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Running head: EVIDENCE OF STUDENT LEARNING

Evidence of Student Learning

Megan McReynolds

Towson University
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Evidence of Student Learning

Part A: Learning Context, Topic and Objectives

I completed my Evidence of Student Learning project at Milbrook Elementary School

within the Baltimore County Public School System. This school contains approximately 415

students. There are 28 classroom teachers. The average class size ranges between 21.9 to 24.9

students. The population contains about 59% African American students, 15% White students,

14% Hispanic students. There is a smaller demographic of Asian and Two or More Races. Each

student has a one to one device.

The specific classroom in which I implemented the lesson is a third grade general

education classroom, which is also an inclusion classroom. One student is identified as Other

Health Impairment; the other has an IEP for Speech. There are a total of twenty-one students

within the morning class. The third grade is departmentalized at Milbrook Elementary School.

The classroom teacher, who, is also my mentor teacher, teaches both math and health. About two

percent of the class speaks Spanish as another language. One student is classified as an English

Language Learner. Our class population consists of African American, Hispanic, and Two or

More Races.

My mathematics lessons were aligned under the subject of mathematics, aligned with

Maryland College and Career-Ready Standards (MCRRS) as well as the curriculum provided by

Baltimore County Public Schools. Lesson one that I implemented for two days covered the topic

of telling time to the minute. The Standards for Mathematical Practice pertaining to this lesson

consisted of standard 3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. As well

as standard 4: Model with mathematics. In addition standard 5: use appropriate tools

strategically, as well as standard 6: Attend to precision. The MCCRS relating to this lesson is in
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the cluster of Measurement and Data: solve problems involving measurement and estimation of

intervals of time. The Essential Skills and Knowledge students will have to demonstrate include

standard 1: Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes.

Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by

representing the problem on a number line diagram.

The objective for this lesson was, I can tell time to the nearest minute by reading the

hour and minute hands of an analog clock, as provided by Baltimore County. I knew that

students would be able to demonstrate their knowledge of telling time to the nearest minute by

correctly identifying the time using strategies such as a number line, written addition, skip

counting, etc. Students were introduced to various strategies, but were encouraged to use the one

that was most helpful to them.

Lesson two was implemented for two days, which covered the topic of units of time,

specifically elapsed time. The Standards for Mathematical Practice for this specific lesson

included standard 1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. As well as standard

2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively. The finally, standard 3: Construct viable arguments and

critique the reasoning of others. The MCCRS relating to this lesson is in the cluster of

Measurement and Data: solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of

time. The Essential Skills and Knowledge students will have to demonstrate include standard 1:

Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word

problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing

the problem on a number line diagram.

The objective for this lesson was, I can calculate elapsed time by skip counting and

counting on. I knew that students would be able to demonstrate the ability to calculate elapsed
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time by skip counting, using a number line, the zoom method, adding or subtracting the times,

etc.

Part B: Assessment Plan (CEC 4, 5/InTASC 6, 7/NAEYC 3, 5)

The summative unit assessment that I developed aligned with the MCCRS and Essential

Skills and Knowledge consistent with the lessons taught. As determined by the first standard

under third grade Measurement and Data, students were responsible for solving problems

involving measurement and estimation. Students demonstrated this by determining the time to

the nearest minute as well as elapsed time. My summative assessment was similar to the

summative assessment predetermined by Baltimore County at the end of their Unit 6. I gave

students two problems pertaining to telling time to the nearest minute and two questions

regarding elapsed time.

Baltimore County also provides a pre-assessment instrument before each mathematics

unit to help determine prior knowledge students already possess, as well as what information

they will need to be further instructed upon. I used three of the questions from this instrument.

Two of the questions displayed a clock and asked students to identify the time, and the third

required the student to calculate the elapsed time.

The hope of my formative assessments strategies was to provide multiple means of action

and expressions for students to demonstrate their knowledge. I tried to vary the methods I used to

accommodate their different learning needs, as well as incorporate it within my instruction. The

first formative assessment students did on their one to one devices with a Kahoot quiz. It was ten

questions, each question displayed a different clock and students had to choose the multiple-

choice option that correctly showed the time on the clock. The next formative assessment was a

worksheet they completed in small group. Students were given nine different clocks and they had
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to correctly identify the time to the nearest minute that the analog clock displayed. For the next

assessment, students were given one clock. They had to determine the time it said and calculate

what twenty-five minutes after that designated time would be. For the second clock displayed

they had to write what time was shown and calculate what time it would be in forty-five minutes.

Finally, the worksheet displayed two different clocks and they had to determine the time

displayed as well as calculate the elapsed time between the two of them. Based on these

formative assessments I was able to plan for my small group for the following day. Some groups

would receive more one-on-one intervention and assistance. While other groups, were challenged

more and expected to complete tasks at a faster pace, depending upon their performance on the

formative assessment. Some problems within small group I would have to do with the entire

group because they needed more explicit instruction, while other groups could work

independently without any extra direction.

Part C: Instruction (CEC 1, 3, 4, 5/InTASC 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8/NAEYC 1, 3, 4, 5)

Before beginning the explicit instruction of the first lesson I gave students the pre-

assessment for Unit 6 of their curriculum. Based off of this pre-assessment tool, I used three

questions to determine the prior knowledge students came into the lesson knowing already. After

students finished their assessment, we went into the whole group portion of our lesson. For the

first lesson I had the objective written in student-friendly terms on the white board displayed in

our classroom as well as on the Promethean board on the ActivInspire flipchart I had prepared

for the lesson. The students or myself would read aloud the objective. Because we reviewed the

lesson, students knew what we would be learning about and what they were expected to do that

day. The objective for lesson one was: I can tell time to the nearest minute by reading the hour

and minute hands of an analog clock. We discussed some of the vocabulary within the objective
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to ensure students fully understood the material being covered. Students shared why telling time

is important in their day-to-day lives as well as what an analog clock is compared to a digital

clock. Some students wondered whether the clock on the wall was an analog clock or a digital

clock. Others wanted to know whether the time displayed on their phone was an analog clock or

a digital clock. I think giving students time to reflect on the relevance of telling time in their lives

produced higher-level questions and thinking. Students were able to connect the concepts that

were being discussed in class to their personal lives.

Then I began reviewing the basic concepts of telling time. We looked at the hour hand of

the clock first and how to determine the hour of time based on the placement of the hand. Then

we reviewed how to find the minute by the placement of the hand, as well as rote counting or

skip counting to the allotted space. Then we had guided practice in which students put both of

the steps together to determine the time of a clock. After the guided practice I introduced new

knowledge. I gave them a scenario in which a child was trying to communicate to his mother that

it was 10:30. The students had to come up with other ways he could tell his mother the time. This

was a great critical thinking opportunity. Some students were already familiar with this idea,

while others had never thought in this way. I taught the students that the boy could have said half

past ten oclock, thirty minutes after ten, and ten thirty. Then students practiced it as a whole

group.

Next we got into small groups. The first group worked on Dreambox. The next group

worked on the Kahoot formative assessment. These students used their one to one devices and

pulled up their own Kahoot quiz on their screen. My mentor teacher displayed the questions on

her device and students had to select the correct answer on their screen. Each question had an

analog clock that displayed a time, some to the minute and others to the five or ten minute
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increment. This was an opportunity for them to practice their new knowledge independently and

also give me an idea for how they were progressing. Finally, the third group worked on a telling

time worksheet. The worksheet was helpful because it broke down telling time into smaller steps

like the direct instruction I had given. Some of the students needed the extra exposure to the

content, while others were able to speed through and go onto more challenging problems

requiring them to tell time. This worksheet allowed me to differentiate and tell how students

were progressing in their knowledge. I also saw that students had some prior knowledge from

previous years of learning.

For the second lesson I put students in the small groups depending upon how they did on

the Kahoot quiz. I used the same objective from the previous lesson since students were still

responsible for meeting the same goal. They needed another day to really master the content and

demonstrate their skills. The objective was written in student-friendly terms on the white board

displayed in our classroom as well as on the Promethean board on the ActivInspire flipchart I had

prepared for the lesson. It was: I can tell time to the nearest minute by reading the hour and

minute hands of an analog clock. Students were motivated and engaged by the lesson as I started

with a Brainpop Video about telling time. This incorporated a different means of representing the

information and gave an introduction to the new topic discussed. After the video, students

participated in a whole group activity called Musical Clocks. As I introduced the activity, we

reviewed the essential characteristics of an analog clock, including an hour hand and a minute

hand. Some students remembered, while others were reminded that the hour hand is the smaller

hand, and the minute hand is the longer hand. For Musical Clocks, students were given the blank

face of a clock. It was their job to draw the hands of the clock and leave it on their desk. Then

they were given a recording sheet. Students were directed to walk to a desk besides their own
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and write down a students name and calculate the time displayed on their clock. First, I modeled

drawing the hands on my own analog clock and the class helped determine the time it was

displaying. Then, they had the opportunity to practice it independently. I chose to use this

activity in the whole group lesson because I knew many students would need an opportunity to

demonstrate their knowledge of telling time in a hands on activity. Many of them also think

better by being able to move around the room and work independently.

Then, we moved into small group instruction. The first group of students worked on

Dreambox. The next group of students completed the formative assessment Telling Time to the

Nearest Minute. Students were given nine clocks and they had to determine what time the analog

clock displayed. The last group of students worked with me on the Promethean board. I showed

different analog clocks on the board and students had to tell me what time it displayed. For the

student identified as Other Health Impairment, I gave him preferential seating according to his

visual impairment. Since he was in close proximity I was able to give him extra help and redirect

his attention as he can become easily distracted.

For the third lesson, students were grouped into their small groups depending upon how

they did on the telling time to the nearest minute formative assessment. Their mastery of telling

time to the nearest minute would be very important to be able to master elapsed time, which is

what the third lesson covered. The objective for this lesson was: I can calculate elapsed time by

skip counting and counting on. The student-friendly version of the objective was displayed on

the white board in the classroom as well as the ActivInspire flipchart on the Promethean board.

One of the students read the objective out loud so the class would have an idea of what

information we would be covering in that lesson. I introduced new information by asking them

what they thought elapsed time meant. Many students had guesses as to what it could mean, but I
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gave them the definition that it means the amount of time that has passed. I prompted critical

thinking by asking them why we need to know the amount of time that has passed? Some shared

about knowing how long a movie has lasted or so they can tell their parents when to pick them

up from a sport. If they know practice starts at a certain time and it will go for a certain amount

of time, they can tell them when they will need to be picked up. This showed some students

possessed some higher level thinking skills.

Then I began explicit instruction about calculating elapsed time. I showed two analog

clocks. They determined what times that were displayed so we had a start time and an end time.

Then they skip counted from the start time until they got to the end time to determine how much

time had passed. Then we tried determining the elapsed time by using a number line. In another

problem, they were given the start time and how much time had passed, but needed to figure out

what the end time would be. Next, they were given the end time and how much time had passed,

but had to figure out the start time. This gave students plenty of opportunity for guided practice.

Afterwards, we went into small group instruction. One group of students worked on

Dreambox using their one to one devices. The next group completed their elapsed time formative

assessment. They were given an analog clock and had to determine what time it said, then

calculate what time it would be twenty-five minutes later. Then, they were given another clock

that they figured out what time the clock said, then what time it would be forty-five minutes

later. The last portion of the assessment had two clocks. The students had to determine the start

time and the end time, then the elapsed time. Finally, my group worked on some elapsed time

problems in their mathematics journals. Some problems had the start time and the end time, then

the student had to figure out the elapsed. Others had the start time and the elapsed time, but they

had to figure out the end time. Still others had the end time and the elapsed time, then students
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had to figure out the start time. This was great for differentiation because the problems that had

the end time and elapsed time were quite a bit more challenging since it involved subtracting

time. Since I knew how students were progressing in their mastery of this content based on the

formative assessment the previous day, I could give them specific problems to work on. I already

knew which students were struggling simply to determine the time, rather than get to calculating

the elapsed time. It was also an example of Universal Design for Learning because students had

autonomy and could choose which problems they wanted to work on. Some students had trouble

organizing their work in their journals, while others had trouble keeping up stamina while

working. There were also visitors from Baltimore County Math Department observing the

classroom, which was very distracting for some students.

For the fourth lesson, we continued working on elapsed time so students could master

calculating it using skip counting, counting on, and other helpful strategies. I grouped their small

group depending on their scores on the elapsed time formative assessment. The objective for this

lesson was: I can calculate elapsed time by skip counting and counting on. This student-friendly

version of the objective was displayed on the white board in the classroom as well as the

ActivInspire flipchart on the Promethean board. I engaged the students by asking them to recall

what they had learned about the day before. Many students were able to define what elapsed time

was and how to calculate it. We reviewed a problem of elapsed time and students came up to the

board to help solve the problem. Then, I introduced two new strategies to them including the t-

chart and zoom method. I encouraged students to pick the best strategy that made the most sense

to them.

Then we moved into small group work. The first group of students worked on Dreambox.

The second group completed their summative assessment on telling time to the nearest minute
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and elapsed time. The third group worked on the elapsed time cards for the second day. I

provided a graphic organizer for students to work on, which helped provide more structure for

some. The second day of working on these problems was must more fluent because students

already knew the routine and how to work. I was able to give more challenging problems to more

students so they could progress in their understanding of elapsed time.

Part D: Analysis and Instructional Decision-Making (CEC 1, 3, 4, 5/InTASC 2, 4, 7,

8/NAEYC 1, 3, 4, 5)

Kahoot
Time to the nearest
minute
Elapsed Time
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120%

100%

80%

Pre-assessment
60%
Summative

40%

20%

0%

Attached below are work samples from students in their completion of the formative and

summative assessments. The first work sample included is student Rs work on the summative

assessment. He achieved the standards of tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure

time intervals in minutes. However he struggled to solve word problems involving addition and

subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line

diagram. He correctly determined the time to the minute in questions one and two. Then on

questions three he could not identify the elapsed time and question four he received help from

the adult assistant to find the answer. He will need more direct instruction on calculating elapsed

time.

In the next sample of work, student D demonstrated his ability to tell time to the nearest

minute in questions one and two. Then in the second sample of his work we see he needs more

improvement in identifying elapsed time involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in

minutes as described in the Essential Skills and Knowledge. He correctly answered question

four, but not question three.


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In the next work sample, student G showed her ability to tell and write time to the nearest

minute and measure time intervals in minutes as described by MCCRS. Although, she missed

two questions, she answered seventy-eight percent of the questions correctly. However, this work

sample shows that she needs to work on telling time when the hour hand is close to a designated

number, but not yet that specific hour.

Next, student M demonstrated his ability to achieve the Essential Skill of telling and writing

time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. He was able to identify the

correct time seventy-eight percent of the time. Similar to student G he needs work on identifying

the correct hour according to the position of the hour hand.

Following that work sample, one can see student Cs work on the elapsed time formative

assessment. She did not show achievement of the Essential Skill of telling and writing time to the

nearest minute or solving word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in

minutes. She was unable to identify the time for the first two problems or calculate what time it

would be twenty-five, and forty-five minutes later. Then in the final section, she was unable to

identify the end time and the time that had elapsed between the two clocks. This demonstrates

that student C needs more work in reaching both of these Essential Skills.

Finally, student Ks work is attached demonstrating her ability to complete the elapsed time

formative assessment. She showed achievement of the Essential Skill of telling and writing time

to the nearest minute and solving word problems involving addition and subtraction of time

intervals in minutes. She was able to identify the time to the nearest minute for each problem.

The only problem she did not correctly answer is elapsed time. However, this was only one

instance out of three questions.


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Out of the small group sampling from the class, I had multiple students demonstrate

achievement of the MCCRS and Essential Skills and Knowledge for these lessons. For the first

lesson that we covered in two different days, students were responsible for telling time to the

nearest minute by reading the hour and minute hands of an analog clock. As well as according to

the Essential Skills and Knowledge, telling and writing time to the nearest minute and measure

time intervals in minutes. Four students demonstrated their ability to tell time to the nearest

minute. Students M, C, Ka, and Ki scored above fifty percent on the Kahoot formative

assessment.

Then, on the Time to the Nearest Minute formative assessment, four students (R, D, Ka, Ki)

demonstrated growth from their scores the previous day. Student G did not make any growth.

Finally, on the last formative assessment on elapsed time, every student demonstrated

growth. Each of the students scored above 70% on this formative assessment, demonstrating

their knowledge of elapsed time, as well as being able to calculate time to the nearest minute,

since this task involved both concepts.

Five out of seven students or 71% of students demonstrated growth from the pre-assessment

to the post-assessment. Student M increased by fifty percent from the pre-assessment to the post-

assessment. Student G also increased by fifty percent. Then, students C and R both increased

forty-two percent from the pre-assessment to the post-assessment. Student Ki increased eight

percent, showing at least a little growth.

Students D and Ka did not demonstrate growth from the pre-assessment to the post-

assessment. In both cases they decreased in growth by twenty-five percent. They both scored one

hundred percent on the pre-assessment, but scored seventy-five percent on the post-assessment.

However, they both demonstrated consistent growth in the formative assessment, demonstrating
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that they achieved the desired goal, but it was not completely demonstrated on the summative

assessment.

One student that had a very low score is student R. On the Kahoot formative assessment he

scored a thirty percent. I think part of this can be attributed to his visual impairment. Normally,

when students complete a Kahoot quiz, it is displayed on the large Promethean board and

students are sitting on the carpet so they can easily see the questions displayed. For

implementation of this assessment, students were sitting at the small group table at the back of

the classroom and student R reported having difficulty seeing the clocks displayed because of the

position in which he was sitting.

Student M did not demonstrate continuous growth on the formative assessments. He scored

an eighty percent on the Kahoot assessment, then a seventy-eight percent on the time to the

nearest minute, and finally an eighty-six percent on the elapsed time assessment. However, when

looking at the growth from the pre-assessment to the post-assessment one can see the tremendous

growth he made. From getting none of the questions correct on the pre-assessment to getting half

of them correct on the summative assessment is fifty percent of growth. This means that he was

able to gain some knowledge from instruction.

Another student that did not demonstrate continuous growth on the formative assessments is

student C. She scored sixty percent, fifty five percent, and finally fourteen percent. This is a

consistent decrease in achievement for this student. However, one factor that is not demonstrated

in the data is her behavior that contributes to her overall achievement. Student C has continued to

show challenging behavior, in which she needs constant redirection to complete work and will

rarely finish assignments. It does not seem correlated with her inability to do the work, but solely

her desire to avoid it.


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Based on the data collected from these formative and summative assessments, I would

implement a few needed opportunities for direct instruction and intervention. First, I would

spend more time reviewing the concept of elapsed time. Every student missed at least one of the

elapsed time problems on the summative assessment, which demonstrated to me that they needed

more opportunities to practice these kinds of problems and learn explicit strategies to solve them.

Next, I would work with specific students on telling time to the nearest minute. Every student

struggled to solve problems in which the hour hand is close to one number, but has not yet turned

to the next hour. This confused many students and I would take time to explicitly teach this

concept. Finally, I would implement behavioral supports to help student C complete work. This

data demonstrated how significantly her behavior is impacting her overall academic success. I

believe seeing her results on these assessments would help put it into perspective and motivate

her to accomplish her work.

Part E: Reflection and Self-Evaluation (CEC 6, 7/InTASC 9, 10/NAEYC 6)

Overall, based on the data from assessment I believe my instructional strategies and

interventions were successful. Based on the finding that five out of the seven students showed

continuous growth on the formative assessments. Five out of seven of the students also

demonstrated continuous growth from the pre-assessment to post-assessment. Students were able

to achieve MCCRS and the Essential Skills and Knowledge needed for these lessons.

My instruction was greatly influenced by the students learning. I was making adjustments to

my direct instruction, including more time for students to practice certain concepts or strategies,

as well as redesigning my small groups so students could receive the intervention and instruction

as needed depending on their success on the formative assessments. I strived to accommodate the

different learning styles of students by using visual, verbal, audio and kinesthetic opportunities
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for instruction. Students not only used writing implements such as paper and pencil work, but I

also incorporated technology such as the one to one devices and Promethean board. Some

students needed to sit closer to the board while working, and I gave them opportunities to meet

this need. I also placed students within close proximity that would need more attention and

redirection during lessons.

There are a few implications that I gained from instruction. First, I would have changed how

I displayed the Kahoot formative assessment. I do not think student Rs score on this assessment

was an accurate representation of his understanding of the content. Instead of displaying the

questions using a small one to one device, I would have used the Promethean board in order to

ensure that student R could see the board and questions displayed. Another change I would make

for my future instructional activities is to require students to show their work while completing

multiple-choice questions. On the summative assessment students demonstrated their

understanding of the content by choosing the correct multiple choice question. In the future I

would provide a space in which students have to show how they go their answer. Without this, I

could not see how students reached a certain answer. I also was unable to determine which

strategy introduced they used to reach their answer. I also would have implemented more

opportunities to move and use their bodies to demonstrate their understanding of the content. I

would have had them act out a clock on the floor or in the air, or even allow more opportunities

for students to be up and moving while learning.

Collaborating with other school based professionals would be very helpful in future

instructional activities. The STAT teacher in the school could present helpful ideas to implement

technology and hands on learning opportunities in regards to calculating time and elapsed time. I

would have also spoke more with my mentor teacher about how different assessment structures
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are helpful for gaining perspective on the specific strategies students use to solve problems. The

STAT teacher would more than likely have had insight about different assessment styles as well.

Finally, I would also include the special educators insight on accommodations and supports for

the students within my class, specifically the student identified as Other Health Impairment. She

could suggest helpful tips to ensure his success, as well as instructional strategies that are

beneficial for each type of learning style within the class.

The first Council for Exceptional Children standard I would strive to meet is standard 1:

Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with

development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging

learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities. I believe I could improve in ensuring

that each students personal needs are met in order to reach their academic success. For example,

I would ensure that student R can see the board or designated assignment to make sure his full

academic potential is reached. I would address student Cs behavior that has limited her ability to

complete her work, as well as communicate with home to make sure they are aware of the

changes seen in the classroom. Next, I would work on CEC standard 2: Beginning special

education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that

individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional

well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination. I would look to other

professionals at Milbrook Elementary School to further improve my instructional practices as

well as supports I implement for individual students. They deserve the best instruction possible

that meets their specific needs and there are more qualified individuals in the building to help

ensure I accomplish that.


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