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# De#spinning)a)Satellite)With)a)Stretch)Yo#yo)

Duncan)Allen)and)Kevin)Coldren
Department)of)Physics)and)Astronomy2kR
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sin
Introduction Ithaca)College I
Satellites\$launched\$into\$an\$orbit\$around\$Earth\$often\$spin=
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stabilize\$their\$last\$stage\$trajectories\$via\$the\$gyroscopic\$effect.\$ sin
By\$applying\$the\$same\$method\$as\$before,\$we\$get:
I
However,\$due\$to\$conservation\$of\$angular\$momentum,\$the\$satellite\$
2
2kR R R
will\$be\$spinning\$too\$fast\$for\$the\$attitude\$control\$mechanisms\$to\$
== +
sin sin cos
2
function\$properly.\$Thus,\$a\$method\$is\$needed\$by\$which\$to\$reduce\$ lI l l
the\$angular\$velocity\$of\$a\$satellite\$to\$a\$more\$acceptable\$rate. 2 R 2 R
= + sin cos
A)Space)Yo#yo 2 l
R 2 l R l
= + sin 2 cosk
De=spin\$is\$accomplished\$via\$a\$yo=yo\$de=spin system.\$Two\$ l = Rl cos + l
l + R sin
weights\$are\$attached\$to\$cables\$and\$wrapped\$around\$the\$last\$
m
satellite\$stage.\$The\$weights\$are\$released\$and\$extend\$out\$from\$the\$ 2 k
We\$based\$our\$parameters\$on\$the\$Dawn+spacecraft\$

= R cos + l
+ R sin
launched\$by\$NASA\$in\$2007.\$We\$used\$a\$satellite\$mass\$of\$1200\$
satellite,\$increasing\$the\$moment\$of\$inertia\$of\$the\$system,\$and\$thus,\$ 2 k m
slowing\$the\$angular\$velocity.\$The\$weights\$are\$then\$released.\$This\$ = R cos + l
+ R sin
kg,\$small\$masses\$of\$9\$kg,\$unstretched\$cord\$lengths\$of\$12\$
m
is\$shown\$in\$Fig.\$1.
L spring\$constant\$of\$10\$N/m.
Results
m
R Using\$a\$computer\$simulation,\$the\$two\$phases\$were\$combined\$
and\$plotted\$with\$varying\$initial\$angular\$velocities.\$We\$chose\$an\$
initial\$spin\$rate\$of\$50\$rpm\$as\$the\$accepted\$value,\$and\$an\$under=
spun rate\$of\$40\$rpm,\$and\$an\$over=spun rate\$of\$60\$rpm.\$The\$target\$
range\$is\$3=5\$rpm.
y q

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## Figure)1.)Top)down)view)of)a)cylindrical) "Fast" Phase Switch

satellite.)Only)one)yo#yo)mass)with)a) 4

stretching)cord)is)shown.

A\$simple\$model\$for\$this\$scenario\$uses\$cords\$that\$have\$no\$
stretch\$in\$them.\$However,\$this\$is\$sensitive\$to\$errors\$in\$the\$initial\$
2
"Normal" Phase Switch 1
"Slow" Phase Switch
spin.\$A\$more\$complex\$model\$incorporates\$cords\$with\$a\$spring\$
constant,\$k,\$and\$is\$less\$sensitive\$to\$these\$errors.\$ 2 4 6 8 10 12
t

I. LANGRANGIAN
Modeling)the)De#Spin 1 III. LAGRANGIAN II
1
There\$are\$two\$phases\$to\$this\$motion.\$Phase\$1\$is\$shown\$in\$ -2

Fig.\$1,\$and\$occurs\$in\$the\$time\$when\$the\$cords\$are\$still\$in\$contact\$
with\$the\$satellite.\$Accounting\$for\$2\$masses,\$the\$Lagrangian\$for\$this\$
phase\$is: ! " !
-4

1 2 l = R ( ) +
2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
L = T U = I +m R + l + 2R k L = T U = I +m 2 2
R! + l 1 +
Time)(seconds)
2 2
2
2Rl

cos 2R
2 1 2 2R 2
"
Figure)5.)Three)different)initial)initial)angular)velocities)
1
Here,\$I is\$the\$moment\$of\$inertia\$of\$the\$satellite,\$R
1
= 2 + R
plotted)over)time = k
+
the\$angular\$position,\$\$is\$the\$angular\$position\$of\$the\$cord,\$and\$l
l l is\$the\$ I m
length\$of\$the\$cord\$with\$its\$stretch\$\$and\$spring\$constant\$k.+By\$using\$ Conclusion
l = R ( ) +
II. PHASE I
2kR IV. PHASE II
that\$is\$less\$sensitive\$to\$errors\$in\$the\$initial\$angular\$velocity\$of\$the\$
l = R ( ) + = satellite.\$The\$slow\$scenario\$ended\$below\$the\$target\$range,\$as\$did\$
! 2I " ! 2 "
l 2 the\$normal\$scenario.\$The\$fast\$scenario\$did\$not\$reach\$the\$target\$
2R 1
2R 1
= k +

= 2 + R = k + angular\$velocity,\$but\$was\$de=spun\$by\$approximately\$70%.
I! 2m "
l l 2 I m 2R
Acknowledgments) 1
l = k 1 +
The\$authors\$would\$like\$to\$thank\$Prof.\$Daniel\$Briota\$and\$Prof.\$Matthew\$
= 2 + R l = R ( ) +

The\$second\$phase\$in\$our\$model\$begins\$when\$the\$cords\$are\$fully\$ I m
l l
unwrapped.\$The\$cord\$makes\$an\$angle\$\$with\$the\$x=axis,\$as\$well\$as\$ Price\$for\$their\$guidance.
= 2kR
angle\$ 2kR