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Structured questions:

11.Classify the following compounds as either ionic or covalent, giving a reason for
your choice:
a) Pure water (H2O)
b) Potassium chloride (KCl)
c) Methane (CH4);
d) Lithium fluoride (LiF);
e) Sand (SiO2);
f) Iodine (I2);
g) Sulphur (S8).

a)

..

Reason:

b)

..

Reason:

..

a)

..

Reason:

c)

..

Reason:

..

d)

..

Reason:

e)

..

Reason:

..

f)

..

Reason:

g)

..

Reason:

..

12 Show by using dot and cross diagram the bonding in these ionic substances.
The proton numbers of some elements are :
Ca 20, Cl 17, Na 11, O 8, K 19, Mg 12 S 16, F 9.

a) Calcium chloride;

b) Potassium sulphide;

c) Calcium oxide;
d) Magnesium fluoride;

e) Sodium sulphide.

13. Show by using dot and cross diagrams the bonding in these covalent
substances, given the proton numbers:

C = 6, Cl = 17, N = 7, F = 9, H = 1
a) Hydrogen fluoride gas(HF);

b) Fluorine gas(F2)
c) Tetrachloromethane (ClCl4);

d) Hydrogen chloride gas (HCl);

e) Carbon dioxide gas(CO2)

14. Choose from the elements, sodium, oxygen, potassium, carbon, magnesium,
chlorine,
a) One pair that forms a covalent compound;
b) Four pairs that forms ionic compounds;
c) Two elements that exist naturally as diatomic molecules;
d) Two gaseous elements;
e) The element with the highest melting point;
f) One pair that does not form a compound with each other.
a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

15.Cesium (Cs) is an element in Group I of the Periodic Table.


a) How many electrons have it in its outermost shell?
b) Write the formula of its ion.
c) Write the formula of its chloride.
d) Write the formula of its oxide.
e) Comment on its reactivity.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

16. a) complete the sodium fluoride lattice by inserting as sodium ion and x for
a fluoride ion.

(b) Sodium fluoride (NaF) and magnesium oxide (MgO) have the same crystal
shape and structure with similar distances between their ions. However, the melting
point of sodium fluoride is 992oC but that of magnesium oxide is 2640oC. Can you
explain why?

17.(a) complete the table below which shows the properties of various crystals.

Types of Particles Melting point Electrical conductivity


crystal lattice present (oC) Of solid Of molten
liquid
Simple Atoms Poor
covalent .. ..
Ions High Poor
..
Positive ions in Good
.. sea of ..
electrons
macromolecula poor
r ..

(b) The relative molecular mass of sodium chloride (NaCl) and the relative
molecular mass of butane (C 4H10) is approximately the same. However, the
boiling point of sodium chloride is more than 1000oC higher than butanes
boiling point. Can you explain?

18.Complete all of the clues Across, so that you can find 1 Down which is a type of
bonding.

Across:
1. Ionic compounds must be this to conduct electricity.
2. All are solids except mercury.
3. Describes liquids which conduct electricity.
4. This packing of atoms in metals is six-sided.
5. The boiling points of covalent gases are usually this.
6. Such groups of atoms are usually covalent.
7. Describes a crystal structure.
8. Graphite, and not diamond, is one of these.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7