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National Rural Roads Development Agency (NRRDA)

Manual for Design & Construction


of Gabion Retaining Walls for
Rural Roads

August, 2015
Contents
Chapter1: History of Gabions ..................................................................................................................... 6
2.1 Machine Made Gabions .......................................................................................................................... 8
2.1.1 Components of Gabion Retaining walls........................................................................... 10
2.1.2 Technical Parameters of Gabion Mesh ............................................................................ 10
2.1.3 Typical standard sizes of Gabion box (10x12 Mesh type)................................................ 11
2.1.4 Specifications of Gabions ................................................................................................. 11
2.2 Gabion Mattresses .................................................................................................................. 13
2.2.1 Specifications of Rivet Mattress ...................................................................................... 14
2.3 Non woven Geo-textile ......................................................................................................................... 17
2.3.1 Specifications of Non Woven Geo textile behind Gabions conforming to TYPE III
requirement of Geo textile (MORTH specification for Road and Bridge works, clause 720.2.1,
table no. 700-1) ............................................................................................................................ 18
2.3.2 Specifications of Non Woven Geotextile below Rivet Mattress conforming to TYPE I
requirement of Geo Textile (MORTH specification for Road and Bridge works, clause 720.2.1,
table no. 700-1) ............................................................................................................................ 19
2.4 Reinforced soil wall with Gabion facia System ..................................................................................... 19
2.4.1 Specifications of Reinforced wall with Gabion Facia ....................................................... 20
2.5 Reinforced soil slope with Green facia System ....................................................................... 23
2.5.1 Specifications of Reinforced soil slope with Green Facia ................................................ 23
2.6 Sack Gabions ......................................................................................................................................... 27
2.6.1 Specifications of Sack Gabion: ......................................................................................... 28
Chapter 3: Handmade Gabions ................................................................................................................. 32
Chapter 4: Comparison between Handmade and Machine made Gabions .............................................. 34
Chapter 5: Features and Characteristics of Gabions ................................................................................. 38
5.1 Permeability .................................................................................................................... 38
5.2 Flexibility ......................................................................................................................... 38
5.3 Durability ........................................................................................................................ 39
5.4 Versatility ....................................................................................................................... 39
5.5 Economical Solution ....................................................................................................... 40
5.6 Carbon Foot Print ........................................................................................................... 40
Chapter 6: Gabion Installation Steps........................................................................................................ 41
6.1 Lacing Procedure ..................................................................................................................... 42

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6.2 Foundation/Surface preparation............................................................................................. 42
6.3 Installation of gabions and Filling with stones ........................................................................ 42
6.4 Lid Closing ................................................................................................................................ 44
Chapter 7: Typical Applications of Gabions in Rural Roads ...................................................................... 45
7.1 Gabion toe wall and confinement ........................................................................................................ 45
7.2 Gabion and mattress for river bank protection ...................................................................... 46
7.3 Culvert protection with Gabion for road................................................................................. 47
7.4 Multiple pipe or River crossing structure ................................................................................ 49
7.5 Bridge piers and abutment protection with Gabion wall ........................................................ 50
7.6 Bank protection with Mattress for Rural Roads ...................................................................... 52
7.7 Gabions as Crash Barrier on Sharp Curves .............................................................................. 53
7.8 Typical road failure on valley & hill side .................................................................................. 54
7.9 Gabion embankment for Rockfall protection / Toe Wall ........................................................ 60
Chapter 8: Typical Sections of Gabion Wall .............................................................................................. 61
Chapter 9: Comparison of Gabion vs. PCC/RCC/RR Masonry Wall ........................................................... 63
ANNEXURE . 65

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TABLES
Table 1: Technical parameter of Gabion Mesh______________________________________________________ 11
Table 2: Standard size for Gabion box ____________________________________________________________ 11
Table 3: Details of Wire mesh ___________________________________________________________________ 12
Table 4: Tolerances of Wire mesh ________________________________________________________________ 13
Table 5: Standard size of Gabion box _____________________________________________________________ 13
Table 6: Details of wire mesh ___________________________________________________________________ 15
Table 7: Tolerance details for Mesh wire __________________________________________________________ 16
Table 8 : Standard size of Gabion box _____________________________________________________________ 16
Table 9: MARV value of Geo textile behind Gabions _________________________________________________ 18
Table 10: MARV value of Geotextile below Rivet Mattress ___________________________________________ 19
Table 11: Details of wire mesh __________________________________________________________________ 22
Table 12: Standard size of Gabion facia unit _______________________________________________________ 22
Table 13: Showing the tolerance limits of zinc coating _______________________________________________ 25
Table 14: Details of wire mesh __________________________________________________________________ 27
Table 15: Characteristics of Mesh wire, Selvedge wire and Lacing wire _________________________________ 29
Table 16: Standard mesh _______________________________________________________________________ 30
Table 17: Standard sizes of DT wire mesh cylindrical Gabion __________________________________________ 30
Table 18: Details of Geo-textile material as containment system ______________________________________ 31

FIGURES
Figure 1: Military application of Gabions in early 19th Century ............................................................................. 6
Figure 2: Bomb proof shelter made of Gabions ...................................................................................................... 6
Figure 3: Gabion construction in irrigation works in early 20th Century in United States of America (USA) ........... 7
Figure 4: Photo of typical Gabion Retaining wall at Road side ............................................................................... 8
Figure 5 a, b and c: Photograph depicts mechanical woven Gabions to protect Reno river bank ........................... 9
Figure 6: Typical section of Gabion wall with different component ..................................................................... 10
Figure 7: Typical photo of Gabion Mattress at Road side ..................................................................................... 14
Figure 8: Typical details of Rivet Mattress ........................................................................................................... 14
Figure 9: Typical details of Non woven Geo textile behind the Gabion ................................................................ 18
Figure 10: Typical photo of Non woven Geo textile below Rivet mattress during construction............................ 19
Figure 11: Typical photo of Reinforced soil wall with Gabion facia ...................................................................... 20
Figure 12: Typical Details of Reinforced soil wall with Gabion facia .................................................................... 20
Figure 13: Typical photo of Reinforced soil slope with Green fascia ..................................................................... 23

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Figure 14: Typical details of Double twisted hexagonal coated steel wire mesh with welded panel and nonwoven
biodegradable mat ...................................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 15: Reinforcing steel Bracket ..................................................................................................................... 26
Figure 16: Typical cross section Gabion wall with Sack Gabion ............................................................................ 28
Figure 17: Typical photo of Gabion wall with Sack Gabion along river side of road .............................................. 28
Figure 18- Handmade hexagonal and square mesh gabions ................................................................................. 32
Figure 19: Permeability through Gabion structure ............................................................................................... 38
Figure 20: Flexibility of structure ......................................................................................................................... 38
Figure 21: Environmental friendly Gabions .......................................................................................................... 39
Figure 22: Vegetation over Gabion structure ....................................................................................................... 39
Figure 23 (a)and(b): Gabion Installation Steps ..................................................................................................... 41
Figure 24: Lacing operation in gabions ................................................................................................................. 42
Figure 25: Stone at site for Gabion filling ............................................................................................................. 43
Figure 26: Lid closing procedure at site ................................................................................................................ 44
Figure 27: Typical scheme of Gabion wall for road application ............................................................................ 45
Figure 28 a,b and c: Typical photos of Gabion wall for along the road side .......................................................... 46
Figure 29: Typical scheme of river bank protection with Gabion wall .................................................................. 46
Figure 30 a,b &c : Typical photos of river bank protection with Gabion wall along road ...................................... 47
Figure 31 : Typical scheme of culvert protection with Gabion wall ..................................................................... 47
Figure 32 : Typical Photo of Culvert with Gabion Gravity Retaining wall .............................................................. 48
Figure 33: Typical scheme of multiple pipe protection with Gabion Retaining wall ............................................. 49
Figure 34a,b&c : Photos of multiple pipe protection with Gabion Gravity Retaining wall .................................... 49
Figure 35: Typical scheme of bridge protection with Gabion retaining wall ......................................................... 50
Figure 36: Photograph of bridge protection with Gabion retaining wall .............................................................. 50
Figure 37 : Typical schemes of culverts with Gabion Retaining wall ..................................................................... 51
Figure 38 a& b: Typical Scheme of Gabion mattress for slope protection in conjunction with water front structure
for pavement protection ............................................................................................................................. 52
Fig 39 a&b : Photograph of Gabion mattress for slope protection on River & Road ............................................. 52
Figure 40: Photo of Concrete crash Barrier on Sharp Curve on Hilly Terrain ........................................................ 53
Figure 41 : Typical scheme of Gabions as Crash Barrier on Hilly Roads ................................................................. 53
Figure 42 : Photo depicts gabion wall as crash barrier on sharp curve on hilly road ............................................. 54
Figure 43 a and b: Typical Road Failure ................................................................................................................ 54
Figure 44 a : Typical Scheme of Gabion Gravity Retaining wall for road in Hillside............................................... 55
Fig. 44b : Typical Scheme of Gabion Gravity Retaining wall for road in Valleyside ............................................... 56
Figure 45a&b: Gabion wall for Earth retention at Road side ................................................................................ 56

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Figure 46 a and b : Gabion Retaining wall for Road stabilisation in Rural Roads .................................................. 57
Figure 47 : Typical Scheme of Reinfored soil wall with Gabion facia ................................................................... 58
Figure 48 : Typical photo of Reinfored soil wall with Gabion facia ...................................................................... 58
Figure 49: Typical scheme of soil reinforced slope with Green facia ................................................................... 59
Figure 50 : Soil reinforced slope with Green facia at road side ............................................................................. 59
Figure 51: Typical scheme of Gabion wall for Rockfall protect ............................................................................. 60
Figure 52 a and b: Photos depict Gabion toe wall on Valley side of Road ............................................................ 60

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Chapter1: History of Gabions

A Gabion (from Italian gabbione meaning "big cage"; from Italian gabbia and Latin cavea
meaning "cage") is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and
soil for use in civil engineering, road building, and military applications. First records of the use
of Gabion system go back more than 2000 years, when Egyptians filled cylindrical willow
baskets with small stones to protect the banks of the River Nile from erosion. Leonardo da Vinci
used gabions for the foundations of the San Marco Castle in Milan.

Figure 1: Military application of Gabions in early 19th Century

Figure 2: Bomb proof shelter made of Gabions

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For erosion control, caged riprap is used. For dams or in foundation construction, cylindrical
metal structures are used. In a military context, earth- or sand-filled gabions are used to protect
artillery crews from enemy fire.

In recent history, civil engineers have used gabions extensively to stabilize shorelines,
riverbanks, highways, and slopes against erosion. The most common use of gabions is to
stabilize shorelines, stream banks or slopes against erosion. Other usage includes retaining
walls, temporary floodwalls, silt filtration from runoff, for small or temporary/permanent dams,
river training, or channel lining. They may be used to direct the force of flow of flood water
around a vulnerable structure.

Figure 3: Gabion construction in irrigation works in early 20th Century in United States of America

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Chapter 2: Description and Specifications

2.1 Machine Made Gabions


Gabions are baskets made of double twisted steel woven wire mesh made from machine with
higher mechanical characteristics. Gabion retaining walls utilize double twisted woven wire
mesh modular units, filled on site with hard, durable stone to form flexible mass gravity retaining
structures for road projects. The hexagonal shape of the mesh helps in achieving uniform
distribution of forces. The double twisted wire will not unravel, even when cut. These are very
easy to assemble, require no specialized labor and most onsite rock can be used for fill.
Gabions are available with different levels of protective coating for durability. With 30% to 40%
voids gabion structures offer free drainage providing a higher stability when used for retaining
purposes. Gabion retaining walls can also be provided as toe walls to act as robust bottom
drainage wall.

Gabion wall is a retaining wall made of stacked stone-filled gabions tied together with wire.
Gabion walls are usually battered (angled back towards the slope), or stepped back with the
slope rather than stacked vertically.

Figure 4: Photo of typical Gabion Retaining wall at Road side

Gabion baskets have several advantages over loose riprap because of their modularity and
ability to be stacked in various shapes; they are also resistant to being washed away by moving
water. Gabions also have advantages over more rigid structures because they can conform to
ground movement, dissipate energy from flowing water, and drain freely. Their strength and
effectiveness increases with time as silt and vegetation fill the interstitial voids and reinforce the

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structure. They are sometimes used to keep stones which may fall from a cutting or cliff from
endangering traffic on a thoroughfare.

Gabions are provided on slopes prone to erosion, at suitable locations of roads to prevent the
soil from moving down the slope and thus protecting the road. Gabions can be used for
construction of protection structures like toe walls. They serve both purposes of protecting the
slope from being eroded and of provid
providing stability to the slope, if the slope is unstable.

1994

Figure 5 a, b and c: Photograph depicts mechanical woven Gabions to protect Reno river bank

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2.1.1 Components of Gabion Retaining walls

o Gabion boxes as per standard dimensions


o Filling Stones
o Filter media (Non Woven Geo textile)
o Backfill Material or Existing fill

Figure 6:: Typical section of Gabion wall with different component

2.1.2 Technical Parameters of Gabion Mesh

Table
able 1: Technical parameter of Gabion Mesh

S.N Parameters Mesh type 10x12 ( Zn + PVC coated)


1 Mesh wire diameter (mm) 2.7/ 3.7 (ID/OD)*
2 Edge/Selvedge wire diameter (mm) 3.4/ 4.4 (ID/OD)*
3 Lacing wire diameter (mm) 2.2/ 3.2 (ID/OD)*

4 PVC coating thickness (mm) Nominal - 0.5

5 Tensile Strength (N/ mm2) 350 - 550


6 Elongation (%) Not less than 10%
Wire dia (mm) 2.2 2.7 3.4
7 Zinc coating (gm/sqm)
Zinc coating 240 260 270
8 PVC coating (mm) 0.5 to 0.38 (mm)
* ID = inner diameter / OD = outer diameter

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2.1.3 Typical standard sizes of Gabion box (10x12 Mesh type)

Table 2: Standard size for Gabion box

Length(m) Width (m) Height (m) No. of Diaphragms

4.0 1.0 1.0 3.0


3.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1.5 1.0 1.0 0.0
4.0 1.0 0.5 3.0
3.0 1.0 0.5 2.0
2.0 1.0 0.5 1.0

2.1.4 Specifications of Gabions

a) Wire
All tests on the mesh, lacing wire and selvedge wire must be performed prior to manufacturing
the mesh.

b) Tensile strength: The wire used for the manufacture of Mesh shall have a tensile strength
minimum 350 N/mm2 in accordance with IS 280. Wire tolerances shall be in accordance with IS
16014:2012 (Class T1).

c) Elongation: Elongation shall not be less than 10%, in accordance with IS 16014:2012 and
MoRTH specification for Road and Bridge works (Fifth Revision) Clause 3100. Test must be
carried out on a sample at least 20 cm long.

d) Internal Connecting Wires


Cross Ties/ stiffener wire: Diameter 2.2 mm, Zinc coated wire with PVC coating, 3.2mm when
measured with PVC coating.

e) Zinc Coating
Zinc coating: The wire shall have minimum quantities of Zinc given in Table 1 in accordance
with IS 4826:1979

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Adhesion of zinc coating: The adhesion of the zinc coating to the wire shall be such that,
when the wire is wrapped six turns around a mandrel having four times the diameter of the wire,
it does not flake or crack when rubbing it with the bare fingers in accordance with EN 10244-1
and IS 4826:1979

f) PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Coating

PVC coating thickness: Nominal 0.5 mm, Minimum 0.38 mm;


Specific weight: 1.3 kg/ dm3 1.35 kg/ dm3 in accordance with ISO 1183.
Hardness: between 50 and 60 Shore D in accordance with ISO 868.
Tensile strength: Higher than 21 MPa in accordance with ISO 527
Elongation at break: not less than 200% in accordance with ISO 527.

g) Wire Mesh (10x12) Mesh type

Table 3: Details of Wire mesh

Mesh Type D(mm) Zn + PVC coated


Diameter of wire (inner/outer wire)
Mesh wire(mm) Selvedge Lacing wire(mm)
wire(mm)
10x12 100 mm 2.7/3.7 3.4/4.4 2.2/3.2

Mesh opening: Nominal Dimension D = 100.


Tolerances in Mesh Opening size:2%
DT mesh shall have minimum 10 numbers of mesh openings per meter of mesh perpendicular
to twist of mesh.
Procedure for verification of mesh opening:
Gabion Box/Mattress shall be unfolded on the plain level ground.
Any shrink in the unfolded Gabion Mesh shall be removed, by stretching the Mesh
panel.
Marking on the ground shall be made from the Centre of the twist of one mesh and the
second marking shall be done at 1 m distance.
The number of mesh openings per meter shall be counted & verified.

h) Tolerances
Wire diameter tolerance and minimum zinc coating requirement shall be as per table 4:

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Table 4: Tolerances of Wire mesh

Wire Diameter(mm) 2.2mm 2.7 mm 3.4 mm


Wire Tolerance 0.06 0.07 0.09
(mm)__
Minimum Qty of 240 260 270
Zinc(gm/sqm)

i) Fabrication

Gabions shall be manufactured with all components mechanically connected at the production
facility. The front, base, back and lid of the gabions shall be woven into a single unit. The ends
and diaphragm(s) shall be factory connected to the base. The lid may be a separate piece made
of the same type mesh as the basket. All perimeter edges of the mesh forming the basket and
top, or lid, shall be selvedge with wire having a larger diameter.
Gabion is divided into cells by means of diaphragms positioned at approximately 1m centres.
The diaphragms shall be secured in position to the base so that no additional lacing is
necessary at the jobsite.

2.2 Gabion Mattresses

Mattresses are a specialized form of Gabion and have relatively larger plan size and shallower
depth. Their primary function is to protect the bed of watercourse from excessive scour - they
aim to prevent the water ripping up its own bed, most commonly at weirs, waterfalls and other
places where there is a sudden change in water level.
Gabion mattresses, also known as Rivet mattresses, are a form of gabion with large
plan area/thickness ratio. The mattress is fabricated from a similar but smaller double-twist
hexagonal mesh used in the manufacturing of gabions. A continuous panel of mesh forms the
base, the side and the end walls of the unit to obtain the open-topped multi cellular container. All
edges of the panel are selvedged with a wire of larger diameter than that used for the mesh to
strengthen the structure. These are used as mattresses on the slope to protect the bank from
erosion. In order to reinforce/retain the structure and reduce the surfacial erosion, all edges are
selvedge with a wire having greater diameter. The gabion is divided into cells by means of
diaphragms positioned at 1 m centers.
They are rectangular cages made of hexagonal woven steel wire mesh laced together and filled
with stones. They are used for a variety of applications in roads and railways.
Gabion Mattress being a flexible, permeable and eco friendly structure permits the
growth of vegetation by attracting various species of herbaceous species; shrubs etc. and
maintain the existing environment.

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Figure 7: Typical photo of Gabion Mattress at Road side

2.2.1 Specifications of Rivet Mattress

Rivet Mattress Rivet mattress is a wire mesh container uniformly partitioned into internal
cells with relatively smaller height in relation to other dimensions, having smaller mesh openings
than the mesh used for gabions, Rivet mattresses are generally used for riverbank protection
and channel linings

Figure
ure 8: Typical details of Rivet Mattress

a) Wire:
All tests on the mesh, lacing wire and selvedge wire must be performed prior to manufacturing
the mesh.

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b) Tensile strength: The wire used for the manufacture of mesh shall have a tensile strength
minimum 350 N/mm2 in accordance with IS 280. Wire tolerances shall be in accordance with IS
16014:2012 (Class T1).

c) Elongation: Elongation shall not be less than 10%, in accordance with IS 16014:2012 and
MoRTH specification for Road and Bridge works (Fifth Revision) Clause 3100. Test must be
carried out on a sample at least 20 cm long.

d) Internal Connecting Wires: Diameter 2.2 mm, Zinc coated wire with PVC coating, 3.2mm
when measured with PVC coating.

e) Zinc Coating

Zinc coating: Minimum quantities of Zinc given in Table 1 shall meet the requirements of IS
4826:1979

Adhesion of zinc coating: The adhesion of the zinc coating to the wire shall be such that,
when the wire is wrapped six turns around a mandrel having four times the diameter of the wire,
it does not flake or crack when rubbing it with the bare fingers in accordance with EN 10244-1
and IS 4826:1979

f) PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Coating


PVC coating thickness: Nominal 0.5 mm, Minimum 0.38 mm;
Specific weight: 1.3 kg/dm31.35 kg/dm3 in accordance with ISO 1183.
Hardness: between 50 and 60 Shore D in accordance with ISO 868.
Tensile strength: Higher than 21 MPa in accordance with ISO 527
Elongation at break: not less than 200% in accordance with ISO 527.

g) Wire Mesh (10x12) Mesh type

Table 6: Details of wire mesh

Mesh Type D(mm) Zn+PVC coated


Diameter of wire (inner/outer wire)
Mesh wire(mm) Selvedge Lacing wire(mm)
wire(mm)
10x12 100 mm 2.7/3.7 3.4/4.4 2.2/3.2

Mesh opening: Nominal Dimension D = 100 mm


Tolerances in Mesh Opening size: 2%
DT mesh shall have minimum 10 numbers of mesh openings per meter of mesh perpendicular
to twist of mesh.
Procedure for verification of mesh opening

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Mattress shall be unfolded on the plain level ground.
Any shrink in the unfolded Mattress Mesh shall be removed, by stretching the Mesh
panel.
Marking on the ground shall be made from the Centre of the twist of one mesh and the
second marking shall be done at 1 m distance.
The number of mesh openings in the 1 m shall be counted and verified.

h) Tolerances
Wire diameter tolerance and minimum zinc coating requirement shall be as per table 7

Table 7: Tolerance details for Mesh wire

Wire Diameter(mm) 2.2mm 2.7 mm 3.4 mm


Wire Tolerance (mm) 0.06 0.07 0.09
Minimum Qty of Zinc 240 260 270
(gm/sqm)

i) Typical standard sizes of Machine Made Gabion box (10x12 Mesh type) used
for Gabion Mattresses

Table 8: Standard size of Gabion box

Length(m) Width(m) Height(m) No. of Diaphragms


6.0 2.0 0.5 5.0
5.0 2.0 0.5 4.0
4.0 2.0 0.5 3.0
3.0 2.0 0.5 2.0
6.0 2.0 0.3 5.0
5.0 2.0 0.3 4.0
4.0 2.0 0.3 3.0
3.0 2.0 0.3 2.0

j) Tolerance in gabion mattress dimensions


Tolerances of 5% of the width, length, and 10% of the height shall be permitted.

k) Fabrication
Gabion mattress shall be manufactured with all components mechanically connected at the
production facility. The front, base, back and lid of the gabion mattress shall be woven into a
single unit. The ends and diaphragm(s) shall be factory connected to the base. The lid may be a
separate piece made of the same type mesh as the basket. All perimeter edges of the mesh

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forming the basket and top, or lid, shall be selvedged with wire having a larger. The gabion
mattress is divided into cells by means of diaphragms positioned at approximately 1m centers.
The diaphragms shall be secured in position to the base so that no additional lacing is required
at the jobsite.

2.3 Non woven Geo-textile

Geo-textile is mechanically bonded nonwovens from 100% ultra violet stabilized Polypropylene
or Polyester. Non woven Geo- textile are characterized by high resistance to installation
damage, high water permeability, resistance to ultraviolet degradation and to biological and
chemical environments normally found in different types of soils, across varied terrain.

Sub grade Stabilization


Construction of temporary access road or ground improvement i.e. vertical drain and piling
requires a stable temporary platform for mobilization of heavy construction machineries. A good
working platform is impossible on weak soil especially when the water table is high. Non woven
Geo-textile provides an effective solution on how a temporary platform can be constructed on
weak soil with minimum disturbance to the foundation soil. Firstly, it acts as a separation layer
between good backfill material i.e. sand and gravel from weak and soft foundation soil. This
reduces the wastage on backfill material required to stabilize the foundation. With proper
design, the backfill material, which is spread over the geo-textile, will distribute the traffic load
without damaging the geo-textile layer.

Erosion Control
Non woven geo-textile is used as filter fabric between soils and rip rap to prevent erosion
through armoring layers. A single layer of non woven geo-textile works more effectively in
controlling erosion compared to the conventional method which requires multiple layers of
different graded soil. It is more economical especially if the application covers a large area.

Silt Fence/Silt Curtain


As an environment friendly material, non-woven geo-textile can be prefabricated into silt fence
and used as pollution control medium especially at construction site where sediment control is
critical. Non-woven geo-textile which consists of needle punched non woven geo-textile has
very good filtration function. It works by trapping construction pollutants like soil, aggregate etc.

Silt curtains are generally larger structure compared to silt fence and are mainly used to trap
suspended solids at larger areas such as rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Silt curtain will require
a more durable geo textile because it will be constantly exposed to water current and UV rays.

Drainage
Any type of structure i.e. wall, slope, road or embankment will require a very good drainage
system so that the pore water pressure from the structure can be quickly discharged out of the
system. At the same time, it must effectively retain the soil from going out of the structure. Non

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woven geo-textile with high permittivity and high permeability with optimum opening size is
favored for such an application. Geo-textile is normally used together with sand, aggregate or
perforated pipe. Even though the tensile strength is not the main criteria for this application, but
if the geo-textile is used together with aggregate, the selection of geo-textile must be based on
the possibility of the geo-textile being punctured by the aggregate during installation.

2.3.1 Specifications of Non Woven Geo textile behind Gabions conforming to TYPE III
requirement of Geo textile (MORTH specification for Road and Bridge works, clause 720.2.1,
table no. 700-1)
The nonwoven thermally bonded or needle punched or any equivalent geo textile shall be used.
The geo textile shall be made of polypropylene or polyethylene or polyester or similar fibres
manufactured through machine made process of heat bonding or needle punching techniques.
The MARV Values of Geo textile shall be as given in Table 9.

Table 9: MARV value of Geo textile behind Gabions

Properties MARV Values Test Method


Mechanical
Tensile Strength 7kN/m2 ASTM D 4595
Elongation at maximum load > 50 % ASTM D 4595
Grab Tensile Strength 500 N ASTM D 4632/IS 13162 Part 5
Grab Elongation > 55 % ASTM D 4632/ IS 13162 Part 5
Puncture Strength (CBR) 1200 N ASTM D 6241
Hydraulic:
Apparent Opening Size, < 0.4 mm ASTM D 4751
AOS90
Permittivity 0.1 sec-1 (Maximum Value) ASTM D 4491

Figure 9: Typical details of Non woven Geo textile behind the Gabion

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2.3.2 Specifications of Non Woven Geotextile below Rivet Mattress conforming to TYPE I
requirement of Geo Textile (MORTH specification for Road and Bridge works, clause 720.2.1,
table no. 700-1)
The nonwoven thermally bonded or needle punched or any equivalent geo textile shall be used.
The geo textile shall be made of polypropylene or polyethylene or polyester or similar fibers
manufactured through machine made process of heat bonding or needle punching techniques.
The MARV Values of Geo textile shall be as shown in Table 10.

Table 10: MARV values of Geo textile below Rivet Mattress

Properties MARV Values Test Method


Mechanical:
Grab Tensile Strength 910 N ASTM D 4632
Grab Elongation 50 % ASTM D 4632
Puncture Strength (CBR) 2300 N ASTM D 6241
Trapezoidal Tear Strength 375 N ASTM D 4533
Mullen Burst Strength 2100 N ASTM D 3786
UV Resistance 70/500 %/hrs ASTM D 4355
Hydraulic:
Apparent Opening Size, AOS 0.120 mm (Maximum value) ASTM D 4751
Permittivity 1 sec-1 (Maximum value) ASTM D 4491

Figure 10: Typical photo of Non woven Geo textile below Rivet mattress during construction

2.4 Reinforced soil wall with Gabion facia System


For low to high walls in many geographic areas, Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE), or
Reinforced Soil structures are the least expensive type of wall available. They are simple to
build, and often they can use on-site granular backfill material.

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Reinforced soil wall with Gabion Fascia is defined as PVC coated heavily galvanized steel wire
mesh box-shaped basket with a section of the mesh extending into the soil to act as soil
reinforcement into the backfill soil. The basket is filled on site with clean-hard stones.
Structure consists of Gabions as an external face, and double twist mesh panel as tail/
reinforcing elements. They can be built with a stepped or vertical face, with or without a batter.
They are specially designed for sites and situations where it is necessary to reconstitute the soil
mass and where filling with stone is scarce or expensive to obtain.
The vertical spacing between reinforcements is determined by the design in order to provide the
required shear strength for the soil embankment.
It is made of a continuous double twisted wire mesh panel that forms the reinforcement, and the
front and top of a gabion style facing section. The back panel, ends, and diaphragm of the
facing section are connected to the main unit during the manufacturing process. The facing
section is a rectangular form filled with stone which provides strength and drainage to the
structure.

Figure 11: Typical photo of Reinforced soil wall with Gabion facia

2.4.1 Specifications of Reinforced wall with Gabion Facia


These units are fabricated soft flexible heavily galvanized and PVC coated double
twisted steel woven wire mesh units. The facing section of the unit is formed by
connecting the back panel and a diaphragm to the main unit. This creates rectangular
shaped cells which are then used for stone confinement.

Figure 12: Typical Details of Reinforced soil wall with Gabion facia

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a) Wire
All tests on the mesh, lacing wire and selvedge wire must be performed prior to
manufacturing the mesh.
Tensile strength: The wire used for the manufacture of Mesh shall have a tensile
strength minimum 350 N/mm2 in accordance with IS 280. Wire tolerances (Table 1) shall
be in accordance with IS 16014:2012 (Class T1).
Elongation: Elongation shall not be less than 10%, in accordance with IS 16014:2012
and MoRTH specification for Road and Bridge works (Fifth Revision) Clause 3100. Test
must be carried out on a sample at least 20 cm long.

b) Zinc Coating
Zinc coating: The wire shall have minimum quantities of Zinc given in Table 1 in
accordance with IS 4826:1979
Adhesion of zinc coating: The adhesion of the zinc coating to the wire shall be such
that, when the wire is wrapped six turns around a mandrel having four times the
diameter of the wire, it does not flake or crack when rubbing it with the bare fingers in
accordance with EN 10244-1 and IS 4826:1979

c) PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Coating


1. PVC coating thickness: Nominal 0.5 mm, Minimum 0.38 mm;
2. Specific weight: 1.3 kg/dm3 1.35 kg/dm3 in accordance with ISO 1183.
3. Hardness: between 50 and 60 Shore D in accordance with ISO 868.
4. Tensile strength: Higher than 21 MPa in accordance with ISO 527
5. Elongation at break: not less than 200% in accordance with ISO 527.

d) Wire mesh (10x12 mesh type):


Mesh wire: Diameter 2.70 mm zinc coated wire inside PVC coating and 3.70 mm
when measured with external PVC coating;(ID/OD - 2.7mm/3.7mm)
Selvedge and reinforcement steel wire: Diameter 3.40 mm zinc coated wire inside
PVC coating and 4.40 mm when measured with external PVC coating;(ID/OD -
3.4mm/4.4mm).
Mesh opening: Nominal Dimension D = 100, as per Table. 2
Tolerances in Mesh Opening size: 2%

DT mesh shall have minimum 10 numbers of mesh openings per meter of mesh
perpendicular to twist of mesh.
Procedure for verification of mesh opening:
a. Reinforced gabion facia shall be unfolded on plain level ground.
b. Any shrink in the unfolded Gabion Mesh shall be removed, by stretching the
Mesh panel.
c. Marking on the ground shall be made from the Centre of the twist of one mesh
and the second. Marking shall be done at 1 m distance.
d. The number of mesh Openings in the 1 m shall be counted and verified.

21
e) Tolerances
Wire: The wire shall meet diameter tolerance and minimum zinc coating requirement
given in Table 11.
Gabion facia and tail unit tolerance: 5 % on the length, width, and height.

Table 11: Details of wire mesh

Internal Wire Dia mm 2.2 2.7 3.4


Wire Tolerance(+)mm 0.06 0.07 0.09
Minimum Quantity of Zinc (gm/m2 ) 240 260 270

f) Standard size
Gabion facia and tail with double twist hexagonal mesh units shall have the following
dimensions
Table 12: Standard size of Gabion facia unit

Length of reinforcement Width (L), m Height (H), m


(B), m
3 2 1
4 2 1
5 2 1
6 2 1
3 2 0.5
4 2 0.5
5 2 0.5
6 2 0.5

g) Fabrication
Gabion facia and tail with double twist hexagonal mesh units shall be manufactured with
all components mechanically connected at the production facility. The external face,
reinforcing panel, and lid of the unit shall be woven into a single unit. The ends, back,
and diaphragm shall be factory connected to the base. All perimeter edges of the mesh
forming the basket shall be selvedged with wire having a larger diameter.
The facing element of a Gabion facia and tail with double twist hexagonal mesh unit is
divided into two cells by means of a diaphragm positioned at approximately 1m centers.
The diaphragm shall be secured in position to the base so that no additional lacing is
required at the job-site.

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h) Structural Backfill in between reinforcement
The structural backfill shall be of good quality, free draining granular soil and Plasticity
Index should be less than 9. The percentage of fines passing 75 micron sieve shall not
be greater than 15%. The maximum particle size in the structural fill shall not be more
than 75 mm. The structural fill material should be basically free draining and it should be
devoid of dirt and deleterious material.

2.5 Reinforced soil slope with Green facia System


Reinforced soil slope with Green facia is defined as PVC coated heavily galvanized steel wire
mesh panel of various sizes partially reinforced with brackets, reinforcing bars, and steel mesh
combined with biomac or synthetic mat folded to form a soil retaining structure with a continuous
panel, extending into the soil to act as soil reinforcement.

These units are provided with a coir mat connected to the wire mesh during the manufacturing
process to promote greenery on the Facia and to retain the fines in the backfill material. Green
Facia unit is best suited option since it enhances vegetation thereby stabilizing the slope. With
this kind of solution, it is seen that soil stabilization and environmental balance are both taken
care of. Moreover, the solution is aesthetically pleasing in appearance and is economical for
smaller embankment height stabilization of slopes.

Figure 13: Typical photo of Reinforced soil slope with Green fascia

2.5.1 Specifications of Reinforced soil slope with Green Facia


These are assembled units made of mechanically woven double twisted steel wire mesh
type10x12 with reinforcing steel rods, a bio-degradable erosion control blanket and a welded
mesh panel with three loose steel tie rods or three loose steel triangular brackets of diameter
8mm .The tie rods are fixed at top to welded mesh panel and shall be connected at bottom to
steel rod passing through reinforcement of woven double twisted wire mesh while installation in
job site to form the required slope angle. The mechanically woven double twisted hexagonal

23
wire mesh is made using heavily galvanized and PVC coated soft type steel wire. Attached to
the inside facing is a nonwoven bio-degradable mat.
The components are:
1. Mechanically woven steel wire mesh panel with reinforcing steel rods
2. Welded mesh panel of 8 mm dia. steel bars.
3. Coir mat
4. Steel tie rod or Triangular Bracket.

Figure 14: Typical details of Double twisted hexagonal coated steel wire mesh with welded panel
and nonwoven biodegradable mat

a) Wire
All tests on the mesh, lacing wire and reinforcing steel rod must be performed prior to
manufacturing the mesh.
Tensile strength: The wire used for the manufacture of Mesh shall have a tensile
strength minimum 350 N/mm2 in accordance with IS 280. Wire tolerances (Table 1) shall
be in accordance with IS 16014:2012 (Class T1).
Elongation: Elongation shall not be less than 10% in accordance with
IS 16014:2012. Test must be carried out on a sample at least 20 cm long.

b) Zinc Coating
Zinc coating: The wire shall have minimum quantities of Zinc given in Table 1 in
accordance with IS 4826:1979

24
Adhesion of zinc coating: The adhesion of the zinc coating to the wire shall be such
that, when the wire is wrapped six turns around a mandrel having four times the
diameter of the wire, it does not flake or crack when rubbing it with the bare fingers in
accordance with IS 4826:1979

c) PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Coating


The technical characteristics and the resistance of the PVC to ageing meet the relevant
ISO and IS 13360 standards. The main values for the PVC material are as follows:

Specific Weight: 1.30-1.35 kg/ dm3 in accordance with ISO 1183.


Hardness: between 50 and 60 Shore D in accordance with ISO 868.
Tensile Strength: higher than 21 N/mm2 in accordance with ISO 527.
Elongation at break: not less than 200% in accordance with ISO527.
Color: Grey - RAL 7037.

d) Tolerances
1.1 Wire: The wire shall meet diameter tolerance and minimum zinc coating
requirement given in the Table 13.
Table 13: Showing the tolerance limits of zinc coating

Internal Wire Dia mm 2.2 2.7 3.4


Wire Tolerance(+)mm 0.06 0.07 0.09
Minimum Quantity of Zinc 240 260 270
(gm/ m2)

1.2 Woven steel wire double twist hexagonal mesh with welded wire panel unit:
5 % on the length, width, and height.

1.3 Wire mesh (10x12 mesh type):


Mesh wire: Diameter 2.70 mm zinc coated wire inside PVC coating and 3.70 mm when
measured with external PVC coating;(ID/OD - 2.7mm/3.7mm)
Selvedge and reinforcement steel wire: Diameter 3.40 mm zinc coated wire inside
PVC coating and 4.40 mm when measured with external PVC coating;(ID/OD -
3.4mm/4.4mm).
Mesh opening: Nominal Dimension D = 100,
Tolerances in Mesh Opening size: 2%

25
DT mesh shall have minimum 10 numbers of mesh openings per meter of mesh
perpendicular to twist of mesh.
Procedure for verification of mesh opening
Woven steel wire double twist hexagonal mesh with welded wire panel unit shall be
unfolded on plain level ground.
Any shrink in the unfolded Mesh shall be removed, by stretching the Mesh panel.
Marking on the ground shall be made from the Centre of the twist of one mesh and
the second marking shall be done at 1 m distance.
The number of mesh openings in the 1 m shall be counted and verified.

e) Welded Steel Mesh Panel:


Rod diameter: Nominal 8mm size in accordance with IS: 1786;
Mesh openings: 150mm x 160 mm
Tensile strength: 485 MPa

f) Reinforcing Steel Tie Bracket:


Bar diameter: Nominal 8mm size in accordance with IS: 1786
Tensile strength: 485 MPa

Figure 15: Reinforcing steel Bracket


g) Erosion Control Blanket:
100% Coconut fiber nonwoven bio mat is attached to the inside facing. Nominal weight
of the coir mat shall be 270 g/m2. Nonwoven biodegradable mat is reinforced with fine
polypropylene netting securely stitched on both sides during manufacturing.
h) Standard size
Woven steel wire double twist hexagonal mesh with welded wire panel unit shall have
the following dimensions:
Table 14: Details of wire mesh

26
Length (L), Width (W) Height (H) Inclination,
Degree

3.0 m to 7.0
2.0 m 0.76 m 60
m

i) Fabrication
Woven steel wire double twist hexagonal mesh with welded wire panel units shall be cut
and pre-assembled at the production facility. The double twist hexagonal mesh shall be
present as tail, facia and top woven steel wire into which, welded wire panel, erosion
control blanket and performed steel bracket are attached as a pre-assembled unit.
Horizontal reinforcing steel rods shall be placed in the double twist of the front face of the
unit, spaced approximately every 162 mm. The welded wire panel shall be factory
connected to the base unit. Reinforcing steel brackets and erosion control blanket shall be
furnished attached within the packaged units.

j) Structural Backfill in between reinforcement


The structural backfill shall be of good quality, free draining granular soil and Plasticity Index
shall be less than 9. The percentage of fines passing 75 micron sieve shall not be greater
than 15%. The maximum particle size in the structural fill shall not be more than 75 mm.
The structural fill material should be basically free draining and it should be devoid of dirt
and deleterious material.

2.6 Sack Gabions


The double twist wire mesh cylindrical gabion shall be a cylindrical basket made up of
mechanically woven hexagonal DT wire mesh and geo-textile as lining material to act as a
containment system for sand or any other appropriate fill material. The steel wire shall be
heavily zinc coated soft temper steel. A PVC coating shall be applied to provide added
protection for use in polluted environment. In order to reinforce the structure, all mesh panel
edges are selvedged with a wire having a greater diameter. Cylindrical gabion shall be
supplied with steel reinforcing wires inserted during the manufacturing process to facilitate
closing during installation. The top opening of the inner geo-textile lining material shall be
stitched at site post filling of the containment system with sand or appropriate material. The
hexagonal shape of the mesh provides a better distribution of the working tension along the
wires that form the mesh.

27
Figure 16: Typical cross section Gabion wall with Sack Gabion

Figure 17: Typical photo of Gabion wall with Sack Gabion along river side of road

2.6.1 Specifications of Sack Gabion:


a) Mechanically Woven Double Twisted Hexagonal shaped Zn + PVC coated wire
mesh: All steel wires used in the manufacturing of wire mesh and during construction
shall conform to EN 102233. The wire used for the manufacture of mesh shall have a
tensile strength between 380-550N/mm2 and elongation shall not be less than 10%. Test
shall be carried out on a sample of at least 25 cm length. All tests on the mesh wire,

28
selvedging wire & lacing wire shall be performed prior to manufacturing the mesh. The
DT wire mesh shall have peak tensile strength of 40kN/m2.

b) Selvedge wire: The diameter of the selvedging shall be bigger than the wires in the
mesh. The diameter of selvedge wire shall be 3.4 mm and shall have same
characteristics as the mesh wire.

c) Lacing wire: The diameter of the lacing wire shall be 2.2 mm and shall have same
characteristics as the mesh wire.

d) Zinc coating:
Zinc coating: Minimum quantities of Zinc given in Table 1 shall meet the
requirements of EN 10244-2 (Table 1 and Class A).
Adhesion of zinc coating: The adhesion of the zinc coating to the wire shall be
such that, when the wire is wrapped six turns around a mandrel having four times
the diameter of the wire, it does not flake or crack when rubbing it with the bare
fingers in accordance with EN 10244.

e) PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) coating:


PVC coating thickness: Nominal 0.5 mm, Minimum 0.38 mm
Specific weight: 1.3 kg/dm3 1.35 kg/dm3 in accordance with ISO 1183
Hardness: between 50 and 60 Shore D in accordance with ISO 868
Tensile strength: Higher than 21 MPa in accordance with ISO 527
Elongation at break: not less than 200% in accordance with ISO 527
UV Stabilized

Wire diameter, tolerances, zinc + PVC coating shall conform to values indicated in Table 15
Table 15: Characteristics of Mesh wire, Selvedge wire and Lacing wire

Characteristics of Mesh Selvedge Lacing


10x12 mesh wire wire wire
Mesh Wire Dia mm 2.7 3.4 2.2
Tolerance (+/-) mm 0.07 0.07 0.06
Zn Coating Min
245 265 230
(gm/sq.m)

Mesh opening: Nominal Dimension D = 100 mm


Tolerances in Mesh Opening size: 5%
DT mesh shall have minimum 10 numbers of mesh openings per meter of mesh
perpendicular to twist of mesh.

29
Procedure for verification of mesh opening
a. Cylindrical gabions shall be unfolded on plain level ground.
b. Any shrink in the unfolded Gabion Mesh shall be removed, by stretching the
Mesh panel.
c. Marking on the ground shall be made from the Centre of the twist of one mesh
and the second marking shall be done at 1 m distance.
d. The number of mesh openings in the 1 m shall be counted and verified.

The mesh opening tolerances are indicated in Table 16, as per EN 10223 3

Table 16: Standard mesh

Mesh Panel Zinc +PVC coated


Mesh Strength Diameter of wire (Inner / Outer wire)
D(mm) Tolerance
type (parallel to Mesh Selvedge Lacing
twist) wire(mm) wire (mm) wire(mm)

10X12 100mm 5% 40kN/m 2.7/3.7 3.4/4.4 2.2/3.2

f) Dimensions of DT wire mesh cylindrical gabion:

DT wire mesh cylindrical gabion shall be manufactured in a standard length of 2m with


tolerance of 5% .Table 17 indicates standard sizes of DT wire cylindrical gabion
Other roll sizes may be required as per site conditions subject to the Engineers
approval. For non-standard roll lengths there may be some variation outside the
tolerance limit from the nominal size shown in the contract drawings.
Table 17: Standard sizes of DT wire mesh cylindrical Gabion

(10 X 12 - Mesh type)

L = Length (m) D = Diameter (m) Volume (m3)

2 0.96 1.45

1.5 0.74 0.64

30
g) Geo-textile material as containment system

Geo-textile is used in hydraulic and river applications and used for construction of soft rock
solution for applications of river training works, bank protection works etc.

Table 18: Details of Geo-textile material as containment system

Material and Make Needle punched, staple fibre, high elongation, non woven PET
Geo textile should resist UV, rooting and biological degradation,
naturally encountered acids and alkalis.

Test method Unit Value (Typical)


Property and Test Method
ASTM 5261 gm/sqm
300
Mass per unit area
Wide strip tensile strength ASTM 4595 kN/m
9
(MD/XD)
Elongation (MD / XD) ASTM 4595 % 50%
Static Puncture ASTM 6241 N 1400
Trapezoidal Tear Strength ASTM 4533 N
340
(MD/XD)
AOS ASTM 4751 micron 100 micron
Permittivity ASTM 4491 Sec -1 1.00

Note: MD Machine Direction and XD Cross Machine Direction

31
Chapter 3: Handmade Gabions
Handmade Gabions are non-engineered gabions with minimal detail to material used
and have poor reliability. The mesh is made manually without using any engineering
and a simple method is adopted for manufacturing the gabion cages.

Local vendors select readily available zinc coated wires to facilitate the manual
fabrication of the gabion cages. As these gabions are manually made, the mesh is
prone to have non-uniformity without any specified strength and resistance.

Figure 18- Handmade hexagonal and square mesh gabions

The panel strength cant be generalized in case of handmade Gabions. It is very much
dependent on the knot which is used for joining two perpendicular wires. It will always
be poor since its not monolithic. Since the opening is made manually, tied with knots, it
can open up when stressed. This makes the structure unstable & possibility of failure is
high.
In the non-uniform opening size of mesh, the shorter wires will be loaded first (non
uniform loading) which shall head to failure of wire & mesh panel. Also, due non-uniform
loading, the possibility of structure bulging and toppling increases.
For the most optimum design of durable and stronger structures, the gabions shall be
machine made from double twist hexagonal mesh of heavy galvanized or heavy
galvanized / PVC coated mild steel wire to prevent unravelling of the mesh and to
develop the full strength of the mesh. Also, excess time is required for the production of
handmade gabions, while being a fully mechanized system for machine made gabions,

32
production rate is fast. A detailed comparison between machine-made gabion & hand-
made gabion is given in the following chapter.

33
Chapter 4: Comparison between Handmade and
Machine made Gabions

There are three types of Gabions manufacturing process:


i. Machine made, mechanically selvedged hexagonal mesh gabions
ii. Handmade hexagonal mesh gabions
iii. Handmade rectangular mesh gabions

Handmade Gabion Machine made Gabion

1. Mesh Panel Strength 1.Mesh Panel Strength


Mesh Panel Mesh wire Strength Mesh Panel Mesh wire Strength
diameter (kN/m) diameter (kN/m)
(mm) (mm)
Rectangular 4.06 No Test data Hexagonal 2.7 32
(10x10) available (10x12)
Hexagonal 3.25 19
(10x12) Hexagonal 3.0 40
(10x12)

2. Strength of Double Twist : For 10x12 mesh 2. Strength of Double Twist : For 10x12
strength is 0.4 to 0.5 kN Mesh strength is 1.4kN

3. Type of Coating: For handmade wire crates, 3.Type of Coating : For mechanical woven
wires are purchased locally from any vendor Gabions minimum zinc coating is as per EN
who doesnt specify the Zinc coating 10244-2.The adhesion of zinc coating for the
parameters. They are usually of commercial wire should be such that when the wire is
class coating, which eventually leads to rusting wrapped six turns around the mandrel having
within 3-4 months. 4 times the diameter of wire, it does not flake
or crack when rubbing with bare hand.

34
4) Mesh opening is not uniform throughout the 4) Mesh opening is uniform throughout the
mesh. This results in enlargement of mesh size mesh to prevent it from bulging and escaping
and escaping of fill material during load of fill material.
application.

5. Uniformity: Due to non uniformity of mesh, 5. Uniformity: Due to its uniformity,


larger size of fill material is preferred. This considerable size of fill material is used which
increases the void ratio, thus decreases the increases the stability of structure.
stability and increases cost of the structure.

6. Hexagonal Double Twist: Mesh is made 6. Hexagonal Double Twist: Openings of


manually without using any engineering. If one Hexagonal shape (10x 12) distributed load
wire breaks, opening size will increase in due uniformly. Double twists avoid spreading of
course of time which leads to instability of the the damage caused by the accidental
structure breaking of any wire or mesh.

35
7.Connection to selvedge : 7. Connection to selvedge:

No selvedging provided in hand made gabions Selvedging in the gabions is done for
which leads to poor strength of overall mesh. reinforcing the structure in order to make the
gabions as rigid as possible.

8. Lacing wire: No specifications are 8. Lacing wire: Separate lacing wire of 2.2
mentioned for joining the mesh of handmade mm(I.D) / 3.20mm (O.D) will be used for
gabions. closing the box of Gabions after filling with
Geo-textile bags @ 3% of weight of Gabions.

9. Stress Distribution: In non uniform opening 9. Stress Distribution: Uniform mesh size
size of mesh, the shorter wires will be loaded ensures uniform stress distribution leading to
first (non uniform loading) which shall lead to better performance than hand made wire
failure of wire and mesh panel. Also, due to non crate.
uniform loading, the possibility of structure
bulging and toppling increases.

10. Flexibility: Not applicable as too many 10. Flexibility: Being highly flexible ,due to its
joints and uneven opening. Slight uneven double twist hexagonal mesh, it does not
settlement will deform the opening and whole immediately effect any type of settlement in
structure becomes unstable. foundation

11. Ease of Construction: Production rate is 11. Ease of Construction: Being a fully
slow as compared to machine made gabion. mechanised system, production rate is fast.
More time will be required for making a box Since the Gabions come in readymade box
gabion from the supplied wire netting sheets. form, it will be having lesser joints. Hence
construction time can be reduced drastically.

36
12. Quality Assurance: No QA, as this is 12. Quality Assurance: Quality of both the
handmade & no QA plan in place. mesh and gabion boxes are monitored and
maintained as per the QA plan (ISO-9001).

13. Durability: Commercially galvanized, 13. Durability: Since the wires are heavily
durability expected 3-4 Months. galvanised as per IS standards, it will have
less corrosion and long durability when used
under water.

37
Chapter 5: Features and Characteristics of Gabions
5.1 Permeability

Empty spaces between stone fill in gabions,


abions, allow fluid movement through them. For this reason
,gabion
abion works are not generally affected by hydraulic pressure. Thus they work much more
efficiently under such circumstances. As for hydraulic works
works, such as canal and river bank
support, gabions allow water to flow in both directions river to land and land to river, without
forming an impermeable barrier.

Figure
ure 19
19: Permeability through Gabion structure

5.2 Flexibility
The gabion system
ystem being the most flexible soil reinforcing system helps the structure to stand
stable during seismic effect. Flexibility of gabions helps the structure to accommodate ground
settlement without any compromise in structural integrity. Flexibility, within technically
acceptable limits, gives gabion
abion structures the capability of deforming while maintaining its
function whereas such situations would cause rigid or near rigid structure to collapse.

Fig
Figure 20: Flexibility of structure

38
5.3 Durability
The double twist, in case of a break in any single wire, prevents unravelling of the mesh and the
movement of stones out of gabion abion Unit. Heavy zinc coating of wires assures that eventual
deterioration of the netting by rusting is very slow under normal co
condition.. Where corrosion is a
more severe process, it is possible to considerably extend wire life by making use of PVC
coating. With the
he passage of time Soil Reinforced structure shall provide natural balance with
the environment.

5.4 Environmental Impact

The most distinct advantage of this kind of system is that it has a very positive impact on the
environment. Reinforced soil wall/slope covered with a lush green vegetation topping offer
an excellent opportunity to enhance the landscape. ape. Soil pockets can be introduced in between
stone fillings and locally available healthy species of plants / creepers can be used at intervals
for having a lush green effect on the gabion fascia. These structures are the least damaging to
the environmentt as they are built basically with stone

Figure
ure 21: Environmental friendly Gabions

5.4 Versatility
They can either be manufactured manually or mechanically. If there is need for a rapid
integration with local nature and environment, seeds can be scattered inside gabion
abion facia unit.

Figure
ure 22: Vegetation over Gabion structure

39
5.5 Economical Solution

Being simple, reinforced soil structure does not require highly skilled labour or special
equipment. Simple tools are usually needed such as pliers, tweezers, crowbars and,
occasionally, any other easily available tools.

5.6 Carbon Foot Print

It is widely accepted that there is a need to make a conscious effort to protect the sensitive
environment we live in. It is necessary to look for strategies to improve energy efficiency and
sustain precious resource. There is more to protecting our environment than minimising the
amount of energy we use or reducing our carbon footprint.

The gabions are a cost-effective and efficient structures They are built to incorporate natural
stone and support vegetation.

Gabion facia uses locally available stones and sloped green facia It promotes growth of
vegetation at the facing. This may not be feasible with conventional systems. Apart from
substantial reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, there is increase in oxygen level in the
environment due to vegetation on the facing.

The solutions develop green valley with lot of flora and fauna. that blend well with the
surrounding environment.

It is a cost-effective solution, while at the same time making sure that the structure is
environmentally sound and aesthetically pleasing.

40
Chapter 6: Gabion Installation Steps
Gabions shall be opened, unfolded and pressed out to their original shape. Front, back and end
panels shall be lifted to a vertical position to form an open box shape. Inner diaphragm panels
shall be lifted into a vertical position and secured by lacing wire. All edges of the diaphragms
and end panels shall be tied to the front and back of the gabion by lacing.

Figure 23 (a)and(b): Gabion Installation Steps

41
Lacing Operation

Figure 24: Lacing operation in gabions

6.1 Lacing Procedure


A sufficient length of wire shall be cut and twisted to secure lacing wire to the wire mesh.
Proceed tying with alternate double and single loops with every mesh opening. Double loops
shall be made at intervals not more than 150 mm. The basket pieces should be pulled tightly
together during the tying operation. The other end of the tie wire shall be secured by looping
again and twisting the wire around itself. Pliers may be used to create tight joints

6.2 Foundation/Surface preparation


The foundation/surface on which the gabions are to be placed shall be levelled. Geo-textile
required to be installed behind or underneath gabion structures shall comply with the
requirements for subsurface drainage applications.

6.3 Installation of gabions and Filling with stones


After the foundation/surface has been prepared, the pre-assembled gabions are placed in
position empty, and shall be tied to adjacent gabions along all containing edges in order to form

42
a continuously connected, monolithic structural unit. Gabions shall be placed front to front and
back to back in order to expedite the stone filling and lid lacing operations. Rocks for gabions
may be produced by any suitable
table quarrying method, and by the use of any device that yields the
required sizes within the gradation limits chosen. Gabion rocks shall range between 150 mm
and 250 mm. Rock shall be placed in 300 mm lifts for 1 m high gabions, and 250 mm for 0.5 m
high gabions. The fill layer shall not be more than 300 mm higher than any adjoining cell. After a
layer of rock has been placed in the cell, sufficient hand manipulation of the rock shall be
performed to minimize voids and achieve maximum density of the rock in the gabion. The rock
in exposed vertical faces shall be hand placed to reduce voids in the outer face. Internal cross
ties shall be installed connecting the front and back faces of any supported or exposed face at
the verticall third points for a gabion 1 m high, as the cell is being filled. Gabion units installed at
the wall ends, having two exposed sides, shall also include a set of cross ties installed
perpendicularly to the lateral exposed face.

Figure
ure 25: Stone at site for Gabion filling

43
6.4 Lid Closing
After the rock has been levelled and the voids minimized, fold the lid down and pull edges of the
panels together. It should require a light stretching of the lid in order to match with the filled up
gabion box. The lid shall be tightly tied along all edges, ends and tops of diaphragms. Adjacent
lids may be tied or attached simultaneously. All projecting sharp ends of wire shall be turned in
on the completed gabion structure.

Fig
Figure 26: Lid closing procedure at site

44
Chapter 7: Typical Application
Applications of Gabionss in Rural
Roads

7.1 Gabion toe wall and confinement

Figure 27:: Typical scheme of Gabion wall for road application

45
Figure 28 a,b and c:: Typical photo
photos of Gabion wall for along the road side

7.2 Gabion and mattress for river bank protection

Figure 29:: Typical scheme of rive


river bank protection with Gabion wall

46
Figure 30 a,b &cc : Typical photos of river bank protection with Gabion wall along road

Culverts are commonly used both as cross


cross-drains
drains for ditch relief and to pass water under a road
at natural drainage and stream crossings. In both cases,, they need to be properly sized and
installed, and protected from erosion and scour. Natural drainage needs to have pipes large
enough to pass the expected flow plus extra capacity to pass debris without plugging. Discharge
(design flow) will depend on the watershed drainage area, runoff characteristics, design rainfall
intensity, and return
urn period (frequency) of the design storm.

7.3 Culvert protection with Gabion for road

Figure 31 : Typical scheme of culvert protection with Gabion wall

47
Figure 32 : Typical Photo of Culvert
ulvert with Gabion Gravity Retaining wall

48
7.4 Multiple pipe or River
iver crossing structure

Figure 33:: Typical scheme of multiple pipe protection with Gabion Retaining wall

Figure 34a,b&c : Photos of multiple pipe protection with Gabion Gravity Retaining wall

49
7.5 Bridge piers and abutment protection with Gabion wall

Figure 35:: Typical scheme of bridge protection with Gabion retaining wall

Figure 36:: Photograph of bridge protection with Gabion retaining


etaining wall

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Figure 37 : Typical schemes of culverts with Gabion Retaining wall

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7.6 Bank protection with Mattress for Rural Road
Roads

Figure 38 a& b: Typical Scheme of Gabion mattress for slope protection in conjunction with water
front structure for pavement protection

Fig 39 a&b : Photograph of Gabion mattress for slope protection on River & Road

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7.7 Gabions as Crash
rash Barrier on Sharp Curves

Figure 40: Photo of Concrete


oncrete crash Barrier on Sharp Curve on Hilly Terrain

Figure 41 : Typical scheme of Gabions as Crash Barrier on Hilly Roads

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Figure 42 : Photo depictss gabion wall as crash barrier on sharp curve on hilly
h road

7.8 Typical road failure


ailure on valley & hill side

Figure
ure 43 a and b: Typical Road Failure
The most appropriate stabilization or retention measure will depend on site
site-specific
specific conditions
such as the size of the slide, soil type, road use, alignment constraint, and the cause of the

54
failure. Here is a range of common types slope stabilization/rete
stabilization/retention (Fig. 28a&
a&b) appropriate
for low-volume
volume roads, presented roughly from simplest and least expensive.
Retaining structures are necessary in steep areas to gain roadway space or to support the
roadbed on a steep slope, rather than make a large cut into the hillside. They can also be used
for slope stabilization. Fig 44 a and b presents information on common types of Gabion Gravity
retaining walls and Simple design criteria for Gabion walls, where the base width is commonly
0.5-0.7 times the wall height.
t. Gabion structures are commonly
ommonly used for walls up to 6 meters
high, particularly because they can use locally available stones and labor.

Figure 44 a : Typical Scheme of Gabion Gravity Retaining wall for road in Hillside

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Fig. 44b
b : Typical Scheme of Gabion Gravity Retaining wall for road in Valleyside

Figure 45a&b:
a&b: Gabion wall for Earth retention at Road side

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Figure 46 a and b : Gabion Retaining wall for Road stabilisation in Rural Roads

For low to high walls in many geographic areas, Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE), or
Reinforced Soil structures are the least expensive type of wall available. They are simple to
build, and often they can use on--site granular backfill material.

They are consisting of gabion


abion basket facia units with an integrated double twist mesh as
secondary reinforcing element. Structure consists of gabions
abions as an external face, and double
twist mesh panel as tail/ reinforcing elements. They can be built with a stepped or vertical face,
with or without a batter. They are specially designed for sites and situations where it is
necessary to reconstitute the soil mass and where filling with stone is scarce or expensive to
obtain.

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Figure 47 : Typical Scheme of Reinfored soil wall with Gabion facia

Figure 48 : Typical photo of Reinfored soil wall with Gabion facia

In stretches of road, where space is available, a vegetated slope face shall be provided for the
soil reinforcement system. The Soil Reinforcement with green facia system consists of panels of

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double twist; mechanically woven hot dipped galvanized with PVC coated hexagonal wire mesh.
These units are provided with a coir mat connected to the wire mesh during the manufacturing
process to promote greenery on the Facia and to retain the fines in the backfill material. This
system is also provided with triangula
triangularr steel brackets to provide support to the facia.Green
Facia unit is best suited option since it enhances vegetation thereby stabilizing the slope. With
this kind of solution we see that soil stabilization need and environmental balance are taken
care of. The solution is aesthetically very pleasing appearance and is economical for smaller
heights as well.

Figure 49: Typical scheme of soil reinforced slope with Green facia

Figure 50 : Soil reinforced slope with Green facia at road side

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7.9 Gabion embankment for Rockfall protection / Toe Wall

Figure 51:: Typical scheme of Gabion wall for Rockfall protect

Figure 52 a and b:: Photos depict Gabion toe wall on Valley side of Road

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Chapter 8: Typical Sections of Gabion Wall

61
62
Chapter 9: Comparison of Gabion vs. PCC/RCC

Parameters Gabion Wall PCC/RCC


It is a flexible structure and can It is a rigid structure and cracks
accommodate differential will occur due to differential
Flexibility
settlement without compromising settlement.
structural integrity.
The system is made up of gabion It is an impermeable structure
boxes filled with stones and and if sufficient drainage
permeability of the front face measures are not provided, high
Permeability
ensures the drainage of the hydrostatic pressure can occur.
backfill resulting in less
hydrostatic pressure.

Gabions do not require highly Specialized labour, steel


Simplicity / skilled labour force or special formwork and machinery
Economy equipment. Tools like pliers, required. Material cost is also
tweezers, crowbars or any other high comparatively.
easily available tools.

These systems are Cement concrete construction is


environmental friendly. Gabion non-eco friendly technology.
wall covered with a lush green Growth of vegetation leads to
Environmental vegetation topping offer an cracks thereby making the
Friendliness excellent opportunity to enhance structure more unstable. Doesnt
the landscape. In general, have noise absorbing property;
Carbon foot print emissions for instead, echo is created that
gabion facia structures are results in noise pollution.
relatively less
Good shock absorbent during Crack develops in the rigid
sudden impact. Flexible facia are concrete when there is sudden
Impact Resistance well resistant to damages. impact. Being a continuous
structure, local rectification is not
possible.

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Flexible in nature, it can be Systems are rigid in nature and
founded on yielding foundations. sensitive to slightest of settlement
Hence, chances of failure due to in foundations. They exert huge
settlement are minimum. In amount of pressure in the
Foundation extreme cases, systems can be foundation and requires
Consideration placed with nominal ground extensive ground improvement
improvement techniques like soil techniques or wall needs to be
replacement etc. founded on hard strata. Huge
earth work, extra items and extra
cost.

Flexible in nature, these systems This system attracts huge inertial


Seismic and
are accommodative to dynamic forces due to rigidity and can fail
Dynamic forces
forces and dont collapse in event in case of seismic action.
of seismic action.
Flexible system, failure signs can Rigid system, failure can be
Failure Mode be detected and rectified. spontaneous.

Details of cost comparison is given in Annexure A

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ANNEXURE
Annexure A: Cost comparison of Gabion vs. PCC/RCC

Costing of Gabion retaining wall

Height Amoun Geotextile Total


Cross Section Material Qty Unit Rate Rate
t (sq.m) Amount/m

Gabion
1 1 Nos. 1900 1900 1.36 92.7 2026.072
1x1x1

Gabion
1 Nos. 1900 1900
1x1x1
1.5 2.42 92.7 4074.334
Gabion
1 Nos. 1950 1950
1.5x1x0.5

Gabion
1 Nos. 1850 1850
2x1x1

Gabion
3 1 Nos. 1880 1880 3.5 92.7 5954.45
1.5x1x1

Gabion
1 Nos. 1900 1900
1x1x1

Gabion
1 Nos. 1790 1790
3x1x1

Gabion
1 Nos. 1850 1850
2x1x1

Gabion
5 2 Nos. 1880 3760 7.5 92.7 11895.25
1.5x1x1

Gabion
2 Nos. 1900 3800
1x1x1

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Costing of PCC Retaining Wall

Height
of Cross Section Material Qty Unit Rate Amount/m
Section

1 PCC 0.4 Cum 4533.8 1813.52

1.5 PCC 0.9 Cum 4533.8 4080.42

3 PCC 2.3 Cum 4533.8 10427.74

5 PCC 6 Cum 4533.8 27202.8

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Costing of Gabion Facia Wall
Height
Total Amount
of Cross Section Material Qty/2m Unit Rate Amount
/m
Section

TMS
5 Nos. 2350 11750
3x2x1

5 Geotextile 11 Sq.m. 92.7 1019.7 16559.63

Backfill 30.8 Cum 660.7 20349.56

TMS
6 Nos. 2350 14100
3x2x1

6 23848.97
Geotextile 13.2 Sq.m. 92.7 1223.64

Backfill 49 Cum 660.7 32374.3

TMS
8 Nos. 2350 18800
3x2x1

8 Geotextile 17.6 Sq.m. 92.7 1631.52 37172.32

Backfill 81.6 Cum 660.7 53913.12

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Costing of RCC Retaining Wall
Height
Materia Total
of Cross Section Qty Unit Rate Amount
l Amount
Section

Cu 5859.
RCC 6 35157
m 5
5 37762.8

Steel 43 Kg 60.6 2605.8

Cu 5859. 50977.6
RCC 8.7
m 5 5

6 53904.63

Steel 48.3 Kg 60.6 2926.98

15.8 Cu 5859. 92873.0


RCC
5 m 5 8

97496.85
8
5

Steel 76.3 Kg 60.6 4623.78

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COST COMPARISION FOR GABION & PCC WALL
45000
40000
35000
COST IN (RS) 30000
25000
20000 PCC
15000
Gabion
10000
5000
0
1 1.5 3 5
HEIGHT OF GABION WALL (M)

COST COMPARISION FOR GABION FACIA& RCC


160000
WALL
140000
120000
COST IN (RS)

100000
80000
60000
RCC
40000
20000 GABION FACIA WALL
0
5 6 8
HEIGHT OF GABION FACIA WALL (M)

69