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# DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

SEMESTER : VI
TUTORIAL 2

Instructions:

## 1. Write in neat and clean handwriting.

2. Draw figures wherever necessary.
3. Late submission will ensure loss of marks

1. A 8 MHZ beam of Ultrasound travels from soft tissue into fat. Calculate the wavelength
in each medium and percentage wavelength change.For soft tissue speed of sound is 1540
m/s and for fat it is 1450 m/s.
2. Calculate the remaining intensity of 100mW U/S pulse that lose 40 dB while travelling
through tissue.
3. Calculate the percentage of U/S beam is transmitted from fat to muscle.acoustic
impedance for muscle =1.71X106 ,acoustic impedance for fat=1.34X106
4. Calculate the approximate intensity for a 5 MHZ Ultrasound wave travelling through
round trip to a depth of 4 cm in liver and reflected from an encapsulated air
pocket(Assume 100% reflection).using 0.5 db per cm for a 5 MHZ beam attenuation
coefficient is 25 db per cm.
5. A 1 MHz US wave with initial intensity 100 mW/cm2 (RMS) is travelling through fat.
(We shall assume initially that we have a semi-infinite slab so that there is no reflected
component.) Calculate: (a) the initial peak pressure, (b) the initial maximum velocity of
oscillation of the particles, (c) the initial maximum displacement. Now suppose that, the
beam hits a barrier with muscle 3cm from the starting point. Calculate: (d) the intensity of
the reflected beam. The tissue properties are: fat = 940 kg/m3, c = 1480 m/s,
(amplitude) = 0.07 cm-1; muscle = 1070 kg/m3, c = 1566 m/s, (amplitude) = 0.15
cm-1.
6. Derive wave equations for plane waves and spherical waves and also give their general
solution.
7. For medical ultrasound what is the range of frequency?
8. Explain the basic theory of ultrasound.
9. Describe some wave equations for plane waves
10. Describe some wave equations for spherical waves
11. Give the equations for transmission and reflection coefficients.
12. Give the difference between absorption, attenuation and scattering.
13. Explain attenuation with its necessary equations.
14. Exaplin Doppler effect using an example.
15. Explain transverse and longitudinal waves of ultrasound with figure..
16. Give the difference between pulsed and continuous wave of ultrasound.
17. Define duty cycle with equation.
18. Write short note on Ultrasound probes.
19. Explain pulse echo imaging.
20. Write short note on B mode scan
21. Write short note on A mode scan
22. Write short note on M mode scan.