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Art and Society PrefaceAlice G.


- covers the wide range of human artistic expressions
- production within a social context
- social meanings and effects
- situated within society and history

- be independent and critical in developing strategies
- aesthetic and cultural positions
- Filipino point of view in art to develop national art and culture
- discourses, cultural and artistic expressions
basic premises
o art is a signifying practice which is grounded in society and history.
o elements of art, forms, media, techniques, styles
Formalist approach traditional approach Semiotic approach views
signifiers (material data) meaning- conveying possible that a work - dialogi
signifieds (concepts) potential of art may reveal c
such as human contradictions that
psychophysical reflect underlying
experiences and cultural ideological tensions
codes on the universal

situation of the work and its viewer

- semiotic approach signs are referred back to their referents in the real world
- whether or not they enhance our humanity and further the goals of freedom and justice

Constraints of art
- possibilities of time and place
- language or Symbolic Order

- "art as construct" art has its own mode of production.

- social and historical contextualization of the work
- art has social import- axiological aspect of the visual work
- retrieval of traditional forms will result in bringing into our consciousness and that of the larger
public elements of our culture that would otherwise be neglected or irretrievably lost, as well as
in piecing together and reconstructing the complex tapestry of our culture.
- All have their own standards of quality
- The filipino identity is a dynamic concept that is elaborated with the historical process
- a nationalist point of view can indigenize what is usable and applicable to its context.

Chapter 3 Art and Sciety Elements

Visual arts- two-dimensional artistic expressions
In semiotics, work of art- pictorial or iconic sign

Two aspects
1. signifier material or physical aspect of the sign, sign's physical form
- line, value, color, texture and composition
- media or materials
- presentation and style on the level of the image
- if concrete, signified is abstract
2. signified meaning or idea expressed by a sign
3. referent concrete phenomena or things in the world

1. Vertical line
- Concrete signifier (it is vertical)
- Signifies order, discipline, poise, alertness, base line, strength, balance, equilibirum, firmness,
static position
- Referent pole, standing up
2. Horizontal line
- Signifies repose, calmness, inactivity, horizon line, informality, passivity, death, and the
continuum of infinity
- Referent: body at rest
3. Diagonal line
- Signfies: Charging purposefully towards an objective, energy, dynanism, impulse, passion,
emotion, relational line (relative to something), movement
- Element of time as it cuts through space
- Weak diagnoais (angles LESS THAN 45 degrees)
- Uncertainty, instability, insecurity and a sense of impending collapse
4. Curved line
- Grace and beauty, body in movements of dance, impulse, spontaneity, play, grace, charm,
sensuality and eroticism
5. Jagged line
- Sharp, pointed, fragmentes objects that cute and wound
- Signifies pain, difficulty and discomfort, danger, torture
6. Broken lines
- Tentativenes, indefiniteness and insecurity
- Made to represent imaginary lines between points or to bring out invisible connections
The Quality of Line
1. Instruments to draw line
- Technical pen sharp and precise
- Charcoal pen- soft, porous and tend to be diffuse
2. Outlines
- 2D shape that is distinct from the background
- contour lines when they define borders
3. calligraphy
- line rhythm and movement
- line as yang, space as yin
4. Art Nouveu
- Intense organic vitality, linear motif was the whiplash, a line that dynamically turns back on
itself, against industrial mass production
5. Art Deco
- Geometric and celebrated technological advances, zigzag that symbolized the speed of light
6. Paul Klee taking a line for a walk
- Four elements of graphic art: dot, line, plane and space
Line in Sculpture
- Line in relation to volume and space
- Contour line that change with the point of view of the moving viewer
1. Representational vs abstract
- Classical structure- immobility, finality, clarity of form is intelligble (ready to be understood) to
the subject represented
- Abstract sculpture not intelligible
2. General orientation or directional thrust of the figure
1) Decisive horizontal thrust
2) Single upward movement
3) Standing or striding forward
3. Incised or raised designs and patterns
4) Folds of drapery (vertical linear rythyms)- classical
5) Lines of drapery (twist, fold, and billow) emotional turbulence- baroque
Line in Architecture
1. General orientation predominant line
a. Horizontal orientation casualness, familiarity, harmony
b. Vertical orientation land maximization
2. External design
a. Rectangular faade
b. Triangular classical pediment
c. Curvilinear features on the faade
3. Ornamental design of interiors
a. Linear design
4. Ground plan of a building
6) Indicates social relationships and priorities
Line in the Other Arts
1. Dance
a. Gestures
b. Foot movements closeness to the earth

7) Expresses emotions, feelings and moods
8) Line is generally objective and intellectual because it defines form and is measurable
while color is subjective and emotional
Aspects of Color
1. Hue
9) 150 discernable difference sof hues
10) red- longes wavelength and easily discernable
11) color schemes (white reflects all colors, black absorbs all colors)
a. monochromatic one color
b. achromatic (without color) black, white, and gray
c. polychromatic- many colors
2. Saturation, intensity or chroma
12) Saturation purity of a color, dissolved or absorbed
a. High saturation strong affirmative character
b. Low saturation elusiveness, subtlety, and emotional complexity
- Intensity- color strength of a hue compared with a colorless gray
a. Brilliant blue vs dull blue
3. Brightness, tone or value scale running from dim to bright
13) Lightness- compared on a scale from black to white (body pigment) or black to
clear (dye)
14) Tone - intensity of illumination hue is lightened by mixing it with white, gray, or

Perception of Color
1. Temperature
a. Warm advancing towards the viewer
b. Cool- recede
2. Weight
a. Dark heaviness
b. Light- wieghtlessness
3. Size
a. Dark- smaller
b. Light- larger

Linear and Painterly

1. Defining, delineating style that gives primacy to line
2. Linear or draughtspersonly- Articulating shapes
3. Impressionism- pigment straight onto the canvas
4. Painterly dabs, dots, trails and piles of pigment in impasto- conveys sponteniety and

Ways of Using Color

1. Representutional paints objects from the real world in hues, color constancy
2. Impressionist- use of color rejected painting in local color
3. Decorative or ornamental- color as a deisgn component to enhance rhythm and sensuous
4. Personal- subjective use of color, espressionist
5. Scientific relativity and instability of color and tone through their various interactions
6. Symbolic use of color- cultural traditions

Color and Society

1. Chromatic code- system of hues, range or scale of color preferences and combinations
2. Sense of color determined by the material prodcution of pigments in a society
15) Refers to the gradations of tone from light to dark
16) Sets the mood of the work, light and shadow
17) Mood, atmosphere, climate, temperature
1. Value in Painting
18) Chiaroscuro- Italian for clear and dark
2. Light
19) Impressionists approach to light scientific approach of different times of the day
3. Chinese Tonal Painting
20) Sung Dynasty
4. Value in Sculpture
21) Material used
22) Constructivist chrome and plexiglass
5. Value in Architecture
23) Materials used and combinations
6. Transparency
24) Create light, suggest space or spatial levels as perceived through the fine

25) Perception of touch
1. Texture in Sculpture
26) Natural quality of the medium
2. Opposing Traditions in texture
27) High art vs Low art
a. High art - Smooth, lustrous texture- materials accessible to the elite
b. Low art- art of the general population
28) Zen aesthetics - iiregularities of form, imperfections of glaze, slight damages and
scares and certain incomleteness
3. Contemporary Approaches to texture
29) Surrealists developed techniques
a. Decolcomania two sheets with pigment between them
b. Frottage paper on top pf texture surface then rubbed with charcoal on top
c. Fumage- paper darkened from a flame

30) 2D exist as planes having LxW, 3D posses LxW and volume
31) geometric (rectilinear or curvilinear), biomorphic or free inventiones
32) as signifiers, their meanings are often divided from cultural codes and symbolic
1. Geometric Shapes
1) Rectilinear equal sides
a. Square- firmness, stability, convey rational order
b. Cube unyielding structures
c. Triangle- fire, higher unity
2) Curvilinear
o Circle- perfection, eternity
3) Geometric shapes in different cultures
- Chinese- Yin-Yang everything contains the seed of its opposite, everything bears a contradiction
that generates dynamic movement
- Indian- mandala mental conentration and meditation
4) Geometric shapes in contemporary art
- Cezanne (post-impressionist artist) reduced the universe to 3 shapes
o Cube
o Cone
o Cyliner
5) Biomorphic shapes
- Derived from living organisms
6) Nature in Art
- Living shapes inspire artists
7) Free shapes
- Inventions of the artist
Properties of Shapes
1. Closure (or non-closure)
- Closed- self-contained
- Non-closed- interact dynamically
2. Dimension
- Flat or 2D
- Monumental or 3D
o Free standing or sculpture-in-the-round
o Relief sculpture
2. Expressionism of Shape
3. Shapes in Folk Art
4. Balance
o Formal balance - symmetry
o Informal balance assymmetry
o Balance of transition lines of movement
5. Compositional Plans S-shapes, zigzag
6. Cultural Approaches to Space
o General principles of linear perspective (Stella Pandell Russell)
1. All objects appear small the farther away
2. Parallel lines receding appear to converge. Point to meet is called the vanishing
point. Horizontall parallel lines do not converge
3. One point perspective is looking at the object head on and parallel lines meet at
one point. At a slight angle the perspective is oblique
4. Vanishing points are placed along an imaginary line called the horizon line
5. Round forms have no parallel sides can be considered as though they had
rectangles surrounding them
7. Space in Contemporary Art
8. Space in Sculpture
9. Space in Architecture
10. Space and Social Values in Architecture
- Rhythm or the recurrence of motifs, alternation or progression in a series
1. Movement in the Dance
2. Movement in the Cinema
Chapter 4 The Image and Its Context
Image- also called an icon

1. Styles of Figuration
- Representational art any painting, sculpture, or form of visual art where the subject matter is
recognizable as taken from the world of people and nature, in opposition to abstract, non-
figurative, or non-objective
- Naturalism puts the mirror up to nature, represent natural objects as they appear
- Realism- drew subjects from contemporary life, especially from the lives of the folk, urban
workers, peasants, in socialist sympathy with their aspirations
o Magic Realism familiar objects are seen with a freshness and purity of vision
o Hyper-realism or photorealism painting has clarity and sharpness of photographic
o Miniaturismo delicate transparency of fabric
o Surrealism- veristic surrealism people and objects in faithful and realistic detail but
juxtaposes objects not found together in real life
8) Work of art vs documentary record work of art is a vision of people and society, set of
concepts, values, attitudes, and feelings while a documentary presents empirical data
and facts about a subject and its physical characteristics
9) Moral Aspect of beauty- values of balance, restraint, detachment, serenity and elegance
10) Classical proportions in the order of architecture- (abacus)doric, ionic and
(acanthus) corinthian
11) Expressionism- emotion is the motivating principles that gives shapes to the
figures, distortion in the elongation, attenuation or exxageration of the ordinary
proportions in a manner of representation
- Fauvism most valid intensities of color in search of a new and fresh approach to art
- Cubism nature can be reduced to the cube, cone and cylinder
- Pop- comic strip
12) Subject matter and its Presentation
- Subject is what the images is generally about
- Subject can be representational
13) Thematic Plane we view the title, artist, medium, dimension and the year it was
made. View it in its social and historical context as indicated by texts, symbol, and
allusions or references
- Allusion - an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly
Chapter 6 Music in Culture
Basic Sound Relationships
1. The physical properties of sound
- Vibrations within the 20-20,000 cycles per second can be detected by the human ear
a. Pitch determined by frequency, rate at which the elastic body vibrates
- Faster the vibration of the material body, the higher the pitch
b. Duration length of time
c. Timbre - sound quality
d. Frequency
i. Fundamental strongest frequency
ii. Harmonics- secondary waves
e. Three Basic Waveforms of Sound
i. Sine Wave
ii. Sawtooth Wave
iii. Square Wave
f. The psychology of music
i. Subli dance and music and ceremony in ritual set things go together
g. Noise
i. Opposite of music
ii. White noise sound between stations on FM radio stations
h. Timbre
Chapter 7 Sound in Music Cultures
1. Music and Time
a. Rhythym- all musical patterns with duration
i. Gregorian song non- metric rhythm
b. Measures strong and weak accents
i. Chinese chime music simple meter
c. Breath rhythm texture rather than metric
2. Music as Language
a. Tuning choosing specific pitches that will comprise an entire music system
i. Octave from A to A
Two music cultures Europe and India
1. Octave interval or distance between one pitch and one second
one that is twice the frequency of the first
2. Kammerton 440 cycles per second (tone a)
3. Chinese tiao (pentatonic modes)
4. Indian 22 srutis
b. Modality
i. sets of pitches
1. 5-pentatonic
2. 7-heptatonic
c. Tonality pitch behavior in a piece of music is even further directed and
contolled by the principle of tonality. Some pitches within the mode will be more
important than others. Sets the rules for pitch behavior and function in a given
i. Tonal centers- define the pitch
ii. Parallel Major and Minor Modes
1. The greek modes according to Ptolemy
a. Donan
b. Lydian
c. Hypodorian
d. Hypolydian
e. Phrygian
f. Mixolydian- lamentation
g. Hypophrygian
iii. Hindustani That (Scale Types)
d. Concepts of Line
i. Melody- horizontal relationships of events, describe pitch movement
through time
ii. Line- refers to the continuous flow of melodic and rhythmic units in
iii. Phrases- units
iv. Textures- combinations of lines
v. Drone- constant unchanging tone may accompany a single melody
vi. Polyphony- texture with two or more independent lines
vii. Heterophony- two or more lines playing the same basic melody
viii. Homophony or harmony- texture with a single musical line accompanied
by chords (vertical structures that support the melody)
ix. Texture- reference to the patterns created by the interrelationship of the
various lines of music into an integrated whole
e. Concepts of Musical Realization
i. How music is realized or transformed from raw materials into sound
ii. Improvisation each individual performer to participate in creating the
overall shape of a musical work
iii. Jazz- improvisational in character
iv. Aleatory improvisation into the whole process
Making canons is a way of defining who has the power to speak and who does not. Making the rock
'n' roll canon was part of a larger process of cultural and poliLcal appropriaLon in which power was
expropriated from subordinated groups by those who wished to speak for them
Structure and agency is a key understanding mechanism within social science
Giddens and Archer - Structure-Agency question. How is it that I can do what I want with others
when their goals are different, and often incompatible with mine?
'agency approach'
methodological individualism
- only reality we can grasp is the deeds/actions of individuals, not classes
- we cannot look at classes to explain the behaviour of individuals
- individual is the agent and voluntary to human action
- Structure is essentially explanation in terms of the social/economic/political context in which action
- Structuralist approaches recognise that there are specific conditions which produce human
actions or behaviour.
- explaining action according to the structure/context in which it takes place
- Structures have priority, externality and constrain, in relation to our behaviour.
- would argue that human action and choice is determined by class
- Reject pluralism
- superstructure civil society VS substructure- material and economic base
Durkheim on suicide
Egoistic: for reasons of self-dissatisfaction or in response to personal emotion.
Altruistic: for the good of other people
Anomic: because all structures have broken down and life no longer has meaning

Structure and agency

- are mutually dependent and internally related
- a framework within which to explain social change; and to attribute causation

5 art forms
1. Painting
2. Sculpture
3. Architecture
4. Music
5. Literature

Art Studies- humanistic and interdisciplinary

Art studies 1 institutional critique

Art studies 2 experiential and geared towards anthropology of the senses and the

Art as Construct: Institutional Theory of Art

Art as Aesthetic Performance: The Body and Everyday World of Art
Art as Discourse and Signifying Systems of Cultural Knowledge
Art as Social History
- Form
- Content
- Context
Art as Field of engages pedagogy and Public Art studies
Medium- material or the substance out of which a work is made
Signifier of meaning in the context of the works total meaning

Two-dimensional expression
- Surface or ground

Painting ground all surfaces

Direct method- alla prima
Impasto- piled-up texture

Indirect methods
1. Glazing - transparent
2. Scumbling opaque

First paper by Egyptians from papyrus -> parchment

Wet-on-wet technique atmospheric

Dry brush- fine details
Gouache- opaque watercolor

Chinese watercolor-rice paper

Cheesecloth or katsa- batik
Tempera- wooden, detailed
Gesso- white substance (plastic of plaris with glue)

Mural large-scale painting

- Fresco on a wall with damp plaster

Glass or stained class- colored glass, gothic cathedrals

- Tesserae- chips from slabs of colored stone

Tapestry fiber and weaving

- Burlap abaca thread
- Saluyut- plant

Collages sticking materials together

Frottage- rubbing pencil over a piece of paper over a textured surface

Decalcomania pigment on two sheets then pressing them to obtain random shapes

Graphic arts- two-dimensional expressions

- Arts that depend for their effect on drawing and not on color
- Printmaking and illustration

4 main engraving processes or graphic art techniques

1. Relief cut wood
2. Intaglio etching, mezzotint and aquatint
3. Surface or planographic methods
a. lithography
4. Serigraphy or silkscreen

Collography different textured materials

Plantigraphy stencils
Thermography embossing
Xerography photocopy
Viscosity printing- application of several colors simultaneously

Three-Dimension expression- sculpture

Menhirs- large pieces of stone for religious receptacle
Likha- blocklike human figures with lightly incised features
Challenge- Ildefonso Marcelo adobe sculpture at U.P. Library
Granite and limestone- Egyptians
Marble- Greeks, noble medium
Jade- Chinese
- Earthenware
o Sun-dried
o Kiln-baked
- Stoneware
o Close-grained
o Non-porous
- Porcelain
o Glazing
- Terracotta- baked clay
Metal bronze (sand casting)
Cire perdue or lost wax small bronze pieces, Malay metalworking tradition
Wood sculptures narra and molave
Bulol- Ifugao
Bihang- drive away evil spirits
Okir and Ukkil Maranao and Tausug
Torogan datus house
Panalong- extended beam

Paete woodcarver maker of santos

Takas- brightly colored paper mache animals
Pakil- town in Laguna, filigree sculpture
Batikuling best wood for santos
Encarnador- mastered the technique of coloring the face, hands, and body parts of the
wooden image
Gesso kesong puti + glue for coating of the carved figure
Estofado for the robes

Empaquetage or wrapping objects in sheets, opaque or transparent

Formalization- a familiar object is removed from its original context

Performance art social protest

3 properties in medium
1. Size or scale
2. Format
3. Frame

Architectural Materials and Methods

1. Rock
2. Organic
3. Metal
4. Synthetic
5. Hybrid

Qualities of material
1. Structure
2. Texture
3. Aspect

5 methods of architectural construction

1. Lashed construction
2. Post-and-lintel
3. Arch and vault
4. Skeleton
5. Cantilever
1. Evaluate museum practies dealing with everyday life s sites of identity
construction of an imagines nation
2. Problematize the issue of representation of local culture as appropriated
in the museum practie and its relation to tourism
3. Explore the challenges and possibilities of initiating community museums in
the Philippine localties as alternative to traditional museum
- Museums role in creating a public culture as part of civil society
- Authenticity revolves around power and authority and misrepresentation and
- Museums can be an instrument of both suppression and empowerment by addressing
the issue of perspective on what constitute the everyday: for whom is the
prepresentation? Who benefits from the discourse of authenticity?
- People-oriented rather than object-oriented
- Direction is toward community museums that is oriented primariy to the local
- Ordinary citizen to becom a stakeholder in the community and its future

- Western concept of art is a serious impediment

- art for arts sake
- Traditional art is wholistic rather than compartmentalized or monospecialist
- Synthetic culture/ mass culture commercially-driven art

Conditions that discourage a Filipino cultural perspective and inhibit Filipino cultural
1. The notion of art for arts sake, favors only a small Western-educated elite
and bars the great majority of our people equal opportunity for artistic
expression, reducing them into mere consumers of the products of a few;
2. Very low prestige to folk, communal or traditional art
3. Reductionist nature of so-called fine art alienates the majority of Filipinos
4. Overly technical and formalist emphasis by artistic establishment making
art too individualistic and does not appeal to the Filipinos
5. Limiting art to professionals and elite reduced resource pool
6. Making art exclusive (advance career vs. building the nation)
7. Lack of meaningul participation in artistic creativity
8. Rise of pseudo-culture due to gross consumerism and mass production

- Pinoy Big Brotherdefamiliarization

- Theres a certain level of taste