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De#spinning)a)Satellite)With)a)Stretch)Yo#yo)

Duncan)Allen)and)Kevin)Coldren
Department)of)Physics)and)Astronomy2kR
=
sin
Introduction Ithaca)College I
Satellites$launched$into$an$orbit$around$Earth$often$spin=
= 2kR
stabilize$their$last$stage$trajectories$via$the$gyroscopic$effect.$ sin
By$applying$the$same$method$as$before,$we$get:
I
However,$due$to$conservation$of$angular$momentum,$the$satellite$
2
2kR R R
will$be$spinning$too$fast$for$the$attitude$control$mechanisms$to$
== +
sin sin cos
2
function$properly.$Thus,$a$method$is$needed$by$which$to$reduce$ lI l l
the$angular$velocity$of$a$satellite$to$a$more$acceptable$rate. 2 R 2 R
= + sin cos
A)Space)Yo#yo 2 l
R 2 l R l
= + sin 2 cosk
De=spin$is$accomplished$via$a$yo=yo$de=spin system.$Two$ l = Rl cos + l
l + R sin
weights$are$attached$to$cables$and$wrapped$around$the$last$
m
satellite$stage.$The$weights$are$released$and$extend$out$from$the$ 2 k
We$based$our$parameters$on$the$Dawn+spacecraft$

= R cos + l
+ R sin
launched$by$NASA$in$2007.$We$used$a$satellite$mass$of$1200$
satellite,$increasing$the$moment$of$inertia$of$the$system,$and$thus,$ 2 k m
slowing$the$angular$velocity.$The$weights$are$then$released.$This$ = R cos + l
+ R sin
kg,$small$masses$of$9$kg,$unstretched$cord$lengths$of$12$
m
meters,$and$a$radius$of$1.25$meters.$We$also$assumed$a$
is$shown$in$Fig.$1.
L spring$constant$of$10$N/m.
Results
m
R Using$a$computer$simulation,$the$two$phases$were$combined$
and$plotted$with$varying$initial$angular$velocities.$We$chose$an$
initial$spin$rate$of$50$rpm$as$the$accepted$value,$and$an$under=
spun rate$of$40$rpm,$and$an$over=spun rate$of$60$rpm.$The$target$
range$is$3=5$rpm.
y q

x 6

Figure)1.)Top)down)view)of)a)cylindrical) "Fast" Phase Switch


satellite.)Only)one)yo#yo)mass)with)a) 4

stretching)cord)is)shown.
Angular)Velocity)(rad/sec)

A$simple$model$for$this$scenario$uses$cords$that$have$no$
stretch$in$them.$However,$this$is$sensitive$to$errors$in$the$initial$
2
"Normal" Phase Switch 1
"Slow" Phase Switch
spin.$A$more$complex$model$incorporates$cords$with$a$spring$
constant,$k,$and$is$less$sensitive$to$these$errors.$ 2 4 6 8 10 12
t

I. LANGRANGIAN
Modeling)the)De#Spin 1 III. LAGRANGIAN II
1
There$are$two$phases$to$this$motion.$Phase$1$is$shown$in$ -2

Fig.$1,$and$occurs$in$the$time$when$the$cords$are$still$in$contact$
with$the$satellite.$Accounting$for$2$masses,$the$Lagrangian$for$this$
phase$is: ! " !
-4

1 2 l = R ( ) +
2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
L = T U = I +m R + l + 2R k L = T U = I +m 2 2
R! + l 1 +
Time)(seconds)
2 2
2
2Rl

cos 2R
2 1 2 2R 2
"
Figure)5.)Three)different)initial)initial)angular)velocities)
1
l 2 is$its$radius,$$is$its$
Here,$I is$the$moment$of$inertia$of$the$satellite,$R
1
= 2 + R
plotted)over)time = k
+
the$angular$position,$$is$the$angular$position$of$the$cord,$and$l
l l is$the$ I m
length$of$the$cord$with$its$stretch$$and$spring$constant$k.+By$using$ Conclusion
l = R ( ) +
II. PHASE I
the$Euler=Lagrange$equation,$we$obtain: Using$cables$with$stretch$allows$for$a$more$adaptive$system$
2kR IV. PHASE II
that$is$less$sensitive$to$errors$in$the$initial$angular$velocity$of$the$
l = R ( ) + = satellite.$The$slow$scenario$ended$below$the$target$range,$as$did$
! 2I " ! 2 "
l 2 the$normal$scenario.$The$fast$scenario$did$not$reach$the$target$
2R 1
2R 1
= k +

= 2 + R = k + angular$velocity,$but$was$de=spun$by$approximately$70%.
I! 2m "
l l 2 I m 2R
Acknowledgments) 1
l = k 1 +
The$authors$would$like$to$thank$Prof.$Daniel$Briota$and$Prof.$Matthew$
= 2 + R l = R ( ) +

The$second$phase$in$our$model$begins$when$the$cords$are$fully$ I m
l l
unwrapped.$The$cord$makes$an$angle$$with$the$x=axis,$as$well$as$ Price$for$their$guidance.
= 2kR
angle$ 2kR
with$the$extended$radius.$The$cord$continues$to$rotate$and$
sin
=
References) I
stretch,$until$ Igoes$to$zero,$when$the$masses$detach.$ Danby,$John$MA.$"Computer$modeling:$from$sports$to$spaceflight...$from$order$to$
2kR !
l 2 " chaos. Willmann'Bell,+Richmond,+VA+(USA),+1997
= 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
= 2 + R
L = T U = I I + m R + l + 2Rl cos 2R sin k 2 Rayman, Marc. "Dawn Journal." NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA, 12
2 l l Sept. 2007. Web. <http://dawn.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/journal_9_12_07.asp>.

2 R 2 R
= + sin cos