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Introduction to the course
ffi
Basic Concepts
Foundation Fieldbus Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction Dear Learner,
The Fieldbus Foundation Welcome to the FOUNDATION Fieldbus module! FOUNDATION Fieldbus is
Physical Laver a leading Fieldbus protocol used mainly in the p rocess industry and we
Data Link Laver will stu dy it in some detail now.
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability In this module, we will learn about :
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART, Profibus and ASi * FOUNDATION F ie ld b u s B a s ic s
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P * T h e F F P h y s ic a l L a y e r
Self A ssessm en t T est
* T h e F F D ata Link L a y e r

* T h e F F U se r L a y e r

* F F B lo ck s and "Control in th e Field" P h ilo so p h y

* In te ro p e ra b ility

* S a fe ty In s tru m e n te d F u n ctio n s

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Introduction
QM Foundation Fieldbus
In this se ctio n , we will stu dy the FOUNDATION Fieldbus protocol, which is a v e ry popular Fieldbus protocol used
Introduction
exte n sive ly in the p rocess industry.
The Fieldbus Foundation
Physical Laver
FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an all digital, two w a y , serial, multi-drop com munication netw ork, th a t runs a t 31.25
Data Link Laver
Kbps and which can co n n e ct sen so rs, tra n sm itters, a ctu a to rs and other field d evices and h o sts (D CS or PLC or
User layer
other type o f electronic co n tro llers).
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
Foundation Fieldbus d evices are referred to as FF d evices in the in du stry. Additionally the Fieldbus Foundation
HART, Profibus and ASi
logo on the device informs the u se r, th a t it is compatible with other FF d evices from different m an ufacturers.
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
T h u s a Yokogaw a make FF pressure tran sm itter, an Emerson FF Flow tran sm itter and a Sm ar FF Tem perature
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
tran sm itter can all be p art o f the same Fieldbus netw ork.
Self A ssessm en t T est
T h is is known as in te ro p e ra b ility and it frees the user from being "locked into" a relationship with a p articular
supplier. T h u s if your FF tran sm itter m anufactured by "M anufacturer 1" fa ils, you can easily replace it with one
m anufactured by "M anufacturer 2" in the same Fieldbus netw ork.

Click the V IEW button below to see this co n ce p t via an anim ation. Once the Animation is displayed, click the
S ta rt button to s ta rt it. When finished , click the STO P button.

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction
The Fieldbus Foundation
Physical Laver
H I C a rd s
Data Link Laver
GBD User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
H ost
Safety Instrum ented Fur F ie ld b u s N e tw o rk
HART, Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

M a n u fa c tu r e r A

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts T h e Fieldbus Foundation
QM Foundation Fieldbus
FOUNDATION Fieldbus is managed by the F ie ld b u s Fo u n d atio n , a non profit organization headquartered in North
Introduction
Am erica w ith over 180 members. T h e se members are not only autom ation system ven d o rs, instrum ent
The Fieldbus Foundation
m anufacturers and control system in teg rato rs, but also engineering com panies and subsidiaries of various user
Physical Laver
industries from the p rocess industry.
Data Link Laver
User layer
Work on an all digital, interoperable com munication protocol for field d evices ("Field b us"), sta rted as far back
Fieldbus Interoperability
as the 80s when IS A (know n a t th a t time as "Instrum ent S o c ie ty of America" but now known as the International
Safety Instrum ented Fur
S o c ie ty for A utom ation), formed a com m ittee code named S P 5 0 , who were tasked with defining a standard for
HART, Profibus and ASi
such a protocol.
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Work did not progress as fa s t as envisaged how ever and various competing autom ation vendors sta rted
Self A ssessm en t T est
developing their own versio n s of their own "Fieldbus", none o f w hich worked with each other!

Finally two vendor a sso cia tio n s. T h e Interoperable S yste m s P ro je ct (IS P ) and W orldFIP-North Am erica merged to
form the Fieldbus Foundation. T h is new organization continued to work to w ard s developing a common Fieldbus
protocol, w hich w as named FOUNDATION Fieldbus. T h e d raft sp e cificatio n s for the H I protocol were released in
May 1995 and were dem onstrated in O ctober 1996.

T h e IEC (In tern atio n al E le ctro te ch n ica l Commission) included the FOUNDATION Fieldbus
protocol in its IE C 61158 Fieldbus stand ard . T h ere are now more than 1 million FOUNDATION
Fieldbus d evices in operation all over the world in various in du stries; how ever by far the
m ajority o f th ese are in the p rocess industry (su c h as Oil & G as, Chem ical, Petroleum
Refining, Gas Processing and sim ilar).
Fieldbus
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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts Physical L a y e r
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction Recall the O SI Model th a t we have studied in the previous module. T h e physical layer is the bottom m ost layer of
The Fieldbus Foundation the O SI model. Therefo re the physical layer is a m eans to transm it and receive the digital bits and b y te s ( I s
Physical Laver and Os) th a t form the com munication m essage. T h e signals may be e le ctrical or optical.
Data Link Laver
User layer T h e P h ysical layer deals with the a ctu a l physical p aram eters o f com m unication such as cable lengths, signal
Fieldbus Interoperability vo ltag e s and cu rre n ts, freq uencies, re sista n c e s and so on. T h e upper layers deal with the interpretation and
Safety Instrum ented Fur generation of the m essages th a t are carried by the physical layer. T h e se layers are the Data Link layer and
HART, Profibus and ASi application layer.
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P In this se ctio n , we will stu d y in detail the Physical La ye r for FOUNDATION Fieldbus.
Self A ssessm en t T est

Fieldbus Model

O S I Reference Model U ser Lay er

Layer 7 A p p lic a tio n L a y e r A p p lic a tio n L a y e r

ji
Layer 6 P re s e n t a tio n L a y e r

Layer 5 S e s s io n L a y e r

Layer 4 T ra n sp o rt L a y e r

Layer 3 N e tw o rk L a y e r
r

Layer 2 D ata L in k L a y e r D a ta L in k L a y e r

Layer 1 P h y s ic a l L a y e r P h y s ic a l L a y e r

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Introduction to the course
tt^i^Fieldbus ------------

ffi Basic Concepts H I netw o rk


& Foundation Fieldbus
You might have often come a cro ss the term "H I network" or simply H I in the c o n te x t o f FOUNDATION Fieldbus
Introduction
technology. W h at does this H I stand for?
The Fieldbus Foundation
B B Physical Laver
H I refers to the FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork th a t co n n e cts the various Fieldbus d evices on a segm ent. Th u s the
H I network
FOUNDATION Fieldbus d evices a t the lo w est level are connected by the H I netw ork. T h is corresponds to the
H I characteristics-1
physical layer in the O SI seven la ye r model.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
T h e c h a ra c te ris tic s of this H I netw ork are as given below. We will know more about th ese c h a ra c te ris tic s in the
H I segment-2
following pages.
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE D ata tra n sm is s io n ra te of 3 1 .2 5 Kbps
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Tw o w ire ung round ed n e tw o rk ca b le
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies P o w e r and D ata o v e r th e s a m e p air of w ire s
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica M a n ch e ste r encoding
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec D ifferential V o lta g e signaling
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2 Nom inal c h a ra c te ris t ic im p e d a n c e of 100 o h m s
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
N etw ork length of upto 1 9 0 0 m , ca n be e x te n d e d upto 9 5 0 0 m with re p e a te r s
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics- S u ita b le for h a z a rd o u s a r e a s
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts H I ch a ra cte ristics-1
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction D ata T ra n s m iss io n R ate
The Fieldbus Foundation
(=) Physical Laver T h e H I netw ork has a data transm ission rate o f 31 .25 Kbps. Though this seem s slow (e sp e cia lly to those of us who
H I network are used to hearing about voice and in tern et connections o f the order o f M bps), it is su fficien t for instrum ents in
H I characteristics-1 the p rocess industry.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Remember th a t ultim ately, actio n s to control the p rocess are carried out by a ctu a to rs such as pneum atic control
H I segment-2 v a lv e s or e le ctrical (m otorized) a c tu a to rs, which typ ically take a few seconds to a ctu a te /o p e ra te . A lso, the
Fieldbus Hardware &' p ro cesse s under control, have dead times o f the order o f a few m inutes to a few hours. Think about the time it
H I. H2 and HSE takes to h e a t a large re a cto r, from am bient tem perature to sa y 100 deg C, for exam ple. I t is certain ly not done in
Topologies seco n d s. T h e data transm ission ra te of FOUNDATION Fieldbus is thus more than enough to m atch th ese p rocess
Daisy Chain tim es. Besides, if "Control in Field" philosophy is followed, the response time for a closed loop is fa s te r than th a t for
Multidrop conventional loops using analog 4-20m A technology.
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies Tw o w ire ung round ed n e tw o rk ca b le
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica FOUNDATION Fieldbus w as designed to replace the conventional tw o wire analog 4-20 mA sy ste m , with minimum
Host Communication disruptions/changes in the technology with w hich Instrum entation professionals in the p rocess industry were familar
Transm ission and Rec w ith. Hence the technology u ses ungrounded (flo atin g ) tw o wire tw isted pair cable (larg ely similar to th a t used for
FF Power Supplies-1 conventional 4-20 mA in strum en ts).
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831 P o w e r and D ata
Power Supply Sizing Power and Data are carried over the same pair o f w ires (tw o wire s y ste m ), similar to the conventional 4-20 mA
Redundant Power Sue system .
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics- M a n ch e ste r Encod ing
Bricks and Couplers-1 T h e H I netw ork u ses M anchester encoding for the signal. We have already learned about this technique in the
Bricks and Couplers-2 earlier module.
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART, Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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& Basic Concepts H I ch aracteristics-2
QM Foundation Fieldbus D ifferential V o lta g e Signaling
Introduction
The Fieldbus Foundation Differential voltage signaling enables the H I netw ork to be re sista n t to noise and other in terfere n ce. Differential
G H Physical Laver signaling m eans th a t the com munication is carried over a pair of w ires. T h e voltage a t the receiving end is the
H I network difference in voltage betw een the w ires. I f some noise or electrom agntic in terference is p resen t in the
H I characteristics-1 surroundings, it will get superimposed on both the w ires. But b ecau se we m easure only the difference in vo ltag e,
H I characteristics-2 the noise signal g ets canceled out (sin ce the noise signal is p resen t on both w ire s). T h is is similar to the co n ce p t
H I segm ent-1 used in the EIA 485 protocol.
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
N etw ork length of 1900 m e te rs
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Differential voltage signaling enables the H I netw ork to c a rry signals for lengths o f upto 1900
Daisy Chain
m eters. C om paratively, an unbalanced signal transm ission (su ch as RS 232) can c a rry the signal reliably only for
Multidrop
short d ista n ce s (le ss than 100 m ete rs).
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies S u ita b le for u s e in H a z a rd o u s A re a s
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology is suitable for use in hazardous a re a s. (N o te: Hazardous A re a s, which are also
Host Communication known as Classified Lo catio n s, refer to those area s in plants th a t have a probability o f presence o f flammable g ase s,
Transm ission and Rec vapo rs and dust m ixtures).
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART, Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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& Basic Concepts H I se g m e n t-1
QM Foundation Fieldbus
A FOUNDATION Fieldbus HI netw ork is made o f one or many HI s e g m e n ts . T h u s a segm ent can be considered the
Introduction
sm allest possible configuration of a FF netw ork.
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver
E ve ry H I segm ent has one FF Power Supply (con sisting o f a DC power supply and a power conditioner), two
H I network
term inators a t two ends o f the segm ent, a shielded tw isted pair FF cable and a t le a st two FF d e v ic e s.T h e
H I characteristics-1
term inator a t the h o st end is not explicitly shown in the picture below, but is p resen t. A h o st is also connected as
H I characteristics-2
show n.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
T h e h o st can be a DCS or a PLC, or other kind o f controller th a t has the capability to in terface with a FOUNDATION
Fieldbus Hardware &'
Fieldbus HI segm ent. T h e electronic card to w hich the HI segm ent is co n n e cted , is referred to as an HI card . Note
H I. H2 and HSE
th a t a typ ical plant w ith FOUNDATION Fieldbus would have many su ch seg m ents, even in the hundreds. Also eve ry
Topologies
segm ent can have multiple such Field d evices connected to it, rath er than ju s t two as shown here.
Daisy Chain
Multidrop Fieldbus Fieldbus
Junction box Junction box
Chicken Foot Topoloo Fieldbus host
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Terminator
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 Fieldbus
Power Supply
Cable Lengths
FF transmitter
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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& Basic Concepts H I segm ent-2
QM Foundation Fieldbus
T h e following diagram show s a typ ical H I segm ent. Hover your mouse over each com ponent to see how it may
Introduction
look in real life. T h e sub segm ents to which the d evices are connected are also referred to as spurs. I f a spur is
The Fieldbus Foundation
less than 1 m eter in length, it may also be referred to as a splice. In the picture below, the D refers to "device"
G H Physical Laver
and T to "Term inator".
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 Segment
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers Trunk
Terminators-1 Home Run
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Fieldbus H ard w a re & Term inology
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction We will now learn about some hardware com ponents th a t are used in a typ ical FOUNDATION Fieldbus Network. An
The Fieldbus Foundation explanation o f the term s used is given below.
G H Physical Laver
H I network N etw ork: All the media, co n n e cto rs and a sso cia ted elem ents by which Fieldbus d evices are connected to each
H I characteristics-1 other is a Fieldbus netw ork.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 S e g m e n t: is a p art o f the Fieldbus netw ork. Sp ecifically it is th a t p art which co n n e cts to a single Fieldbus
H I segment-2 in terface port o f the h o st. T h is port is often on an electronic card th a t is referred to as an H I card .
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE Trun k: As the name su g g ests, it is the main com munication backbone. In other words this is the main "Fieldbus"
Topologies to which various field d evices are connected in the segm ent.
Daisy Chain
Multidrop S p u rs: are connections th a t branch out from the trunk w hich are in the range o f 1-120 m eters.
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies S p lic e s : T h e se are small spurs th a t are less than 1 m eter in length.
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica T e rm in a to r: is a device (w hich has an R-C netw ork inside) w hich is used to reduce distortion and signal loss a t
Host Communication e ach end of the transm ission line. T w o term inators are used per segm ent (one a t each end o f the segm ent) o f a
Transm ission and Rec Fieldbus netw ork.
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2 P o w e r C o n d itio n e r: T h is is used to isolate the Power supply from the Fieldbus wiring, so th a t the signals are not
FF 831 absorbed by the power supply. Som etim es it is combined with a Power Supply Unit in one package and called as
Power Supply Sizing "Fieldbus Power Supply".
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics- I f you w ish , you can go b ack to the previous page to see the above parts once more.
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Basic Concepts H I, H2 and HSE
& Foundation Fieldbus H2 n etw o rk
Introduction
The Fieldbus Foundation In itita lly w hen the Fieldbus sp e cificatio n s were being developed
B B Physical Laver by the Fieldbus Foundation, two n etw orks were proposed
H I network called H I and H2. T h e H I netw ork w a s to be a direct
H I characteristics-1 rep lacem ent for the 4-20m A analog netw ork. T h u s the H I
H I characteristics-2 netw ork sp e cs were (in b rief), a 31 .25 Kbps data speed,
H I segm ent-1 unshielded tw isted pair w ires carrying both power and data and
H I segment-2 maximum length o f 1900 m eters w ithout re p e a te rs. On the H I lin k in g d e v ic e
Fieldbus Hardware &' other hand H2 w as supposed to be an E th e rn e t based netw ork
H I. H2 and H5E with either 1 Mbps or 2.5 Mbps data speed, 500 m eters
H1
Topologies maximum length and data and power on sep arate w ires.
Daisy Chain
/
Multidrop I t w as envisaged th a t a typ ical plant would have severa l H I H1
Chicken Foot Topoloo segm ents th a t co n n e ct to a "home run" H2 netw ork. La te r on
More on Topologies (a fte r 19 98 ), the sp e cs for H2 were merged into the HSE specs
Linking Devices (g iven below ).
Handheld Communica
Host Communication H SE
FF Control FF
Transm ission and Rec V alves Transm itter
FF Power Supplies-1 HSE is an acronym for High Speed E th e rn e t. While the H I
FF Power Supplies-2 netw ork co n n e cts to gether field d e vice s, such as sen so rs,
FF 831 tra n sm itters, a ctu a to rs and Inp out/O utput c a rd s; HSE
Power Supply Sizing co n n e cts higher level plant autom ation d evices such as PLC s,
Redundant Power S ue DCS or C ontrollers. HSE is a 100 Mbps netw ork.
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics- Data tra n sfer from the H I netw ork to the HSE is via linking d e vice s. T h e following picture show s and H I netw ork
Bricks and Couplers-1 and an H SE. In this e-learning course on Fieldbus, w e will re s tric t ourselves to H I netw orks and not HSE netw orks.
Bricks and Couplers-2 In p ra c tice , you will see in a typical installation, there are severa l H I segm ents th a t are connected to H I card s of
Device Couplers the h o st. From here on, the h o st controllers are connected to other controllers and operator/engineering statio n s
Terminators-1 via either HSE or other kinds of E th e rn e t based protocols, or even some proprietary netw ork.
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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& Basic Concepts Topologies
QM Foundation Fieldbus T h e w a y in w hich d evices on the Fieldbus netw ork are connected is called a topology. In a traditional control
Introduction system a rch ite c tu re , there is only one basic kind o f topology, w hich is a point to point netw ork. T h u s as seen
The Fieldbus Foundation earlier, eve ry device in the field is co n nected to the control system se p ara te ly.
G H Physical Laver
H I network In a Fieldbus netw ork, the topology can be o f various ty p e s. I t can be in the form o f a multi-drop netw ork as seen
H I characteristics-1 earlier, or a daisy chain netw ork or a Spur netw ork (also referred to as a Chicken Foot n etw o rk). In fa c t it can be
H I characteristics-2 even implemented as a point to point netw ork (though one may not derive the full b enefits o f Fieldbus technology
H I segm ent-1 if implemented this w a y ).
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &' T h e b e st p art is th a t all th ese n etw orks can c o -e x ist in the same plant and the same host!
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies In the following p ages, we will see th ese topologies in some more detail.
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Daisy Chain
Introduction H I n etw orks can be thought o f as parallel ele ctrical c irc u its, w here the two connection terminals o f each field
The Fieldbus Foundation d evice are paralleled to each other.
G H Physical Laver
H I network T h e sim plest w a y to co n n e ct d evices to gether is to "daisy chain" them . Hence the fieldbus w ires g et connected
H I characteristics-1 to the first d e vice , w hich then g ets connected to the second and so on in a chain. T h is is called a Daisy Chain
H I characteristics-2 n etw ork.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2 T h is is shown in the diagram below.
Fieldbus Hardware &' Fieldbus ho*
H I. H2 and HSE
*9L " *
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
TsrnWiAKy
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing F ia ld lx is
Potter S u p p ly
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
F id o b u i Instru m e n t
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Fieldbus
& Basic Concepts Multidrop
QM Foundation Fieldbus
T h is is one the m ost fam ous topologies o f Fieldbus, th a t has been widely used e ve ry w h e re . T h e multi-drop
Introduction
topology is called so b ecau se there is one common data bus th a t runs from the control room and various
The Fieldbus Foundation
connections are dropped from it into d e vice s. T h is is also known as "Bus with spurs". T h e picture below shows
(=) Physical Laver
an example of this.
H I network
Fieldbus host
H I characteristics-1 Junction box Junction box Junction box
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing Fieldbus
Redundant Power Sue Power Supply w
Fieldbus Instrument Fieldbus Instrument Fieldbus Instrument Fieldbu
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART, Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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as
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Introduction to the course
Si Basic Concepts
E il Foundation Fieldbus
s t famous topologies of Fieldbus, th a t has been widely used e ve ry w h e re . T h e multi-drop
I Introduction
jo b ecau se there is one common data bus th a t runs from the control room and various
The Fieldbus Foundation
pped from it into d e vice s. T h is is also known as "Bus w ith spurs". T h e picture below show s
B l Physical Laver
I H I network
I H I characteristics-1 Junction box Junction box Junction box Junction box
I H I characteristics-2
I H I segm ent-1 Terminator
I H I segment-2
I Fieldbus Hardware &'
I H I. H2 and HSE
I Topologies
I Daisy Chain
I Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing Fieldbus
Redundant Power S ue Power Supply
Fieldbus Instrument Fieldbus Instrument Fieldbus Instrument Fieldbus Instrument
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART, Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts Chicken Foot Topology
Q M Foundation Fieldbus
T h is is a combination of the multi-drop topology and the s ta r topology. In fa c t it is the s ta r toplogy if you look
Introduction
care fu lly. T h e picture below show s a single chicken foot, w e can have multiple such chicken foots connected via a
The Fieldbus Foundation
"trunk".
G H Physical Laver
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 Fieldbus host
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain Terminator
Multidrop
Chicken Foot T o po Ioq1
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 Fieldbus Instrument
Cable Lengths Fieldbus Instrument
Cable Types Fieldbus Instrument
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1 Fieldbus Instrument
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts More on Topologies
QM Foundation Fieldbus As w e saw earlier, FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork topologies can be Daisy Chain, Bus with Spurs and Chicken Foot
Introduction topologies. T h e following animation show s th ese different topologies. Simply click on the buttons below to see them .
The Fieldbus Foundation
(=) Physical Laver
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Control H ig h w ay
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE In p u t/O u tp u t
Topologies
Daisy Chain I in B o ard s

Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo H ost
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1 to
FF Power Supplies-2 I
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 Multi Drop I D a isy C hain T re e I Point to Point
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Note th a t th ese different topologies are not m utually e xclu sive . T h e y can be mixed in a Fieldbus netw ork
Terminators-2
segm ent. T h u s the same segm ent can have for example a Multi-Drop and a Chicken Foot topology.
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts More on Topologies
QM Foundation Fieldbus As w e saw earlier, FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork topologies can be Daisy Chain, Bus with Spurs and Chicken Foot
Introduction topologies. T h e following animation show s th ese different topologies. Simply click on the buttons below to see them .
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver
H I network Multi Drop Topology
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Control H ig h w ay
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE In p u t/O u tp u t
Topologies B o ard s
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
I
Chicken Foot Topoloo H ost
Multi Drop
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 Multi Drop I D a isy Chain Point to Point
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Note th a t th ese different topologies are not m utually e xclu sive . T h e y can be mixed in a Fieldbus netw ork
Terminators-2
segm ent. T h u s the same segm ent can have for example a Multi-Drop and a Chicken Foot topology.
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts More on Topologies
QM Foundation Fieldbus As w e saw earlier, FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork topologies can be Daisy Chain, Bus with Spurs and Chicken Foot
Introduction topologies. T h e following animation show s th ese different topologies. Simply click on the buttons below to see them .
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver
H I network D aisy Chain Topology
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Control H ig h w ay
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE In p u t/O u tp u t
Topologies B o ard s
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
I
Chicken Foot Topoloo H ost
More on Topologies
D a isy Chain
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 Multi Drop I D a isy C hain Point to Point
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Note th a t th ese different topologies are not m utually e xclu sive . T h e y can be mixed in a Fieldbus netw ork
Terminators-2
segm ent. T h u s the same segm ent can have for example a Multi-Drop and a Chicken Foot topology.
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts More on Topologies
QM Foundation Fieldbus As w e saw earlier, FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork topologies can be Daisy Chain, Bus with Spurs and Chicken Foot
Introduction topologies. T h e following animation show s th ese different topologies. Simply click on the buttons below to see them .
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver
H I network T ree Topology
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Control H ig h w ay
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE In p u t/O u tp u t
Topologies B o ard s
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
I
Chicken Foot Topoloo H ost
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 Multi Drop I D a isy C hain Point to Point
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Note th a t th ese different topologies are not m utually e xclu sive . T h e y can be mixed in a Fieldbus netw ork
Terminators-2
segm ent. T h u s the same segm ent can have for example a Multi-Drop and a Chicken Foot topology.
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts More on Topologies
QM Foundation Fieldbus As w e saw earlier, FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork topologies can be Daisy Chain, Bus with Spurs and Chicken Foot
Introduction topologies. T h e following animation show s th ese different topologies. Simply click on the buttons below to see them .
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver
H I network Point To Point
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 C ontrol H ig h w ay
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE In p u t/O u tp u t
Topologies B o ard s
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
I s

Chicken Foot Topoloo H ost


More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 Multi Drop I D a isy C hain Point to Point
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Note th a t th ese different topologies are not m utually e xclu sive . T h e y can be mixed in a Fieldbus netw ork
Terminators-2
segm ent. T h u s the same segm ent can have for example a Multi-Drop and a Chicken Foot topology.
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts Linking D evices
QM Foundation Fieldbus
T h ere are a categ o ry o f FOUNDATION Fieldbus d evices th a t are called as
Introduction
"Linking D evices". T h ere are various typ es of these d evices available with
The Fieldbus Foundation
various fu n ctio n alities. One example o f a linking device is shown alongside. T h is
G H Physical Laver
d evice can co n n e ct upto four H I segm ents to a HSE netw ork. I t can also
H I network
H I characteristics-1
publish data from one H I netw ork to another H I netw ork (co n n e cted to it).
T h e picture below show s a topology with an H I segm ent connected to an HSE
I L a-
H I characteristics-2
through a linking d evice.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
I B
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo HSE
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication H I lin k in g d e v ic e
Transm ission and Rec y
FF Power Supplies-1 H1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831 H1
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2 FF Control FF
V alves T ra n sm itte r
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Handheld Com m unicators
Introduction How do we a c c e s s Fieldbus d evices in order to configure them ? We can use either Handheld Com m unicators (known
The Fieldbus Foundation as HHC for sh o rt) or use the Host system its e lf (w h ich has to have appropriate so ftw a re ) to com m unicate with field
G H Physical Laver d evices for configuration. Most h o st syste m s th a t are Fieldbus com patible have severa l good so ftw are applications
H I network th a t can be used to configure Fieldbus d e vice s.
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 HHCs are good for use in the field (a s th e y can be carried easily by Instru m ent &. Control system te ch n icia n s) and
H I segm ent-1 are also available in In trin sically S a fe versions (fo r safe use in Hazardous A re a s).
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
Q M Foundation Fieldbus Host Communication
0 .... Control Network
Introduction H osts w hich are FOUNDATION Fieldbus capable
The Fieldbus Foundation generally have v e ry good "user friendly"
G H Physical Laver configuration so ftw are th a t enables e a sy ... H ardw are Alarm s
H I network com munication and configuration for Fieldbus I/ O
H I characteristics-1
B ..
d e vice s. A typ ical scre en is shown alongside. n coi
H I characteristics-2 IS
H I segm ent-1 T h e "Windows Explorer" type in terface allows you B HC02
H I segment-2 to see w h at is co n nected to the system and - fl S02
Fieldbus Hardware &' allows e a sy a c c e s s and configuration.
H I. H2 and HSE Decom m issioned Fieldbus D evices
Topologies Note this is much easier than trying to program f f i-
* P T _1 0 3
Daisy Chain using Hand Held Com municators th a t have "text- I P V _1 0 3
Multidrop only" displays (like the one on the previous B r
Chicken Foot Topoloo p ag e ). H ow ever, new er HHC models have a 555 F F A O l
More on Topologies b e tte r graphical in terface th a t m akes use of J F F IS E L _S T D 1
Linking Devices icons. SAPIDI
Handheld Communica
Host Communication Fieldbus Device A larm s
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
[+] O P02
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Transm ission and Reception
Introduction An im portant point to be understood about FOUNDATION Fieldbus
The Fieldbus Foundation is the nature o f the signaling by the field d e vice s. A Field device F ie ld b u s D e v ice
G H Physical Laver wanting to transm it a signal does so by modulating its current ~ +
c
H I network with an amplitude o f about 20mA p eak-to -p eak. T h is is shown in <u
H I characteristics-1 L
the figure alongside.
H I characteristics-2 u 15 to 20 mA p-p
H I segm ent-1 Note th a t a p assive d evice (su ch as a tran sm itter) does this by 8
H I segment-2 rapidly changing its cu rre n t consum ption, w h ereas an a ctive a>
O
Fieldbus Hardware &' device (su c h as an FF h o st) does this by injecting a cu rre n t.
H I. H2 and HSE Transmitting
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop Now, once this cu rre n t signal is tran sm itted , it c re a te s a voltage
Fieldbus Signal
Chicken Foot Topoloo variation of about 1 V peak to peak th a t gets superimposed on
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
i the dc power supply v o lta g e .T h is is the received "signal" th a t is
d etected by all d evices on the netw ork.
0.75 to 1.0 V p-p
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
<u
CT1
co

a
9 to 32 V o lts
T In order th a t the signaling may take place in this m anner, we
require a sp ecial power supply and term inators a t both ends of
FF Power Supplies-1 . the segm ent. T h e details about th e se , we shall see in the
FF Power Supplies-2 following pages.
FF 831 T im e
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics- In FOUNDATION Fieldbus, the m essage is transm itted by modulating cu rre n t and it is received by sensing the
Bricks and Couplers-1 voltage variation .
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts FF P o w e r Supplies-1
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction W hy d o e s FOUNDATION F ie ld b u s req u ire a s p e c ia l p o w e r su p p ly ?
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver An ordinary 24 V power supply will not do for powering an FF segm ent, simply b ecau se the output impedance of
H I network such a power supply is low. I t will tend to absorb the Fieldbus communication signal as it seeks to maintain the
H I characteristics-1 voltage a t a c o n sta n t level.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Since the Fieldbus signal and power are carried on the same s e t o f w ires, the signal is "superimposed" on the
H I segment-2 power supply as shown on the earlier page. I f we use an ordinary DC power supply, it will not allow this
Fieldbus Hardware &' superimposed signal, as it would tre a t it as either ripple or noise. Hence we require a d evice th a t can allow this
H I. H2 and HSE superimposed signal to remain on top o f the dc power w ithout distortion.
Topologies
Daisy Chain T h is is achieved by having a Power Conditioner circu it, in the output o f the DC power supply. The
Multidrop conditioner b asically has two com ponents, one is an inductor, of about 5 mH and a the other is a resisto r o f 50
Chicken Foot Topoloo ohms. We can also have an "active" power conditioning c irc u it (t h a t com prises of sem iconductors rath er than
More on Topologies p assive d evices like resistors or in d u cto rs), but this introduces its own s e t o f com plications, so it is not so
Linking Devices popular.
Handheld Communica
Host Communication T h e im portant thing to remember is th a t an FF segm ent requires a power conditioner a fte r the power supply.
Transm ission and Rec Some vendors have combined this into one package th a t is called a "Fieldbus Power Supply". Note th a t if the
FF Power Supplies-1 segm ent is in a hazardous a re a , then the power supply would have additional requirem ents to fulfill. We will see
FF Power Supplies-2 more o f this in the sectio n on Hazardous A reas later.
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus FF P o w e r Supplies-2
Introduction A typ ical solution th a t is popular is to use a common DC
The Fieldbus Foundation power supply (1 8 -3 2 V d c) to feed several power
G H Physical Laver conditioners. Ea ch power conditioner in turn feeds an H I
H I network Power
segm ent se p a ra te ly. T h e sch em atic for this is Fieldbus
H I characteristics-1 Floating Conditioner.
shown here on the right.
H I characteristics-2 Pow er
H I segm ent-1 Supply Ground
H I segment-2 for
Fieldbus Hardware &' Multiple
H I. H2 and HSE Segm ents Power
Fieldbus
Topologies Conditioner.
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo Ground
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing In p ra c tice , power supply units are available th a t can be mounted on a
Redundant Power S ue motherboard th a t can accom odate multiple power conditioners on it, as
Signal Characteristics- shown in the picture on the le ft. E a ch power conditioner feeds an H I
Signal Characteristics- segm ent. T h e entire motherboard can be mounted on a DIN rail in a panel
Bricks and Couplers-1 in the control room.
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus FF 831
Introduction T h e Fieldbus Foundation has released a sp ecificatio n (F F - 8 3 1 ) regarding power supplies and you m ust ensure
The Fieldbus Foundation th a t the power supply th a t you will use in the FF segm ent conform s to this sp e cificatio n . T h e sp ecificatio n lists
G H Physical Laver out severa l te s ts th a t m ust be carried out in order to conform to the sp e cificatio n . FF Power supplies th a t are
H I network designed,m anufactured and te sted as per these sp e cs can be used in FF netw orks.
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 I t is a lw a ys b e tte r to use power supplies th a t c a rry the Fieldbus Foundation checkm ark (t h a t ensures th a t the
H I segm ent-1 design has been checked to be suitable for use with FOUNDATION Fieldbus d e v ic e s).
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices F oundation
Handheld Communica
P a s s e s Foundation
Host Communication FF-831 Conformance
Transm ission and Rec Tests
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 831
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts P o w e r Supply Sizing
QM Foundation Fieldbus
T h e sizing o f the power supply and conditioner depends on the number of d evices th a t are p resen t in the H I
Introduction
segm ent and their individual power consum ptions. T h u s the power requirem ent o f a segm ent has to be worked
The Fieldbus Foundation
out as follows.
G H Physical Laver
H I network
V o lta g e :
H I characteristics-1
Voltage available for the Fieldbus = (Voltage Supply to Conditioner) - (V oltage Drop a cro ss conditioner). T h is net
H I characteristics-2
voltage should be g reater than the minimum voltage requirem ent o f the fa rth e s t d evice on the segm ent.
H I segm ent-1
Therefo re (V ps - V pc ) > V n
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE C u rre n t:
Topologies T h e c u rre n t th a t has to be supplied by the power supply would have to be a t le a st
Daisy Chain 'q= ql + 'q2 + q3 +......+ qn
Multidrop T h is is represented in the picture below.
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices Vpc
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec - W
Power
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
Power
Supply j v p s Conditioner T
1 V
AAfr-
A/1 -
V i
AA_
V
[ \ ------- F

\ AAAA _AAA/L_
------- TCI'
[T
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing iq ij Iq 2| iq sj Iqnj
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics- Maximum Voltage : 32V
Bricks and Couplers-1 Minimum Voltage : 9V
Bricks and Couplers-2
Total Current = I q i + I q2 + I q 3 + .............. Iq n
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts R edundant P o w e r Supply
QM Foundation Fieldbus
In p ra c tic e , standard "redundant H I power supply" p acks are available . T h e failure of any one o f the power
Introduction
supplies g enerates an alarm in the h o st, so th a t the operator/ In stru m e n t techn ician can take co rre ctive action .
The Fieldbus Foundation
Many o f th ese are "hot swappable" (c a n be replaced online w ithout shutting down the H I seg m ent).
G H Physical Laver
H I network
A ltern ately one can have a fully autom atic redundant power supply p ack w here there is no manual intervention,
H I characteristics-1
upon failure of the main unit the standb y unit supplies the power. T h e chang eover is autom atic.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 T h e selected Power Supply and conditioner m ust s a tisfy the requirem ents o f the segm ent with re sp e c t to Voltages
Cable Lengths to be availab le, cu rre n ts to be delivered and isolation. I t m ust also m eet the sp e cificatio n s of the FF 831
Cable Types specification and also any additional requirem ents (su ch as hazardous area requirem ents).
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Signal C h aracteristics-1
Introduction We will now take a look a t a typ ical FOUNDATION Fieldbus signal on the H I netw ork. T h e signal u ses M anchester
The Fieldbus Foundation encoding. Each signal p a ck e t co n sists o f a Pream ble, S ta rt Delimiter, Data and the End Delimiter as shown in the
G H Physical Laver figure below. Data is encoded as a Voltage change in the middle of a " bit time" slot.
H I network
H I characteristics-1 During each "bit time" slot a falling edge is treated as a "1" and a rising edge is treated as a "0".
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2 Signal Waveform
Fieldbus Hardware &' Pream ble Start-D elim ite r Data (D L L o r h ig her) End-D elim iter
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 |1 N + N -l 0 N-N +O |o 0 0 10 0 1 0 | l N+ N-N+N- 10 1
Daisy Chain lnniiniriiiniiiiiniirinririiiniinriiviiiiiinnii
Multidrop 1 | M-/1uy | M-/1M-/1M H M M mMmmIU>Im*V1M m M Ui l V I I
Chicken Foot Topoloo | |<----bit time
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Signal C h aracteristics-2
Introduction How does a typ ical FOUNDATION Fieldbus a ctu a lly look like, on an oscilloscope? Here's how you will see it on an
The Fieldbus Foundation oscilloscope.
G H Physical Laver
H I network 800 - r H I T rTTT M i l rrrr rri t rr r r r - - r -----T -
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 600

H I segm ent-1 2
H I segment-2 400
Fieldbus Hardware &' I

VX
H I. H2 and HSE . >
200
Topologies
Daisy Chain mV 0 1 1 \ 11
1 II1 1
1 ;r irtl l1 tl till
I ill i ili\ii it
Ir
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo -2 0 0
/ l 1
More on Topologies 7
v/ w 2
Linking Devices -4 0 0
f
Handheld Communica
Host Communication \
-600
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1 "i i i i 1 1 1 1 1111 11 11 i i i i i i i i 1 111 11 1 1 i i i i iiir
-8 0 0
FF Power Supplies-2
-2 0 0 20 ms / D I v
FF 331 ms

Power Supply Sizing


Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Bricks and Couplers-1
Introduction For setting up a FOUNDATION Fieldbus segm ent, w e can use d evices th a t are known as "bricks" to quickly
The Fieldbus Foundation co n n e ct or d isco n n ect Fieldbus d e vice s. T h e se bricks can either be mounted in Junction Boxes or even d irectly
G H Physical Laver on their own in the plant, depending on the environm ental conditions and the sp ecificatio n of the bricks. T h e se
H I network bricks are also referred to as Q uick D isco n n e ct F ie ld b u s J B s
H I characteristics-1 Connections can be either ordinary terminal strip s, or via quick c o n n e ct/d isco n n e ct fitting s.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE Fieldbus Q u ic k D isco nn ect JB
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
j
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Bricks and Couplers-2
Q M Foundation Fieldbus
With the quick co n n e ct d isco n n ect type of device couplers, we can s e t up a FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork
Introduction
p re tty fa s t w ithout the need of tools. Coaxial co n n e cto rs d irectly co n n e ct the Fieldbus d evices to the device
The Fieldbus Foundation
couplers as shown here.
G H Physical Laver
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Term in a to r

H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
F ie ld b u s O l a 0 .^ 5

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abhisam
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Device Couplers
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction In stead of the bricks th a t we saw earlier (t h a t had coaxial co n n e cto rs and quick d isco n n ect fittin g s), we also
The Fieldbus Foundation have d evices th a t have terminal strip s on them for use in Fieldbus n etw o rks. T h e se d evices are called D e v ice
G H Physical Laver C o u p le rs, as th e y help in coupling the FOUNDATION Fieldbus d evice to the netw ork. T h e y fa cilita te the
H I network connection of Fieldbus d evices to the FF netw ork. T h ere is y e t another categ o ry o f d evices called as "Wiring
H I characteristics-1 Blocks" th a t enable connection o f fieldbus d evices in the field. T h e y are similar to the Device Couplers, but with
H I characteristics-2 some fe atu re s different.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2 Both Device couplers &. Wiring Blocks may have built in short circu it protection, indication LEDs for power and
Fieldbus Hardware &' fa u lts, surge protection and built in term inators. T h e terminology differs from m anufacturer to m anufacturer.
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est
r
* : 1 F ie ld b u s O la 1g 1[i

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&
Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts
abhisam T k * t^ F i !d b u s i^
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction
Term inators-1
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver W hy do w e req u ire F ie ld b u s te rm in a to rs ?
H I network
H I characteristics-1 Fieldbus d evices are co n nected in parallel over the netw ork. T h u s ev e ry H I segm ent is essen tially a parallel
H I characteristics-2 ele ctrical circu it, w here the two ends of a device are connected in parallel to each other. A t each end of this
H I segm ent-1 netw ork a term inator is needed to make it a balanced netw ork. T h e term inator avoids reflection o f the signal.
H I segment-2 T h e term inator is simply a 100 ohm resisto r and a In F ca p a cito r. Note th a t term inators are required a t both ends
Fieldbus Hardware &' o f the Fieldbus segm ent (one a t each en d ). T h e ele ctrical equivalent circu it o f a Fieldbus segm ent is shown
H I. H2 and HSE below.
Topologies Near End Far End
Daisy Chain Term inator Term inator
Multidrop 100 mH
Chicken Foot Topoloo

i
More on Topologies
Linking Devices io o Q
Handheld Communica Signal
Isolation
Host Communication 9-32V ipF
Inductors F ie ld F ie ld F ie ld
Transm ission and Rec D e v ic e D e v ic e D e v ic e
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331 100 mH
Power Supply Sizing 1900m max-
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics- To Host H I card
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est
* '' F ie ld b u s O la 0 .^ 5
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w w w .a b h is a rn .c o m <

abhisam -^Fieldbus
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts T erm in ato rs-2
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Term inators are available in a v a rie ty o f form s. Som etim es the near side term inator is "integrated" into the
Introduction
Fieldbus Power Supply p ack. Similarly the far end term inator may be available as p art of a d evice coupler.
The Fieldbus Foundation
Usually these term inators have a large T marked onto them for id entification. Below are shown two topologies
G H Physical Laver
one a Chicken Foot and another a Multi-Drop or Bus topology with field term inators. T h e term inator th a t is a t a t
H I network
the H I card end o f the trunk is not shown explicitly in the p ictu re , but it e x ists.
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE Host
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop Trunk
Chicken Foot Topoloo Field
More on Topologies Terminator
Linking Devices
m

t
Handheld Communica
Host Communication Spur
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1 o
FF Power Supplies-2 H I Card
ard
FF 331 with Terminator
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics- T h ere should be tw o and o n ly tw o te rm in a to rs in a sin g le H I s e g m e n t. I f there are multiple term inators (or
Signal Characteristics- only o n e), the segm ent com munication will not work properly.
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Cable Lengths
QM Foundation Fieldbus
T h ere are some restrictio n s on cable lengths in a Fieldbus netw ork. T h e figure below show s the maximum length of
Introduction
a typ ical FOUNDATION Fieldbus segm ent, w hich is 1900 m eters. Note th a t this segm ent length includes all the
The Fieldbus Foundation
length of the spurs. So the to tal length of the trunk and spurs o f an FF segm ent can be only 1900 m eters.
G H Physical Laver
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain 280m 400m
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices


Handheld Communica
Host Communication H I Card w ith
Transm ission and Rec
Term ina to r
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics- For the above installation, the calculation is as follows:
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 T o ta l Segm ent length = Tru n k + All spurs = (280 + 400)m + (1 0 0 + 40 + 20 + 30 + 20 + 50)m = 940 m
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers Note th a t there may be other restrictio n s too, based on the cable ty p e , power supply c a p a c ity , hazardous area
Terminators-1 c h a ra c te ris tic s and the power requirem ents o f the Fieldbus d evices on the sgem ent.
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts Cable T yp es
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction T h ere are four different typ e s o f cab les th a t can be used in FOUNDATION Fieldbus. T h e y have different
The Fieldbus Foundation sp e cificatio n s. Only T yp e A cable can be used for a total segm ent length of 1900 m ete rs. T h e other ty p e s can be
G H Physical Laver used for smaller d istan ces as below.
H I network
H I characteristics-1 Cable Type Description Size Length Ohms/Km
H I characteristics-2 (max) (Typical)
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2 Type A Shielded, twisted pair, suitable for 31.25 Kbps data # 18 AWG 1900 m 22
Fieldbus Hardware &' (0.8mm2)
H I. H2 and HSE
Type B Multi twisted pair with overall shield, suitable for 31.25 # 22 AWG 1200 m 56
Topologies
Daisy Chain Kbps data (0.34 mm2)
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo Type C Unshielded, multi twisted pair, suitable for 31.25 Kbps # 26 AWG 400 m 132
More on Topologies data (0.14 mm2)
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica Type D Unshielded, multicore, suitable for 31.25 Kbps data # 16 AWG 200 m 20
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec (1.2 mm2)
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Num ber of devices p er segm ent
Introduction T h e number o f d evices on a Fieldbus segm ent is limited by the following fa c to rs:
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver a ) T yp e o f cable used
H I network b) C urrent Consumption o f each device
H I characteristics-1 c ) Minimum Voltage requirem ent o f each device
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 Also one can have a th eo retical maximum o f 32 d evices on a Fieldbus segm ent.
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE Vpc
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop -------------------------------------- ikki kkkk n a kkkk
1 W ----------TTT 'TTT'--------
Chicken Foot Topoloo Pow er Power \ \
More on Topologies Supply fv p s Conditioner T Vi V V3 v- [t ]
, .1. ..M L m ______ m ___ m
MY
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica iq lj Iq2j iq sj Iq n J
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1 Maximum Voltage : 32V
FF Power Supplies-2 Minimum Voltage : 9V
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Total Current = I q i + I q2 + I q 3 + .............. Iq n

Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics- In sho rt, the power supply has to be capable of feeding the d evices adequate voltage and cu rre n t. The
Bricks and Couplers-1 "restriction on number o f d evices" has more to do with the capability o f the power supply (e sp e cia lly in hazardous
Bricks and Couplers-2 a re a s, where it is re s tric te d ), the length and type o f the cable and other fa c to rs such as m acro cycles (w h ich we
Device Couplers will stu dy in the later s e c tio n s ). T h e o re tica lly one can co n n e ct upto 32 d evices in a segm ent but this is rarely
Terminators-1 possible in p ra ctice .
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus H I A ddressing-1
Introduction D evices on FOUNDATION Fieldbus have an address allocated to them when connected to the H I netw ork.
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver T h e se H I A dd resses are eight bit binary numbers from 0 to 255 (D ecim al). In Hexadecim al form at these addreses
H I network are from 00 to F F .
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 Not all th ese ad d resses can be used by all d e vice s. Address allocation is as per the table below.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &' Address Range Address Range Allocated Devices
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies (Decimal) (Hexadecimal)
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
0-15 00-0F Reserved for overhead and host interfaces
More on Topologies 16-247 10-F7 Permanent Devices
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica For devices with no permanent addresses (such
Host Communication 248-251 F8-FB
Transm ission and Rec as new or de-commissioned devices)
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2 Temporary Visitor devices (such as Hand Held
FF 331
252-255 FC-FF
Communicators)
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus H I A ddressing-2
Introduction I t is possible to "F a cto ry set" default ad d resses while ordering the d evices from the m an ufacturer. T h e se
The Fieldbus Foundation ad dresses are "softw are addresses"- there are no hardware address sw itc h e s or DIP sw itc h e s on the d e vice s.
G H Physical Laver
H I network W hen connected to the H I segm ent the FOUNDATION Fieldbus h o st (th e DCS or other h o st) can autom atically
H I characteristics-1 assign ad d resses to connected d e vice s. T h is m akes the ta sk o f commissioning much fa s te r, as the technician
H I characteristics-2 does not have to manually s e t any ad dress.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2 In addition to the segm ent ad dress, eve ry FF d evice has a unique identifier. T h is is unique in all re s p e c ts . For
Fieldbus Hardware &' exam ple, two different tran sm itters o f the same model from the same m an ufacturer, will have two different
H I. H2 and HSE identifiers (som ething like a serial num ber). T h is unique identifier is a 32 bit number, so it allows for trillions of
Topologies unique serial numbers.
Daisy Chain
Multidrop T h e form at o f the unique FF identifier is given below. Note th a t the identifier is usually displayed as an A S C II
Chicken Foot Topoloo encoded number (w here one A S C II c h a ra c te r rep resen ts one b y te ).
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication Manufacturer code Device Type Code Serial Number)
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1 (6 bytes) (4 bytes) (22 bytes)
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue T h is com pletes our sectio n on the P h ysical la ye r o f FOUNDATION Fieldbus. In the following layer, w e will study
Signal Characteristics- about the Data Link La yer.
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Data Link L a y e r Fieldbus Model
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction In this se ctio n , we will take a look a t the Communication and Scheduling a sp e c ts of
FOUNDATION Fieldbus. T h is is p art o f the D ata Link la y e r (w h ich sits on top of the U ser Lay er
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver Physical la y e r). T h e Data Link la ye r controls m essages on the Fieldbus. T h is it does via
a Link A ctive Scheduler (LA S for sh o rt). A p p lic a tio n L a y e r
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 Before we begin w ith the LAS h o w ever, w e will examine the typ es o f communication
H I segm ent-1 th a t can take place in a Fieldbus (a n y Fieldbus) and the a sso cia ted co n strain ts within
H I segment-2 w hich this com munication happens. T h is will then enable us to understand how
Fieldbus Hardware &' FOUNDATION Fieldbus ta ke s care o f th ese issu e s.
H I. H2 and HSE
T h ere are two typ e s o f com munication th a t take place in a Fieldbus netw ork. One is
Topologies
C y c lic com m unication. T h is is the periodic com munication th a t ta ke s place a t a fixed
Daisy Chain
time interval betw een the fieldbus d e vice s. T h is is irresp ective of w h eth er any
Multidrop
n otew orthy e v e n t take s place or not.
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies D a ta L in k L a y e r
T h e other kind o f com munication is A c y c lic Com m unication. T h is kind o f communication
Linking Devices
take s place in the netw ork only based on certain triggers or e v e n ts.
Handheld Communica P h y s ic a l L a y e r
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
ffl Data Link Laver
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Comm unication Is s u e s - 1
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction Imagine a h yp othetical Fieldbus netw ork th a t has severa l d evices connected to it. T h is netw ork is used to
The Fieldbus Foundation control a p rocess plant. Each d evice m easures a certain param eter, like for example the tem perature o f a tan k or
G H Physical Laver the pressure in a rea cto r.
H I network
H I characteristics-1 T h is d evice has to m easure the param eter, p rocess it and send it to the Fieldbus, w here other d evices th a t are
H I characteristics-2 connected to the same Fieldbus can use the d a ta . T h e periodicity a t w hich this happens is often referred to as
H I segm ent-1 the "scan time". T h e fa s te r the sca n tim e, the b e tte r. S can time depends on a number of fa c to rs. T h e main
H I segment-2 fa c to rs are the number o f d evices th a t are connected to the Fieldbus and the time th a t each d evice spends in
Fieldbus Hardware &' "talking" to the Fieldbus. T h u s if a p articular Fieldbus has more d evices connected to it, then the sca n time will
H I. H2 and HSE in cre ase . Similarly if the length o f the data p a ck e t being com m unicated is v e ry long, then each d evice ta ke s a
Topologies longer time to com m unicate and the sca n time in cre a se s. We will see this by an exam ple.
Daisy Chain
Multidrop In this syste m , we assum e th a t eve ry d evice g ets its turn to com m unicate via the Fieldbus, one a fte r the other
Chicken Foot Topoloo (o r turn by tu rn ). No device "talks to the Fieldbus" out o f turn. T h is is known as C yclic Com munication.
More on Topologies
Linking Devices Now imagine a Fieldbus having only three d e vice s. S a y eve ry device needs 1 second to com m unicate using the
Handheld Communica data p a ck e t, a fte r which it is the turn o f the n ext d e vice . In this c a s e , if w e have only c y clic com m unication,
Host Communication then a fte r a device had has its turn, it will get the n ext ch an ce to com m unicate only a fte r the other two devices
Transm ission and Rec have had their c h a n c e . Hence eve ry device will g et its turn to "talk" only ev e ry 2 seco n d s.
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2 Now, if w e w ere to in crease the number o f d evices on this netw ork to 12, then ev e ry d evice g ets a ch an ce only
FF 331 a fte r 11 seco n ds.
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue W h at if the p rocess th a t is being controlled by this fieldbus is much fa ste r? Obviously our hyp othetical fieldbus
Signal Characteristics- then will not work a t all -it will n ever be able to control this p ro cess.
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 T h e animation on the n ext page will make this co n ce p t e a sy to understand.
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts Comm unication Is su e s -2
Q M Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction In the picture below you will see two buttons named "Three D evices" and "Nine D evices". Clicking on the "Three
The Fieldbus Foundation D evices" button show s you another button named "S ta rt C yclic Communication". Click on it and o b serve. A fter
G H Physical Laver th is, click on the "Nine D evices" button and again click on the "S ta rt C yclic Communication". Observe the e ffe c ts .
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
Every device can com m unicate with the bus every 8 seconds
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
H I C ard
More on Topologies
Linking Devices H o st

Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
T ra n s m itte d
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics- Start Cyclic Communication
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communier
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User laver
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
Basic Concepts Comm unication Is su e s -2
Q M Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction In the picture below you will see two buttons named "Three D evices" and "Nine D evices". Clicking on the "Three
The Fieldbus Foundation D evices" button show s you another button named "S ta rt C yclic Communication". Click on it and o b serve. A fter
G H Physical Laver th is, click on the "Nine D evices" button and again click on the "S ta rt C yclic Communication". Observe the e ffe c ts .
H I network
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 Every device can com m unicate with the bus every 2 seconds
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo Host
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics- Start Cyclic Communication
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communier
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User laver
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Comm unication Is su e s -3
Q M Foundation Fieldbus T h is brings us to a realization th a t:
Introduction
The Fieldbus Foundation a ) T h e length o f the data p a ck e t is a c o n strain t. I f the data p a ck e t is long, ev e ry d evice will take longer to
G H Physical Laver com m unicate, increasing the time th a t it spends to com m unicate. T h u s if the d evice requires su b stan tially less
H I network than 1 second (s a y only 100 m s) to com m unicate then the overall response o f the fieldbus would be fa ste r.
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 b) T h ere is an upper limit on the number o f d evices in a segm ent. More the number of d e v ice s, each d evice will
H I segm ent-1 lessen its ch a n c e s of getting a turn, in a given time in terval. T h u s when w e in crease the number of d evices from
H I segment-2 3 to 9, each d evice gets its turn a fte r a longer tim e. I f this is increased even more, then each d evice will g et its
Fieldbus Hardware &' turn a t fa rth er and fa rth er in tervals.
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies c ) "Someone" should keep tra c k of the "time". T h u s we m ust have a clock th a t is synchronized a cro ss all the
Daisy Chain d evices of the netw ork. T h is will enable us to time stamp e v e n ts as th ey o ccu r and also manage the cy clic
Multidrop com m unication.
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies d) T h ere have to be C yclic as well as A cyc lic communication possible (su ch as an alarm or em ergency or failu re).
Linking Devices In such a c a s e , the device should be able to com m unicate "out o f turn", in c a se of any exceptional e v e n t. The
Handheld Communica "someone" (in Point c ab o ve) should also allow/disallow d evices from communicating out of turn u n n ecessarily,
Host Communication resolve the priority betw een two d evices th a t w ish to com m unicate a t the same time and in general manage the
Transm ission and Rec entire communication p ro cess.
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2 T h e above points will make us app reciate how all these above co n strain ts have been taken care o f in a
FF 331 FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork.
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue On the following p ages, we will see how an FF netw ork take s care of the com munication (both c y clic and
Signal Characteristics- a c y c lic ).
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Comm unication Is s u e s -4
Introduction Hence in a FOUNDATION Fieldbus netw ork the following are the basic guidelines to ensure th a t all of the
The Fieldbus Foundation com m unications issu es pointed out on the earlier page are taken care of.
G H Physical Laver
H I network a ) T h e H I segm ent th eo retically can accom odate 32 d e vice s, but in p ractice this is restricted to about 10-12
H I characteristics-1 only. O therw ise the response tim es become slow er and can n o t e ffe c tiv e ly run control loops. T h e number of
H I characteristics-2 d evices th a t are possible on the H I segem ent is also dependent on the area where the segm ent is installed
H I segm ent-1 (hazard ou s or non- h azard o u s). T h is will be covered in the sectio n "Fieldbus in Hazardous A reas".
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &' b) T h e clo ck synchro nizatio n, managing o f scheduled and unscheduled com munication is done by a softw are
H I. H2 and HSE program th a t is known as the LAS (Link A ctive S ch e d u le r). T h is program ca n reside either in a field d evice (s a y a
Topologies pressure tran sm itter) or even in the h o st H I ca rd . S u ch field d evices th a t have an LAS program inside are called
Daisy Chain as "Link M aster d evices".
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo I f we utilize the LAS program in a Field d evice then th a t field d evice its e lf ends up being referred to as "the LAS".
More on Topologies So in our c a s e if we utilize the Pressure T ran sm itter's LAS program then the Pressure T ran sm itte r its e lf gets
Linking Devices labeled as "the LAS".
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART, Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Cyclic and Acyclic Communication
Introduction In a fieldbus netw ork, there is a need for both C yclic (o r periodic com m unication) and A cy c lic (e v e n t based or
The Fieldbus Foundation n on-scheduled) com m unication. T h u s routine inform ation, such as P ro cess V alues and the output th a t is given to
G H Physical Laver control va lv e s to maintain the p rocess setp oin ts forms p art of the C yclic com m unication. W ithout it the p rocess
H I network can n o t be controlled. I t happens predictably a t fixed in tervals of time.
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 On the other hand there may be tim es when the P ro cess V alues go out o f limits and generate alarm s, or if a
H I segm ent-1 d evice fails and g en erates diagnostic m essag es. T h e se are non-routine e v e n ts, but th e y m ust be com municated
H I segment-2 urgently and co rre ctly to take n e c e ssa ry a ctio n . T h is is called as non-periodic com m unication, or A cyclic
Fieldbus Hardware &' com m unication.
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies T h e Fieldbus has to have a system to manage both kinds o f communication sm oothly, w itho ut affectin g the
Daisy Chain p rocess under control. In the following p ages, we will see how FOUNDATION Fieldbus does this in some detail.
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acvclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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abhisam
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Link M aster
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction We have seen th a t there is a need for a d evice th a t can manage both C yclic and A cy c lic communication on the
The Fieldbus Foundation Fieldbus.
G H Physical Laver
H I network In FOUNDATION Fieldbus, this fu n ction ality is p art o f the Data Link La ye r sp e cificatio n . T h e d evice th a t does this
H I characteristics-1 is the Link M aster. FOUNDATION Fieldbus has built this capability o f being a Link M aster into many d e v ice s. Thu s
H I characteristics-2 one can have two kinds o f d e vice s, ordinary FF d evices and Link M aster d e vice s.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2 T h e Link M aster capability is an additional capability o f a FF d e vice . For example one can have a Pressure
Fieldbus Hardware &' T ran sm itte r as a Link M aster d e vice . T h is implies th a t in addition to being a Pressure T ra n sm itte r, it can also be a
H I. H2 and HSE Link M aster.
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop BACK-UP LAS (M A S T E R ) C A P A B IL IT Y
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
FIELDBUS
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing Basic Link Master Basic Basic Link Master Basic
Redundant Power Sue Device Device Device Device Device Device
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2 Only a Link M aster d evice can be configured as a Link A c tiv e S c h e d u le r (L A S ). Note th a t even if a d evice is
Device Couplers being capable of being a Link M aster, it does not autom atically become one. I t has to be configured to a c t as
Terminators-1 a LA S.
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
Q M Foundation Fieldbus Data B uffers
Introduction W h a t a re b u ffe rs?
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver T h e data buffer in a FF d evice is a memory
H I network location, where the data generated by the
H I characteristics-1 device is w ritten to . T h u s a fte r processing
H I characteristics-2 and number crunching the final data th a t is
H I segm ent-1 generated by the d evice is w ritten into the
H I segment-2 buffer first.
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE T h e data from this buffer is then b ro ad cast
Topologies or published to the Fieldbus netw ork,
Daisy Chain w h en ever the field device g ets its turn to
Multidrop com m unicate. You can think of buffers as
Chicken Foot Topoloo tem porary "hold" areas for d a ta , similar to
More on Topologies the "Outbox" in your mobile phone. When
Linking Devices you compose a m essage on your phone
Handheld Communica when you are in an area w ithout any
Host Communication w ireless netw ork co verag e, it g ets saved to
Transm ission and Rec the "Outbox". As soon as your phone com es
FF Power Supplies-1 within the netw ork coverage a re a , it pushes
FF Power Supplies-2 the m essage out from the outbox to the
FF 331 netw ork (w h ich then d irects it to the
Power Supply Sizing recipient of your m essag e).
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Scheduled Communication
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction Once the Link A ctive Scheduler (L A S ) is configured, it has a list of d evices th a t are supposed to transm it their data
The Fieldbus Foundation c y c lic a lly . T h is C yclic com munication is also referred to as Scheduled Communication since it takes place according
G H Physical Laver to a sch edu le. T h is schedule is called a CD sc h e d u le or a CD List. (CD is short for C o m p el D ata ).
H I network
H I characteristics-1 T h e LAS then sends a CD (Compel D ata) m essage (also called a token) to a d e vice , based on the CD schedule.
H I characteristics-2 Upon rece ip t o f the CD token, the device then publishes the data in its buffer, to the Fieldbus netw ork. T h is is akin
H I segm ent-1 to "publishing" or "broadcasting" a cro ss the netw ork. In te re ste d parties (d e v ice s who need this inform ation) have to
H I segment-2 subscribe to this b ro a d ca st, so th a t th ey can get this d a ta . T h e se d evices are known as "subscribers". Click on the
Fieldbus Hardware &' S ta rt A n im ation button to see this in a ctio n . Note th a t Data from Device 1 is shown as "Data Device 1", data from
H I. H2 and HSE Device 2 is "Data Device 2".
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop CD Schedule
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2 Publisher Subscriber Subscriber
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts U nscheduled Communication
QM Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction We have seen th a t a Fieldbus device also needs to send A cy c lic or Unscheduled Communication from time to time.
The Fieldbus Foundation In FOUNDATION Fieldbus the LAS grants the permission for unscheduled com munication to ev e ry d evice on the
G H Physical Laver netw ork via a Pa ss token (P T ) m essage. T h e PT gives the right to the d evice th a t holds it to send a m essage if it
H I network needs to , for a certain length o f tim e. T h e list o f d evices th a t are eligible to g et th ese P T s is known as the Liv e
H I characteristics-1 List.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 So , when a device on the Live List re ce ive s the P T , it can send any unscheduled com munication m essages until the
H I segment-2 com munication is com plete, OR the PT time ela p se s, w h ich ever is le ss. Click the S ta rt Animation button below to
Fieldbus Hardware &' see this in a ctio n . Device 1, w ishes to send an unscheduled com munication (D ata 1) to Device 3. Hence once it
H I. H2 and HSE re ce ive s the Pa ss Token (P T ) it can send the Data 1 to the Device 3 over the Fieldbus.
Topologies
Daisy Chain U n s c h e d u le d C o m m u n ic a tio n
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
D e v ic e l D e v ic e 2 D e v ic e 3
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
Fieldbus
& Basic Concepts L A S F u n ctio n
QM Foundation Fieldbus
T h e LAS gives priority to Scheduled Com munication. As we have seen the LAS issu es a CD to a d evice as per a
Introduction
sch ed u le, which is known as the CD schedule.
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver
For exam ple, assum e th a t the LAS has in its CD schedule Device 1 a t time 0 0 :0 1 and the Device 2 a t time 0 0 :0 9 .
H I network
Suppose the CD issued to Device 1 and it finishes its com munication by time 0 0 :0 2 . Now we see th a t there is a gap
H I characteristics-1
of 7 seco n d s, before Device 2 is to be issued its CD. T h e LAS utilizes this gap for Unscheduled Communication.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1
Click the button below to open the Flow C hart.
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain Su bject
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
QM Foundation Fieldbus Live List & T i m e S y n c
Introduction We saw th a t the LAS has a list o f d evices on the netw ork th a t are eligible to receive P T s . How is this list
The Fieldbus Foundation generated by the LAS?
G H Physical Laver
H I network I t does this via P rob e R e sp o n s e (P R ) m essages to those d evices which are not on the Live List (b u t e x ist on
H I characteristics-1 the n etw o rk). I f a d evice responds, it is se n t a Node A ctivatio n M essage.
H I characteristics-2
H I segm ent-1 I f a d evice does not respond to the Pa ss Tokens (P T s ) se n t by the LAS or does not return it b ack, it is removed
H I segment-2 from the Live List (a fte r three su c c e s siv e trie s).
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE T h u s the LAS continues to maintain a Live List th a t is cu rre n t and re le van t. When a d evice is added to a Live
Topologies List, this is b ro ad cast to the Fieldbus netw ork, so th a t all d evices know about it. E v e ry d evice then can keep a
Daisy Chain copy o f the cu rre n t Live List w ith it.
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies T im e S y n ch ro n iza tio n is also carried out by the LAS w hich issues a periodic Tim e Distribution m essage. All
Linking Devices d evices then a d ju st their internal clo cks to this and thus a common sen se o f time is ach ieved in the netw ork.
Handheld Communica
Host Communication T h is is a v e ry im portant function o f the LAS since all e v e n ts are "time stam ped" a t the d evice level.
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts
Q M Foundation Fieldbus B ackup LAS
H1 card (LAS)
Introduction In c a se the main Link A ctive Scheduler fails, we can
The Fieldbus Foundation designate another Link M aster on the netw ork to a c t as a
G H Physical Laver backup LA S . T h e backup LAS then take s over the
H I network functions on the LAS if it fails. - -
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2 Note th a t the LAS function is also possible in some H I
H I segm ent-1 c a rd s. In such c a s e s , generally the H I card is designated
H I segment-2 the LAS and one o f the d evices connected to it is then
Fieldbus Hardware &' made the backup LA S.
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop Any of these field devices can be backup LAS
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1 7r<
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331 FF F F C o n tro l
Power Supply Sizing T ra n s m it te r V a lv e
Redundant Power S ue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1 T h is com pletes the sectio n "Data Link Layer" o f FOUNDATION Fieldbus. We will now stu d y the User La ye r in the
Bricks and Couplers-2 following sectio n .
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
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Introduction to the course
F ie ld b u s i^
m n
& Basic Concepts F ie ld b u s Model
QM Foundation Fieldbus U s e r la y e r
Introduction In this se ctio n , we will FOUNDATION Fieldbus to pics th a t are related to the User U ser Layer
The Fieldbus Foundation La ye r. FF fe atu re s such as Function Blocks, DD files, e tc all form p art o f the User
G H Physical Laver La yer. A p p lic a tio n L a y e r
H I network
H I characteristics-1 T h is is the layer th a t is the m ost interesting for the end user as some unique
H I characteristics-2 fe atu re s of FOUNDATION Fieldbus (su ch as Function Blocks and other blocks) form
H I segm ent-1 p art o f this layer.
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies D a ta L in k L a y e r
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica P h y s ic a l L a y e r
Host Communication
Transm ission and Rec
FF Power Supplies-1
FF Power Supplies-2
FF 331
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
ffl User layer
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
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Introduction to the course
& Basic Concepts Fieldbus Blocks
QM Foundation Fieldbus
In this section on Blocks, we will take a look a t how blocks (ch un ks o f so ftw are programs th a t c a rry out specific
Introduction
ta s k s ) are used in FOUNDATION Fieldbus d e vice s.
The Fieldbus Foundation
G H Physical Laver
FOUNDATION Fieldbus d evices have the following kind o f blocks inside them . T h e se have sp ecific functions,
H I network
w hich we will be studying in more detail soon. T h e se blocks are:
H I characteristics-1
H I characteristics-2
1. T ra n s d u c e r B lo ck s
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
2. R e so u rc e B lo ck s
Fieldbus Hardware &'
H I. H2 and HSE
3. Fu n ctio n B lo ck s.
Topologies
Daisy Chain
T h is is a major feature o f FOUNDATION Fieldbus th a t brings fu n ction ality to field d evices such as tran sm itters
Multidrop
and v a lv e s , th a t w as earlier only possible with DCS controllers or ad vanced PLCs.
Chicken Foot Topoloo
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Communica
Host Communication T h e picture here show s a FOUNDATION Fieldbus positioner
Transm ission and Rec mounted on a Control V a lv e . Such a positioner has the ability
FF Power Supplies-1 to function as a controller, independent o f the h o st (D CS or
FF Power Supplies-2 PLC syste m ) th a t it may be connected to . How? We will soon
FF 331 know in the following sectio n .
Power Supply Sizing
Redundant Power Sue
Signal Characteristics-
Signal Characteristics-
Bricks and Couplers-1
Bricks and Couplers-2
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices pe
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
G H Data Link Laver
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Communication Issue:
Cyclic and Acyclic Com
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Communica
Unscheduled Commur
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svnc
Backup LAS
G H User layer
ffi Fieldbus Blocks
Host Communications
Fieldbus Interoperability
Safety Instrum ented Fur
HART. Profibus and ASi
Fieldbus in Hazardous Are^
C ase Study of a Fieldbus P
Self A ssessm en t T est

0
* :1 Fi el d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5

Fieldbus
MUrtfJSB---------
Basic Concepts T y p e s o f Blocks
Foundation Fieldbus
We will now take a look a t the different kinds o f blocks in FOUNDATION Fieldbus in more detail.
Introduction
The Fieldbus Foundat
1. T ra n s d u c e r B lock
B l Physical Laver
T h is block is m eant for interfacing the Function Block to the device input/output hardware such as sen sors and
H I network
a c tu a to rs. T h is block is v e ry im portant. I f it does not work (o r is "Out o f S e rv ic e ") the d evice its e lf will show a "Bad"
H I characteristics-:
or "Out of S ervice " s ta tu s . T h e Calibration o f the device (Checking the output ag ain st a standard so u rce ) is also
H I characteristics-:
carried out using the T ra n sd u ce r block.
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
2. R e so u rc e B lock
Fieldbus Hardware
T h is block is a standard FF block and is essential to the functioning o f the d e vice . Resource Blocks contain all the
H I. H2 and HSE
hardware and so ftw are information about the d e vice . I f the Resource Block is "Out of S ervice " then ALL blocks will
Topologies
go to "Out o f S e rvice Mode"
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
3. Fu n ctio n B lo ck s
Chicken Foot Topol
T h e se blocks are those th a t c a rry out a p articular function, such as "Analog Input" or "PID control". T h ere can be
More on Topologies
severa l function blocks in one d e vice . Some Function Blocks are standard FOUNDATION Fieldbus function blocks and
Linking Devices
are found in all FOUNDATION Fieldbus d evices o f a certain typ e. For example the A I block is a standard FF block
Handheld Commun
th a t is p resen t in all FF pressure tra n sm itters. T h ere are other special function blocks th a t are "M anufacturer
Host Communicatio
specific" and are not considered as "Standard FF" blocks.
Transm ission and F
FF Power Supplies-
In addition to th e s e , w e can also have user defined blocks, w hich are called as F le x ib le Fu n ctio n B lo ck s (F F B s for
FF Power Supplies-
sh o rt). An FFB can be cre a te d by a m anufacturer or a user and it can work with the above blocks.
FF 831
Power Supply Sizin
Redundant Power
Signal Characterist N ote: E ve ry FF d evice requires to have one Resource Block and one or more T ra n sd u ce r Blocks. Function Blocks
Signal Characterist are desirable, but not m andatory!
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User laver
B l Fieldbus Blocks
I Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-I
Control in Field-I-
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerrK
n FTC lonn imnlemitZ i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 E
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Introduction to the cour


Fieldbus3^ - !
S) Basic Concepts
& Foundation Fieldbus W h a t a r e F u n c tio n Blocks?
Introduction In a typ ical FF d e vice , there will be one resource block, one or Function Blocks
The Fieldbus Foundat more tran sd u ce r blocks and several function blocks. Out o f the are part of the user
B B Physical Laver th ese three typ es of blocks, u sers will m ost likely work with
H I network layer
Function Blocks the m ost. H ence, w e will now s ta rt learning
H I characteristics-: about Function Blocks in more detail. F ie ld b u s Model
H I characteristics-:
H I segm ent-1 Function Blocks are so ftw are modules th a t are resident in
H I segment-2 various field d e v ic e s on a Fieldbus netw ork, th a t c a rry out U ser Lay er
Fieldbus Hardware sp ecific ta s k s . I f you have worked with Distributed Control
H I. H2 and HSE S y ste m s or PLC s, you may have used such "blocks" while A p p lic a tio n L a y e r
Topologies carrying out the configuration of the sy ste m s. T h e language
Daisy Chain used in some PLC syste m s is also called "Function Block
Multidrop Diagram Programming". A similar language is used in
Chicken Foot Topol FOUNDATION Fieldbus.
More on Topologies
Linking Devices T h u s we have A I blocks (Analog In p u t B lo cks), PID blocks
Handheld Commun (t h a t have the PID alogorithm inside th em ), AO blocks (Analog
Host Communicatio O utput blocks) am ongst many o th ers. Note th a t similar blocks
Transm ission and F have been used for ages in DCS and PLC syste m s.
FF Power Supplies-
FF Power Supplies- H o w e v e r, now , with th e a d v e n t of FOUNDATION F ie ld b u s,
FF 831 D ata L in k L a y e r
t h e s e b lo ck s ca n re sid e in th e field d e v ic e s t h e m s e lv e s
Power Supply Sizin (s u c h a s tr a n s m itte r s and control v a lv e p o sitio n e rs)!
Redundant Power i P h y s ic a l L a y e r
Signal Characterist T h e thinking in term s of blocks allows us to use the same
Signal Characterist programs again and again, in different applications and provide
Bricks and Coupler* a c o n siste n t w a y o f configuring the control system .
Bricks and Coupler*
Device Couplers Recall the "Layer Model" of Fieldbus from the earlier module.
Terminators-1 Function Blocks are p art o f the User La y e r, as shown here.
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B B User laver
B l Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerrK
n FTC Innn imnlemiLlJ
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.Uil&t'MttF
Introduction to the cour
fflD Basic Concepts C o n t r o l in F i e l d -1
S B Foundation Fieldbus
Introduction One of the big differences of Fieldbus technology as compared with earlier ones, is the co n ce p t o f "Control in the
The Fieldbus Foundat field". T h is m eans rath er than have the controller in the control room, we can configure a controller in the
B Physical Laver
field device itself! T h is w as a revolutionary idea (w hen it w as introduced) and it chang es the traditional control
H I network system a rch ite ctu re considerably.
H I characteristics-:
H I characteristics-: W atch the video below, where Tom , a senior engineer, explains to Linda, a new ly recruited engineer the co n ce p t.
H I segm ent-1 Click the Play button below to w a tch the video.
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topol
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Commun
Host Communicatio
Transm ission and F
FF Power Supplies-
FF Power Supplies-
FF 331
Power Supply Sizin
Redundant Power <
Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User layer
B l Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerru
n FTC lonn imnlemitZ i
...... " l 0
* :1 Field b u s O la 0 .^ 5

Fieldbus
Basic Concepts
Foundation Fieldbus C o n t r o l in F ie ld -2
Introduction Click on the "Show Traditional Control Schem e" button to see how traditional control w orks. T h en click on the other
The Fieldbus Foundat button " Show Control in Field Schem e" button to see how the new control schem e w orks.
B Physical Laver
H I network
H I characteristics-: T ra d itio n a l C o n tro l S c h e m e
H I characteristics-:
H I segm ent-1
D C S in C o n tro l R o o m
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
[3 [S
m
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topol
AI _ P ID _ AO
More on Topologies
Block B lock Block
Linking Devices
Handheld Commun
Host Communicatio
Transm ission and F
mu
FF Power Supplies-
FF Power Supplies-
T r a n s m it t e r C o n tro l V a lv e
FF 331
Power Supply Sizin
Redundant Power i
Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Couplen
Bricks and Couplen
Device Couplers S h o w T r a d itio n a l S h o w C o n t r o l in
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
l!C o n tro l S c h e m e F ie ld S c h e m e

Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User laver
S B Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-I
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerru
n FTC Innn imnlemiLlJ
...... " l 0
* :1 Field b u s O la 0 .^ 5

w w w .a b h is a m .c o n i < > co n ta ct

Field b i i s ^ ^
Basic Concepts
Foundation Fieldbus C o n t r o l in F ie ld -2
Introduction Click on the "Show Traditional Control Schem e" button to see how traditional control w orks. T h en click on the other
The Fieldbus Foundat button " Show Control in Field Schem e" button to see how the new control schem e w orks.
B Physical Laver
H I network
H I characteristics-: C o n tro l in Field
H I characteristics-:
H I segm ent-1
D C S in C o n tro l R o o m
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware
IB IB

fi
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topol
More on Topologies
Linking Devices AI
Handheld Commun B lo c k
Host Communicatio
Transm ission and F
^B IH l
FF Power Supplies-
C o n tro l V a lv e
FF Power Supplies- P ID AO
FF 331 B lo c k B lo c k
Power Supply Sizin
Redundant Power i T r a n s m it t e r

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
Device Couplers S h o w T r a d itio n a l S h o w C o n t r o l in
C o n tro l S c h e m e F ie ld S c h e m e
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User laver
S B Fieldbus Blocks
f l Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerru
n FTC Innn imnlemiLlJ
......... "1 E
* :1 Fi el d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5

Fieldbus
lUbUttiiflP"'
Basic Concepts
Foundation Fieldbus C o n t r o l in F ie ld -3
Introduction T h e animation and video on the earlier pages m ust have given you some idea about how the "Control in Field"
The Fieldbus Foundat philosophy w orks.
B Physical Laver
H I network To sum it up:
H I characteristics-:
H I characteristics-: 1. In a traditional control sy ste m , the field instrum ents m erely se n t a cro ss data to the ce n tra l control system ,
H I segm ent-1 w hich then worked out an output th a t would be then se n t to a control v a lve or other actuato r/fin al control
H I segment-2 elem ent. T h is is the w a y m ost control loops, in the industry work, even as o f now.
Fieldbus Hardware
H I. H2 and HSE 2. In older in stallatio ns, instead of a DCS or PLC, w e may have single loop controllers. H ow ever the co n ce p t remains
Topologies the sam e, data is gathered by tran sm itters and se n t to the controllers, w hich then calcu late outputs based on PID
Daisy Chain or other algorithms th a t are se n t to final control elem ents.
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topol 3. H ow ever, in a fieldbus in stallatio n, there is another w a y . In Fieldbus, this round trip o f data becom es
More on Topologies u n n e ce ssa ry. T h e memory o f the Control Valve positioner (o r som etim es the tra n sm itte r), its e lf se rv e s as a
Linking Devices repository for storing the control algorithm. I t a c ts as a controller, so the p rocess value is m easured by the
Handheld Commun tran sm itter, the control algorithm in the Control va lve positioner works out the output and sends this signal to the
Host Communicatio control v a lv e .
Transm ission and F
FF Power Supplies- 4 . Data is se n t to the control syste m , but only for recording and monitoring.
FF Power Supplies-
FF 331 T h is is known as "Control in the Field" and is accom plished by the use o f various program blocks in the Fieldbus
Power Supply Sizin d e vice s. We shall now see th ese in more detail.
Redundant Power i
Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler*
Bricks and Coupler*
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User laver
B B Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerru
n FTC Innn imnlemiLlJ
......... "1 E
* :1 Field b u s O la 0 .^ 5

Fieldbus
Basic Concepts
Foundation Fieldbus T y p ic a l lo o p u sing F u n c tio n Blocks
Introduction Now we will take a look a t how a control loop is imlemented in a simple application by making use o f Function
The Fieldbus Foundat Blocks. T h is example will also help us understand the co n ce p t o f Function Blocks.
B Physical Laver
H I network T a k e a look a t the P & ID below. I t show s a typ ical day tan k th a t feeds some m aterial to the plant via a pump. A
H I characteristics-: flow m eter and tran sm itter mounted on the discharge line m easure the flow and the Control va lve reg ulates the flow
H I characteristics-: based on the va lu e s it re ce ive s from the PID Controller. In a traditional control schem e, the PID controller would
H I segm ent-1 have been in the DCS, or would have used a single loop controller, but here, we will implement it locally, using
H I segment-2 FOUNDATION Fieldbus.
Fieldbus Hardware
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies
Daisy Chain
Multidrop
Chicken Foot Topol
More on Topologies
Linking Devices
Handheld Commun
Host Communicatio
Transm ission and F
FF Power Supplies-
FF Power Supplies-
FF 331
Power Supply Sizin
Redundant Power i
Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Couplen
Bricks and Couplen
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
S Feed

Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User laver
S B Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation t
FIC loop implerru
n F i r Innn imnlemiLlJ
......... "1 E
* '' F ie ld b u s O la 0 .^ 5
Help

License Agreem ent & Cc


Introduction to the cour
fflD Basic Concepts
SB Foundation Fieldbus R e p r e s e n t a t io n o f t h e F I C lo o p
Introduction Below is shown a rep re se n tative diagram o f the various com ponents n e c e ssa ry to implement our F IC loop.
The Fieldbus Foundat
S I Physical Laver Conceptually w e need to take in a signal from a flow sen so r/tran sm itte r, p rocess it in a block th a t we will call as
H I network the "Analog In p u t Block", then send this signal to a Controller (w hich then u ses the PID algorithm to p rocess it- we
H I characteristics-: will call it the PID block) and this PID block output is then fed to an "Analog Output" block th a t p ro cesse s this in a
H I characteristics-: form th a t can be given to the final control elem ent (in this c a se a control v a lve with a positioner).
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2
Fieldbus Hardware
H I. H2 and HSE
Topologies AI
Daisy Chain
Multidrop A ll
Chicken Foot Topol P ID
More on Topologies
out r
Linking Devices PID1
Handheld Commun T B K C A L JN B K C A L_O U T J AO
Host Communicatio FT101/FFAI1 r AOl
J C A S JN OUT
Transm ission and F
FF Power Supplies- J FF _V A L C A B JN OUT J
FF Power Supplies- r IN B K C A L OUT r
FF 331
Power Supply Sizin J T R K _ IN _ D
#3
Redundant Power < J T R K _V A L
Signal Characterist CV101/FFA01
#2
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
FT101/FFPID1
Bricks and Coupler;
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User layer
S I Fieldbus Blocks
I Types of Blocks
I W hat are Functk
I Control in Field-3
I Control in Field-;
I Control in Field-2
I Typical loop usin
I Representation <
FIC loop implerru
n FTC lonn imnlemitZ i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 E
License Agreem ent & Cc F ie ld b u s !^
il ^ mSMT
Introduction to the cour
) Basic Concepts F IC loop im plem entation -1
B B Foundation Fieldbus
In the p a s t, before the era o f the DCS and PLCs and o f course much before Fieldbuses, such blocks were actu a l
Introduction
h a rd w a re d e v ic e s . T h u s if one wished to implement an autom atic control sy ste m , one had to wire to g ether a
The Fieldbus Foundat
tran sm itter, an analog input device (fo r signal conditioning, scalin g , e t c ) , a PID controller and an analog output
B Physical Laver
device (t h a t converted the output of the PID controller to a 4-20m A sig nal). Such an arrangem ent can be seen in
H I network
the picture below, where a F IC (Flow indicating controller) loop, has been implemented by using hardware blocks
H I characteristics-:
such as analog input signal conditioner, a PID controller and so on.
H I characteristics-:
H I segm ent-1
H I segment-2 H ow ever, if one w ere to implement this FIC
Fieldbus Hardware in a FOUNDATION Fieldbus a rch ite ctu re
Signal S in g le Loop
H I. H2 and HSE using "Control in the Field" philosophy, the
Conditioner P ID C ontroller
Topologies hardw are fu n ction ality of the blocks will
Daisy Chain be implemented in so ftw a re . H ence a
i m an
Multidrop B
FOUNDATION Fieldbus implementation will
KMH
Chicken Foot Topol have so ftw are based Function blocks.
More on Topologies $1 o o o o

Linking Devices
Handheld Commun
Host Communicatio
Transm ission and F
FF Power Supplies-
FF Power Supplies- Flow Flow
FF 331 T ra n sm ite r Control V alve
Power Supply Sizin
Redundant Power <
Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist E / P C o n v erte r &
Bricks and Coupler; P o sitio ner
Bricks and Coupler;
Device Couplers
Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B User layer
B l Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerru
n FTC lonn imnlemiL' !
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 E
Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Couplen
Bricks and Couplen
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 F IC loop im plem entation-2
Terminators-2
In the DCS era th ese blocks were (and still a re ) being used to implement control fu n ction ality in the DCS. H ow ever,
Cable Lengths
in a DCS the hardware functions of th ese blocks is implemented in so ftw are blocks called as F u n ctio n B lo ck s. Thu s
Cable Types
all th ese function blocks are chunks o f so ftw are th a t are resid ent in the DCS Controllers.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
Coming b ack to our diagram shown earlier, we can implement the various blocks (A I, PID and AO) as softw are
H I Addressing-2
programs. T h e se blocks c a rry out the same functions are were done in the p a st by sep arate hardware d e vice s.
B l Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
T h e fu n ction ality o f the blocks has not changed m uch, but their a ctu a l location in memory and execution has
Communication Iss
changed, due to the a d ven t o f Fieldbus. Now u sers have the option o f implementing th ese blocks either in the field
Communication Iss
d evices th em selves (th e "Control in Field" philosophy) OR keeping them in the DCS as earlier.
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers AI
Scheduled Commur
All
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function out r P ID
Live List & Time Svr PID1
Backup LAS #1
T B K C A LJN B K C A L_O U T
AO
B H User layer FT101/FFAI1
E B Fieldbus Blocks J C A S JN OUT r AOl

Types of Blocks J F F _V A L C A B _ IN OUT


W hat are Functk B K C A L OUT
r in
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-! J T R K _ IN _ D #3
Control in Field-2 J TR K_V A L
Typical loop usin CV101/FFA01
#2
Representation <
FIC loop implerm FT101/FFPID1
FIC loop implerrK
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR?
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffi Host Communicatio
ffi Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffi HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffi C ase Study of a Fieldbu<
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la 0 .^ 5
Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
F ie ld b u s ^
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Location of Function Blocks-1
Terminators-2
Consider the earlier configuration o f a flow control loop, now implemented as a a FOUNDATION Fieldbus control
Cable Lengths
loop shown below. T h e function blocks (A I, PID and AO) are now located in the tran sm itter and the control valve
Cable Types
positioner. As a general p ra c tice , the Analog Inp ut block is located in the tran sm itter, w h ereas the PID block and
Number of devices
the Analog O utput block are located in the Control Valve positioner.
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Click on the tran sm itter and then on the control va lve positioner to see the Function Blocks in each d evice.
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss F ie ld b u s Ju n c tio n B lo ck
( " B r ic k )
Communication Iss T o F ie ld b u s H o st
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-]
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
C lic k to V ie w
FIC loop implerm Fu n ctio n B lo ck s
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR;
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
} Safety Instrum ented I
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

n c :............. J B
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5
Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
Fieldbus
iiiiu k i flr
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Location of Function Blocks-2
Terminators-2
T h e diagram below show s the FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Block implementation of our sample F IC . Notice th a t
Cable Lengths
the A I block is p art o f the tran sm itter and the PID and AO block is p art of the Control V alve positioner.
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
Located in the Flow
H I Addressing-2
Transmitter
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss A ll Located in the Flow
Communication Iss Transmitter
Communication Iss
out r -
Communication Iss P ID l Located in Control
#i 1
Cyclic and Acyclic O Valve Positioner
T B K C A LJN B K C A L_O U T J
Link Master FT101/FFAI1 OUT r AOl
J C A S JN
Data Buffers
J FF _V A L C A B JN OUT
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn n in B K C A L OUT
LAS Function J T R K _ IN _ D
Live List & Time Svr #3
J T R K _V A L
Backup LAS CV101/FFA01
B H User layer 92
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks FT101/FFPID1
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-]
Control in Field-2 Note th a t FOUNDATION Fieldbus does not prohibit u sers from using the DCS to implement th ese blocks, but rather
Control in Field-2 offers an altern ative w a y to program, store and e xecu te th ese function blocks in the field d evices th em selves.
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implem*
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR;
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
!+: Host Communicatio
( Fieldbus Interoperabi
S) Safety Instrum ented I
( HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5
Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
abhisam Fieldbus
Bricks and Coupler iuuti*M r
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Location of Function Blocks-3
Terminators-2
As an altern ate configuration, we could locate the A I block as well as the PID block in the tran sm itter and keep
Cable Lengths
only the AO block in the Control Valve positioner. H ow ever this is not recomm ended, even though techn ically
Cable Types
there is no problem. Can you imagine w h y? Think about possible reason s.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
Click on the button below to learn w hy this altern ative configuration is not generally implemented.
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss Located in the Flow
Communication Iss Transmitter
Communication Iss
Communication Iss A ll Located in the Flow
Cyclic and Acyclic O out r Transmitter
Link Master PID1 Located in Control
Data Buffers #1 Valve Positioner
Scheduled Commur T B K C A L JN B K C A L_O U T J
FT101/FFAI1 r AOl
Unscheduled Comn J C A S JN out

LAS Function J FF_V A L C A B _IN OUT


Live List & Time Svr
r IN BK C A L OUT
Backup LAS
B H User layer J T R K _ IN _ D #3
E H Fieldbus Blocks J T R K .V A L
Types of Blocks CV101/FFA01
#2
W hat are Functk

t
Control in Field-1 FT101/FFPID1
Control in Field-!
Click to see the
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
answ er )
Representation < I f w e locate the PID block in the tran sm itter and a t some point o f time it fails, or it has to be removed for
FIC loop implem* m aintenance, then w e can n o t operate the loop even in Manual mode. H ow ever, if the PID block is located in the
FIC loop implerm Control Valve positioner, even if the tran sm itter fails or needs to be rem oved, we can still operate the control
Location of Fund va lve in manual mode (b y varying the output manually by changing from sa y 0% to 100% and everything in
Location of Fund b etw een , similar to a hand operated v a lv e ). W h at if the control v a lve fails? W ell, then w e will have to
Location of Fund a n yw a y shutdow n the loop, irresp ective o f w h eth er the tran sm itter is working or not.
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
} Safety Instrum ented I
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

n c :............. J B
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a ()

Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler:
* F ie ld b u s !^
Device Couplers T y p e s of Function Blocks
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 Function Blocks can be of tw o ty p e s, Basic and A d van ced . T h e list below show s some o f the commonly used ones.
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices Basic Fun ctio n Blocks A d va n ce d Fun ctio n Blocks
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2 Discrete Input Pulse Input
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss Discrete Output Ramp Generator
Communication Iss
Communication Iss Analog Input Tim er
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O Analog Output Integrator/Totalizer
Link Master
Data Buffers PID Controller, P and PI Controller Lead/Lag
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn Manual Loader Arithmetic
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr Control Selector Calculator
Backup LAS
B H User layer Ratio Controller Input Selector
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks Bias/Gain Splitter
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-]
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR;
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
G0 HART. Profibus and ASi
G0 Fieldbus in Hazardous A
00 C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la 0 .^ 5
Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Typical blocks in a PT
Terminators-2
As an exam ple, consider a typ ical FOUNDATION Fieldbus Pressure T ran sm itte r (sho w n below ). I t will have several
Cable Lengths
blocks inside th a t c o n sist of a T ra n sd u ce r Block, Resource Block and several Function Blocks. Click on the buttons
Cable Types
below the tran sm itter picture to see the standard and optional blocks.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr R e s o u rc e A n a lo g In p u t
Backup LAS B lo c k B lo c k (P r e s s )

B B User layer A n a lo g In p u t
P ID
B lo c k ( T e m p )
E H Fieldbus Blocks
Tra n s d u c e r
Types of Blocks B lo c k (S e n s o r )
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2 S ta n d a rd | h H| O p tio n a l
Typical loop usin FF B locks ,| ;^ B FF blo ck s
Representation (
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implem*
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR;
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
} Safety Instrum ented I
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Typical blocks in a PT
Terminators-2
As an exam ple, consider a typ ical FOUNDATION Fieldbus Pressure T ran sm itte r (sho w n below ). I t will have several
Cable Lengths
blocks inside th a t c o n sist of a T ra n sd u ce r Block, Resource Block and several Function Blocks. Click on the buttons
Cable Types
below the tran sm itter picture to see the standard and optional blocks.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
I n p u t S e le c to r A r it h m e t ic
Backup LAS
B H User layer S ig n a l
In t e g r a t o r
C h a r a c te r iz a t io n
B H Fieldbus Blocks
D ia g n o s t ic
Types of Blocks B lo c k
L C D B lo c k

W hat are Functk


Control in Field-1
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2 Standard Optional
Typical loop usin FF Blocks FF blocks
Representation (
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
G0 Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
00 HART. Profibus and ASi
00 Fieldbus in Hazardous A
00 C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

n c :............. J B
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

Help
w w w .a b h is a m .c o n i < > co n ta ct

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler Fieldbus I I
Bricks and Coupler ------------
Device Couplers Flexible Function Blocks
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 T h e Function Blocks shown earlier are o f many ty p e s, but th e y may still not suit some of the new er d evices on the
Cable Lengths m arket th a t are complex or have many Inp u ts/O u tp u ts. For th ese d e v ic e s, we have a new er categ o ry of Function
Cable Types Blocks th a t are called Flexible Function Blocks or FF B s for short.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 A Flexible Function Block can be thought o f a Fieldbus "wrapper" for an application program either w ritten by a user
H I Addressing-2 or system integrator or vendor. I f our control application can n o t be implemented with the standard FOUNDATION
B l Data Link Laver Fieldbus Function Blocks, then we can use a Flexible Function Block.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
} Safety Instrum ented I
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a (h )

Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
iiiiik 't ir -
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Multiple m easu rem en ts & blocks
Terminators-2
S eve ral control schem es can be implemented entirely using Function Blocks in the Field d evices th em selves, w ithout
Cable Lengths
using the DCS or PLC (o r other h o st) a t all!
Cable Types
Number of devices
Have a look a t the P & ID given below. I t show s p art o f a distillation p rocess in a typ ical continuous process
H I Addressing-1
plant. T h e pressure m easurem ent is accom plished by using a standard FF pressure tran sm itter and the multiple
H I Addressing-2
tem perature m easurem ents are carried out using a single FF m ulti-point tem perature tran sm itter. T h e c a sc a d e loop
Bl Data Link Laver
is a L IC -F IC c a s c a d e , with a level tran sm itter, flow tran sm itter and a control v a lv e .
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
G0 Fieldbus Interoperabi
it: Safety Instrum ented I
00 HART. Profibus and ASi
00 Fieldbus in Hazardous A
00 C ase Study of a Fieldbu
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

n c :............. J B
< > co n ta ct

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
F ie ld b u s = i
iiiitttfMr-
Device Couplers Click on the "Click Here" button in the picture below, to see how the various transm itters are connected to the Fieldbus
Terminators-1 segm ent and the location of the various function blocks in them .
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
} User laver
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Tvpes of Blocks
W hat are Functic
Control in Field-]
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation
FIC loop implem<
FIC loop implem<
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Tvoes of Functio
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
D Cascade Control
D Input Select Fun
D Input Select Fun
n Macrocvcles-1
n Macrocvcles-2
n Macrocvcles-3
n Macrocvcles-4
n Macrocvcle Ootin
n Macrocvcle Ootin
n Macrocvcle Ootin
n W hat are VCRs?
D More about VCR;
VCR Limits
D More Function Bl
Gan Host Communicatio
fflD Fieldbus Interooer3bi
San Safetv Instrum ented
Gan HART, Profibus and ASi
San Fieldbus in Hazardous A
l+in C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
Gan Self A ssessm en t T est s
mi i m irr
jd .5 ^ 5

< > co n ta ct

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
F ie ld b u s = i
Device Couplers Click on the "Click Here" button in the picture below, to see how the various transm itters are connected to the Fieldbus
Terminators-1 segm ent and the location of the various function blocks in them .
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss f , PID* AI4 .
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
E B Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1 Click Here
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffi Host Communicatio
ffi Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffi HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffi C ase Study of a Fieldbu
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t
!m r | 0
irr
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

Help

w w w .a b h is a m .c o n i < > co n ta ct

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler Fieldbus I I
Bricks and Coupler ------------
Device Couplers C a sca d e Control blocks
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 In the P &. ID shown on the previous page, we saw
Cable Lengths an L IC -F IC c a s c a d e .
Cable Types
Number of devices T h is m eans th a t the level tran sm itter LT 10 1,
H I Addressing-1 m easures the level and g en erates the setp oint for
H I Addressing-2 the Flow Controller F IC 101, w hich in turn controls
Bl Data Link Laver the Flow Control V a lv e , based on inputs from the
Communication Iss Flow tran sm itter F T 101.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss T h e schem e from the P & ID is shown alongside and
Communication Iss below is shown the Function Block im plementation.
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master Level Flow
Data Buffers Tran sm itter Transm itter
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer Control V alve
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Po sitio n er
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
G0 HART. Profibus and ASi
00 Fieldbus in Hazardous A
00 C ase Study of a Fieldbu
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 C a sca d e Control configuration
Terminators-2
Now th a t we know how the Function Block implementation is to be done, we can now configure this in the h o st (or
Cable Lengths
any other system th a t has the ability to configure and download th ese blocks into the field d e v ic e s ). T h e below
Cable Types
snap sh ot show s how this arrangem ent appears in a typ ical configuration so ftw are program's display.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver PID
Communication Iss PID1
Communication Iss Al
Communication Iss B K C A LJN BKCAL OUT I
Communication Iss AI3
C A S JN OUT
Cyclic and Acyclic O OUT I
Link Master FF_VAL
JL
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
#1
1 IN PID I
Unscheduled Comn TRK_IN _D PID2 I
LAS Function
T R K _V A l B K C A LJN BKCAL_O UT -
J
Live List & Time Svr
AO
Backup LAS #3
C A S JN OUT
B H User layer A01
B H Fieldbus Blocks FF_VAL
C A S JN OUT
Types of Blocks IN
Al BKCAL OUT
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1 T R K IN D
AI4 #5
Control in Field-2 TRK_VAL
Control in Field-2 OUT
#4]
Typical loop usin #2
Representation (
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implem*
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR;
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
} Safety Instrum ented I
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

n c :............. J B
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

Help

w w w .a b h is a m .c o m < > co n ta ct

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
F ie ld b u s ^ E !
Device Couplers
Inp ut Select Function
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 Have a look a t the picture below. A cro ss sectio n of a pipe has three different tem perature probes with tran sm itters
Cable Lengths mounted on it. T h is is useful if we need the averag e tem perature of the pipe, or we need to log the highest
Cable Types tem perature am ongst the th ree . We will now see another Function Block called the Inp ut S e le c t (IS E L ) block. It
Number of devices allows us to s e le c t inputs from multiple tran sm itters and output the averag e or highest or lo w est v a lu e . T h e IS E L
H I Addressing-1 block is shown on the following page.
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
E H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffi HART. Profibus and ASi
ffiD Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

Help

w w w .a b h is a m .c o n i < > co n ta ct

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
mill
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Input Select Function
Terminators-2
T h e IS E L block is shown here. I t ta ke s inputs from the three tem perature tran sm itters (sho w n on the previous
Cable Lengths
page) and se le c ts the highest am ongst them to output a single tem perature v a lu e . T h is tem perature value then can
Cable Types
be used in other blocks such as PID blocks or Alarm blocks.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
B l Data Link Laver I n p u t F u n c t io n B lo c k s
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss H ig h -S e le c t F u n c t io n B lo c k
Cyclic and Acyclic O
IN _ 1
Link Master
Data Buffers IN 2 OUT
Scheduled Commur
IN _ 3
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
IN _ 4
Live List & Time Svr OUT D
Backup LAS
D IS A B L E _ 1
B H User layer A I2
B H Fieldbus Blocks D IS A B L E _ 2 a SELECTED
OUT
Types of Blocks
D IS A B L E _ 3
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1 D IS A B L E _ 4
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2 DP SELECT
Typical loop usin
OUT D
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
} Safety Instrum ented I
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu
i)D Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler;
Bricks and Coupler;
^ l^ F ie ld b u siiiiiirflF
Device Couplers M acrocycles-1
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 Consider w h at happens in a traditional DCS based control schem e. T h e DCS input card s c a n s the tran sm itters
Cable Lengths connected to it, solves the logic in its control processo r (w hich could be either PID or other type o f control
Cable Types algorithm) and then updates the va lu e s in its output card , w hich drives the output signals connected to the control
Number of devices v a lv e . T h is c y cle rep eats itse lf and is often referred to as a "DCS sca n c y cle ". T h u s the loop response tim es o f the
H I Addressing-1 control loop depend on the Controller's speed of processing all the inputs, computing and then updating all the
H I Addressing-2 outp uts.
E B Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
I/O Scan
Communication Iss
Communication Iss c Cycle
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur Controller
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
E H User laver
E B Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1 w Q \ Oj
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implem* PT-01 FV-01
Location of Fund T T 101 T T 102 TT 103
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR;
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
Host Communicatio
ffi Fieldbus Interoperabi
Safety Instrum ented I
ffi HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffi C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la 0 .^ 5
Help

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
-Fieldbus
Device Couplers M acrocycles-2
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 In a Fieldbus, if w e have "Control in Field" implemented then m ost o f the action ta ke s place in the field d evices
Cable Lengths th em selves and not in the DCS. T h u s the loop response time no longer depends on the DCS controller speed but
Cable Types depends on the various p ro cesse s being executed in the field d evices in the Fieldbus segm ent. T h is control cy cle
Number of devices (t h a t happens in the Fieldbus segm ent) is called a M a cro cy c le . Note th a t the control system 's I/O sca n c y cle and
H I Addressing-1 the Fieldbus m acrocycle are d ifferent, as shown in the figure below.
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver AI
Communication Iss All
r P ID
Communication Iss OUT
PID1
Communication Iss ' r BKC A L IN BKC A L OUT J AO
Communication Iss PT-01/FFAI1
J C A S IN out r - AO l
Cyclic and Acyclic O J F F . VAL r C A S IN OUT J
r IN BKC A L OUT r
Link Master
J T R K IN D
Data Buffers J TRIC_VAl
Scheduled Commur 2 C o n tro lle r
Unscheduled Comn FV-01/FFP1D02
H I C a rd

LAS Function I/O Scan


Cycle
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2 PT01
FV-01
Typical loop usin
Representation < TT101 TT102 TT103
FIC loop implem*
V - ------------
FIC loop implerm
Additional Devices on the Segment
Location of Fund Configured to Publish Data
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

0CZZZZZZ1 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

Help
w w w .a b h is a m .c o n i < > co n ta ct

Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
nutitftaar-
r f l j f c i -----1

Device Couplers M acrocycles-3


Terminators-1
Terminators-2 To make things simpler, w e will keep only the DP tran sm itter and the Control V alve on the H I segm ent and remove
Cable Lengths the tem perature tra n sm itters. Our H I segm ent m acrocycle time diagram would then look like the one below.
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2 Device 1
Bl Data Link Laver Macrocycle
Communication Iss
Communication Iss LAS
Communication Iss Macrocycle
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O Device 2
Link Master Macrocycle
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur Unscheduled
Unscheduled Comn Comm
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks 30 60 90 120
W hat are Functk Time (milliseconds)
Control in Field-1 Note th a t if eve ry d evice p ro cesse s some data it will require a finite amount o f tim e. For sim plicity, we have
Control in Field-; shown here th a t Device 1 (T ra n sm itte r) take s 30 ms to e xecu te some blocks, the LAS ta ke s 30 ms to execu te
Control in Field-2 its functions (scheduled com m unications) and the Device 2 (Control V alve positioner) take s 30 ms to e x e c u te .
Typical loop usin T h e time slots during which unscheduled communication can be made is shown by the maroon blocks. Note th a t
Representation < in this c a se one m acrocycle e x e c u te s in 120 seco n d s. T h e m acrocycle keeps on executing in this manner
FIC loop implem* rep eatedly ad infinitum until the H I segm ent composition its e lf changes (d e v ice s g et added or removed or there
FIC loop implerm is a configuration ch a n g e ).
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
[~1 W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
S) Safety Instrum ented I
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler Fieldbus I I
Bricks and Coupler ------------
Device Couplers M acrocycles-4
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 Now we will examine the m acrocycle shown earlier for the closed loop shown earlier in a little more d etail. T h e AI
Cable Lengths block is executed in the tran sm itter a fte r which there is a C yclic Communication slot when it re ce iv e s the CD
Cable Types (Compel D ata) token from the LAS and u ses the slot to publish the data on the Fieldbus segm ent (th e slot shown as
Number of devices the LAS b lock). Now this data is subscribed to by the Control Valve positioner (D evice 2) th a t reads this and u ses it
H I Addressing-1 to e xecu te the PID and AO function blocks. Note th a t there is no c y clic com munication slot betw een the PID block
H I Addressing-2 and the AO block, b ecau se both reside in the same d evice &. no other d evice on the segm ent needs the PID block
Bl Data Link Laver data (so it need not be published to the b u s).
Communication Iss
Communication Iss A fte r the AO block e x e c u te s , the n ext m acrocycle can s ta rt again im m ediately, but we have reserved another slot
Communication Iss of 30 ms for A cyc lic communication a fte r the AO block e x e c u te s . A fte r this time is o ve r, the n ext m acrocycle s ta rts
Communication Iss again.
Cyclic and Acyclic O
AI block is
Link Master published on

Sequence Repeats
Data Buffers the Fieldbus
Scheduled Commur Device 1 during this time
Unscheduled Comn --------->
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Macrocycle

LAS
/
--------- >
Backup LAS Macrocycle
B H User layer
E B Fieldbus Blocks Device 2 PID + AO PID + AO --------- >
Types of Blocks Macrocycle
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1 Unscheduled >
Control in Field-! Comm
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation < First Macrocycle Second M acrocycle n Macrocycle
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund 30 60 90 120
Location of Fund Time (milliseconds)
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
[~1 W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
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ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler:
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
M acrocycle O ptim ization-1
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 In the example shown on the earlier page, there is only one PID loop on the H I segm ent. As w e add more
Cable Lengths instrum ents and loops to the H I segm ent, the m acrocycle extends b ecau se additional time is required for the
Cable Types function blocks o f the other instrum ents to e xecu te and publish their data on the Fieldbus.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 A m acrocycle can be optimized by modifying the schedule in the Link A ctiv e Sched u ler. Note th a t depending on the
H I Addressing-2 Function Blocks being e xe cu te d , it is possible to analyze w h ether some function blocks can be executed in parallel
Bl Data Link Laver so th a t the m acrocycle e x e c u te s in a lesser time duration.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss An example will make this cle a r. We will re visit the IS E L function explained previously, w ith one m odification. The
Communication Iss output o f the IS E L block is now to be connected to a PID block and an AO block for closed loop tem perature
Communication Iss control. T h e block connections will be configured as below. T h e m acrocycle is shown on the n ext page.
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR;
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
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ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler Fieldbus I I
Bricks and Coupler
Device Couplers
M acrocycle O ptim ization-2
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 T h e picture o f the m acrocycle for our example is shown
Cable Lengths below (T h e function block connections are shown on the A ll
Cable Types rig h t). T h e blocks e xecu te serially one a fte r the other.
Number of devices T h e AI- [O U T] is the time slot during the A I block data is
H I Addressing-1 published on the Fieldbus segm ent. Ditto for the PID- IS E L 1
P ID 1 AO 1
AI 2
H I Addressing-2 [O U T ].
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss On the n ext page we will see how the m acrocycle
Communication Iss execution time is reduced if we run some blocks in AI 3
Communication Iss parallel.
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O fl 1 ! 1
I 1 i
Link Master x J.
1 i t i
Data Buffers A ll -
{
f
i i 1
i T ------------ - t -
Scheduled Commur
1 f
Unscheduled Comn AI1-[0UT] o i ; 1
1 I-------------- T T ------------------------------------------ ------------------ -------------------------- -----------
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr I |
AI2 m l
Backup LAS .......r i "7

B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
AI2-[0UT] i
i T

............. 1 1
* | I
i

Types of Blocks AI3 1 i 1


W hat are Functk 1 1
7 ---- - p j ------------ -------------------------------------------------------
Control in Field-1 AI3-[0UT] i i
-U 4
Control in Field-; 1 1 1
1 |
Control in Field-2
ISEL 1 |
-1-------- + _ +-------
1
Typical loop usin
I -------- i -
Representation < ! i" i |
PID2-[0UT] 1 i i 1 l 1
FIC loop implerm -i-------------- 1- i--------- t
.i _ i
FIC loop implerm 1 1 i i 1
AO i |
Location of Fund T-------- T-
Location of Fund Tim e

Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler: ^Fieldbus I I
Bricks and Coupler:
Device Couplers
M acrocycle Optim ization-3
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 Now if we modify the schedule so th a t some blocks
Cable Lengths e xecu te earlier in the m acro cycle, the m acrocycle
Cable Types time can be reduced as shown below.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 Note th a t yo u m a y req u ire th e h o st s y s t e m to
H I Addressing-2 h a v e ap p ro p ria te so ftw a re to o ls to do th is.
B l Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implem*
Time
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
[~1 W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR:
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu:
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 W hat a re V C R s?
Terminators-2
T h ere is a co n ce p t known as "Virtual Communication Relationship" (V C R for sh o rt) in FOUNDATION Fieldbus d e vice s.
Cable Lengths
T h e se are virtual connections betw een blocks in the fieldbus d e vice s. T h ere are three kinds o f VCRs in FOUNDATION
Cable Types
Fieldbus as given below:
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
a ) P u b lis h e r/S u b s c rib e r V C R s : T h e se are connections betw een blocks o f publishers and sub scrib ers. T h e se VCRs
H I Addressing-2
come into play only during scheduled com m unications. T h e se are also known as BNU (Buffered N etw ork-scheduled
Bl Data Link Laver
U nidirectional)
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
b) C lie n t/ S e r v e r V C R s : T h e se are connections betw een blocks o f different d evices th a t req u est and send data
Communication Iss
(C lien ts and s e rv e rs ). T h e se come into play only during unscheduled com munication c y c le s when a d evice holds the
Communication Iss
PT (p a ss to ke n ). T h e se are also known as Q U B (Q ueued U ser-triggered Bidirectional)
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
c ) S o u rc e / S in k V C R s : T h e se also come into play during unscheduled com munication c y c le s and are mainly used to
Data Buffers
distribute rep orts. A source device may generate a report th a t needs to be se n t to multiple other d evices (sin k s) on
Scheduled Commur
the netw ork. T h e se are also known as QUU (Q ueued U ser-triggered U nidirectional)
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
E H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler:
Device Couplers More about V C R s
Terminators-1
Terminators-2 A fixed number of VCRs are available in a p articular d e vice . VCRs g et consumed while linking blocks. VCRs are
Cable Lengths either "free" V C Rs, or th e y may be available only as p articular ty p e s, such as "Subscriber VCRs" and "Publisher"
Cable Types VC Rs. E ve ry time a link is used to co n n e ct to a block, or generate an alarm a VCR g ets consum ed.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 For example the Fieldbus linking d evice (referred to in the modules above here) may have a limit of sa y 128 VCRs
H I Addressing-2 (o vera ll) out o f w hich there are limits on each type o f VCR th a t may be availab le, as given below. T h e tab les below
Bl Data Link Laver show the VCRs available in typ ical d e vice s.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Communication Iss H I linking device Pressure Transmitter
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O Maximum Limits per H I channel Maximum Limits per transm itter
Link Master
O verall VCRs 128 O verall VCRs
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur Pu b lish er/Su b scrib er 100
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function C lie n t/S e rv er 40
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS Source/Sink 20
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2 E x a m p le : A pressure tran sm itter connected to the
Control in Field-2 Linking Device (sho w n on the le ft), will consume one
Typical loop usin VCR as shown below (o f the Publish/Subscribe ty p e ).
Representation < Also the linking d evice will consume one VC R from its
FIC loop implerm quota (o f the Publish/Subscribe ty p e ).
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR:
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
G0 Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu:
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 V C R Limits
Terminators-2
E ve ry device has a limited number o f VCRs availab le. T h e se v a ry by the m anufacturer and Model number. While
Cable Lengths
designing a FOUNDATION Fieldbus system th a t will be utilizing "Control in Field" e x te n siv e ly , be sure to c h e ck on the
Cable Types
number and type of VCRs th a t are available in the field d evices se le c te d . For example a typ ical va lve positioner may
Number of devices
have something like 9 free V C Rs. T h e se free VCRs then can be used to s e t up connections betw een blocks for
H I Addressing-1
closed loop control, generating alarm s and so on.
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
VCRs are "consumed" while linking blocks as shown on the previous page.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Note th a t there is limit from the h o st H I card on how many VCRs can be handled. For example a typ ical DCS H I
Communication Iss
card may have a limit o f 50 VCRs on a segm ent. Generally speaking the number is su fficien t for a typ ical segm ent
Communication Iss
configuration. H ow ever if one has complex control stra teg ie s th a t require a lot o f linking then a lot o f VCRs will get
Cyclic and Acvclic O
consum ed and one may quickly either reach the d evice VCR limit or the H I card VCR limit.
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffiD Host Communicatio
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
nutitftaar-
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 More Function Blocks
Terminators-2
O ther than A I, AO, PID blocks and C ascad e Control im plem entations, we can use Function Blocks to do m any other
Cable Lengths
ta sk s in the field such as
Cable Types
Number of devices
* Integ ration o f Flow to ta ls (T o ta liz e rs)
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
* Mass Flow calcu latio n s (using tem perature and pressure com pensations)
Bl Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
* A verage a group o f inputs
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
* Sum o f inputs
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
* Selectio n betw een several inputs
Link Master
Data Buffers
* H ydrostatic T a n k Gauging calcu lation s
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
* Volume calcu lation s from level
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Many more kinds o f calcu latio n s using Function Blocks can be done.
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks FOUNDATION Fieldbus is fully capable o f implementing "Control in the Field", as m ost functions th a t w ere hitherto
Types of Blocks available only in DCS and high end PLC syste m s are now made available a t the Field d evice level.
W hat are Functk T h e a d van ta g es of implementing th ese Function Blocks in the field d evices are m any. T h e y reduce the computing
Control in Field-1 load on the DCS controllers, provide b e tte r response tim es for the p rocess and make control truly "distributed".
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2 H ow ever there is a limit on the number of Function Blocks th a t can be execu ted on a single H I segm ent. Also the
Typical loop usin more the number o f Function Blocks on a segm ent, the larger the m acrocycle time and co n seq u en tly le sse r will be
Representation < the response time.
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm T h is com pletes our section on Fieldbus Blocks.
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
$ Host Communicatio
$ Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
G0 HART. Profibus and ASi
00 Fieldbus in Hazardous A
00 C ase Study of a Fieldbu
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Field biis EE
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Host Com m unications
Terminators-2
Most Fieldbus installations a lw a ys have h o sts. I t is rare to find a Fieldbus installation th a t does not have a host
Cable Lengths
syste m . Though "Control in Field" is found in many Fieldbus in stallatio ns, a h o st is a lw a ys needed in this c a se to
Cable Types
serve as a "window to the p rocess", through w hich the operators in te ra c t with the plant under control. Also a lot
Number of devices
o f fieldbus d evice configuration is done through the h o st, rath er than via hand held com m unicators, due to the
H I Addressing-1
b e tte r user in te rface .
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver
In this sectio n we will look a t the w a y s th a t a h o st system (ty p ic a lly a D CS) g ets information about Fieldbus
Communication Iss
d evices th a t are connected to it. T h ere are severa l w a ys to go about it. T h e se will be covered in the following
Communication Iss
pages.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
As a rough analogy, think of the p rocess o f connecting a
Link Master
new printer or a similar d evice to your laptop. A fter
Data Buffers
connecting the printer to your laptop, you need to install a
Scheduled Commur
"printer driver" so ftw are in your laptop to enable
Unscheduled Comn
communication betw een the printer and the laptop.
LAS Function
Similarly you need to have certain files in the h o st system
Live List & Time Svr
th a t inform it about Fieldbus d evices th a t will be connected
Backup LAS
to it. We will see the various m eans of doing it now.
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
ffifl Host Communicatio
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffiD HART. Profibus and ASi
ffi Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
f fiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

MCI............. J 0
* :1 Field b u s O la

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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 History of EDDL
Terminators-2
H istorically, field device information w as made available to the h o st system via te x t files commonly known as
Cable Lengths
Device Description files (com m only referred to as DD file s). T h e se files were w ritten in a language known as
Cable Types
Device Description Language. Note th a t DDL is a markup or presentation language, not a programming language.
Number of devices
T h u s stric tly speaking the printer driver analogy, mentioned on the previous page is in co rrect (sin ce printer
H I Addressing-1
drivers are program files, not te x t file s). H ow ever the co n ce p t is c o rre c t. Some information needs to be fed to
H I Addressing-2
the h o st so th a t it understands how Fieldbus d evices connected to it will exchange data with it.
- Data Link Laver
Communication Iss
DDL is similar to HTML (H yp e rte xt Markup Language) which is used to display w ebpages. I t is not a programming
Communication Iss
language like C++. DDL is used to cre a te DD files. T h e se DD files are used by the h o st to display data from field
Communication Iss
d e vice s. Note th a t Handheld Com municators also make use of DD files.
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
DDL has been in use since around 1992 when it began being used for HART d e v ice s. La te r on, it w as used in
Link Master
FOUNDATION Fieldbus as well as Profibus (in slightly modified w a y s , but essen tially the sam e). Further on it was
Data Buffers
standardized in a new Internatio nal Standard IEC 61804-2 as E le c tro n ic D e v ice D escrip tio n L a n g u a g e or EDDL
Scheduled Commur
(in stead o f ju s t DDL).
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Further developm ents added graphical capabilities (su c h as c h a rts , graphs, trend s, im ages) to the previously
Live List & Time Svr
"text-only" language and it then w as revised as IEC 61804-3 in the y e a r 2006.
Backup LAS
E iB User layer
T h e HART Communication Foundation, the Fieldbus Foundation, the Profibus Organization and the OPC Foundation
Fieldbus Blocks
all support EDDL through an alliance known as the EDDL Co-operation Team formed in 2004.
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
ttccmoNic
Typical loop usin o rvici
O f S C R l l *T I O N
Representation < L A N O V A O I

FIC loop implerm


FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
&M Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler SBT
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 More about EDDL
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths T h e purpose of using EDDL is to decouple so ftw are developers from d evice developers and y e t allow them both
Cable Types to integrate their products seam lessly in Fieldbus.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 An EDDL file is a declaration of data available in the d e vice , it is not a d evice driver so ftw a re . T h e EDDL file
H I Addressing-2 includes keyw ord s, data ty p e s, labels, multiple language help te x t, u nits, ranges and other a sp e c ts as well as
Data Link Laver some scrip ts based on ANSI C.
-

Communication Iss
Communication Iss T h e EDDL file for the p articular device (s a y a tran sm itter) is copied into the Hand Held Com m unicator (o r a Host
Communication Iss system such as a D CS) a fte r w hich communication betw een the d evice and the HHC (o r h o st) can take place.
Communication Iss EDDL files are used in FOUNDATION Fieldbus, Profibus PA as well as HART netw orks.
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers The EDDL files for the tran sm itter
Scheduled Commur and the v a lve have to be copied to
Unscheduled Comn the Host and the HHC, so th a t th ey

I
H I c a rd s
LAS Function can com m unicate w ith the d evices
Live List & Time Svr and configure them .
Backup LAS
E iB User layer H ost
Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks ED D L
W hat are Functk & f ile s
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund More information about EDDL can be found a t the link
Location of Fund h ttp ://w w w .e d d l.o rg /ab o u t/b asics/P ag es/ED D LFA Q .asp x
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E i l Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
(*) Fieldbus Interoperabi
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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 FDT/D TM
Terminators-2
Now we will take a look a t another w a y to configure Fieldbus d e v ice s, w hich is by using FDT/DTM technology,
Cable Lengths
instead o f EDDL. FDT/DTM is a competing technology th a t is different from EDDL. I t is being offered as an
Cable Types
altern ative to EDDL. I t is being promoted as a single technology w hich will work a cro ss all Fieldbuses such as
Number of devices
FOUNDATION Fieldbus, Profibus PA, HART, A s-i bus, D e vice n e t, In te rb u s, Profinet and others.
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2
Unlike EDDL, the device file generated by FDT/DTM technology is not a d eclarative file, it is a ctu a lly a program
- Data Link Laver
file. So now our analogy of a printer driver holds true in the c a se of FDT/DTM technology.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
So how d o e s FDT/DTM w o rk?
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
We need three so ftw are com ponents to use FDT/DTM technology. T h e y are:
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
a ) FD T Fram e Application (one per D CS/H ost syste m )
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
b) CommDTM (one per Fieldbus)
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
c ) Device DTM (one per Field device typ e )
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
T h e se three com ponents need to be run in a sep arate se rve r (n o t the main d atab ase or control sy ste m se rv e r of
E iB User layer
the D C S/h o st).
Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
More information about FDT/DTM technology can be a cc e sse d a t the link below
W hat are Functk
h ttp ://w w w .fd tg ro u p .o rg /
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E i l Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
r.. .....i 0
* :1 Field b u s O la

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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Com parison of EDDL and FDT/D TM
Terminators-2
T h e following table is a brief comparison o f the two technologies EDDL and FDT/DTM .
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 Sr No Feature FDT/DTM EDDL
H I Addressing-2
Data Link Laver
1 Graphical features for field devices such as Yes Yes, is possible in later
-

Communication Iss graphs and trends versions


Communication Iss 2 Full device functionality Yes Depends on host system
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O 3 Requires separate server Yes No
Link Master
4 Type of files Executable programs Declarative files
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur 5 Technology compatible with Multiple bus protocols FF,Profibus, HART and
Unscheduled Comn OPC
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr 6 Operating system dependent Yes No
Backup LAS
E iB User layer
Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E i l Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
ffiD Fieldbus Interoperabi
r.. .....i 0
* :1 Field b u s O la

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Signal Characterist
Signal Characterist
Bricks and Coupler
Bricks and Coupler
Fieldbus
Device Couplers
Terminators-1 Which one to use
Terminators-2
T h e choice o f using EDDL or FDT/DTM re sts with the u ser. Both technologies can e x ist on the same DCS (h o st
Cable Lengths
syste m ) a t the same tim e. I t all depends on the user's need and the s ta te of both technologies a t the time th a t
Cable Types
your p ro ject is being carried out.
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1
EDDL has been p resen t for a number o f y e a rs now and all vendors th a t wish to have their d evices work with
H I Addressing-2
Fieldbus syste m s use EDDL e x te n sive ly. On the other hand FDT/DTM is new w ith about 50 members from device
- Data Link Laver
m anufacturers as o f now, but claim s a growing membership and support b ase.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
New fe atu re s are added in both technologies o ften, so it is b e st to keep an open mind and evalu ate both options
Communication Iss
before deciding on a p articular one.
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
E iB User layer
Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-;
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E i l Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
Fieldbus Interoperabi
r.. .....i 0
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a (h) 5533
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Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
F ie ld b u s ^ ^
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 Fieldbus Interoperability
H I Addressing-2
Bl Data Link Laver In this se ctio n , we will learn about interoperability of FOUNDATION Fieldbus d e v ice s. We will also take a look a t
Communication Iss how FF h o sts are te sted to ensure th a t th e y in te ra c t co rre ctly with FF d e v ice s. T h e user o f any FOUNDATION
Communication Iss Fieldbus system would have the following two questions in mind before implementing FOUNDATION Fieldbus
Communication Iss technology in their p lan ts/facilitie s.
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acvclic O T h e y are as follows:
Link Master
Data Buffers 1. How can the user ensure th a t FF field d evices are interoperable? Is there an e a sy w a y to do this?
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn 2. How can the user know th a t the user's h o st system can fully work with FF field d evices?
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
B H User layer
B H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-2
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin Fieldbi
Representation <
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
B l Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
+ Fieldbus Interoperabi
ffi Safety Instrum ented I
ffi HART. Profibus and ASi
ffiD Fieldbus in Hazardous A
ffiD C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
ffiD Self A ssessm en t T est
3[z:r:z.::::i 0
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Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
F ie ld b s ^ E
Number of devices Device T e sts
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2 H ow ca n th e u s e r e n s u re th a t F F field d e v ic e s a re in te ro p e ra b le ? I s th e re an e a s y w a y to do t h is ?
- Data Link Laver
Communication Iss T h e user should look out for a FF c h e ck mark on a d e vice . T h e c h e ck mark in dicates th a t the d evice model has
Communication Iss passed the Fieldbus Foundation's series of te sts to ensure th a t it is interoperable with other Fieldbus d evices
Communication Iss (from other m an u fa ctu re rs).
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
E l User laver
Fieldbus Blocks F o u n d a t io n
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3 T h is c h e ck mark in dicates th a t
Control in Field-! the d evice model has
Control in Field-:- undergone the FF te s ts and is
Typical loop usin found fully compatible with
Representation < FOUNDATION Fieldbus
FIC loop implerm
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
C ascade Control
C ascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E H Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
B B Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
n HIST
Host Profiles
Safety Instrum ented I
D HART, Profibus and ASi 0
yr:.......i m
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

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Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
F ie ld b iis ^ ^
Number of devices H IST
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2 H ow ca n th e u s e r know th a t th e u s e r 's h o st s y s t e m ca n fu lly w o rk w ith F F field d e v ic e s ?
- Data Link Laver
Communication Iss Until a few y e a rs ago the Fieldbus Foundation used to provide a protocol known as H IS T (sh o rt for H o st
Communication Iss In tero p erab ility Support T e s t ). T h e h o st m an ufacturer used to c a rry out the te s t protocols, there w a s no
Communication Iss provision for formal registration w ith the Fieldbus Foundation (like th a t for field d e v ic e s).
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O La te r on it w a s fe lt th a t registration of h o sts w as also n e c e ssa ry and thus the Host Profile Registration p rocess
Link Master w as introduced. Under this new p rocess the Fieldbus Foundation co n d u cts the h o st testing with a specialized
Data Buffers device and a s e t of DD files (D evice Description files) and CFs (C apab ility F ile s ). Registered d evices from different
Scheduled Commur vendors may also be used for testing the host.
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function A h o st th a t su c c e ssfu lly p asse s these te s ts are allowed to c a rry the official FOUNDATION Fieldbus symbol.
Live List & Time Svr
Backup LAS
E l User laver
Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-:-
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop impietrii-
FIC loop impietrii-
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
C ascade Control
C ascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E H Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
E H Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
Safety Instrum ented I
D HART, Profibus and ASi 0
m rrm ] 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

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Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
F ie ld b iis ^ ^
Number of devices Host Profiles
H I Addressing-1
H I Addressing-2 H o st P ro files and C la s s e s
- Data Link Laver
Communication Iss T h e Fieldbus Foundation has defined certain Host Profiles and C lasses in their specification F F -5 6 9 V e rsio n 2.0
Communication Iss (H o s t In te ro p e ra b ility Su p p o rt T e s t Profile and P ro c e d u re s ) . T h is is b ecau se not all hosts are expected to be
Communication Iss used for the same function, nor can all h o sts be required to have all fe a tu re s. For example a Hand Held
Communication Iss Com m unicator will not have all the fe atu re s of a DCS.
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master F F -5 6 9 defines four profile c la s s e s . T h e se include:
Data Buffers
Scheduled Commur C la s s 61 - Integ rated H ost: Prim ary, o n -p rocess h o st th a t m anages the com munication and application
Unscheduled Comn configuration o f all d evices on a netw ork. For Example a DCS with FF capable functions.
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr C la s s 62 - Visitor H ost: Tem po rary, on-process h o st with limited a c c e s s to d evice p aram eterization. For example
Backup LAS a Hand Held Com municator d evice.
E iB User laver
Fieldbus Blocks C la s s 63 - Bench H ost: Prim ary, o ff-p ro cess h o st for configuration and setup of a non-com m issioned d e vice . For
Types of Blocks exam ple, calibration and param eterization equipment installed a t a tran sm itter m anufacturer's lab.
W hat are Functk
Control in Field-3 C la s s 64 - Bench H ost: Prim ary, o ff-p ro cess h o st with limited a c c e s s to d evice param eterization o f an off-line,
Control in Field-2 commissioned d e vice . For example an FF capable calib rato r, in use by an Instru m entation workshop in a large
Control in Field-:- chem icals production fa cility.
Typical loop usin
Representation <
FIC loop impietrii-
FIC loop implerm
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
C ascade Control
C ascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E H Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
E B Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
Safety Instrum ented I
D HART, Profibus and ASi 0
m rrm ] 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la

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Terminators-1
Terminators-2
Cable Lengths
Cable Types
F ie ld b u s ^ ^
Number of devices
H I Addressing-1 S afe ty In stru m en ted Functions
H I Addressing-2
In this se ctio n , we will take a brief look a t the role of FOUNDATION Fieldbus instrum ents in S a fe ty Instrum ented
- Data Link Laver
S y ste m s.
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
As you may already be a w a re , a S a fe ty Instrum ented S yste m is a special type o f Autom ation S y ste m , th a t
Communication Iss
ensures th a t p rocess plants can be s a fe ty shutdow n, in c a s e o f an em ergency. T h e se p ro te ctive syste m s are
Communication Iss
also known by other term s such as S a fe ty Shutdow n S y ste m s, Em ergency Shutdow n S y ste m s and Intrum ented
Cyclic and Acvclic O
Pro te ctive S y ste m s.
Link Master
Data Buffers
A s a fe ty system ca n be thought to be an agglomeration o f S a fe ty Instrum ented Fu n ctio n s, or S IF s for short.
Scheduled Commur
T h e se are alte rn a tive ly known as IP F s (Instru m en ted Pro te ctive Fu n ctio n s) but w e will s tic k with the term S IF .
Unscheduled Comn
Ea ch S IF carries out a s a fe ty function upon demand.
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
I f you are unfamiliar with S a fe ty Instrum ented S y ste m s (and S IF s ) and a sso cia ted terminology, please refer to
Backup LAS
the S a fe ty Instrum ented S yste m s e-learning co u rse . T h e re s t of this sectio n will assum e th a t you have already
E iB User layer
a basic understanding of th ese syste m s.
Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
We will c o ve r only the Fieldbus re le van t p art of S a fe ty Instrum ented S y ste m s in the following few pages o f this
W hat are Functk
sectio n .
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
Control in Field-3
Typical loop usin
Representation (
FIC loop implem*
FIC loop implem*
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR?
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E i l Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
(= Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
Safety Instrum ented I
HART, Profibus and ASi 0
3 c z : : : : .:z i 0
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5
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Communication Iss s
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
abhisam F ie ld b u s !^
Communication Iss hiUBtfta a r-
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master Traditional approach
Data Buffers
In existing plants th a t have implemented Fieldbus technology, the S a fe ty Instrum ented S yste m does not share
Scheduled Commur
any Fieldbus reso u rces.
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
T h is m eans th a t the Fieldbus p art is used only for Basic P ro cess Control (it is a BPC S) and the S a fe ty Functions
Live List & Time Svr
may be carried out either sep ara te ly via a S a fe ty Instrum ented S yste m ( S I S ) or via individual hardwired
Backup LAS
instrum ents.
E H User laver
E B Fieldbus Blocks
I t is possible th a t Fieldbus instrum ents ca n be used to implement various S a fe ty Instrum ented fu n ctio n s, but the
Types of Blocks
"fieldbus" p art in is incidental. For example an FF tem perature tran sm itter th a t also has S IL 2 c e rtificatio n , can of
W hat are Functic
course be used to implement S a fe ty Fu n ctio n s, but the role of the "Fieldbus" in such a s a fe ty function is limited.
Control in Field-]
Control in Field-!
H ow ever, in re c e n t y e a rs there have been effo rts from FOUNDATION Fieldbus to implement S a fe ty functions as
Control in Field-2
p art o f the FF blocks. We will see this in more detail in the following pages.
Typical loop usin
Representation t
FIC loop implerrK
FIC loop implerrK
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E H Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
E l Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
E l Safety Instrum ented I
Traditional approac
Advantages of FF S
Disadvantages of F
Black Channel and
FF Black Channel
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu<
Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

Fil ........... I 0
* '' F ie ld b u s O la 0 .^ 5
Help

w w w .a b h is a m .c o n i < > co n ta ct

Communication Iss s
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
abhisam F ie ld b u s !^
Communication Iss
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master A d vantag es of FF S IF
Data Buffers
W h at would be the a d van ta g es of a Fieldbus based S a fe ty Instrum ented S yste m ?
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
A few a d van ta g es would be:
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
a ) B e tte r D e v ice s e lf d ia g n o stic s. T h e exce llen t diagnostic coverag e of FF d evices is higher than conventional
Backup LAS
instrum ents, leading to more reliable S a fe ty Fu n ctio n s. Failures can be quickly d e te cte d .
B H User laver
E H Fieldbus Blocks
b) A u to m ate d P a rtia l/F u ll S tro ke T e stin g of control v a lv e s . I f this can be autom ated via F F , then it would
Types of Blocks
not only sa ve the effo rts and c o s t of manual testin g , it could also in crease the S IL number achievable due to
W hat are Functk
possible higher freq uency of periodic proof testing (due to it being easily autom ated ).
Control in Field-]
Control in Field-2
c ) B e tte r A s s e t m a n a g e m e n t: T h e S a fe ty Instrum ented S yste m s engineer/technician can manage the S a fe ty
Control in Field-2
d evices easier due to tag num bers, calibration and testing records and other information being easily available
Typical loop usin
and easily m aintainable.
Representation t
FIC loop implerrK
d) In te g ra te d B P C S and S IS d e s ig n s: T h e se are a t p resen t only possible with either conventional or with HART
FIC loop implerrK
instrum ents, but not w ith F F . Integ rated syste m s resu lt in e a sy in te rfa ce s betw een basic control syste m s and
Location of Fund
the s a fe ty syste m s and lower c o s ts , w itho ut sacrificing reliability or s a fe ty .
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
e ) H ybrid Lo g ic s o lv e r s : T h e availability of th ese will mean th a t FF instrum ents as well as conventional
Types of Functioi
instrum ents could both be co n n e cted to the same logic solver o f the S IS (e ve n if it is not an integrated BPCS-
Typical blocks in
S IS ) .
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E l Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
Bl Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
Bl Safety Instrum ented I
Traditional approac
Advantages of FF S
Disadvantages of F
Black Channel and
FF Black Channel
HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
iiD Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

Fil ........... I 0
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5
Help

w w w .a b h is a rn .c o m < > co n ta ct

Communication Iss s
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
abhisam F ie ld b u s !^
Communication Iss M t s u ir
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master D isad vantag es of FF S IF
Data Buffers
W h at would be the d isad vantag es of a Fieldbus based S a fe ty Instrum ented S ystem ?
Scheduled Commur
Unscheduled Comn
A few d isad vantag es would be:
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
a ) L o w e r re lia b ility if th e s a m e field in stru m e n t is u se d for B P C S and S IS fu n ctio n s. It would be w orse if
Backup LAS
the same field instrum ent also had a local "logic solver block" inside th a t did the logic for a S a fe ty function. I f
E H User laver
the field instrum ent fails then all blocks inside would fail, including the S a fe ty Logic So lver blocks.
E B Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
b) D ifficulty of e n su rin g th a t o n ly a u th o rzie d p e rso n n e l ca n a c c e s s th e "S a fe ty " p a rt of the field device
W hat are Functic
while other personnel can a c c e s s the "n o n -S afety" p arts.
Control in Field-1
Control in Field-!
c ) L a c k of re d u n d a n c y a t the fieldbus segm ent cable level. P h ysical damage to the cable should not resu lt in
Control in Field-2
an unsafe condition or a spurious trip th a t c o s ts millions in downtim e.
Typical loop usin
Representation t
FIC loop implerrK Due to th ese a d van ta g es and d isad van tag e s, Fieldbus u sers are ju stifia b ly cau tio us in implementing
FIC loop implerrK FOUNDATION Fieldbus (o r Profibus PA) in S a fe ty Instrum ented S yste m s in p rocess p lan ts. To make m atters e a sy
Location of Fund to decide, FOUNDATION Fieldbus has been collaborating with some large u sers in the p rocess industry such as
Location of Fund Saudi Aramco and Chevron to implement FF technology in a pilot scale in their facilitie s.
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E B Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us>
E H Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
E H Safety Instrum ented I
Traditional approac
Advantages of FF S
Disadvantages of F
Black Channel and
FF Black Channel
$ HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu<
Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

Fil ........... I 0
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5
Help
w w w .a b h is a rn .c o m < > co n ta ct

Communication Iss s
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
abhisam F ie ld b s ^ E
Communication Iss 111
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master Black Channel and White Channel
Data Buffers
You may have come a cro ss the term s Black Channel and W hite Channel in term s o f implementing S a fe ty
Scheduled Commur
Instrum ented S y ste m s in fieldbus sy ste m s. W hat do th ese term s really mean?
Unscheduled Comn
LAS Function
W hite C h a n n e l: I f the entire S a fe ty com m unication netw ork has been designed from the ground up only for
Live List & Time Svr
S a fe ty related fu n ctio n s, it would be known as a W hite C hannel. Though such a netw ork may be desirable, it
Backup LAS
may not be p racticab le b ecau se of the c o s t and com plexity of setting up an entirely different channel for s a fe ty
E H User laver
related com m unication.
E H Fieldbus Blocks
Types of Blocks
B la c k C h a n n e l: If the S a fe ty communication p art o f the system piggybacks on top o f the conventional
W hat are Functk
communication syste m , then this netw ork is known as the black channel approach (from the word black box th a t
Control in Field-]
denotes th a t the end user does not see "inside" the black b ox). In the black channel approach, the "S a fe ty
Control in Field-!
Layer" protocol is built into the com munication s ta c k , ju s t below the application layer.
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
T h e F F - S IF sp e cificatio n , released by FOUNDATION Fieldbus for S a fe ty Instrum ented Fu n ctio n s, uses the black
Representation t
channel approach. T h e same H I netw ork is used for S a fe ty related com m unications, with additional fe atu re s of
FIC loop implerrK
error d etectio n , diagnostics and other fe atu re s built into the s a fe ty layer. Th u s the same H I netw ork can
FIC loop implerrK
co n n e ct F F - S IF instrum ents as well as the regular non s a fe ty F F instrum ents.
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E H Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
E H Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
E H Safety Instrum ented I
Traditional approac
Advantages of FF S
Disadvantages of F
Black Channel and
FF Black Channel
( HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

Fil ........... I 0
* '' F i e l d b u s O l a 0 .^ 5
Help

w w w .a b h is a m .c o n i < > co n ta ct

Communication Iss s
Communication Iss
Communication Iss
abhisam F ie ld b s ^ E
Communication Iss 111
Cyclic and Acyclic O
Link Master FF Black Channel
Data Buffers
FF u ses a Black Channel approach to w ard s implementing S a fe ty Instrum ented Fu n ctio n s. Therefo re the same
Scheduled Commur
in frastru ctu re is used for S IF s , but with added safeg uards and fe a tu re s. T h e se include the following new
Unscheduled Comn
fe atu re s th a t are not available in the conventional BPCS versio n s of FOUNDATION Fieldbus:
LAS Function
Live List & Time Svr
1. Newer field device Diagnostic blocks.
Backup LAS
E H User laver
2. Communication diagnostics for H I including d etection of multiple errors, d etection of m essages being
E H Fieldbus Blocks
changed/disordered/corrupted or m asqueraded.
Types of Blocks
W hat are Functk
3. Tim e synchonization monitor
Control in Field-]
Control in Field-2
4 . W rite protection or locking of blocks to p reven t unauthorized m odification.
Control in Field-2
Typical loop usin
Representation t
FIC loop implerrK
FIC loop implerrK
A t p resen t , FF S IF is not y e t com pletely a cce p te d by u se rs, though a number o f dem onstration site s have
Location of Fund
s u c c e ssfu lly carried out te s t s . H ow ever it may be a cce p ted by u sers in the near future.
Location of Fund
Location of Fund
T h is com pletes the module FOUNDATION Fieldbus. In the n ext module, we will stu d y HART, Profibus and ASi bus
Types of Functioi
Typical blocks in
Flexible Function
Multiple measure
Multiple measure
Cascade Control
Cascade Control
Input Select Fun
Input Select Fun
Macrocvcles-1
Macrocvcles-2
Macrocvcles-3
Macrocvcles-4
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
Macrocvcle Qptin
W hat are VCRs?
More about VCR<
VCR Limits
More Function Bl
E H Host Communicatio
History of EDDL
More about EDDI
FDT/DTM
Comparison of E
Which one to us
E H Fieldbus Interoperabi
Device Tests
HIST
Host Profiles
E H Safety Instrum ented I
Traditional approac
Advantages of FF S
Disadvantages of F
Black Channel and
FF Black Channel
( HART. Profibus and ASi
( Fieldbus in Hazardous A
( C ase Study of a Fieldbu;
Self A s s e s s m e n t T e s t

Fil ........... I 0