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Introduction to Philosophy Final Exam

Justin C. Gaenzle

1. Critical thinking it is something that is valued not only on a personal level but also

on a professional level. Sadly it seems that many do not posses or willing to procure the

skills for themselves to think outside the box. They seem to be fine with themselves

about having a narrow view in life. Instead of relying on your friends, boss, or even your

teacher for instructions you can think for yourself to finish the task and become self-

directed. A quote from Jane Qinjuan Zhang Critical thinking enables students to

assess their learning styles, strengths and weaknesses, and allows them to take

ownership of their education.

If you step back and look at the U.S in this 21st century. The people around us have

become so brainwash if the all power T.V. says jump there is not even a question of

how high or even way, people just say ok. Sadly people as a whole have the tendency

to follow the lead of other or a magic box sheepishly. I believe to have mass movement

of people thinking philosophically all electronic devices would have to removed. Then it

just might be like a flower field in the beginning of spring you have a few flowers pop-up

and at the end of spring youll see the whole field covered.

Philosophy and the greek sense of a good life. On that note Socrates ideologies

have had a massive impact on the way I think. Socrates inquiries over all stand as the

unceasing practice and habit of being both critical and thoughtful, but not being blind to

unfound conviction and presuppositions. To know thyself is the one true way to bering

about a good life. Having somewhat of a philosophical mindset and the ability to reason

has given me the gusto to get others and myself out of some pretty bad times in


2. What is logic, to understand what a word is we have to look at the root of the
world itself. Logike greek meaning what is spoken. This words true representation

means thought or reason through the study of argument. Critical thinking is used to

identify and evaluate anything life pushes your way. The error in reasoning that will

render the argument invalid and useless know as logical fallacy. Fun times and classical

logical fallacies the three I picked are Straw-man, Appeal to emotion, and Cherry


The straw-man is called this because a person will set up a false point to

misrepresent the opponents position. Example: President Smith wanted to cut funding

for the Board Patrol getting military grade up-armored vehicles because he believed it to

be wasteful spending. Then party member B. Smith comes along and states: I

disagree with the Presidents stance. Why does the president want to leave our

countries boarder defenseless? Instead of debating whether the military grade up-

armored vehicles are actually government waste, overall just ignoring the point and

substituting in their own misrepresented version.

Appeal to emotion this one is used often and is twisted. Instead of just maybe

appealing to reason , the arguer uses emotions as in fear, pity, and flattery. In the hopes

the persuading the listener or viewer that what is being projected it true. Examples of

this are wartime propaganda posters, radio and Tv commercials, and at times the news.

Cherry Picking one of my favorites this type of fallacy takes place when a person

only uses data that confirms a particular position, while ignoring a significant portion of

related cases that contradict that position. For example, a person might argue that they

received the highest electoral votes while ignoring prior election where nominees have

received more.

Well I can easily sum up the fallacies I listed above in one source Donald J. Trump

this man is a conundrum of fallacies. Everything from his speeches to tweets just is a

great debacle. Trump is not only a straw-man that loves cherry picking, then tries to
appeal to authority by the use of appeal to emotion.

4. Theories of justice concern abstract principles and institutional proposals which

satisfy these principles. The theory of justice offers a single set of principles, that can

furnish a strong institution to satisfy the principles set. All institutions are subject to the

constant constraint of feasibility within the realm of abstract and particular conditions.

The particular conditions may pertain to a society that has individualistic values and

might want POD over liberal socialism.

Now, Rawls principles of justice, they are fulfilled by both liberal socialism and a

property owning democracy. Marxs has a somewhat different case. He did not try be a

political philosopher, he was going more for a political economist view point. In the

political philosophy malgr lui, he does not make any pronouncements on principles of

justice. Marx institutional proposal is communism, as a radically unfeasible suggestion.

Any principles must also take into account the feasibility of constraint on a institution or


How far has the United States come with human rights? The human rights of the

United States of America is complex with varying opinions. The Federal Government of

the United States has worked through a ratified constitution and amendments to

guaranteed rights to the citizens of this country and also in some degree for non-

citizens. The historical evolution of these rights must be considered as well. Just as the

periphery of the population of the United States who had access to these rights have

expanded over time.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights have not expanded to complete rights

for every human beings in its border. Social and political issues stem from the history of

the United States. Constitutionally protected these requirements have been put into play

to bering about respect to human rights. The United States has been constantly

criticized about its violation of human rights. Which including the partial protections for
workers. Criminalization of homelessness and the derelict along with the invasion of

privacy through government funded surveillance programs.

With police brutality and constant police impunity bering about the incarceration of

citizens for profit. In the prison industrial complex we have mass mistreatment of

prisoners and juveniles in the prison system. Our country has one of the longest prison

sentences of any other country. We are one the last Western country that still holds tight

to the death penalty. We also seem to continue the support of foreign dictators who

commit abuses towards their own nationals. These atrocities are not limited to but

including genocide, forced disappearances, extraordinary renditions, extrajudicial

detentions, and torture of prisoners.

My State of the Nation view as a report. As Americans we continue to distrust the

government, even though there are signs that hostility toward government has begun to

diminish. There is also considerable evidence that distrust of government is strongly

connected to how people feel about the overall state of the nation.

Disillusionment with political leaders is essentially as important a factor in distrust of

government as is criticism of the way government performs its duties. Cynicism about

leaders is especially critical to distrust among the generations of Americans who came

of age during and after the Vietnam and Watergate eras, while performance failures are

more important to older Americans.

Distrust of government and discontent with the country notwithstanding, there is no

indication that these attitudes are near a crisis stage. Public desire for government

services and activism has remained nearly steady over the past 30 years. Distrust of

our government is not fostering a disregard for the nations laws, eroding patriotism or

discouraging government service. About as many people would recommend a

government job to a child today as would have in the early 1960s, when there was

much less distrust of government.

5. God are you there? Hello? I guess I will leave a message. Hitchhikers Guide to

the Galaxys statement of God. After discovering that the people of the Universe were

rather unhappy with their Universe, God set out to make sure they understood He hadn't

purposefully tried to screw with them. And so He wrote the following message on a

mountain for anybody within range to see. The message went as follows:


The message eventually became a tourist attraction.

Christianity as antiquity.-- When we hear the ancient bells growling on a Sunday

morning we ask ourselves: Is it really possible! This, for a jew, crucified two thousand

years ago, who said he was God's son? The proof of such a claim is lacking. Certainly

the Christian religion is an antiquity projected into our times from remote prehistory; and

the fact that the claim is believed - whereas one is otherwise so strict in examining

pretensions - is perhaps the most ancient piece of this heritage. A god who begets

children with a mortal woman; a sage who bids men work no more, have no more

courts, but look for the signs of the impending end of the world; a justice that accepts

the innocent as a vicarious sacrifice; someone who orders his disciples to drink his

blood; prayers for miraculous interventions; sins perpetrated against a god, atoned for

by a god; fear of a beyond to which death is the portal; the form of the cross as a

symbol in a time that no longer knows the function and ignominy of the cross -- how

ghoulishly all this touches us, as if from the tomb of a primeval past! Can one believe

that such things are still believed?

From Nietzsche's Human, all too Human, s.405, R.J. Hollingdale transl.

Speaking in a parable.--A Jesus Christ was possible only in a Jewish landscape--I

mean one over which the gloomy and sublime thunder cloud of the wrathful Yahweh

was brooding continually. Only here was the rare and sudden piercing of the gruesome

and perpetual general day-night by a single ray of the sun experienced as if it were a

miracle of "love" and the ray of unmerited "grace." Only here could Jesus dream of his
rainbow and his ladder to heaven on which God descended to man. Everywhere else

good weather and sunshine were considered the rule and everyday occurrences.

From Nietzsche's The Gay Science, s.137, Walter Kaufmann transl

Now, we will step into my minds eye on the belief of god. I view the belief of any God

as a from of psychosis. In Future of an Illusion, Freud (1927) wrote: Religion would

thus be the universal obsessional neurosis of humanity... If this view is right, it is to be

supposed that a turning-away from religion is bound to occur with the fatal inevitability of

a process of growth. If on the one hand, religion brings with it obsessional restrictions,

exactly as an individual obsessional neurosis does, on the other hand, it comprises a

system of wishful illusions together with a disavowal of reality, such as we find in an

isolated form nowhere else but amentia, in a state of blissful hallucinatory confusion.

Lets take a look in to realm of God or should I say our own mental psychosis.

Religious delusions involving the belief that they have a special relationship with God

normally reserved for bible or mythic figures, or with the spiritual world. A person may

state that they are the incarnation of the archangel Michael, for instance. They may

complain of demon possession, of being able to speak to God directly and hear replies,

or to be in communication with a spirit from another dimension. Patients may believe

that they are God, or God's chosen messenger.

Pastors stand behind the pulpit and at a higher level than everyone else. Is this not a

from of grandiose delusions consist of them believing that they are a significant figure in

the world, such as a movie star, political leader, or someone incredibly wealthy and


Finally the belief that God is your life, your buddy, etcetera, etcetera, etcetera, that

inits self is an Erotomanic delusion. Erotomania is a type of delusional disorder where

the affected person believes that another person is in love with him or her. If you any

religious place of worship all you here and see is the belief that a God loves them. Why

does God love them? How is God telling them that they are loved. Sure sound like
delusional disorders are a foot within the masses.

Overall, To finish this paper off I just want to say thank you and I really enjoyed this

class. If the world had just a little more philosophical thinkers, it just might not be such a

scary place.