temperature.2.24 0. the maximum wet bulb temperature shall not exceed 29°C and adequate air movement Sl. the surroundings exceeds the bodily heat loss. such as in godowns Conditioning.1. and this Code. Industry (Report No. For obtaining temperatures are excessive and the degree of physical values of indoor wind speed above 2. °C °C 2) Higher than those acceptable in practice. mechanical activity is high.09 0. Heating and Mechanical Ventilation’ of and machine shops and work is of lighter intensity. shall not exceed that given in i) 28 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) Table 11.3. when the bodily heat gain Part 8 ‘Building Services.20 0.47 2.59 2. minimum wind speeds for just acceptable 5. that is.53 1. as far as practicable.3. 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) the wet bulb temperature of air in the work room.3. Section 3 Air warmer conditions are prevalent. (1) (2) (3) i) 30 29. reference shall no noticeable sources of heat gain.04 0.1.5 Acceptable Warm Conditions iii) 40 28.2 There will be a limit of heat tolerance when air warm conditions are given in Table 10.36 2. due to conduction.26 3.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Temperature Percent NOTES °C 1 These are limits beyond which the industry should not allow 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 the thermal conditions to go for more than 1h continuously.3.2) v) 50 27.06 0.85 2.2.72 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) (Clause 5.20 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) Sl Dry Bulb Maximum Wet-Bulb No. These are applicable 5. ii) 29 1) 1) 1) 0.23 1) 1) 2 Figures given in this table are not intended to convey that v) 32 1) 1) 1) 0.72 2. higher temperatures can be tolerated without much discomfort.04 1. than those shown in this table. Dry Bulb Relative Humidity No.85 iv) 31 1) 0.5 (Clause 5.06 0. The limits of heat tolerance for Indian workers between 30°C and 34°C (TSI). and too hot above this are based on the study conducted by the Chief Adviser limit.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 wind speeds are given in Table 9.94 1.2. 3 Refrigeration or some other method of cooling is 1) None. Government of India.94 human efficiency at 50°C will remain the same as at 30°C. Section 3 Air Conditioning.2.24.1.0 m/s.60 0.MANAPAKKAM. iv) 31 1) 1) 1) 0. which is mostly by evaporation of sweat from the surface of the The warmth of the environment was found tolerable body. it was found too cold. 38 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .05 2) Efficiency decreases with rise in the dry bulb temperature as viii) 35 0.94 1. Ministry of Labour was found tolerable between 19°C and 25°C (TSI) and and are given in his report on Thermal Stress in Textile below 19°C (TSI).10 Table 11 Maximum Permissible Wet Bulb v) 32 0.3.0 Table 10 Minimum Wind Speeds (m/s) for Just ii) 35 28.06 0.05 2) 2) 2) well. Temperature Percent subject to a minimum air velocity of 30 m/min shall be °C provided.04 1.12 3.70 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 50°C dry bulb/27°C wet bulb may prove dangerous.24.19 1) 1) iii) 30 1) 1) 1) 0.00 2) 2) 2) vii) 34 1.60 2. convection and the radiation from Heating and Mechanical Ventilation’ of the Code). vii) 34 0. vi) 33 1) 0.63.29 0.53 0.10 3.10 provided appropriate wet bulb temperatures are maintained. This limit is determined when the bodily means of ventilation may have to be adopted (see also heat balance is upset.2) range 273 to 284 W.15 0. as much as possible.77 1.3 Adaptive thermal comfort to sedentary work in offices and other places having For details on adaptive thermal comfort.26 3.2. 17) issued in 1956. where workers in industrial buildings Table 9 Desirable Wind Speeds (m/s) for wearing light clothing are expected to do work of Thermal Comfort Conditions moderate severity with the energy expenditure in the (Clause 5. Long exposures to temperature of ix) 36 1.24 0.60 1.36 2.85 2.24 0.0 Sl Dry Bulb Relative Humidity No.MANAPAKKAM. Temperature Temperature 1) None.04 2) Temperatures for Given Dry Bulb Temperatures vi) 33 0. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) The limits are based on a series of studies conducted on Indian i) 28 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) subjects in psychrometric chamber and on other data on heat ii) 29 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) casualties in earlier studies conducted in Kolar Gold Fields and iii) 30 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) elsewhere.68 1. Where somewhat be made to Part 8 ‘Building Services.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. According to this Report.46 0. recommended in all cases where conditions would be worse 2) Higher than those acceptable in practice.46 0. On the lower side.

This may Hot surfaces.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4 Radiant shielding improve general environment of the building. it is possible to substitute a hot process by inlet data exist on allowable temperature rise values a method that involves application of localized or more for supply of outside air in summer months. conditioned air to such enclosures.3. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 39 .2 Insulation assumed. radiate heat inside the building. reflectivity and emissivity of its surface. either natural or mechanical or both. the sun. etc. the values efficiently controlled method of heating. such as furnaces in such a position as would buildings where effective cross ventilation is not expose only a small number of workers to hot possible due to the design of the interior. in many the necessary air space and providing opening at the situations. General ventilation involves providing a building with relatively large quantities of outside air in order to 5.3.3. shield having a highly reflecting surface between the b) Natural supply and mechanical exhaust of air. which can best be controlled by placing a a) Natural supply and natural exhaust of air. cold riveting or spot welding instead of hot riveting.3. the application of ventilation should be top and the bottom of the sides. insulations of the roof or providing a false t ceiling or double roofing would be very effective in where controlling heat. namely.MANAPAKKAM.1 Volume of air required for removing sensible to severe heat stress and their activities are confined to heat limited areas as in the case of rolling mill operators and crane operators. 5.2 Volume of Air Required facilitate better design of buildings for general The volume of air required shall be calculated by using ventilation. etc. This would 5. also reduce their cost. Examples given in Table 12 related to industrial buildings may include induction hardening instead of conventional be used for general guidance.2. surface temperature. Surfaces such as of tin and aluminium have been used as materials for shields. such as pipes.MANAPAKKAM.1 Control of Heat be taken to see that the shield is not heated up by conduction and for this purpose adequate provision Although it is recognized that general ventilation is one should be made for the free flow upwards of the heated of the most effective methods of improving thermal air between the hot surface and the shield by leaving environmental conditions in factories. Care should 5. Ks = sensible heat gained. machinery.3.1. Q1 = quantity of air. In situations where relatively few people are exposed 5. it may be possible to enclose the When the amount of sensible heat given off by different work areas and provide spot cooling or supply sources.24. and both the sensible heat and latent heat gain as the bases. in m3/h.35) valid upto31-12-2017 5. vessels. In such Q1 = situations.976 8 K s in turn.1.3.63. so that a major portion c) Mechanical supply and natural exhaust of air. is known and a suitable value for the allowable temperature rise is 5. the volume of outside air to be provided for A considerable portion of heat in many factories is due removing the sensible heat may be calculated from: to the solar radiation falling on the roof surfaces. The efficiency of d) Mechanical supply and mechanical exhaust of the shield does not depend on its thickness.3. the building through the open windows. in °C. As far as practicable. the indoor air environment. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2 Temperature rise refers mainly to the difference between the air temperatures at the outlet (roof exit) 5.1 Isolation in actual practice.1. source of heat and the worker. which. of the heat falling on the shield is reflected back to the and source. 2. As very little Sometimes.24. in the building should also be insulated to reduce their t = allowable temperature rise. Some reduction can also be achieved by painting the roof in heat reflective shades. in W. but on the air. preceded by and considered along with some of the following other methods of control. occupants and other sources. the manufacturing processes.3.3 Methods of Ventilation heat treatment. The larger of the two values obtained should be used 5.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . such as layers of molten metal emanate be achieved in one of the following ways: radiant heat. and Hot surfaces of equipment. such sources of heat may be exhausted by a fan.63.1.3 Substitution and at the inlet openings for outside air. Sometimes it is possible to locate heat producing In places without sufficient wind speeds and/or in equipment. with outdoor air entering in factories should be isolated. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2.

5 to 11 be neglected. and ventilation necessary for the control K1 = latent heat gained.1 In the case of industrial buildings wider than independently of the ceiling height of the space. the indoor temperature lower than those outside under 2 At the working zone between floor level and 1. 5.4. minimum ventilation is provided for the control of odours or for removal of products of combustion. during night. with 30 m.26 K1 are kept open on both windward and leeward sides. This relationship fails to evaluate the actual heat inlet openings in relation to outlet openings so as to relief provided by a ventilation system. NOTES 1 The conditions are limited to light or medium heavy 5.2. freedom from radiant heat and inlet is to provide protection from sun’s heat so as to keep openings not more than 3 to 4. with due regard to orientation. properly applied to the work zone with adequate velocity.63.3 Volume of air required for removing latent heat 5. a relationship which is independent of building height. prevailing winds. because. Ventilation rates of 30 to 60 m 3/h/m2 augmented by roof ventilation.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.1. the main problem in summer manufacturing processes.3 In winter months in cold regions. the same amount of ventilation air.24.5 iii) 12 6. and of odours and for the removal of products of combustion can be achieved either by stack action or by some h = allowable vapour pressure difference of infiltration of outside air due to wind action.5 m above the sun.3.2) difference of height between the outlet and inlet openings (stack effect). building of vapour pressure difference (or both) may be oriented at 45° to the incident wind so 40 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .4 Ventilation is also expressed as m3/h/m2 of floor given to the size and distribution of windows and other area.63.3 Design Guidelines for Natural Ventilation 5. in m3/h.3. but it does give give.4. and for this assumed: purpose the buildings are oriented to face the direction of prevailing winds and windows and other openings 4 127. the sensible heat gain will 5. control of thermal environment. could ii) 9 4. with the same manufacturing processes carried on.3.1.24. Q2 = h 5. unless there is a significant internal load. the problem in the If the latent heat gained from the manufacturing design of non-industrial buildings is to provide free processes and occupants is also known and a suitable passage of air to keep the indoor temperature as near value for the allowable rise in the vapour pressure is to those outside in the shade as possible. the windows where and other openings are generally kept shut.1 Ventilation of Non-Industrial Buildings (1) (2) (3) Ventilation in non-industrial buildings due to stack i) 6 3 to 4. and beneficial aspect of the breeze.3. will provide the desired heat relief quite 5.4. proper consideration should be 5.4.MANAPAKKAM. so that the amount of outside air to be drawn by ventilating equipment can be calculated in In providing natural ventilation of all industrial most cases on the basis of the equation given in 5.1. particularly Q2 = quantity of air.4. have been found to give good results in many plants.5 m above floor level. maximum possible internal load. buildings having significant internal heat loads due to manufacturing process.3.1 By wind action The rate of ventilation by natural means through 1) A building need not necessarily be oriented windows or other openings depends on. For this purpose windows and other openings floor level. NOTE — In majority of the cases.5 to 6.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 12 Allowable Temperature Rise Values between inside and outside the room and the (Clause 5. the recommended maximum allowable temperature rise for air is 2°C to 3°C above the air temperature at the inlet are generally kept closed during day time and only openings.2. in mm. perpendicular to the prevailing outdoor wind. and wind action may be assumed to be predominant.4. a) direction and velocity of wind outside and it may be oriented at any convenient angle sizes and disposition of openings (wind between 0° and 30° without losing any action).ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2.2 In warm humid regions.4. except in cold regions.4 Natural Ventilation 5.4.5 effect. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Height of Outlet Opening Temperature Rise m °C 5. Sl No.2 Ventilation of Industrial Buildings far exceed the latent heat gain.1 In hot dry regions. the ventilation through windows may be few exceptions. 5.2. size and configuration of the building and This is a more rational approach.1.2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. mercury. If the b) convection effects arising from temperature prevailing wind is from East or West. in W.

11) Windows located diagonally opposite to each but does not contribute additional benefits as other with the windward window near the regards air motion in the occupancy zones in upstream corner give better performance than buildings.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . Provision of inverted L type (Γ) louver increases the room air motion provided that the vertical projection does not obstruct the incident wind (see Fig. through the building would be assured. In fact. the size of the inlet should opening at 85 percent of the critical height be kept within 30 to 50 percent of the total (such as head level) for the following area of openings and the building should be recommended levels of occupancy: oriented perpendicular to the incident wind. and outlet increase in window size increases the available openings should be located on the leeward velocity but not in the same proportion as side. other window arrangements for most of the 6) Greatest flow per unit area of openings is building orientations. Further increase in window height window. of 20 percent to 30 percent of floor area. that is. trees. of outdoor velocity. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. beyond that the increase is in much adequate courtyards.MANAPAKKAM.24. there would be some openings be obstructed by adjoining buildings. the 2) Inlet openings in the buildings should be well average indoor wind velocity is around distributed and should be located on the 30 percent of outdoor velocity. 8). sunshades atop nearby equal areas at the same level. provision of two windows zone is maximum when window height is on that wall is preferred to that of a single 1.24. 7). even under most may only clear the top air at that level without favourable conditions the maximum average producing air movement at the level of indoor wind speed does not exceed 40 percent occupancy. a) For sitting on chair 0.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .60 m.40 m. In places where building air speed increases rapidly by increasing the sites are restricted. Further windward side at a low level.75 m. 14) Air motion at working plane 0. 6 EFFECT OF AREA OF OPENING ON AVERAGE floor can be enhanced by 30 percent using a INDOOR WIND VELOCITY pelmet type wind deflector (see Fig. all sides.4 m above the FIG . obtained by using inlet and outlet openings of 12) Horizontal louvers. 6. The air motion in the working exposed to outside. open space may have to width of window up to two-third of the wall be created in the buildings by providing width. and possible there is approximately equal area on c) For sitting on floor 0. promotes air motion at higher level of window. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 41 . A horizontal slot between the wall and horizontal louver prevents upward deflection of air in the interior of rooms. smaller proportion than the increase of the 10) In the case of rooms with only one wall window width. Inlet and outlet openings at high levels shown in Fig.35) valid upto31-12-2017 as to diminish the solar heat without much 7) For a total area of openings (inlet and outlet) reduction in air motion indoors. Sashes projecting outward are more effective than projecting inward. Where direction of the wind is quite variable the openings may be arranged so that as far as b) For sitting on bed 0. 5) In rooms of normal size having identical 9) Windows of living rooms should open directly windows on opposite walls the average indoor to an open space. Thus no matter what the wind 4) Inlet openings should not as far as possible direction be.MANAPAKKAM. 13) Provision of horizontal sashes inclined at an angle of 45° in appropriate direction helps to promote the indoor air motion. 3) Maximum air movement at a particular plane 8) Where the direction of wind is quite constant is achieved by keeping the sill height of the and dependable. windows deflect the incident wind upward and reduce air motion in the zone of occupancy.63.63.1m. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. directly exposed to wind pressure and others sign boards or other obstructions or by to air suction and effective air movement partitions inside in the path of air flow.

of outdoor velocity.63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . but when located perpendicular to the 16) In case of room with windows on one wall. 19) A partition placed parallel to the incident wind 15) Roof overhangs help promoting air motion in has little influence on the pattern of the air the working zone inside buildings. 7 L-TYPE LOUVER building with respect to the outdoor wind. 15 percent of the outdoor velocity. the room wind velocity shadow. 8 SKETCH OF A PELMET TYPE WIND DEFLECTOR 42 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .MANAPAKKAM.3 m underneath helps augmenting air 10 percent of outdoor velocity at points up to motion near floor level in the leeward a distance of one-sixth of room width from the compartment of wide span buildings.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . window and then decreases rapidly and hardly 20) Air motion in a building unit having windows any air movement is produced in the leeward tangential to the incident wind is accelerated half portion of the room. the inside velocity increases up to them with a block on downstream side. 9). the same partition creates a wind with single window.24. FIG . main flow. 18) Verandah open on three sides is to be preferred since it causes an increase in the room air motion for most of the orientations of the F IG. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63. The average indoor when another unit is located at end-on position wind velocity is generally less than 10 percent on downstream side (see Fig. Provision of a partition with spacing inside the room on the windward side is of 0. in case of narrow buildings with the width common in the multistoreyed type by the provision of large and suitably placed windows or combination of windows and wall ventilators for the inflow and outflow of air.MANAPAKKAM.35) valid upto31-12-2017 17) Cross ventilation can be obtained through one side of the building to the other. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. When two windows are 21) Air motion in two wings oriented parallel to provided and wind impinges obliquely on the prevailing breeze is promoted by connecting them.24. flow.

Thus in heated buildings or in buildings rows should be 8 H for semi-detached houses wherein hot processes are carried on and in ordinary and 10 H for long rows houses. slightly reduced if the leeward building is taller than the windward block. However. 5. for buildings during summer nights and during pre- smaller spacing the shielding effect is also monsoon periods. be the inlet openings and cause a reduction in advantageous to provide ventilators as close to ceilings indoor air motion. 9 TWO UNITS LOCATED AT THE E ND-ON POSITION Approximately half the ventilating area of openings should be between floor level and a 22) Air motion in a building is not affected by height of 2. the distances between two outside. building height can be reduced to 4 m without in any way impairing the ventilation performance. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. if high level openings in roof or walls are provided. Section 3 25) Trees with large foliage mass having trunk Air Conditioning.4. These should be located at a height of 1. cool outside air will tend to enter through shielded building. constructing another building of equal or NOTE — For data on outdoor wind speeds at a place. is 30 m. openings at low level and warm air will tend to leave 24) Hedges and shrubs defect the air away from through openings at high level.2 By stack effect 23) Air motion in a shielded building is less than Natural ventilation by stack effect occurs when air that in an unobstructed building. Heating and Mechanical Ventilation’ bare of branches up to the top level of window. deflect the outdoor wind downwards and promotes air motion in the leeward portion of 5. 1999’. generally kept large enough to protect the workers against hot stagnant air below the ceiling as also to dilute the concentration of contaminant inside.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . of the Code.MANAPAKKAM. therefore. accordance with Part 8 ‘Building Services. In addition to this. covered roof and ridge building because the induced air motion is vent.24. Roorkee. being effectively ventilated by natural means by wind action.3. although determined by the requirements of industrial processes involved. 5. for example. It would. openings around 0.35) valid upto31-12-2017 mound having a slant surface with a slope of 10° on upstream side.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .5 Mechanical Ventilation can be enhanced by planting a low hedge at a The requirements of mechanical ventilation shall be in distance of 2 m from the building. air motion in the leeward part of the building 5.6. reduced to minimum in that case. However. However. cowl. reference smaller height on the leeward side.63.1 Natural Ventilation 26) Ventilation conditions indoors can be ameliorated by constructing buildings on earth This is difficult to measure as it varies from time to PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 43 . 29) The maximum width up to which buildings of height usually found in factories.MANAPAKKAM. vent pipe. the inside temperature is higher than diminished by raising the height of the that of outside.25 m from the floor.6 m and width about two-third of wall width. F IG. These elements should not as possible.24. but it is may be made to ‘The Climatic Data Handbook’ prepared by Central Building Research Institute. 28) Height of industrial buildings.1 m above the floor. 27) In case of industrial buildings the window height should be about 1.9 m high should be provided over two-third length of the glazed area in the roof lights. beyond which sufficient reliance cannot be placed on prevailing winds.6 Determining Rate of Ventilation buildings. Ventilators can also be provided in roofs be planted at a distance of about 8 m from the as. To minimise inside a building is at a different temperature than air shielding effect. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.

Then using the ratio of the openings and 0.1.MANAPAKKAM. in m2. Usually. the rate of air flow through arising from temperature or vapour pressure differences the building may be computed by the following (or both) between inside and outside of the building equation: (stack effect). h = vertical distance between inlets and outlets. direction within 45° of the direction of prevailing wind. and indoor distribution cannot be predicted with certainty.24. 5. where Wind velocity and direction.35) valid upto31-12-2017 time. in m3/ Ventilation due to external wind is given by the min. the value of A may be calculated using the equation: 2 1 1 FIG . even without interference. and following formula: Qt = volume of air flow due to thermal force. if conditions are not favourable.6. (see Fig. The amount of outside air through windows and resulting air flow is not equal to the two flows estimated other openings depends on the direction and velocity separately.6. outdoor temperature. Qw = rate of air flow.V m3/min. 5.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4 Combined Effect of Wind and Thermal Action Judgment is necessary for proper location of openings When both forces (wind and thermal) act together in in a building specially in the roof.50. 5.6 for wind perpendicular to by each force separately. which may be method is to calculate the sum of the flows produced taken as 0.1. 10 DETERMINATION OF FLOW CAUSED BY = + A2 Ainlet 2 Aoutlet2 COMBINED FORCES OF WIND AND T EMPERATURE DIFFERENCE 5. NOTE — The equation is based on 0.1 Wind action Q 2 = Qw 2 + Qt 2 For determining the rate of ventilation based on wind where action the wind may be assumed to come from any Q = resultant volume of air flow. 10). Qw = volume of air flow due to wind force.63. in m3/min. A simple K = coefficient of effectiveness. 10.A. in °C.0 A h (tr − to ) where QT = rate of air flow. of wind outside (wind action) and/or convection effects When acting simultaneously. the actual flow due to the combined forces can be A = free area of inlet openings. A = free area of inlet openings. smoke the same direction. in Qw = K.24. in m3/h. the local Meteorological the flow caused by either force acting independently Department may be consulted. in m2.MANAPAKKAM.6. sum. equal. where heat. the and fumes are to be removed. tr = average temperature of indoor air at height h.1. and refinement in calculation is not justified. When the two flows are V = wind speed.3 When areas of inlet and outlet openings are unequal. in m. the actual flow is about 30 percent greater than NOTE — For wind data at a place.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . in °C.65 times the effectiveness of openings. and approximated from Fig. in m3/h. in m/h.3 for wind at an angle less flow produced by thermal forces to the aforementioned than 45° to the openings.1. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.6. This should be reduced to 0.2 Stack effect (thermal action) Ventilation due to convection effects arising from temperature difference between inside and outside is given by: QT = 7.63. windward 44 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. and to = temperature of outdoor air.

1. mm/Number of Fans No. From the point of view of energy consumption.5 For method for determining the rate of by following the design guidelines given in 5. months in the hot dry and warm humid regions to provide 5. and 5. induced natural ventilation. and W is the height of work plane.3 Combined effect of Different Methods of 5. 5.MANAPAKKAM.7. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.7.7. Thus The rate of air movement of turbulent type at the smaller size of fan can be employed and energy saving working zone shall be measured either with a Kata could be achieved. rule shall be followed until an exact formula is 5.7.4 Power consumption by larger fans is obviously Whereas anemometer gives the air velocity directly.7. The determination of rate of ventilation in case of mechanical ventilation shall be done in accordance with 5. the number of fans and the optimum sizes for rooms of different dimensions are given in Table 13. then optimum size of ceiling fan 5. This may be accomplished 5.4 Measurement of Air Movement should be chosen based on the actual usable area of room.6. cooling power of air and the rate of air movement is improper use of fans irrespective of the rooms’ found by reference to a suitable nomogram using the dimensions is likely to result in higher power ambient temperature.7.MANAPAKKAM.1.1.1 The capacity of a ceiling fan to meet the Part 8 ‘Building Services.1. Table 13 Optimum Size/Number of Fans for Rooms of Different Sizes (Clause 5. where H is the height of the room. 5.1 Adequate number of circulating fans should be typical illustrative example for residential building.63.63.3 m.35) valid upto31-12-2017 monitor openings should be closed.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .6.7.24.1.3 When actual ventilated zone does not cover the c) Rate of exhaust of air.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .7 Energy Conservation in Ventilation System slight that temperature head can overcome it.6. Width for Room Length m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10 m 11 m 12 m 14 m 16 m (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) i) 3 1 200/1 1 400/1 1 500/1 1 050/2 1 200/2 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 200/3 1 400/3 1 400/3 ii) 4 1 200/1 1 400/1 1 200/2 1 200/2 1 200/2 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 500/2 1 200/3 1 400/3 1 500/3 iii) 5 1 400/1 1 400/1 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 500/2 1 400/3 1 400/3 1 500/3 iv) 6 1 200/2 1 400/2 900/4 1 050/4 1 200/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 500/4 1 200/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 v) 7 1 200/2 1 400/2 1 050/4 1 050/4 1 200/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 500/4 1 200/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 vi) 8 1 200/2 1 400/2 1 200/4 1 200/4 1 200/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 500/4 1 200/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 vii) 9 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 500/4 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 viii) 10 1 400/2 1 400/2 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 400/4 1 500/4 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 ix) 11 1 500/2 1 500/2 1 500/4 1 500/4 1 500/4 1 500/4 1 500/4 1 500/4 1 500/6 1 500/6 1 500/6 x) 12 1 200/3 1 400/3 1 200/6 1 200/6 1 200/6 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 1 200/7 1 400/9 1 400/9 xi) 13 1 400/3 1 400/3 1 200/6 1 200/6 1 200/6 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 1 400/9 1 400/9 1 500/9 xii) 14 1 400/3 1 400/3 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 400/6 1 500/6 1 400/9 1 400/9 1 500/9 PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 45 .1.6. fans. and this and the ceiling should be about 0.1.3 The minimum distance between fan blades reckoned as the highest of the following three. consumption.2 Electronic regulators should be used instead of established by research: resistance type regulators for controlling the speed of a) 1.2 Mechanical Ventilation necessary air movement at times when ventilation due to wind action alone does not afford sufficient relief. the total rate of ventilation shall be 5.7.1. b) Rate of positive ventilation.2 The height of fan blades above the floor Ventilation should be (3H + W )/4. metre should be about 55D m3/min. all 5.7. Section 3 Air Conditioning. installed to serve all interior working areas during summer reference may be made to A-4 of good practice [9-1(6)]. requirement of a room with the longer dimension D Heating and Mechanical Ventilation’ of the Code. rather than the total floor area of the room.4) Sl Room Optimum Size.24. but their power consumption per square metre the Kata thermometer and heated thermometer give of floor area is less and service value higher. entire room area. higher. ventilation based on probable indoor wind speed with 5.1.7. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. but if wind is so 5. Evidently. When combination of two or more methods of general ventilation is used.1.1 Maximum possible use should be made of wind openings may be opened. thermometer (dry silvered type) or heated thermometer or properly calibrated thermocouple anemometer.25 times the rate of natural ventilation.

300 dust particles per cm3. as the altitude of the sun decreases. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1. and absorption by water vapour and ozone. is depleted in. the altitude of the sun at that time should be known.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . This path is the shortest when sun is at the zenith and. and 4 m high is dealt with below.5 mm of ozone. the 46 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . in reaching the earth’s surface. NOTE — The standard atmospheric conditions assumed for FIG .35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 12 DEFINITION OF SOLAR ANGLES ON THE BASIS OF SOLAR LOAD not shining on them. 15 mm of precipitable water. 10 m × 20 m. φ = angle tilt of the surface from the vertical (see Fig. the total solar load in a day on a A-2.1) METHOD OF CALCULATING SOLAR LOAD ON VERTICAL SURFACES OF DIFFERENT ORIENTATION A-1 DETAILS OF CALCULATION A-1. Figure 11 gives the computed incident solar energy/hour on unit surface area normal to the rays under standard atmospheric conditions (see Note below) for different altitudes of the sun. roof. no shading device or Table 14.63.63. the external all places of India from the point of solar heat gain. 12. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Another important cause of depletion is the length of path traversed by sun’s rays through the atmosphere.1.MANAPAKKAM. water vapour. it will receive the type of building.3 The area of the vertical surfaces are 4 m × solar heat gain in winter and in summer. This is true for 10 m = A (say) and 4 m × 20 m = 2A. 11 DIRECT S OLAR INTENSITIES NORMAL TO SUN AT this computation are: cloud-free.360 8 kWm–2 or 2 cal/cm2/min). it can be seen that for the above A-2. SEA LEVEL FOR STANDARD CONDITION (COMPUTED ) A-1.MANAPAKKAM. Since. The solar radiation incident on any surface (IS) is given by: IS = I N (sin β sin φ + cos β cos α cos φ ) where β = solar altitude. orientation 3 (longer surface facing same solar heat in any orientation. 2.2 As the roof is horizontal. dust particles. The depletion varies with varying atmospheric conditions.1 As an example. North and South) is appropriate as it affords maximum A-2. verandah is taken.24.4.1 Example surface can be obtained by multiplying the total load per unit area per day (see Table 3) by the area of the A-2.1 The solar energy above the earth’s atmosphere is constant and the amount incident on unit area normal to sun’s rays is called solar constant (1.1. the atmosphere due to scattering by air molecules.2 In order to calculate the solar energy on any surface other than normal to the rays. a simple building with flat surface. A-2. This energy. The corresponding value of direct solar radiation (IN) should then be found with the help of Fig. the total solar load on the building is worked out in For the sake of generalization. at sea level. 12). A-2 EXAMPLE TO FIND OUT ORIENTATION F IG. By wall surface are not in shade except when the sun is further increasing the length to breadth ratio. and α = wall solar azimuth angle.1.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ANNEX A (Clause 3. the length of path in the atmosphere increases.24. For four principal orientations of the building.4 From Table 14.

NE 2 255 × 2A = 4 510A 237 × 2A = 474A 2 192 × 2A = 4 384A 173 × 2A = 346A SE 1 640 × A = 1 640A 3 438 × A = 3 438A 1 845 × A = 1 845A 3 454 × A = 3 454A SW 1 640 × 2A = 3 280A 3 438 × 2A = 6 876A 1 845 × 2A = 3 690A 3 454 × 2A = 6 908A NW 2 255 × A = 2 255A 237 × A = 237A 2 192 × A = 2 192A 173 × A = 173A Total 11 685A 11 025A 12 111A 10 881A PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 47 .1. North 962 × A = 962A — 741 × A = 741A — East 2 795 × 2A = 5 590A 1 830 × 2A = 3 660A 2 871 × 2A = 5 742A 1 703 × 2A = 3 406A South — 4 574 × A = 4 574A 205 × A = 205A 4 637 × A = 4 637A West 2 795 × 2A = 5 590A 1 830 × 2A = 3 660A 2 871 × 2A = 5 742A 1 703 × 2A = 3 406A Total 12 142A 11 894A 12 430A 11 449A 2. NE 2 650 × 2A = 5 300A — 2 492 × A = 4 984A 315 × 2A = 630A SE 1 167 × A = 1 167A 2 177 × A = 2 177A 1 341 × A = 1 341A 3 423 × A = 3 423A SW 1 167 × 2A = 2 334A 4 164 × 2A = 8 328A 1 341 × 2A = 2 682A 3 423 × 2A = 6 846A NW 2 650 × A = 2 650A 2 177 × A = 2 177A 2 492 × A = 2 492A 315 × A = 315A Total 11 451A 12 682A 11 499A 11 214A 19° N MUMBAI 23° N KOLKATA May 16 Dec 22 May 16 Dec 22 1. NE 2 255 × A = 2 255A 237 × A = 237A 2 192 × A = 2 192A 173 × A = 173A SE 1 640 × 2A = 3 280A 3 438 × 2A = 6 876A 1 845 × 2A = 3 690A 3 454 × 2A = 6 908A SW 1 640 × A = 1 640A 3 438 × A = 3 438A 1 845 × A = 1 845A 3 454 × A = 3 454A NW 2 255 × 2A = 4 510A 237 × 2A = 474A 2 192 × 2A = 4 384A 173 × 2A = 346A Total 11 685A 11 025A 12 111A 10 881A 3.MANAPAKKAM.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24.MANAPAKKAM. North 2 177 × 2A = 4 354A — 1 625 × 2A = 3 250A — East 2 618 × A = 2 618A 2 177 × A = 2 177A 2 697 × A = 2 697A 2 019 × A = 2 019A South — 4 164 × 2A = 8 328A — 4 385 × 2A = 8 770A West 2 618 × A = 2 618A 2 177 × A = 2 177A 2 697 × A = 2 697A 2 019 × A = 2 019A Total 9 590A 12 602A 8 644A 12 808A 4.63. North 962 × 2A = 1 924A — 741 × 2A = 1 482A — East 2 795 × A = 2 795A 1 830 × A = 1 830A 2 871 × A = 2 871A 1 703 × A = 1 703A South — 4 574 × 2A = 9 148A 205 × 2A = 410A 4 637 × 2A = 9 274A West 2 795 × A = 2 795A 1 830 × A = 1 830A 2 871 × A = 2 871A 1 703 × A = 1 703A Total 7 514A 12 808A 7 634A 12 680A 4.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 14 Solar Heat Gained Due to Orientation of Buildings (Clause A-2.63.24.3) 8° N THIRUVANANTHAPURAM 13° N CHENNAI May 16 Dec 22 May 16 Dec 22 1. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. North 2 177 × A = 2 177A — 1 625 × A = 1 625A — East 2 618 × 2A = 5 236A 2 177 × 2A = 4 354A 2 697 × 2A = 5 394A 2 019 × 2A = 4 038A South — 4 164 × A = 4 164A — 4 385 × A = 4 385A West 2 618 × 2A = 5 236A 2 177 × 2A = 4 354A 2 697 × 2A = 5 394A 2 019 × 2A = 4 038A Total 12 649A 12 872A 12 413A 12 461A 2. NE 2 650 × A = 2 650A 410 × A = 410A 2 492 × A = 2 492A 315 × A = 315A SE 1 167 × 2A = 2 334A 3 391 × 2A = 6 782A 1 341 × 2A = 2 682A 3 423 × 2A = 6 846A SW 1 167 × 2A = 2 334A 3 391 × A = 3 391A 1 341 × A = 1 341A 3 423 × A = 3 423A NW 2 650 × 2A = 5 300A 410 × 2A = 820A 2 492 × A = 4 984A 315 × 2A = 630A Total 12 618A 11 403A 11 499A 11 214A 3.

NE 2 098 × A = 2 098A 110 × A = 110A SE 2 192 × 2A = 4 384A 3 265 × 2A = 6 530A SW 2 192 × A = 2 192A 3 265 × A = 3 265A NW 2 098 × 2A = 4 196A 110 × 2A = 220A Total 12 870A 10 125A 3.24. the relative It would. 48 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . in latitude and that on the south western wall increases. orientation 2 should be preferred at places north of A-2.MANAPAKKAM.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . smaller surface of the building to greater solar load in A-2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. NE 2 098 × 2A = 4 196A 110 × 2A = 220A SE 2 192 × A = 2 192A 3 265 × A = 3 265A SW 2 192 × 2A = 4 384A 3 265 × 2A = 6 530A NW 2 098 × A = 4 196A 110 × A = 110A Total 12 870A 10 125A advantage of this orientation will be more pronounced.6 At hill stations. North 536 × A = 536A — East 2 950 × 2A = 5 900A 1 467 × 2A = 2 934A South 741 × A = 741A 4 543 × A = 4 543A West 2 950 × 2A = 5 900A 1 467 × 2A = 2 934A Total 13 077A 10 411A 2.MANAPAKKAM.1.1.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 14 — (Concluded) 29° N DELHI May 16 Dec 22 1. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.5 It is also seen that the total solar heat on the the summer afternoons.63. site considerations require a choice between these two. It may also be noted that in higher altitudes.63. North 536 × 2A = 1 072A — East 2 950 × A = 2 950A 1 467 × A = 1 467A South 741 × 2A = 1 482A 4 543 × 2A = 9 086A West 2 950 × A = 2 950A 1 467 × A = 1 467A Total 8 454A 12 020A 4. But if the is higher. when the air temperature also building is the same for orientation 2 and 4.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . winter season cause more latitude 23°N and orientation 4 at southern places. This discomfort and so sole criterion for optimum orientation is so because the total solar load per unit area in summer should be based on receiving maximum solar energy on the north western wall decreases with the increase on building in winter. be advantageous to face only merit of this orientation is more. therefore.24.

B-1.35) valid upto31-12-2017 ANNEX B (Clauses 4.9 B-1.878 percent (from Table 15) window.6. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1 Method of using the Tables to get the sky F4= 0. window wall located as shown in the Fig.7 F2 = 2.9/3 = 0. B-1.6. 4.63.6)/3 = 0. that is.2 Example a) Table 15 — Percentage sky components on It is desired to calculate the sky component due to a the horizontal plane due to a vertical window ABCD with width 1.5 + 0.MANAPAKKAM.5 By suitable combination of the values obtained h/d = 0. 14.6)/3 = 0. l/d = 0. c) Table 17 — Percentage sky components on the vertical plane parallel to a vertical rectangular opening for the clear design sky. for a given point for a given F3 = 0.63.2.9 h/d = (1.24.7 F1 = 5. FIG.2.5 + 0. B-1. 4. 14 Consider ABCD extended to NB′CD′ 1) For NB' CD' l/d = (1.1 The three sky component tables are as given below: B-1.4 Sky component for different h/d and l/d values are tabulated.6.9/3 = 0. the sky component in any plane passing 4) For NA' AA' through the point may be obtained.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . 13). and l and h are the width and height respectively of the rectangular opening (see Fig. Foot of b) Table 16 — Percentage sky components on the perpendicular N is 0.6 Method of Using the Tables h/d = 0.2.5.6/3 = 0. 13 h/d = (1.2 B-1. l/d = (1.403 percent (from Table 15) PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 49 .441 percent (from Table 15) B-1.5.2.8 + 0.8 m and height vertical rectangular opening for 1.708 percent (from Table 15) 2) For NA' DD' l/d = 0. to a vertical rectangular opening for the clear design sky.3 B-1.2 All the tables are for an unglazed opening illuminated by the clear design sky.6 m below the sill and 0.1) SKY COMPONENT TABLES B-1 DESCRIPTION OF TABLES component at given point is explained with help of the following example.9 m the vertical plane perpendicular to the left of AD.8 + 0.4 and 4.5. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.6/3 = 0.24.9)/3 = 0.3 The values tabulated are the components at a point P distant from the opening on a line perpendicular to the plane of the opening through one of its lower corners.2.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .9)/3 = 0.5 m at a point P on a horizontal plane 3.0 m from the the clear design sky.3 FIG.2 from the three tables.MANAPAKKAM. for windows of different size and 3) For NB' BA' for different distances of the point P from the window.

walls.56 (1) (2) 61.2 75 11.7 + 30 × 0. dormer windows or corner B-3.28 + 30 50 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .9 m from floor level. may be drawn.24.83 m from floor.44 15 50.45 85 10.708 – 2. expressed as a decimal part of unity.1 For irregular obstructions like row of trees the mid-height of the window (excluding the parallel to the plane of the window. IRC value is maximum at the centre of the room and decreases Window size in room X = 2.6 d) Mid-height of window is 1.15 R= = 0.63.63. B-2.1 The internal reflected component is a variable Let the window area be 15 percent of the floor area quantity which varies from point to point in a room and be glazed. and the sill heights are 0. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. A = area of all the surfaces in the room (ceiling B-2. floor and windows) may have to be employed. C Degree 61.2 average reflection factor of room below 35 26.7 m × 3 m techniques have to be made out.7 m × 3 m × 3 m B-3.24.7 m × 3 m side in room Y. R = average reflection factor of all surfaces in diagrammatic methods.792 window wall). boundaries horizontal and vertical.7 1. floor and windows).5 + 30 + 30 + 4. such as Waldrams diagrams the room (ceiling.MANAPAKKAM.8 window: 65 12.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Since ABCD = NB' CD' –NA'DD'–NB' BA' + NA'AA' Rfw = average reflection factor of the floor and those parts of the wall below the plane of Sky Component.7 + 30 × 0. special Window size in room 3.83 m level excluding the wall containing the 45 20.2 Example windows the effective dimensions of window opening computed should be taken when using the tables to find Consider two rooms of dimensions: the sky components.85W 0.7 + 30 × 0. and obstructions not in a plane parallel to the window.3 For bay windows.5 5 68.1 Rfw = = 0.36 29.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .2 For extremely irregular obstruction or walls.441 – 0. equivalent straight window wall). Room X = 6 m (l) × 5 m (w) × 3 m (ht) B-3 CALCULATION OF IRC Room Y = 3. The internal reflected The window are on the Y = 6 m × 3 m side in room X component may be calculated by using the formula: and 3.5 m × 1. 25 36.MANAPAKKAM.1 55 15.5 × 0. depending upon the interior finish. floor = 20 percent C = constant of value 78 when there is no external glazing = 15 percent obstruction but it has different values as Value of IRC in room X: shown in the following table when there are a) Total interior area. IRC = (CRfw + 10 Rcw ) A(1 − R) Reflection coefficients of: where walls and ceiling = 70 percent W = window area.2 + 4.403 = 2.5 × 0.28 × 0.9 29.9 c) 1 – R = 0. Rcw = average reflection factor of the ceiling and B-2 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS those parts of the wall above the plane of B-2.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .878 + 0.8 m elsewhere in all directions. A = 2 (30 + 18 + 15) obstructions: = 126 m2 Angle of Sky + External b) Average reflection factor of interior: Obstruction Obstruction. F = F1 – F2 – F3 + F4 the mid-height of the window (excluding the = 5. For processing calculations of IRC at any given point of the room. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

7 lights for the same visual efficiency.5 ×1. window: B-4.7 × 3 very short duration.1 The main aim of day lighting design is how to maintain proper values of reflectance factors for ceiling. admit enough light for good visibility without setting wall and floors so that the level of daylight illumination up uncomfortable glare.46 m level B-4.1 + 14.7 × 0.1 + 14. much more light is needed.54 × 9.4 × 0. It is necessary. and from season to season. e) Average reflection factor above 1.7 + 1.3 Levels of lighting determined analytically shall be translated into levels of daylight and then into size 3. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.904 b) Sight of the worker — For example.54 × 9.85 × 1.72 × 0.46 m of illumination have been draw up.MANAPAKKAM.44 background and how close it is to the eyes.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .15 These factors have been made the subject of careful R= = 0. Value of IRC in room Y: c) Speed and accuracy necessary in the a) Total interior area: performance of work. No simple solution may be is maintained. old people need more light.83 m level excluding the wall containing the hour to hour.7 × 3 × 0.7 of window opening or vice versa for checking the size Rfw = = 0.5 significant detail.2 Different visual tasks need differing amounts of 18.1× 0.1 + 11.7 × 3 × 0.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.1 + 1.7 + 30 × 0.MANAPAKKAM.7 + 1.24. If no errors are permissible.94 will be higher when the walls are light coloured than 0.46 m level B-4. Lighting = 2.4 One of the many important factors involved in the translation is the lightness of the room surface.7 + 3.55 + 11.7 illumination levels in a given room with a finite window 11.7 × 0.63. Whatever may be the colour BUILDNG the occupant wants to use.4 m 2 d) Ease and comfort of working — Long and b) Average reflection factor: sustained tasks shall be done easily whereas workers can make a special effort for tasks of 38 × 55 × 0. The correct amount Rcw = = 0.72 + 30 a) Characteristics of the tasks — Size of 0.63.65 analysis as a result of which tables of necessary levels c) Mid-height of window from floor = 1.85 × 4. and A = 2(3.7 of light for any task is determined by the following: 18. d) Average reflection factor below 1.7 × 3 × 0.35) valid upto31-12-2017 e) Average reflection factor of room above given as the sky varies so much in its brightness from 1.65 when these are dark coloured. therefore. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.7 × 3 + 3. f) IRC = (78 × 0.7) at an early stage to consider the colouring of the rooms 62.7 11. it is most desirable to B-4.472 is not merely a matter of window openings and quite half the eventual level of lighting may be dependent on B-4 GENERAL NOTE ON DAYLIGHTING OF the decoration in the room. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 51 . = 2.7 Rcw = = 0. The 3.2 + 1.94 of window assumed for required levels of daylight.404 of the building and not to leave this until later.596 38.7) 126 × 0. contrast of detail with f) IRC = (78 × 0.7 × 3 + 3 × 3) = 62.45 + 10 × 0. × 0.48 + 10 × 0.

119 7.008 9.401 2.817 12.261 0.676 6.764 8.5 1.043 5.041 2.046 1.204 7.127 11.427 1.548 6.968 6.296 15.162 8.732 1.498 9.0 3.600 8.587 9.516 3.458 8.144 12.653 1.0 5.289 10.5 1.487 12.664 10.375 6.900 13.798 16.026 2.778 9.590 16.766 13.4 1.951 11.013 13.071 0.974 3.902 8.196 12.0 1.448 11.048 2.509 12.440 11.421 2.279 12.603 13.681 17.MANAPAKKAM.577 11.040 17.930 10.758 14.208 6.427 13.335 1.288 0.3 1.832 15.108 2.274 16.321 12.787 4.638 15.687 7.555 15.377 5.515 10.315 1.441 16.741 2.122 1.142 20.493 15.574 8.767 5.040 11.162 11.017 12.693 8.836 8.491 21.287 0.198 0.643 3.283 7.301 19.768 11.037 17.361 9.397 6.033 1.080 11.114 7.437 0.403 9.551 7.3 0.400 7.676 18.863 9.516 0.804 2.274 0.383 9.6 1.346 16.325 17.525 8.072 1.695 19.802 0.099 3.250 0.060 8.151 11.110 1.740 21.765 9.514 15.044 12.905 1.790 17.981 5.499 1.770 0.087 8.179 7.378 13.803 9.756 4.222 20.1 1.339 10.220 12.319 13.079 8.992 4.585 9.372 4.060 13.709 9.9 2.703 3.342 16.265 16.119 10.002 14.7 0.300 0.366 9.4 0.199 15.897 14.516 16.516 14.169 3.144 8.259 2.375 6.079 1.851 14.282 4.337 2.011 8.645 8.268 0.984 3.071 7.045 10.423 6.456 6.996 9.478 10.989 6.880 4.006 8.264 14.858 2.4 1.410 0.620 3.099 2.517 9.798 7.498 13.990 5.957 11.63.322 1. ok Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .046 4.0 INF h/d (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) 0.189 1.179 0.35) valid u Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .937 16.838 24.797 11.900 5.163 12.676 24.394 2.885 18.302 2.674 16.276 0.846 6.1 and B-1.776 12.740 20.739 6.198 7.593 11.025 2.102 14.217 15.065 1.033 17.975 16.8 1.489 9.347 16.532 4.943 14.134 3.087 4.493 11.345 10.366 5.272 0.577 12.091 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 1.422 9.060 5.020 6.302 2.029 9.798 6.292 8.056 16.853 4.244 5.100 12.278 17.454 10.441 3.112 12.829 0.114 2.376 11.751 6.111 .214 10.713 11.531 12.493 3.438 2.762 1.893 8.284 0.806 16.576 9.056 1.401 5.359 12.804 13.668 4.168 4.935 3.710 8.495 5.190 8.582 4.408 5.669 13.972 11.657 3.204 3.510 8.124 6.942 1.976 2.1 0.502 8.943 20.238 INF 1.873 3.322 21.765 4.626 7.912 10.937 0.122 13.114 12.898 12.854 12.135 5.699 3.446 3.4 0.0 1.914 5.673 16.885 14.155 11.753 3.006 15.073 10.251 14. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.2 0.243 10.559 3.382 17.098 10.390 23.991 8.549 10.999 1.256 0.708 14.782 1.100 7.188 4.857 12.209 12.861 7.410 20.417 2.859 1.104 12.355 1.006 13.786 12.446 13.283 6.343 10.826 13.252 16.646 9.104 0.128 14.294 3.192 9.833 13.918 0.520 9.176 15.891 5.678 12.496 14.8 0.786 11.585 1.436 2.714 7.587 13.089 11.924 5.387 5.553 5.262 2.747 14.0 1.0 1.367 2.699 0.732 3.818 6.283 10.708 6.393 10.337 2.831 17.706 17.8 0.769 6.924 7.670 12.412 7.789 13.454 15.6 0.353 15.058 16.503 8.846 9.498 14.071 7.432 19.922 3.326 11.403 0.158 0.440 8.465 7.064 18.937 7.759 10.318 2.048 16.226 8.415 9.312 5.224 1.891 5.088 5.681 22.208 4.330 19.463 26.554 1.170 9.019 9.488 5.7 1.925 11.228 10.648 3.125 1.344 6.176 12.458 12.623 3.983 14.281 6.034 6.127 13.225 0.MANAPAKKAM.215 2.35) valid upto31-12-2017 52 Table 15 Percentage Sky Components on the Horizontal Plane Due to a Vertical Rectangular Opening for the Clear Design Sky (Clauses B-1.707 15.000 5.798 8.614 0.235 13.289 14.0 1.758 14.688 18.8 1.596 5.769 10.838 16.201 16.314 13.526 7.125 0.3 0.776 6.183 9.231 2.947 15.718 16.434 11.693 13.986 10.247 2.577 11.642 10.9 1.897 11.223 8.806 10.293 22.808 4.102 1.217 9.980 2.359 15.311 6.928 4.481 7.977 0.307 7.656 10.413 8.700 3.429 2.118 17.460 0.9 1.659 4.901 6.664 3.050 11.456 2.740 3.661 6.141 0.092 0.892 10.282 2.103 12.361 3.280 10.405 8.609 13.665 2.213 0.246 14.301 9.855 4.6 1.276 0.030 1.525 13.220 13.832 8.401 3.553 4.24.268 9.735 6.708 14.518 17.632 7.288 0.448 14.24.473 11.993 14.186 13.733 11.470 7.657 12.443 2.775 6.846 13.609 11.385 4.531 4.600 3.586 5.036 0.6 0.157 2.164 9.258 3.1 0.589 0.372 3.287 8.254 11.657 5.366 10.296 6.803 4.094 15.330 5.2 1.241 20.051 19.7 0.129 5.289 3.950 10.478 13.0 1.553 6.888 1.527 6.728 3.965 13.567 7.710 10.992 12.927 10. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.742 15.208 14.3 1.707 12.030 15.323 11.386 11.7 1.263 4.277 0.395 7.761 5.270 0.088 13.951 16.755 12.295 14.190 5.167 13.730 13.333 2.656 9.574 3.243 0.5 0.780 9.992 10.498 12.5 0.425 7.171 5.2 0.047 8.126 5.63.118 1.604 1.1 1.286 0.154 13.664 17.327 7.011 6.897 10.159 3.662 8.927 13.051 7.772 9.6.742 13.915 7.944 16.179 6.0 10.264 0.018 1.027 9.121 6.133 0.303 12.666 14.136 7.878 0.426 8.777 12.520 10.431 13.768 15.235 0.060 6.2) l/d 0.2 1.148 22.197 2.702 2.243 11.161 2.239 10.816 11.211 4.033 1.404 14.102 9.0 4.262 4.781 4.623 21.573 3.0 1.137 11.078 15.770 22.078 11.567 15.9 1.909 3.409 15.950 0.046 22.341 10.289 7.732 12.383 4.844 4.844 1.590 2.444 3.727 3.

910 5.573 13.464 9.476 11.480 25.453 6.575 7.583 17.077 27.35) valid u Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .389 6.614 2.963 12.760 1.804 10.146 10.278 6.276 4.811 11.948 17.375 16.478 15.209 8.745 33.253 0.0 0.517 9.444 26.236 3.676 32.621 23.961 22.63.289 18.680 1.109 5.1 1.835 16.645 18.189 0.211 17.192 7.687 35.922 11.127 21.628 16.808 28.0 0.680 14.303 0.441 25.472 10.779 2.129 15.391 19.387 9.490 35.691 7.921 10.961 22.080 8.5 0.657 8.032 5.360 16.311 20.309 3.101 16.110 10.705 12.314 16.946 23.712 15.181 0.2 1.053 11.809 25.207 1.193 0.217 3.336 28.521 11.810 1.429 2.0 10.491 1.566 7.7 0.908 8.135 12.701 22.272 19.194 0.059 1.309 26.3 0.1 0.403 19.723 1.6 0.897 12.0 4.666 16.996 5.998 14.312 6.653 0.9 2.582 10.284 13.249 1.544 7.850 7.501 27.690 7.124 13.616 19.175 12.4 0.1 0.087 12.7 0.071 0.394 14.746 1.224 18.531 15.552 5.008 20.0 0.738 1.552 2.744 1.749 15.012 21.289 26.610 12.274 24.672 31.049 24.568 10.290 9.4 0.198 16.188 0.597 3.791 16.432 1.568 2.263 6.154 0.364 15.451 10.802 18.411 19.866 5.382 9.547 6.487 3.734 0.646 18.63.421 13.208 25.926 12.835 2.692 18.606 19.909 6.955 1.642 2.0 0.4 0.938 5.340 29.655 8.880 1.549 5.735 27.081 8.462 15.731 18.799 27.416 17.483 26.875 23.939 9.657 10.654 26.648 2.883 12.148 20.030 8.820 3.064 5.413 3.910 2.801 4.465 13.073 20.498 8.232 35.878 2.3 0.928 21.357 19.887 7.971 1.496 31.460 8.924 11.652 2.545 3.766 15.433 2.472 2.0 3.224 19.624 31.634 10.778 17.0 5.122 9.945 5.100 2.018 11.419 35.186 0.397 23.683 9.503 9.900 9.381 20.743 4.836 1.594 0.816 8.922 20.191 0.296 14.560 9.445 1.8 0.850 25.552 18.806 19.842 7.751 4.592 29.690 11.478 17.244 13.244 9.785 4.3 1.625 1.190 0.508 24.882 8.872 10.972 11.393 5.375 8.754 5.049 37.343 18.445 2.041 15.194 0.545 18.407 18.7 1.372 2.929 8.841 10.584 10.556 17.747 19.660 1.374 2.9 1.084 14.371 12.538 21.506 0.308 27.589 15.794 4.460 4.090 24.827 14.968 12.742 4.476 12.967 8.194 0.748 1.758 29.197 2.120 11.030 6.729 1.802 5.798 4.543 24.755 17.796 16.079 16.024 13. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.217 15.863 1.24.619 2.475 20.9 0.937 4.812 6.532 2.6 0.187 3.441 16.712 3.442 18.924 18.756 1.219 5.022 5.968 19.178 0.997 9.543 4.566 10.243 12.461 3.011 13.777 11.185 20.950 15.328 9.125 17.808 2.316 3.931 15.973 5.7 0.902 18.326 26.507 8.441 28.844 21.2 0.5 0.350 7.361 16.443 18.475 7.735 4.177 10.490 10.743 5.24.397 20.142 0.243 20.056 5.390 18.045 5.675 15.110 10.298 19.708 16.261 10.166 5.940 3.652 2.873 14.058 7.397 4.560 19.690 14.582 2.302 20.427 12.677 7.149 30.180 4.591 3.298 2.785 12.169 0.042 10.958 6.746 14.554 4.049 34.126 0.040 9.4 1.594 21.650 2.442 1.833 17.164 19.342 11.473 12.523 11.126 14.350 13.873 12.767 14.032 19.418 17.123 18.773 8.688 5.189 9.420 9.0 INF h/d (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) 0.999 11.3 0.124 5.544 2.062 28.623 2.5 1.743 13.601 2.734 1.270 30.0 0.716 1.427 18.303 25.294 28.634 1.574 7.723 12.384 10.608 2.204 12.772 26.128 30.670 16.337 16.698 17.760 0.320 23.095 15.111 19.629 29.684 26.505 2.308 2.8 1.561 14.031 12.358 10.284 0.665 20.283 16.241 15.219 13. ok Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .185 0.468 7.999 18.8 0.189 0.993 1.191 0.274 39.141 0.079 18.082 28.385 6.070 27.6 0.592 2.542 1.724 4.697 3.277 0.288 5.280 17.108 32.431 24.0 0.056 11.35) valid upto31-12-2017 PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION Table 16 Percentage Sky Components on the Vertical Plane Perpendicular to a Vertical Rectangular Opening for the Clear Design Sky (Clause B-1.204 4.596 12.420 13.466 19.306 5.141 17.6 1.772 21.618 3.138 20.0 1.655 3.159 15.015 2.531 21.513 INF 0.729 6.408 24.352 6.893 27.861 16.430 17.416 1.666 11.707 1.120 16.183 0.497 16.536 3.323 13.069 8.136 5.765 30.814 9.2 0.016 5.325 20.847 13.228 9.730 2.678 3.404 17.029 15.245 14.887 16.359 7.468 13.103 0.356 14.360 23.651 10.036 11.641 26.5 0.357 17.475 4.364 13.169 26.486 15.812 5.852 8.484 10.990 7.011 2.600 1.031 20.802 4.229 18.484 14.135 5.401 0.360 9.504 18.537 30.785 29.8 0. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.161 27.105 19.720 8.643 2.822 14.741 1.626 3.745 1.889 0.511 16.663 17.470 12.743 5.914 6.449 12.245 28.148 19.MANAPAKKAM.359 31.761 1.9 0.947 3.155 14.642 2.498 12.844 20.326 5.058 8.285 14.194 0.540 10.288 16.964 4.752 13.1) l/d 0.793 15.060 15.316 17.581 7.811 15.902 17.129 5.168 2.036 19.793 3.439 29.567 24.174 0.138 13.036 0.648 20.907 11.625 14.759 1.387 21.361 20.095 15.162 0.582 7.695 1.202 6.771 0.866 29.398 17.273 12.554 1.161 16.436 18.917 21.MANAPAKKAM.469 6.000 7.912 14.761 1.212 16.737 11.936 8.724 10.126 6.686 14.237 22.211 7.335 10.147 13.351 19.562 26.412 6.678 0.003 15.619 30.795 20.446 24.883 10.641 3.969 29.459 15.841 1.793 14.684 25.072 26.248 16.1 0.172 53 .013 10.931 17.434 6.818 6.385 7.807 13.168 8.655 4.2 0.680 23.699 13.542 0.707 8.818 14.298 13.

501 5.316 36.618 32.672 11.594 20.801 20.272 13.208 33.512 11.998 30.172 .876 9.664 35.391 27.0 1.017 36.773 22.530 22.810 31.048 3.8 0.658 30.879 32.463 17.2 0.886 23.861 19. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.186 10.860 36. ok Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .3 2.1 0.262 30.917 18.246 32.770 28.660 3.436 35.192 28.462 24.398 24.586 13.897 31.579 5.640 37. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.271 29.073 7.899 11.9 1.765 5.200 18.458 26.263 20.565 7.776 36.046 32.471 20.665 31.923 23.254 14.491 1.339 0.716 25.132 5.649 28.233 10.283 30.236 26.157 34.663 35.970 25.046 1.485 21.308 32.672 7.241 14.652 21.546 17.086 6.646 25.065 30.458 18.302 26.439 10.293 30.113 19.608 8.350 34.259 36.454 25.689 24.879 22.2 1.296 19.202 35.366 32.8 3.192 14.761 25.016 27.4 1.434 15.380 24.056 24.027 21.955 15.366 10.930 31.250 15.432 26.655 21.868 20.753 34.0 3.057 INF 3.360 19.749 5.140 24.109 24.662 26.090 17.817 25.563 23.584 36.900 25.204 31.593 33.199 19.811 33.125 22.018 32.763 7.226 31.6 1.998 27.465 27.453 10.291 17.020 15.201 20.812 36.7 3.160 30.960 23.070 8.663 16.518 20.531 24.728 1.534 11.731 26.173 34.199 27.482 16.613 32.107 38.074 14.271 1.424 28.365 0.067 36.784 13.212 12.7 1.317 31.510 38.1 0.5 2.466 26.236 21.390 16.119 33.231 34.318 29.121 27.742 19.900 28.906 30.799 7.578 21.011 37.206 26.790 8.551 36.652 35.229 0.533 5.574 16.052 30.624 20.24.592 23.898 33.663 11. 38.9 3.672 30.667 34.340 33.836 24.195 25.189 23.226 29.795 24.719 37.931 16.157 4.728 32.018 16.473 33.757 29.681 26.884 29.943 37.568 19.756 34.572 29.962 14.783 31.890 20.651 31.496 34.870 17.748 28.857 20.949 21.783 7.613 21.561 26.1) l/d 0.779 1.118 29.291 32.709 7.117 33.609 9.565 10.724 15.570 27.888 7.817 21.970 7.927 39.927 31.213 23.9 3.262 20.350 19.5 3.6 0.294 34.812 7.003 38.097 16.022 29.246 15.024 10.621 31.7 3.401 15.895 26.816 33.035 30.556 17.077 26.275 22.2 3.639 11.588 18.142 33.647 27.964 4.406 23.686 33.256 18.429 2.385 8.781 10.061 5.775 28.575 32.196 28.451 31.267 25.641 35.417 14.193 1.544 31.532 35.020 5.638 27.156 33.462 23.830 22.813 35.211 35.0 10.682 11.592 32.933 20.835 10.773 27.824 7.0 3.063 38.984 27.847 2.898 7.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Table 17 Percentage Sky Components on the Vertical Plane Parallel 54 to a Vertical Rectangular Opening for the Clear Design Sky (Clause B-1.596 31.247 35.550 34.889 34.214 38.141 29.718 25.677 32.028 37.086 28.699 38.144 37.175 30.067 21.085 31.883 5.696 13.715 38.0 3.2 1.987 27.867 32.6 3.412 20.836 15.542 28.599 25.173 25.587 29.889 32.427 33.759 26.758 0.0 5.867 11.574 34.148 28.477 35.022 23.3 1.937 33.5 0.869 10.836 34.365 32.634 28.380 37.103 10.670 33.297 22.243 34.553 11.286 30.221 6.095 16.413 9.082 23.768 0.732 30.742 26.285 11.160 32.362 11.352 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 1.414 10.322 32.429 2.278 9.973 31.631 33.932 30.643 1.098 22.687 5.950 35.382 38.602 19.866 26.852 5.327 30.6 3.803 4.521 33.058 31.389 6.161 27.973 22.430 24.420 29.491 28.764 34.124 26.600 3.467 32.717 4.296 11.884 26.656 17.4 3.041 31.1 3.584 33.084 28.650 28.471 26.791 36.807 16.478 26.733 5.989 29.415 13.226 26.374 34.177 21.755 12.423 18.952 17.747 15.693 28.913 7.578 29.856 14.796 33.256 44.303 31.229 25.857 29.666 35.043 23.924 16.063 24.330 11.278 24.214 28.573 15.435 36.285 24.818 31.978.834 38.812 36.350 28.511 22.418 5.0 3.828 35.674 22.133 12.798 29.486 26.529 17.781 27.438 36.309 33.517 28.591 15.035 35.810 27.259 6.513 4.365 25.MANAPAKKAM.016 14.986 34.610 1.255 27.037 37.035 14.128 28.681 15.457 33.198 30.359 23.276 30.878 30.982 30.228 14.876 32.485 10.497 33.696 38.826 31.692 23.150 22.810 29.625 7.301 5.253 34.627 32.093 31.914 32.074 33.707 14.353 25.978 22.0 3.8 3.001 28.121 28.307 10.279 31.015 20.680 32.4 0.3 0.078 26.833 7.042 15.745 19.024 37.008 21.840 19.302 32.062 24.529 4.7 0.157 31.316 24.548 17.MANAPAKKAM.539 32.611 34.617 1.463 5.222 24.523 30.965 35.939 0.068 4.014 25.078 2.489 6.167 3.972 28.257 22.207 11.286 10.660 29.8 1.35) valid u Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .412 26.683 34.5 1.63.312 11.880 10.025 18.220 7.986 31.337 12.482 31.424 28.532 31.934 13.897 7681 11.689 1.368 26.511 17.402 19.808 32.981 34.164 16.952 24.816 19.034 19.580 9.24.481 16.719 21.139 10.967 33.002 14.63.464 24.046 12.353 18.671 10.373 12.007 5.760 10.321 36.254 17.082 34.978 30.3 3.529 12.218 33.699 28.212 23.888 33.373 21.793 20.158 17.388 30.021 20.162 38.816 27.739 7.062 14.528 14.4 2.443 31.441 27.914 14.798 23.523 16.633 29.365 5.507 18.915 37.672 9.412 27.249 9.606 14.1 1.261 31.746 22.297 33.459 24.748 32.978 39.985 30.876 7.720 30.983 30.153 19.948 31.606 28.374 31.477 32.963 29.989 32.249 33.411 38.835 28.795 25.283 33.265 4.375 29.288 26.188 32.626 35.627 0.766 0.099 19.154 22.211 17.623 16.027 22.225 5.040 10.229 26.869 30.283 29.846 30.398 26.426 29.676 30.049 31.447 13.989 25.326 28.494 20.0 4.515 20.9 2.532 36.052 36.205 27.0 3.0 INF h/d (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) 0.893 7.0 3.956 19.

1970 secondary roads (Group A and B) (first revision) In the following list. (2) 3646 Code of practice for interior restaurants and other food service (Part 1) : 1992 illumination: Part 1 General establishments requirements and recommen.MANAPAKKAM. The of educational buildings latest version of a standard shall be adopted at the time (5) 1944 Code of practice for lighting of of enforcement of the Code. 6665 : 1972 Code of practice for industrial dations for building interiors (first lighting revision) 10894 : 1984 Code of practice for lighting of (3) 2440 : 1975 Guide for daylighting of buildings educational institutions (second revision) 10947 : 1984 Code of practice for lighting for (4) 6060 : 1971 Code of practice for daylighting ports and harbours of factory buildings (6) 3362 : 1977 Code of practice for natural ventilation of residential buildings (first revision) PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 1 LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION 55 . The standards listed may public thoroughfares: be used by the Authority for conformance with the (Parts 1 and 2) : Parts 1 and 2 For main and requirements of the referred clauses in the Code.63.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 LIST OF STANDARDS The following list records those standards which are IS No.24.24. (Group E) IS No. the number appearing in first Part 6 : 1981 Lighting for town and city centres column within parentheses indicates the number of the and areas of civic importance reference in this Section. Title 2672 : 1966 Code of practice for library lighting (1) 7662 Recommendations for orientation 4347 : 1967 Code of practice for hospital (Part 1) : 1974 of buildings: Part 1 Non-industrial lighting buildings 6074 : 1971 Functional requirements of hotels. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. Title acceptable as ‘good practice’ and ‘accepted standards’ 7942 : 1976 Code of practice for daylighting in the fulfillment of the requirements of the Code.MANAPAKKAM.63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.

Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.MANAPAKKAM.35) valid up .63.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.MANAPAKKAM.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24.35) valid upto31-12-2017 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS .63.63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.24.

63. 2010 FURTHER AMENDED IN 2015 ANNEX C AREA REQUIRED FOR TRANSFORMER ROOM AND …150 SUBSTATION FOR DIFFERENT CAPACITIES ANNEX D ADDITIONAL AREA REQUIRED FOR GENERATOR IN ELECTRIC …150 SUBSTATION ANNEX E CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTION.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. HANDING OVER AND …151 COMMISSIONING OF VARIOUS EQUIPMENT OF SUBSTATION ANNEX F CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTION.24.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . HANDING OVER AND …161 COMMISSIONING OF EARTHING PITS ANNEX G FORM OF COMPLETION CERTIFICATE …163 LIST OF STANDARDS …166 2 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 .35) valid upto31-12-2017 CONTENTS FOREWORD … 3 1 SCOPE … 7 2 TERMINOLOGY AND CONVENTIONAL SYMBOLS … 7 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS … 17 4 PLANNING OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS … 18 5 DISTRIBUTION OF SUPPLY AND CABLING … 30 6 WIRING … 47 7 FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES … 56 8 EARTHING … 61 9 INSPECTION.24.MANAPAKKAM. TESTING AND VERIFICATION OF INSTALLATION … 72 10 ALLIED/MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES … 77 11 LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS … 81 12 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION …111 SITES 13 PROTECTION OF HUMAN BEINGS FROM ELECTRICAL HAZARDS …118 ANNEX A DRAWING SYMBOLS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS …124 IN BUILDINGS ANNEX B EXTRACTS FROM CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY …129 (MEASURES RELATING TO SAFETY AND ELECTRIC SUPPLY) REGULATION.

care has been taken to align the same with the provisions of the relevant regulations. While revising the provisions of this Section of the Code. general guidance for electrical wiring installation in industrial location where voltage supply normally exceeds 650 V was included. alignment of some of the provisions of wiring with the practices prevalent at that time. c) Provisions relating to location of compact substations have been added. and 2) lS/lEC 60309-2:2002 ‘Plugs. environmental and safety aspects for different substation apparatus/equipment and generating sets have been reviewed and updated. the following major modifications have been incorporated: a) Various new terms and their definitions have been added and existing terms and definitions have also been updated based on current developments at national and international level. m) Provisions relating to renewable energy sources for building. In the second revision of 2005. e) Provisions relating to reception and distribution of supply and wiring installations have been updated with due cognizance to Indian Standards formulated for various wiring systems.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . thorough change in the risk assessment procedure for lightning including some other changes in the provision of lightning protection of building. conforming to following Indian Standards have been recommended for industrial and commercial applications. 2003 and the rules and regulations framed thereunder. incorporation of provisions on installation of distribution transformer inside the multi-storeyed building. either indoors or outdoors: 1) lS/lEC 60309-1:2002 ‘Plugs. 1956 were superseded by various Central Electricity Authority Regulations. but all other services that use electricity or have an interface with the electrical system) are required to follow these. aviation obstacle PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 2 ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED INSTALLATIONS 3 . k) Provisions relating to lightning protection of buildings have been revamped based on the current national and international developments. both buildings (the structure itself) and the building services (not just the electrical services. such as solar PV system.24. 2010. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. cascading and limitation concepts for the coordination of protective devices in electrical circuits have been introduced. in addition to above. introduction of concept of energy conservation in lighting and introduction of concept of various types of earthing in building installation. CED 46 FOREWORD This Code (Part 8/Section 2) covers essential requirements for electrical and allied installations in buildings. In the first revision. d) Requirements for electrical supply system for life and safety services have been included. In the context of the buildings. g) Discrimination. The importance of pre-planning and exchange of information among all concerned agencies from the earlier stages of building work was emphasized. The erstwhile Indian Electricity Rules.MANAPAKKAM.24.63. the title of this Section was modified from the erstwhile ‘Electrical Installations’ to ‘Electrical and Allied Installations’ to reflect the provisions included on certain allied installations. b) Provisions relating to location and other requirements relating to layout. modification of definitions in line with terminologies used at national and international level and addition of some new definitions. The significant changes incorporated in the last revision included. particularly. h) Socket outlets with suitable circuit breakers. This Section was first published in 1970 and was subsequently revised in 1983 and 2005. j) Provisions relating to earthing/grounding have been substantially revised and updated. socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes — Part 1: General requirements’.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.35) valid upto31-12-2017 National Building Code Sectional Committee. socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes — Part 2: Dimensional Interchangeability Requirements for Pin and Contact-Tube Accessories’. amended in 2015.63. All electrical installations in India come under the purview of The Indian Electricity Act. This Section was also updated based on the existing version of the Indian Standards. f) Provisions relating to installation of energy meters have been updated. In this revision. Central Electricity Authority (Measures Relating to Safety and Electric Supply) Regulations.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24. Section 1 Lighting and Natural Ventilation’ of the Code for making provision for the desired levels of illumination as well as ventilation for different locations in different occupancies.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .35) valid upto31-12-2017 lights. and also with Part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’ of the Code for list of emergency fire and life safety services and other sections of Part 8 ‘Building Services’ and Part 9 ‘Plumbing Services’ for electricity related requirements and integration thereof. n) New provisions relating to electrical installations for construction sites and demolition sites have been included. 2011 the provisions of the Indian Electricity Act. Considerable assistance has also been drawn from following International Standards while formulating this Section: IEC 60364-4-41 : 2005 Low-voltage electrical installations — Part 4-41: Protection for safety — Protection against electric shock IEC 60364-4-43 : 2008 Low-voltage electrical installations — Part 4-43: Protection for safety — Protection against overcurrent IEC 60364-4-44 : 2007 Low-voltage electrical installations — Part 4-44: Protection for safety — Protection against voltage disturbances and electromagnetic disturbances IEC 60364-5-51 : 2005 Electrical installations of buildings — Part 5-51: Selection and erection of electrical equipment — Common rules IEC 60364-5-54 : 2011 Low-voltage electrical installations — Part 5-54: Selection and erection of electrical equipment — Earthing arrangements and protective conductors IEC 60364-7 series Low-voltage electrical installations — Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations  IEC 61439-1 : 2011 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies and bus trunking — Part 1: General rules IEC 61439-2 : 2011 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies and bus trunking — Part 2: Power switchgear and controlgear assemblies IEC 61439-6 : 2012 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies and bus trunking — Part 6: Busbar trunking systems (busways) 4 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . etc. Notwithstanding the provisions given in this Section and the National Electrical Code. 2003 and the rules and regulations framed thereunder have to be necessarily complied with. p) New provisions relating to protection of human beings from electrical hazards and protection against fire in the building due to leakage current have been included. Utmost importance should be given in the installation of electrical wiring to prevent short circuiting and the hazards associated therewith. q) Typical formats for checklists for handing over and commissioning of substation equipment and earthing pit have been included.MANAPAKKAM.MANAPAKKAM. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. have been included. The revised version when available should also be referred. The information contained in this Section is largely based on the following Indian Standards/Special Publication: IS 732 : 1989 Code of practice for electrical wiring installations (third revision) (under revision) IS 3043 : 1987 Code of practice for earthing (first revision) (under revision) IS 4648: 1968 Guide for electrical layout in residential buildings IS 12032 (Part 11) : 1987 Specification for graphical symbols for diagrams in the field of electro technology: Part 11 Architectural and topographical installation plan and diagrams IS/IEC 62305-1 : 2010 Protection against lightning: Part 1 General principles IS/IEC 62305-2 : 2010 Protection against lightning: Part 2 Risk management IS/IEC 62305-3 : 2010 Protection against lightning: Part 3 Physical damage to structures and life hazard IS/IEC 62305-4 : 2010 Protection against lightning: Part 4 Electrical and electronic systems within structures SP 30 : 2011 National Electrical Code.24.63. 2011 (first revision) It may be noted that some of the above standards are currently under revision.63. electrical supply for electric vehicle charging and car park management. This Section has to be read together with Part 8 ‘Building Services.

The parties to agreement based on this Section are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.63.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this Section is complied with. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this Section of the Code. the final value.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 2 ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED INSTALLATIONS 5 . expressing the result of a test or analysis. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)’.35) valid upto31-12-2017 All standards.MANAPAKKAM.MANAPAKKAM.24.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . observed or calculated. are subject to revision. whether given herein above or cross-referred to in the main text of this Section.

CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.35) valid upto31-12-2017 Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .24.35) valid up .Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .MANAPAKKAM.MANAPAKKAM.63.

1. 2.18 Cable. 2. in the form of an enclosed conductor system fire and shock.7 Bonding Conductor — A protective conductor more cores. or trunking.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . The insulated conductor or conductors may or may not be provided with an overall mechanical 2. wiring of an installation. 2.MANAPAKKAM. This Section also includes general comprising solid conductors separated by insulating requirements relating to lightning protection of materials.1 Accessory — A device. are not core or cores in the cable. Halogen (FR-LSH) — A cable which is flame retardant NOTE — For low voltage installations. For definition of other terms. 2.17 Cable. Metal-Sheathed — An insulated cable NOTE — Normally the bonding ring conductor. flexible. 2. also providing mechanical protection to the conductor ducting. and emits low smoke and halogen as per the accepted basic protection generally corresponds to protection against standard [8-2(3)]. with PVC sheath two or more are contained within a single conduit. which prescribes a fire survival test at 750°C for 3 h. 2 TERMINOLOGY AND CONVENTIONAL b) Tap-off units where applicable. Circuit Integrity — A cable which 2. is flame retardant as per the accepted standard [8-2(3)]. 2.1. be made to accepted standard [8-2(2)].35) valid upto31-12-2017 PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations 1 SCOPE 2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123. appliances and fittings in which conductors each provided with its own insulation. if not enclosed. machines. the following movement.1.2 Apparatus — Electrical apparatus including all (solid or stranded).1.9 Bunched — Cables are said to be ‘bunched’ when polyvinylchloride (PVC) compound.19 Cable. Flame Retardant Low Smoke and shock under fault-free condition. bonding network.1. or. expansion. the providing equipotential bonding.1. separated from each other. each formed of a group of wires.12 Bypass Equipotential Bonding Conductor — 2.1. PVC Sheathed-Insulated — A cable in which the insulation of the conductor is a 2. direct contact that is ‘contact of persons or live parts’. or two or more such conductors. specified temperature and period of the test). 2. end-feeder and adaptor definitions shall apply.3 Appliance — An item of current using equipment protective covering.1.15 Cable.16 Cable. diameters of the cores and of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility.1. reference may be made to accepted standards [8-2(1)].24.1.1. duct. which are laid are used or of which they form a part. maintains the continuity intended to operate when a system fault is not cleared of the circuit under circumstances of fire (against a or abnormal condition not detected in the required time.63. systems and equipment.8 Bonding Ring Conductor (BRC) — A bus earthing conductor in the form of a closed ring.1.MANAPAKKAM.1.11 Busbar Trunking System — A type-tested ensure efficient use of electricity including safety from assembly.1. because of failure or inability of other protection to NOTE — For circuit integrity cable requirements reference may operate or failure of appropriate circuit-breaker to trip. with or without tap-off installations.13 Cable — A length of single-insulated conductor 2. 2.1. that is. facilities.1. This Code (Part 8/Section 2) covers the essential requirements for electrical installations in buildings to 2. other than current using Bonding conductor connected in parallel with the equipment. building- 2. from any 2.4 Back-up Protection — Protection which is continues to function. has multiple connections to the common bonding network (CBN) that improves its performance.24. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.63.1. Flexible — A cable containing one or 2.1. Flame Retardant (FR) — A cable which usual direction of access. and SYMBOLS c) Phase-transposition.6 Basic Protection — Protection against electric 2. 2. associated with such equipment or with the screens of cables. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 2 ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED INSTALLATIONS 7 . The assembly may consist of units such as: buildings and brief provisions on certain allied a) Busbur trunking units. up together.5 Barrier — A part providing a defined degree of protection against contact with live parts. units.10 Buried Direct — A cable laid in the ground in intimate contact with the soil.1 For the purpose of this Section.1. other than a luminaire or an independent motor.14 Cable. as part of the with a metal sheath.

open or ventilated or closed. and is in turn connected to a lampholder).1.25 Cable Cleat — A component of a support system a) Category 1 circuit — A circuit (other than a which consists of elements spread at intervals along fire alarm annunciation or emergency lighting the length of the cable or conduits and which circuit and other circuits required to work mechanically retains the cable or conduit. radio.24 Cable Channel — An enclosure situated above electrical installation wiring and a flexible cord (which or in the ground.30 Cable Tray — A cable support consisting of a 2. by a sheath of a polyvinyl chloride compound. surface raceways and wireways. underfloor raceways. intruder alarm. 2. intended for the protection of cables which building management system (BMS). cable tray is considered to be non-perforated. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.20 Cable.1. telephone.1. electrical metallic tubing. It consists b) Category 2 circuit — With the exception of of a connector and a plug.27 Cable Ducting — A manufactured enclosure of voltage (ELV)/telecommunication [for metal or insulating material.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . public are drawn-in after erection of the ducting. cables or busbars.1. building.1. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1.28 Cable Ladder — A cable support occupying less c) Category 3 circuit — A fire alarm circuit or than 10 percent of the plan area and consisting of a an emergency lighting circuit and other series of supporting elements rigidly fixed to each other circuits required to work during fire in a or to a main supporting member or members.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . carrying for a specified time.63.1. trunking. of two flexible cables. with openable/ making. operation.MANAPAKKAM.1. at will. supplied from a safety source. Weatherproof — A cable so constructed 2.1. These include electrical non-metallic such as those of short circuit.35) valid upto31-12-2017 2. bell and not specifically intended to form part of a building call and data transmission circuits)] which is structure.21 Cable.186 and/or cables are laid after removal of the cover.22 Cable Armoured — A cable provided with a fuse element or several fuse elements connected in wrapping of metal (usually in the form of tape or wire) parallel enclosed in a cartridge usually filled with an serving as a mechanical protection. single devices fixed to elements of building or plant construction.1. supplied from the same origin and protected against NOTE — A cable channel may or may not form part of the overcurrent by the same protective device(s). 2.29 Cable Raceways — An enclosed channel of device. cellular concrete floor raceways. cellular metal floor NOTE — A circuit breaker is usually intended to operate infrequently. during fire in a building) operating at low voltage and supplied directly from a mains 2. other than conduit or cable example. any circuit for extra low- 2.1.1. 2.36 Circuit Breaker — A mechanical switching 2.23 Cable Bracket — A cable support consisting of requires replacing after the fuse has operated. where carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit less than 30 percent of the material is removed from conditions and also making and carrying currents for the base.24. and breaking maintainable construction having provision of currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions ventilation.1.26 Cable Coupler — A means enabling the supply system.1 Miniature circuit breaker (MCB) — A compact continuous base with raised edges and no covering.MANAPAKKAM.1. having dimensions which do not permit the access of persons but allow access to the conductor and/or cables 2. carrying and breaking metal or non-metallic materials designed expressly for currents under normal circuit conditions and also of holding wires. arc-extinguishing medium and connected to terminations. are categorized as follows: 2. tubing.63.1.36.1.31 Cable Trunking — A factory made closed that when installed in uncovered locations.24. but which is address system (PAS). for definition of weatherproof). Category 3 circuits.35 Circuit — An assembly of electrical equipment throughout their length during and after installation.1. Circuits building construction. The fuse link is the part of a fuse which 2. sound distribution. 2. A mechanical switching device capable of making.34 Ceiling Rose — A fitting (usually used to attach to the ceiling) designed for the connection between the 2. 2. it will support and protection system into which conductors withstand all kinds of weather variations (see 2. specified times and automatically breaking currents 8 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . although some types are suitable for frequent raceways.32 Cable Tunnel — An enclosure (corridor) 2.1. 2. XLPE — A cable in which the insulation containing supporting structures for conductors and/or of the conductor is cross-linked polythene and the cables and joints and whose dimensions allow free mechanical protection is provided for the core or cores access to persons throughout the entire length. capable of making.1.33 Cartridge Fuse Link — A device comprising a 2. connection.

1. 2. supporting circuit integrity cable (see 2. combination of a plug and socket arranged for attachment to a portable electrical appliance or to a 2. and break currents under normal service conditions and b) Covered aerial conductors. provided to contain joints Materials — Supports and fixing materials for in the conductors of cables of the installations. contact and is intended to be attached to the flexible It includes all branches and extensions derived from cable connected to the supply.46 Connector — The part of a cable coupler or of current. to cause the opening of the contacts when the residual c) Insulated aerial conductors.1. The components shall be enclosed. residual current operated circuit breaker designed to perform the functions of protection against overload 2. carry a) Bare aerial conductors. provision for its insulation from earth.1. a and/or short-circuits. using appliances without the intervention of a an appliance coupler which is provided with female further distribution board other than a one-way board. Aerial — Any conductor which is in which the contacts open and close in air at supported by insulators above the ground and is directly atmospheric pressure. 2. Insulated — A conductor adequately without integral overcurrent protection (RCCB) — A covered with insulating material of such quality and residual current operated circuit breaker not designed thickness as to prevent danger. break all poles simultaneously or in a definite sequence. insulating material forming an integral part of the circuit assembled together and in contact with each other or breaker. Final Sub — An outgoing circuit sufficiently closed-jointed so that the conductors can connected to one-way distribution board and intended only be drawn in and not inserted laterally. Conduits should be 2. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.1. energy is delivered from the service line.14).36.2 Circuit breaker.1 Residual current operated circuit breaker 2.45 Conduit — A part of a closed wiring system. connected in parallel.42 Conductor.1. This is equal to rated voltage.44 Conductor.2 Residual current operated circuit breaker 2. NOTE — Following four classes of aerial conductors are 2. protections. high-voltage switchgear and premises and belonging to him.5.36. linked — A circuit breaker. 2. the contacts of which are so arranged as to make or NOTE — See accepted standard [8-2(4)] for requirements of prefabricated substation.1.47 Connector Box or Joint Box — A box forming a 2. corresponding interconnections (cable. 2. Substation — Prefabricated and type-tested assembly which can to be operated from inside (walk-in type) or 2.24.63. Bare — A conductor not covered with integral overcurrent protection (RCBO) — A with insulating material.1. at which the supply of controlgear. circular or non-circular cross-section for conductors NOTE — Similar function is provided by earth leakage circuit and/or cables in electrical installations.1.5 Residual current operated circuit breaker — recognized: A mechanical switching device designed to make.1.37 Circuit.1. Earthed — A conductor with no and/or short-circuit. to perform the functions of protection against overload 2.41 Conductor.50 Continuous Operating Voltage (U c) — and-auxiliary equipment and circuits located next to Maximum rms voltage which may be continuously each other.MANAPAKKAM. which continues in service after exposure to fire for a specified 2. maintaining segregation and integrity of applied to a surge protection device’s mode of each compartment in which they are located along with protection.49 Consumer’s Terminals — The ends of the outside (non-walk-in type) comprising components electrical conductors situated upon any consumer’s such as power transformer. exposed to the weather.1.1.1. to be drawn in and/or replaced.43 Conductor.1. 2.3 Moulded case circuit breaker (MCCB) — A 2. d) Weatherproof neutral-screened cable. those of overload and short circuits. by either a common enclosure or by an assembly of enclosures.63.35) valid up Supplied by Book Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .1.36. to supply electrical energy at one or more points to 2.5. and current attains a given value under specified conditions. PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES — SECTION 2 ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED INSTALLATIONS 9 .1.36.35) valid upto31-12-2017 under specified abnormal circuit conditions.24.1.1.1. earthing. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.38 Circuit Integrity Cable Support and Fixing part of wiring installation.48 Connector for Portable Appliances — A duration. etc. 2.MANAPAKKAM. that particular way in the board. such as external interconnecting cables. low-voltage switchgear and controlgear.40 Conductor of a Cable or Core — The conducting circuit breaker having a supporting housing of moulded portion consisting of a single wire or group of wires.36.1.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION .4 Air circuit breaker (ACB) — A circuit breaker 2. busbar or other) 2.1.36. allowing them breaker (ELCB).39 Compact Substation or Prefabricated flexible cord.

heat. CHENNAI ON 17-03-2017 09:00:59 (123.64 Distance Area or Resistance Area (for an Earth of the current intended to be carried by the circuit in Electrode Only) — The surface area of ground (around normal service.35) valid upto31-12-2017 2.1. that a particular piece of equipment will turn on 2. pole of the disconnector occurs. The or limb from shock.62 Disconnector — A mechanical switching device flexible cords twisted together are known as twin which. 1 A disconnector is otherwise known as isolator. Apart from the built-in can keep the electric circuit at a significant voltage (and sensors and actuators in circuit breakers. system. current under abnormal conditions. 2. or when no with its insulation but not including any mechanical significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each protective covering.ook Supply Bureau Under the License from BIS for LARSEN AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION . etc) strands through the trip coil of an earth leakage circuit-breaker. conductor under specified conditions without its steady 2.53 Current Carrying Capacity of a Conductor — specified time.65 Diversity Factor — A measure of the probability shock. and 2. interrupting the transmission of energy through any only that device closest should operate.58 Dead — A portion of an electrical circuit different over-current protective devices passing substantially (normally expected to carry a voltage) at or near earth the same over-current and network discrimination involving potential or apparently disconnected from any live identical protective devices passing different proportions of the over-current.MANAPAKKAM. capacitors. connection to earth.1.63. including overload.1. Coordination of the operating characteristics of two or 2.60 Direct Contact — Contact of persons or live gradient may exist. NOTE — Large number of fine strands of wires for each conductor makes the conductor capable of withstanding NOTES frequent bends thereby improving their flexibility.59 Design Current (of a Circuit) — The magnitude 2.55 Cut-out — Any appliance for automatically if proper discrimination is achieved within these limits.57 Danger — Danger to health or danger to life 2 The electrical network requires the discrimination for all the fault circuits. but are not connected within the installation of the individual non-coincident maximum loads of 10 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2016 . short-circuit.1.1. burn or injury from mechanical downstream device should take care of the fault up to the movement to persons (and livestock where present).1.1. ensuring that there is minimum area of power supply 2.1. is connected.1. in the open position.1.24. of conductors of small cross-sectional area.52 Core of a Cable — A single conductor of a cable when either a negligible current is broken or made. thereby determined amount. an earth electrode) on which a significant voltage 2. stock with live parts which may result in electric 2. and comparison of often dangerous voltages from aspects of shock). the device intended to operate would be the device closest to the point of fault or abnormality.MANAPAKKAM. limits.63 Discrimination (Over-Current Discrimination) — state temperature exceeding a specified value. even though a number of protective devices may be in the path ordinary situations.35)