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# Some special cases of stress:

i. Uniaxial stress
ii. Plane stress or two dimensional stress
iii. Tri axial stress
iv. Pure shear stress

Types of forces
i. Surface forces:
These forces are applied when two surfaces come in
contact. In mechanics of material these are forces which are
analyzed.

## ii. Body forces:

The forces act on each element of the body. These are
gravitational forces. Normally the Body forces are small in
magnitude as compared to the contact force.

Principal stresses:
The plane on which there is no shearing stress is
called as principal plane. The stresses acting on this plane are
called as principal stresses.

Theory of Photoelasticity:
This theory relatives change refractive index to the state of
stress of photoelastic material is called as photoelasticity.OR It is
the measure the change in refractive index which is due to the
presence of stress and strain.

Refractive Index:

## It is the ratio of velocity of light in space and velocity of light in

certain material.

Visible Spectrum

## Wavelength Range (nm) Colours

400-450 Voilet

450-480 Blue

480-510 Blue-Green

510-550 Green

550-570 Yellow-Green

570-590 Yellow

590-630 Orange

30-700 Red

When all of these colours will be mix, white light will be absorb by
human eyes.
Stress Optic Law:
R=Ct(11-22 )
where R is the induced retardation, C is the stress optic
coefficient, t is the specimen thickness, 11 is the first principal
stress, and 22 is the second principal stress.

Strain Gauge:
A Strain gauge (sometimes refered to as a Strain gage) is a
sensor whose resistance varies with applied force; It converts
force, pressure, tension, weight, etc., into a change in electrical
resistance which can then be measured. When external forces are
applied to a stationary object, stress and strain are the result.
Stress is defined as the object's internal resisting forces, and
strain is defined as the displacement and deformation that occur.

Polariscope:
It is an instrument for measuring the polarization of light,
often to determine stress an strain glass and other substances.

i) Plane Polariscope
ii) Circular Polariscope