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Tm tt chng II

L thuyt ni lc
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

1. Cc khi nim c bn v C hc vt rn
bin dng
2. Cc thnh phn ni lc v cch xc nh
3. Lin h gia cc thnh phn ng sut v
cc thnh phn ni lc
4. Bi ton phng
5. Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Cc thnh phn ni lc
+ Lc dc Nz (hng theo trc z)
R + Lc ct Qx (hng theo trc x)
+ Lc ct Qy (hng theo trc y)
Mz Mx R
z
O
Qx Nz
My MO

x Qy + Moment un Mx (quanh trc x)


M + Moment un My (quanh trc y)
y + Moment xon Mz (quanh trc z)

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Bi ton phng

Mx 0 Mx 0
Nz 0

z z
Nz 0
Qy 0 Qy 0
y y
+ Nz > 0: khi c chiu dng hng ra ngoi mt ct
+ Qy > 0: khi quay vector php tuyn 1 gc 900 theo chiu kim
ng h
+ Mx > 0: khi lm cng th dng.

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Trnh t v biu ni lc ***
Phng php gii tch
Bc 1: Gii phng lin kt, xc nh cc phn lc

Bc 2: Phn on theo iu kin sao cho mi on thanh


khng c s thay i t ngt v lc (i vi khung cn thm
iu kin: trn mi on khung khng c s thay i v
phng ca khung).
Bc 3: Phn tch cc thnh phn ni lc trn tng on
thanh, sau dng phng trnh cn bng tnh hc vit
biu thc cho tng on.
Bc 4: V biu ni lc (tng t nh kho st hm s)

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Trnh t v biu ni lc ***
Phng php v nhanh
Bc 1: Gii phng lin kt, xc nh cc phn lc
Bc 2: Phn on theo iu kin sao cho mi on thanh khng c s
thay i t ngt v lc.
Bc 3: Xc nh v biu t tri sang phi hoc t phi sang tri.
Dng mt ct ct ln lt theo chiu v chn
Bc 4: V nhanh cc biu ni lc
Mx 0 Mx 0

Nz 0
z
z
Nz 0
Qy 0
y Qy 0 y
Quy c du khi v t tri sang phi Quy c du khi v t phi sang tri
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Trnh t v biu ni lc ***
Phng php v nhanh
Bc 4: V nhanh cc biu ni lc

Biu lc dc trc Nz: (Quan tm cc thnh phn lc


theo phng z, trc thanh).
- Nz = tng cc lc theo phng z tnh t mt ct ang xt
n phn thanh cn li
- Cc lc cng chiu vi quy c dng ca Nz s mang
du m (-) (lc nn)
- Cc lc ngc chiu vi quy c dng ca Nz s mang
du dng (+) (lc ko)

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Trnh t v biu ni lc ***
Phng php v nhanh
Bc 4: V nhanh biu ni lc

Biu lc ct Qy: (Quan tm cc thnh phn lc theo


phng y)
- Qy = tng cc lc theo phng y tnh t mt ct ang xt
n phn thanh cn li

- Cc lc cng chiu vi quy c dng ca Qy s mang


du m (-)

- Cc lc ngc chiu vi quy c dng ca Qy s mang


du dng (+)
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Trnh t v biu ni lc ***
Phng php v nhanh
Bc 4: V nhanh biu ni lc
Biu moment un Mx: (Quan tm cc thnh phn lc
theo phng y v cc moment tp trung)

- Mx = tng cc moment do cc lc theo phng y, cc


moment tp trung gy ra i vi mt ct ang xt (tnh t
mt ct ang xt n phn thanh cn li)

- Cc moment lm cng th di s mang du dng (+)

- Cc moment lm cng th trn s mang du m (-)


L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


Lu
Khi ta ct thanh bng cc mt ct c ta z khc nhau th
h ngoi lc trn phn thanh kho st s khc nhau. Ta
phi s dng, ni chung, khng ch 1 mt ct. (Cc mt ct
vung gc vi tip tuyn ca trc thanh, v tr ca cc mt
ct c xc nh bng h trc ta chung)
S lng cc mt ct cn thit ty thuc vo c im ca
h ngoi lc.
Cc BNL c thit lp sao cho trc hong song song vi
trc thanh. Khong biu din nm trong gii hn chiu di
thanh.
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


Lu
Trn B khng biu th trc tung. Ch quy c k hiu hay

K hiu tn biu Qy , Nz , M
x

Gi tr cc i lng c th hin bi ln v cc n v.
Biu th BNL bng cch gach sc

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


Quan h vi phn gia ni lc v ti trng phan b
Xt 1 thanh chu ti trng bt k
q(z)
q(z) Qy Mx + dMx
A
B
Mx
dz dz Qy + dQy
dQy
Fjy Qy q z dz (Qy dQy ) 0 q( z )
dz
dz dz dM x
mC M x dM x M x Qy . (Qy dQy ). 0 Qy
2 2 dz

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Mt s c im cc biu ni lc ***
dM x z
dz Q y z
Ta c:

dQ y z q z
dz

1. Trn thanh, on c lc phn b l hng s th biu Qy l


ng bc nht, Mx l ng cong bc 2 (parabol).
dM x z
Qy z
Qy z q.z C
q z q const
dz

dQy z q / 2 C .z D
2
x
M z q. z
dz
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

5. Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Mt s c im cc biu ni lc ***
dM x z
dz Q y z

dQ y z q z
dz

2. Nhng on khng c lc phn b, biu Qy l hng s,


Mx l ng bc nht.

dM x z
Qy z Qy z C
q z 0
dz

dQy z 0 M x z C.z D
dz
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

5. Biu ni lc cho bi ton phng


*** Mt s c im cc biu ni lc ***
dM x z
3. th Mx t cc tr ti v tr Qy = 0. Qy z 0
dz
4. Ti v tr c lc tp trung, biu Qy s c bc nhy,
ln bc nhy l ln lc tp trung.
5. Xt t tri sang phi, chiu ca bc nhy l chiu ca lc
tp trung.

6. Ti v tr c moment tp trung, biu Mx c bc nhy,


ln bc nhy l ln ca moment tp trung.

7. Ti v tr c moment phn b, biu Mx l ng bc


nht

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 1
M
q 20kN / m q P
B C D
M 20kN .m A

P 20kN 1m 1m 1m

Xc nh cc phn lc lin kt

M
YA Q P
B C D YA = 5 kN
A
YC = 45 kN
YC
1m 1m 1m

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 1

Q M P Phng php gii tch


YA
A B C D + Xt on AB mt ct 1
1m 1m 1m (0 z1 1m)
YC
1
Qy YA q.z1
Qy
5 z12
(kN) M x YA .z1 q.
2
Qy YA 5kN
z1 0 :
Mx
Mx 0
(kN.m)

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 1

Q M P
YA Qy YA q.1 25kN
B C D
A z1 1: 1
1m 1m 1m M x YA q. 2 15kN
YC
1
Qy 0 YA q.z1 0
5 Qy YA
z1 0.25m
q
25 Nhn xt:

15 dQy
Mx YA 0
dz
dM x d 2M x
YA q.z1 Qy 2
q
dz dz
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 1

Q M P + Xt on BC mt ct 2
YA
A B C D (1 z2 2m)
1m 1m 1m
Qy YA q.1
YC
1 2
1
M x YA .z2 q.(z 2 ) M
Qy
2
5
Qy YA q 25kN
25
z2 1: q
15 M x YA 2 M 5kN .m
Mx
5

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 1

Q M P + Xt on BC mt ct 2
YA
A B C D (1 z2 2m)
1m 1m 1m
Qy YA q.1
YC
1 2
1
M x YA .z2 q.(z 2 ) M
Qy
2
5
Qy YA q 25kN
25
z2 1: q
15 M x YA 2 M 5kN .m
Mx
5

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 1

Q M P + Xt on BC mt ct 2
YA
A B C D (1 z2 2m)
1m 1m 1m Qy YA q.1
YC
1 2 1
M x YA .z2 q.(z 2 ) M
Qy 2
5 Qy 25kN

z2 2 : 3q
25 M x 2YA 2 M 20kN .m
15 20
dQy
Mx Nhn xt: 0
dz2
5 dM x d 2M x
YA q Qy 2
0
dz2 dz2
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 1

Q M P + Xt on DC mt ct 3
YA
A B C D (0 z3 1m)
1m 1m 1m
YC
Qy P 20kN
1 2 3 20 M x P.z3
Qy
5 z3 0 M x 0

25 z3 1 M x P 20kN
15 20 dQy
0
Mx dz3
Nhn xt:
dM x
5 P
dz3
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 2

M = qa2 P = qa

C B 2q
A

a a

Xc nh cc phn lc lin kt

M P YC = qa
YC MC
A
MC = 2qa2
B
C
Q

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 2

M P Phng php gii tch


YC MC + Xt on CB mt ct 1
B A
C (0 z1 a)
1 Q Qy YC qa
M x M C YC .z1
Qy
Qy qa
qa z1 0 :
x
M M C 2 qa 2

Mx Qy qa
qa z1 0 :
x
M M C YC .a qa 2

qa2
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 2

M P Phng php gii tch


YC MC + Xt on BA mt ct 2
B A
C (a z1 2a)
1 Q 2 Qy YC 2q( z2 a)
qa z2 a
M x M C YC .z2 M 2q.( z2 a ).
Qy 2
Qy YC qa
qa z1 a :
M x M C YC .a M 0
Mx Qy qa
z2 2a :
Mx 0
qa
qa2
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 2

M
YC
P Qy 0 2q.( z2 a) qa
MC
B A 3a qa 2
C z2 M x
2 4
1 Q 2
qa Nhn xt:
Qy dM x
YC 2q.(z 2 a)
qa qa 2 dz
4 dM x
0 (cc tr)
Mx dz z 3a
2
qa2
2qa2
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 3
q P = qa 7
B
YA qa
A C 6
3a a 17
YB qa
7
qa 6
6
qa
Qy 7 7 7
Mx AB
YA . a q. a. a
11
I

6 6 12
qa
6 49 2
qa 2 = qa
72
Mx
49 2
qa
72
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 4 P = 2qa
M = qa2
q q
A C D YA 2qa
B
a a a YC 2qa
2qa
qa
Qy

qa
1 2 1 2
qa qa
2 2
Mx
3 2
qa
2
L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM
Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 5
M = 20kN.m YC P = 30 kN
YA q = 14 kN/m
B C D 55
A
YA (kN )
4
3m 1m 1m 233
55
4
30
YC (kN )
Qy
4
113
4
30
1, 75

Mx

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 6
M = qa2 M = 2qa2
YA P = qa YD
q
C
A 1
B 2q
D YA qa
4
a a 5 2a a
qa
3
YD qa
4
1
qa
4

Qy 4
3
qa 3
4 qa
4
7
qa 2
64
Mx
73 2
1 2 qa
qa 3 2 32
4 qa 2qa 2
2

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM


Chng
L I: Nhng NI
THUYT vn LC
c bn ca tnh hc vt rn tuyt i

V d 7
M = 4qa2
D

C P = 4qa
2q
q
B

A 450
E

a a a a

L Dng Hng Anh B mn C k thut H Bch Khoa TP. HCM