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7.1 Electrostatic


Example phenomena related to electrostatic.


How object can be charged?

Atomic model

Electrostatic charge can be produce through friction (rubbing 2 object).

Only electron can be transferred from one object to another object.
Neutra objects can be charge when:
o Object that receive electron will negatively charge.
o Object that loss electron will positively charge.

Type of electrical charge produce when different material rubbed againt each other:
Negatively Charge Positively Charge
(receive electron) (loss electron)
Polythene Wool
Wool Celloluse acetate
Ebonite Fur
Silk Glass
Amber Fur

Electrostatic force

Attractive force (attract) Repulsive force (repel)

(different charge) (same charge)

How to detect electrostatic charge?

Electrostatic charge can be detect by using electroscope.



Neutral Charged
electroscope electroscope

Negative neutral Positive Negatively charged Positively charged
electroscope electroscope

Negative neutral Positive
Negative neutral Positive

Everyday phenomena related to electrostatic:

i) Lightning conductor
- Lightning produce when electron from cloud move to nearest positively charge area.
- Lightning conductor channel electron(from lightning) to ground.

ii) Iron chain at petroleum tanker

- Petroleum tanker become charged result of friction between the tanker and air.
- Iron chain channel electron (from tanker) to ground.

iii) Tyre of an aeroplane

- Aeroplanes become charged result of friction between the aeroplane and air.
- Tyre of an aeroplane channel electron(from aeroplane) to ground when landing.

7.2 Electricity (electrical energy)

Sources of electrical energy:

Sources of electrical energy Energy changes
i) Simple cell

ii)Dry cell / lithium cell / nikel-cadmium cell

iii) Acid lead accumulator

iv) Solar cells





Van de graaff generator (collect negative charge)

[Note: see also Van de graaff generator type that collect positive charge]

(from positive terminal to negative terminal)

(from negative terminal to positive terminal)

7.3 Current, Voltage and Resistance:

Symbol Measuring tool Measuring tools S.I Unit

(how it was connected symbol
in circuit)

Resistance in wire depend on:

7.4 Relationship between Current, Voltage and Resistance:

Ohms Law state that:

i) Voltage is directly propotional to current.
ii) Voltage is inversely propotional to resistance.
iii) Current is inversely propotional to resistance.

Current Voltage Resistance

Increase Increase Constant
Decrease Decrease Constant
Increase Constant Decrease
Decrease Constant Increase
Constant Increase Decrease
Constant Decrease Increase

V = I x R
V Voltage current resistance

Formula triangel for current, voltage and resistance

7.5 Electric Circuit

Complete the symbol of electrical component with its name

Dry cell Ammeter

Voltmeter Resistor

Switch bulb

Draw simple electric circuit including dry cell, switch, voltmeter, ammeter and resistance.

7.6 & 7.7 Series and Parallel Circuit

Series Circuit Parallel Circuit

IT = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 IT = I 1 + I 2 + I 3
VT = V1 + V2 + V3 VT = V1 = V2 = V3
RT = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 1 1 1 1
= + +
R R1 R2 R 3

Characteristic Characteristic

Current only flow through complete circuit.
A switch is used to connect or disconnect the circuit

Advantages Advantages

Disdvantages Disdvantages


Magnetic Field area that influence by magnetic force.

Magnetic Field Line

- are pattern of lines in magnetic field.
- This pattern can be shown by iron filling.
- Direction of magnetic field line shown by compass.
- Strongger magnet have closser magnetic field line.
- Will not cross each other.
- Start at north pole and end at south pole
- This pattern depend on the arrangement and strength of magnet.

Draw the magnetic field line for the magnet below.

(Note: Mark X at neutral point-space where not influence by magnetic force)
i) Same pole repel.
ii) Different pole attract.


- Is the magnetic effect/force that caused by the flow of electric current through a conductor.

Electromagnet in wire:
- Produce when current flow through wire.
- Form circular pattern of magnetic field line around the wire.

How to identify the direction of magnetic field line in wire?
i) Uses compass
ii) Uses Right Hand Grip Rule
a. Thumb show the direction of the current flow.
b. Other finger (curve) show the direction of magnetic field line.

Selenoid (coil of wire)

- Two ways to increase magnetic field in electromagnet:

- 1) increase number of turns of wire
- 2) use solid bar of iron in the coil