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Study questions and activities

Exercises related to chapter 1

I.Answer these questions:

1. What is the etymology of the term semantics?

2. When did semantics become a science?
3. Why is historical semantics significant in the evolution of linguistic semantics?
4. What is the main concern of structuralist semantics?
5. Which are the main methodologies that have been identified within structuralist
6. Are word-meaning and sentence- meaning interrelated? How?
7. What distinguishes generative semantics from interpretive semantics?
8. Who are the representatives of interpretive semantics?
9. What is linguistic semantics concerned with?
10. Mention the two major approaches to semantics.
11. What is the difference between a language-intrinsic approach and a referential
12. Which approach does Eugen Coserius view belong to?
13. What is the distinction between signification and designation according to
14. What are the types of semantics that belong to the language intrinsic approach?
15. What does referential semantics focus on?
16. What is prototype semantics especially suited for?
17. Does prototype semantics have any flaws (limits)? What are they?
18. Is prototype semantics superior to feature (Aristotelian) semantics? Why?
19. How can we cope with the disadvantages of either structuralist
or prototype semantics?
20. How does cognitive semantics analyse meaning?

II. Which of the following statements are true, which are false?

1. Formalist theories of meaning separate linguistic knowledge from world

2. Relations that hold between members of different grammatical categories which
are simultaneously present in a single syntactic structure are called paradigmatic
3. Both componential analysis and generative semantics deal with semantic
decomposition but in different ways.
4. The main difference between structural semantics and cognitive semantics is that
the former defines and analyses meaning from a purely language-internal
perspective whereas the latter explains meaning primarily in terms of
5. Prototype semantics and traditional feature semnatics exclude each other.
6. Componential analysis is a technique that describes both the denotative and the
conotative meaning of a word.
7. Formalist theories of meaning are not able to meet the complexity of semantic
phenomena in natural language.
8. Semes are semantic components shared by lexical items belonging to different
semantic fields.
9. The choice/selection of individual lexical units in construction with other lexical
units is determined by classemes or markers.
10. The distinction between semantics and pragmatics is relevant for cognitive

III. Fill in the blanks, using the words given:

semantic components, cognitive semantics, conceptual semantics, semantic structure,

structuralist semantics.

1. ... considers meaning relational, that is, it is determined by its position in a

network in which it is related to other expressions.
2. The atomistic conception of meaning assumes that the meaning of a word can be
determined in isolation by its ... and not by its relations with other words in the
language, as in holistic theories.
3. In ... the meaning of an expression is a concept in the speakers mind. An
expression has a conceptual structure with argument slots.
4. Meaning is representational in ... as it is viewed as linked to a particular mental
representation, called a concept.
5. The conceptual structure is the concept which stands for the thing experienced.
The ... is the meaning which stands for the conceptual structure and it is
expressed by a linguistic form.

IV. Match the type of meaning conception given in column A with the type of premise
given in column B.

Conception (A) Premise (B)

a. Representational 1.Linguistic meaning derives from its reference to an
actual object in the external world
b. Componential 2.Linguistic meaning derives from its mental
representation of the external world which is subjectively
c. Referential 3.Linguistic meaning derives from the semantic
components which it comprises
d. Relational 4.Linguistic meaning derives from its relation to other
linguistic expressions in the same lexical field.
V. Following the relational conception of meaning, the verbs given below express the
concept of theft, and so are placed in the same semantic field. Nevertheless, there exist
meaning differences among them. Can you pinpoint them?

1. rob 2. steal 3. pilfer 4. filch 5. purloin 6. snitch. 7. swindle

VI. Notice that the following nouns share the same referent: a watcher. However, there
exist meaning differences which are sometimes overlooked. Can you identify them?

1. sightseer 2. viewer 3. observer 4. spectator 5. Onlooker

VII. Do a componential analysis illustrating the features the words in the pairs have in
common ( their markers ) and the features that distinguish them:

a. hammer / mallet c. depressed / disappointed

b. chicken / duck d. wallet / purse

VIII. Make the componential analysis of these terms from the semantic field of SOUND:
rattle, clatter, clang, screech, crack, click, ring, chime, trill, toll, pop.

IX. Make the componential analysis of these terms:

a) stool d) bench
b) chair e) sofa
c) armchair

Exercises related to chapter 2

I. Answer these questions:

1 What is the distinction between extension and intension?

2 Can two terms have the same extension and differ in intension? Give examples.
3 Can two terms have the same intension and differ in extension?
4 Can intension determine extension?
5 Can extension be influenced by the speaker s psychological state?
6 How can extension be determined socially?
7 What is Frege s definition of sign ?
8 Does a reference/ referent always belong to a single sign?

II. Which of the following statements are true, which are false?
1. Unlike reference which changes each time a linguistic expression is applied to a
different referent, sense does not change when the expression takes on a
different referent.
2. The difference between reference and denotation is that the latter is bound to the
context and depends on particular occasions of utterance.
3. Sense is derived from its semantic relationships with other expressions in the
vocabulary of the language.
4. Denotation is the literal, constant and basic meaning of an expression.
5. The set of properties an expression has is known as its extension.
6. Intension is the relation between the symbol and the real world entities to which it
7. The Saussurean model of the sign is dyadic, that is it has a twofold structure: a
form (the signifier) and a content (the signified).
8. Ferdinand de Saussures view of meaning is referential.
9. The Peircean model of the sign assumes that there is an observable and direct
relationship between the sign vehicle and the referent.
10. Symbolic signs are based on a relation of convention between sign and meaning.

III. Fill in the blanks, using the words given:

indexical sign(s), sense(s), connotation(s), iconic sign(s), symbol(s).

1. The word reader has three ...: someone who reads something, a book
designed for reading and a device that reads very small writing.
2. The ... of the words pig, fox, mule, sheep and snake point to disapproving traits
of persons.
3. There is a connection, usually of causality, between sing and referent, in the case
4. ... are the most abstract and the least motivated type of sign.
5. An... resembles the referent and provides a perceptual image of what it stands

IV. Match the notions in column A with the explanations in column B.

a. extension 1. thing picked out by uttering an
expression in a particular context
b. referent 2. the relationship between an
expression and its extension
c. connotation 3. set of things which could possibly be
the referent of an expression
d. denotation 4. the mental concept of an
expression, independent of context
e. intension 5. the emotional overtones a speaker
usually associates with each
individual use of a word

V.What are the referents of the following expressions?

a) the teacher of this course

b) the person who is answering this question
c) where you ate lunch last
d) a child of your parents

Exercises related to chapter 3

I. Answer these questions:

1. How does lexical meaning differ from grammatical meaning?

2. Is sentence meaning dependent on context?
3. What is the distinction between the sentence meaning and the utterance
meaning of I am tied up?
4. What types of meaning correspond to what Roman Jakobson called the
referential, the phatic and the expressive functions of language?
5. How does Geoffrey Leech group the different kinds of meaning?
6. Which type of meaning is central in linguistic communication?
7. Is information value relevant in the case of social interaction/meaning?
8. Which words and phrases have social meaning?
9. How can forms of address differ across cultures, when communication
a. student to professor
b. younger to older
10. When does reflected meaning arise? Give examples.
11. What is the difference in meaning between the collocations of sensual and
sensuous, cause and bring about?
12. What is evoked meaning?
13. How can the meaning of a complex expression be reconstructed?
14. Does the principle of compositionality have any limit?
15. Is thematic meaning important? Why?
16. What components of language usually encode expressive meaning in
English? Give examples.

II. What is utterance meaning? Discuss the utterance meaning of the following

1. You have been working hard!

2. That is just what I needed!
3. You have been of great help!
4. You are a very tidy cook, I see!
That will be extremely useful

III. Define the descriptive meaning of each of the following words:

1 blue 2. ring 3. relax 4.linguist

IV. Below is a list of some interjections in English. Say what each of them expresss.

1. ah!
2. alas!
3. hey!
4. ugh!
5. wow!

V. Mention the social ritual of each of the following utterances and then indicate the
level of formality each represents.

1. a.Hi
b. Good morning.
2. a. How is it going?
b. How are you?
3. a Thanks
b. I am grateful to you
4. a. What?
b. I beg your pardon?
5. a. Whats the time?
b. Could you tell me the time, please?

VI Give the descriptive and expressive meaning of the following words:

1. idiot 2. baby 3. Communist 4. Muslim

VII. Comment on the collocational range of these terms:

a) liberty freedom
b) busy occupied
c) decoration ornamentation

VIII. Point to the correct collocational range of dish, cigarettes, beer, cheese and coffee
by using one of these adjectives: light, heavy, strong, weak, mild.
IX. On what dimension of descriptive meaning do the following differ?

(a) 1. The prisoner was killed.

2. The prisoner was murdered.
(b) 1. The prisoner was murdered.
2. The prisoner was executed.
(c) 1. The shirt was not clean.
2. The shirt was filthy.
(d) 1. Lesley is a young woman.
2. Lesley is in her twenties.
(e) 1. Were coming up to the exams.
2. The exams will soon be here.

X. On what dimensions of non-descriptive meaning do the following differ?

(a) 1. Are you leaving?

2. Youre not leaving, surely?
(b) 1. Hes been dismissed.
2. Hes got the sack.
(c) 1. He has a fractured humerus.
2. He has a broken arm.
(d). 1. Get lost.
2. Please go away.

XI. Complete the pairs of synonyms in British and American English

1. lift .......
2. ........ sidewalk
3. sweet ..... ....... - ......
4. ... faucet
5. .... apartment
6. ....... trashcan

XII Here is a list of Anglo - Saxon words that might be associated with colloquial
language. Suggest a more formal synonym for each of them and find out the origin:

begin, before, burn, funny, gift, kiss, last, odd, stop, think

XIII. Look at the list of technical words and suggest an ordinary language synonym for
each of them:

cardiac, convulsion, cranium, incision, lesion, mamillary, neurosis ocular / ophthalmic /

optic, patella, psychotic, trachea; auditory, lexeme, orthography, phoneme, semantic.
Exercises related to chapter 4

I. Answer these questions:

1 What do semasiology and onomasiology generally study ?

2 What is the distinction between semasiology and onomasiology ?
3 What is the focus of semasiological research ?
4 What semantic relations are associated with onomasiology ?
5 What does semasiological variation refer to ?
6 What does onomasiological variation imply ?
7 How does onomasiology differ from semasiology ?
8 What are the criteria used in distinguishing polysemy from homonymy?

II. Explain the mechanism of sense extension in these words:

a) climb d) writing
b) mouth e) tongue
c) beaver f) reader

III. Explain the mechanism of sense extension in these examples:

a) this land belongs to the Crown.

b) We need some new faces around here.
c) He elbowed me out of the queue.

IV. Explain the type of sense extension in these polysemantic words:

a) paper e) snarl
b) board f) purr
c) dry g) grunt
d) sharp

V. Give the homonyms of these words and then use them in sentences
of your own:
a) through d) steal
b) storeys e) ball
c) sew f) stare

VI. Consider the following English words and decide whether they are thought of in terms of
homonymy or polysemy and why. Try translating them into any other language you
know; are there several possible translation equivalents or will one word do for the
different meanings the English word has?

cap face row club

way bed match plot
VII.How many meanings or senses do you know for the following English words? Do
some senses seem more basic or central than others? If so, which ones and why?

top page button ring

VIII.Complete the following examples of polysemy in English. Note the degree to which
they correspond with your own language

leg of a person / chair

mouth of a person /
branch of a tree /
top ...
tail ...

IX.Consider the sentences below and comment on the polysemy of HEAD by

explaining which meaning extensions are metaphors and which are metonymies:

a) My head is full of strange thoughts.

b) That joke went over his head.
c) The queen is still the head of state.
d) I prefer my beer without a head of foam.
e) We paid ten pounds a head for the meal.

X.Comment on the metaphorical extension of these terms:

a) warm icy frosty cold

b) white black blue yellow red
c) see hear taste touch

XI. The words in the HOT-COLD domain arent always used literally. They dont always
refer to TEMPERATURE. Discuss the meanings of the expressions below:
a. a warm personality e. a scorching criticism
b. a hot- tempered person f. a blistering attack
c. a red-hot idea g. a luke-warm response
d. an icy stare h. a frosty reception

XII. Consider some idioms with HAND exemplifying these metonymies:

a) The hand stands for the activity.

b) The hand stands for control.
c) Control is holding in the hand.
d) The hand stands for the person.

XIII. Mention the type of metonymy you can identify in these idioms:

a) give somebody a big hand d) gain the upper hand

b) from hand to hand e) keep a strict hand upon a person
c) keep one s hand(s) in f) an old hand
Exemplify the idioms above in sentences of your own.

XIV.The noun length refers to the general dimension in which the adjectives long and
short describe regions. Find such abstract nouns for the following pairs of adjectives.

a. tall: short g. fast: slow

b. thick: thin h. clever: stupid
c. heavy: light i. broad: narrow
d. wide: narrow j. hot: cold
e. old: young k. warm: cool
f. far: near

XV. Sometimes verbs that express ANIMAL SOUNDS are used as metaphors for
features of HUMAN SPEECH in English. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate sound
term. Choose from this list: bark, hiss, grunt, snarl, twitter, squeal, purr, growl:

1. My mother is so cute when she ... about her grandchildren.

2. Stop crying, the police officer the drug dealer.
3. The actress ... her answer to the reporters.
4. The prisoner ...his reply to the guard.
5. The sergeant ... his orders to the new soldiers.

XVI. Comment on the reading of the italicized items in the following pair sentences:

1. a. It is man that is responsible for environmental pollution.

b. That man entered the room in a hurry.
2. a. You must not drink anything on the day of the operation
b. John doesnt drink hell have an orange juice.

XVII. Are the following pairs of items exact synonyms which can be interchanged in all
contexts? If possible, create examples sentences where the words cannot be
a) hurry / hasten b) exit / way out c) confess / admit
d) consider / regard e) injure / damage f) customer/client
g) pavement / sidewalk h) speed / potato i) little/small j) peak/summit

XVIII. Look up the following pairs of synonyms in your dictionary and make a note of
the origin of each lexeme:
help - aid heaven - sky kingdom - realm
teach - instruct first - initial annoy - irritate

XIX. Consider the following pairs of synonyms. Can you think of any sentence context
in which one member of a pair may be used and the other member not? Make sentence
frames to illustrate this point.
e.g. I am not at .... to tell you (the word liberty may be inserted but not its
synonym freedom)

discover - find
busy - occupied
decoration - ornamentation
keep - retain
frequently - often

XX. Look up the following regional dialect words in your dictionary to discover the
standard dialect synonyms (see Collins English Dictionary):

butty, culch, diddle, heartsome, lease, mullock, pawky, snap, stob, tum

XXI. Consider the following groups of synonyms and say how the members of each
group differ in their connotation:
crowd - mob
pleased delighted - glad
look at - stare at - gaze at
modern - up to date
boring - monotonous tedious - dull

XXII. Give the colloquial or slang equivalent for these euphemistic synonyms: a. pass
away; b. liquidate; c. intoxicated (inebriated)

XXIII. Group these words into triplets of lexemes with overlapping meanings, i.e. sets of
partial synonyms: brim, crush, decorate, edge, enlist, genuine, fire, income, make up
(vb), mash, paint, pound (vb), real recruit (vb), rim, salary, sincere, wages.

XXIV. Comment on the collocational range of these synonyms:

edge border rim brim brink margin verge.

Which of these words can be used metaphorically?

XXV. Comment on and exemplify these ideographic synonyms:

a. gaze gape glare stare glimpse glance - peep peer eye.
b. chuckle giggle smile simper smirk grin chortle titter snicker.
c. surprise astonish astound amaze - bewilder
d. warm lukewarm hot boiling

XXVI. Comment on and exemplify in sentences of your own these ideographic


a. fear scare fright horror terror

b. convention agreement contract treaty - pact
c. irritation anger fury - rage
XXVII. What kind of antonymy is represented by each of the following pairs of
a) behind - in front; b) captive - free; c) fast - slow; d) fixed - loose; e) high - low;
f) in - out; g) leave - stay; h) north of - south of; i) parent - child; j) rich - poor; k) teacher
- pupil; l) thin - fat;

XXVIII. List the antonyms of the following lexemes. Mention the class of antonyms they
belong to: alive, male, narrow, open, over, receive, relinquish, sell, small, tall, weak,

XXIX. What are the possible opposites of the words hard and high in these phrases?
Which has the most contextual varation:
high marks hard exam
high opinion hard chair
high building hard journey
high price hard work
high temperature hard person
high winds hard drugs

XXX. A word may have different opposites in different contexts. What are the opposites
of light and rough in these phrases:
a. light bag
b. light wind
c. light colours
d. rough sea
e. rough calculation
f. rough area
g. rough person
h. rough texture

XXXI. What are the complementaries of the following:

a.dead c.same e.imperfect
b.true d.animate

XXXII. Consider the following verbal complementaries and find out the lexical items
that set the scene for complementarity:
a) refute admit f) stay -leave
b) defend submit g) accept turn down
c) obey disobey h) yield -resist
d) live die i) win lose
e) remember forget

XXXIII. Fill in the gaps in these lexical triplets involving complementarity:

a) shoot (in football) - save -

b) punch -- take
c) - keep on stop
d) request -. refuse
e) greet -. snub
f) aim hit -

XXXIV. Transform the sentences below by using converse terms:

1. Tom is Marys brother. Mary is ...

2. David is Margarets nephew. Margaret is ...

Use the pattern above in further examples.

XXXV. To each of the following gradable antonyms add the rest of the scale:
e.g. BIG : huge/ very big/ BIG / quite big/ medium -sized/ quite small/ SMALL/
1. hot/ cold (water) 3. interesting/ boring (a film)
2. love/ hate 4. good/ bad (a book)

XXXVI. Decide whether the following pairs contain gradable terms or not:
a) male female e) top -bottom
b) true false f) clever -stupid
c) hot cold g) married -unmarried
d) love hate h) dead alive

XXXVII. Decide whether the following pairs are converses or not:

a) below above d) conceal - reveal
b) like - dislike e) greater than lesser than
c) grandparent grandchild f) own belong

XXXVIII. Build up the hierarchy of terms for birds in English, including chicken, eagle,
sparrow, duck, hen, humming bird, chick, ostrich, fowl, owl, penguin, dobin, falcon. Find
names for each group.

XXXIX. Construct the meronymy tree for car.

What is the superordinate term and what co-meronyms can you find?

XL. Make up hyponymy- trees for the following words:

a) tomato b) hammer c) bench

What are the most general words that you have included?
What are the most specific?

XLI.Construct the hyponymy tree for bird.

Exercises related to chapter 5

I. List as many verbs as you can think of in English for the notion of LAUGH
(e.g. giggle, chuckle ). Does your native language offer more or fewer words for the
overall field, and to what extent are there one-to-one correspondences? For further
practice do the same with these semantic notions:

- ways of WALKING
- words in the TALK domain
- words indicating the SPEED of an action.

II. Some of the verbs in the WALK domain can be used figuratively to refer to TALKING
(e.g. ramble, stumble, plod ). Make up sentences to illustrate their figurative meanings.

III.Discuss these verbs of cooking in terms of componential analysis:

boil simmer fry roast toast bake.

Analyse them using these oppositions: a) +water / -water; b) +fat/ -fat; c) +oven / -oven;
d) +flame/ -flame.

IV. Consider what features of the meaning of the following pairs of words
(their common features and distinguishing features ) you readily know without having to
return to a dictionary. To what extent and to whom might a full CA of the words be
a. falcon / hawk c. copse / spinney
b. polythene / polyurethane d. sybaritic / hedonistic

Revision Exercises

I. Discuss the semantic relations holding between these terms:

a) hot (weather) hot (potato)

b) coat raincoat
c) plot (of the novel) plot (of land)
d) cheese cottage cheese
e) room waiting room
f) flower daisy dandelion

II. Discuss the semantic relations holding between these terms:

a) robbery highway robbery gang robbery

b) have a row row of seats
c) face to face
d) dog terrier bull terrier

III. Comment on the type of semantic relation holding between:

a) speed velocity d) spouse -wife

b) force intensity e) teacher -student
c) hole orifice/ cavity f) cent scent sent

Use the terms in sentences of your own.

V. Comment on the type of semantic relation holding between:

a) cop policeman d) peace -war

b) seek-look for e) in -out
c) bloke guy f) soul sole

VI. Explain the semantic relations holding between these terms:

a) cold (weather) cold (person)

b) bank (of the Danube) (commercial) bank
c) red scarlet crimson vermilion

VII. Consider the following senses of skirt(s):

1.a piece of outer clothing worn by women and girls which hangs down from the
2. the part of a dress or coat that hangs down from the waist
3. the flaps on a saddle that protect a rider's legs
4. a circular flap as around the base of a hovercraft
5. 'a bit of skirt': an offensive expression meaning "an atttractive woman"
6. skirts of a forset, hill or village, etc. the outside edge of a forest, etc.
7. a new road skirting the suburb
8. they skirted rounded the bus.
9. He was skirting the issue. (= avoid)
(i) What is likely to be the prototypical meaning and point out which process of meaning
extension (generalization, metaphor, metonymy, specialization) you find in each of the
other cases. Give reasons for your answers.
(ii) How are the meanings in 6, 7, 8, 9) related to the prototypical meaning? What is the
difference between (6) versus 7, 8, 9)?
(iii) Which of these meanings would lend themselves for a classical definition? Which of
them would not? Give reasons for your answers.

VIII. In English, the same form may sometimes be a member of up to five different word
classes. Specify the word class of round in each of the following examples:

1. My friend is coming round the corner.

2. That was the first round table I saw.
3. She came round when they got something to drink.
4. Let's round off with an exercise.
5. After school we can play a round of golf.

IX. Test your knowledge of the meanings of OUT by giving synonyms, antonyms or
paraphrases for the following:

1. an outpatient. 6. an outing 11. an outgrowth 16. at the outset

2. the outskirts 7. a sell-out 12. an outline 17. an outsider
3. a dropout 8. an outburst 13. a bleak outlook 18. an outlet
4. a handout 9. a blackout 14. an outpouring 19. an outfit
5. an outcry 10. a nuclear fallout 15. an output 20. the outcome

X. Comment of the meanings of the prepositions at, with, about and over in these
1. Mrs. Smith was very pleased about the arrangement.
2. We had words over the fact we had fought.
3. The captain wasnt very pleased about my having seen see.
4. I had clashed with him over Percys kneeling figure.
5. Amy seemed pleased at the idea of leaving early.
6. The boy whimpered over his smashed head.
7. They were all very pleased with the news.
8. They fell in disgrace over their fathers debts.
9. I nearly lost a stripe over you.
10. Why do you take so much care over your students?

XI. Comment on the metaphorical extensions of these terms:

1. see hear - taste touch
2. warm icy frosty cold
3. white black blue yellow - red

XII. The word head has more than sixty senses and contexts of usage. Consider the
small selection below and explain which meaning extensions are metaphors and which
are metonymies:

1. your mind: My head is full of strange thoughts.

2. understanding: That joke went over his head
3. leader or person in charge of a group or community: The queen is still the head of
4. top or front of something: I prefer my beer without a head of foam
5. (for) each person: We paid ten pounds a head for the meal.

XIII. Consider the meanings of tea recorded by Collins Dictionary (1979: 1490).
Comment on how the original sense was extended, viz. metaphor or metonymy:

1. an evergreen shrub or smaller tree

2. the dried shredded leaves, used to make a beverage by infusion in boiling water
3. such a beverage served hot or iced
4. any of various plants that are similar or that are used to make a tealike beverage
5. any such beverage
6. afternoon tea, chiefly Brit. A light meal eaten in the afternoon, usually consisting of
tea and cakes, biscuits or sandwiches
7. high tea, Brit. and Austr. the main evening meal
8. US a slang term for marijuana

XIV. Explain the mechanism of sense extension in the figurative uses of these words:
climb, mouth, beaver, writing, tongue, reader, paper, board, dry, sharp, snarl, purr, grunt.

XV. Comment on the type of semantic relation holding between:

a) fab fabulous e) donate -award

b) hubby husband f) sodium chloride -salt
c) wally nerd g) inebriated -groggy
d) prison -nick

XVI. Comment and exemplify the figurative uses of these terms:

a) ramble stumble plod

bark hiss grunt twitter purr

XVII. Explain the semantic relations holding between these terms:

a) walk limp stroll stride

b) Pole (inhabitant of Poland) South Pole
c) mad crazy loony
d) doggy canine
e) sweat perspiration
f) animal dog -terrier

XVIII. Mention what kind of DISH, CIGARETTES, BEER, CHEESE and COFFEE you
prefer. Make up correct collocations by using one of these adjectives: light, heavy,
strong, weak, and mild.

XIX. Fill in the matrix. Indicate normal collocations with a tick; doubtful or unusual ones
with a question mark, and unacceptable ones with a cross.

a laugh a smoke an experience a trip

XX. Here are some examples of sentences written by learners of English. Identify any
odd or unacceptable collocations and suggest alternatives:

1 His books commanded criticism from many people.

2 There was a high difference between the two teams.
3 I am doing this exam because I want to achieve a step in my career.
4 He had been found guilty of some slight crimes.
5 She won many competitions, formatting fame in the process.
6 I was very grateful, because he had rescued my life.

XXI. Here is a list of words that can be associated with informal style or slang. Can you
provide a more formal synonym for each of them?

a. to croak b. boozy c. dough d.cabbage.

XXII. What are the basic level categories that subsume these subordinate categories:
leggings, T-shirt, pleated skirt, culottes, push chair, poppy, collie, bungalow

XXIII. For the notion of footwear think of or find as many words as you can, including
such terms as boots, slippers, trainers, pumps, flip-flops, mountain boots, shoes,
wellingtons, and add terms such as indoor footwear, sportswear, etc.

(a) Which of these words are superordinate terms and which ones subordinate terms?
(b) Which of these terms could be considered basic level terms? Give reasons for your
(c) Which of these words are highly entrenched, and which ones aren't? Give reasons
for your answer

XIV. Try to build up the taxonomic hierarchy of terms for birds in English, including at
least chicken, eagle, sparrow, duck, hen, humming bird, chick, ostrich, fowl, owl,
penguin, robin, falcon. Find names for each group.