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NO CONTENT PAGES

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 OBJECTIVE

3.0 THEORY

4.0 PROCEDURE

5.0 APPARATUS

6.0 DATA TABULATION

7.0 RESULT ANALYSIS

8.0 DISCUSSION

9.0 CONCLUSION

`10.0 REFERENCES
PAGES

Figure 1.1: Flow over a flat plate

Figure 1.2: Boundary layer

Figure 3.1: Boundary Layer growth

Figure 3.2: Boundary Layer thickness definition

Figure 5.1: Full set up apparatus

Figure 5.2: Surface plate (rough)

Figure 5.3: Surface plate (smooth)

Figure 5.4: Liquid used

Figure 5.5: Ruler

Table 6.1: Smooth plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.05m

Table 6.2: Smooth plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.20m

Table 6.3: Rough plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.05m

Table 6.4: Rough plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.20m

Figure 7.1: Graph of distance from leading edge, y (mm) versus u/U

Figure 7.2: Graph of distance from leading edge, y (mm) versus u/U(1-u/U)

Table 7.1: Comparison between experimental and theoretical value

1.0 INTRODUCTION

External flow past objects encompass as extremely wide variety of fluid mechanics
phenomena. The flow of real fluid (except at extremely low pressure) has two fundamental
characteristics which are there is no discontinuity of velocity and at the solid surface, the velocity
of the fluid relative to the surface is zero. Boundary layer is the region that closed to the surface
in which the velocity increases rapidly from zero approaches the velocity of the main stream
occurs. The boundary layer that formed in the flow along one side of a thin , smooth plate, flat
plate parallel to the direction of the oncoming fluid. The fluid originally having a velocity U in
the direction of the plate which retarded in the neighborhood of the surface and the boundary
layer begins at the leading edge of the plate. The purposed of the boundary layer on the plate is
to allow the fluid to change its velocity from the upstream value U to zero on the plate. Boundary

layer thickness is defined as the distance from the plate at which the fluid velocity is within

same arbitrary value of the upstream velocity. The boundary layer displacement thickness

is a distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced to give the same

mass defect as exist in boundary layer flow. Another boundary layer thickness definition is the

boundary layer momentum thickness is often used when determine the drag on an object.

Figure 1.1: Flow over a flat plate


Figure 1.2: Boundary layer

There are two different type of boundary layer flow which are laminar flow and turbulent
flow. laminar flow is a very smooth flow, while the turbulent boundary layer contains swirls or
"eddies." The laminar flow creates less skin friction drag than the turbulent flow, but is less
stable. Boundary layer flow over a wing surface begins as a smooth laminar flow. As the flow
continues back from the leading edge, the laminar boundary layer increases in thickness.
Reynolds Number for laminar flow is less than 500 x 10. At some distance back from the
leading edge, the smooth laminar flow breaks down and transitions to a turbulent flow. From a
drag standpoint, it is advisable to have the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as far aft on
the wing as possible, or have a large amount of the wing surface within the laminar portion of the
boundary layer. The low energy laminar flow, however, tends to break down more suddenly than
the turbulent layer. Reynolds Number for turbulent flow is more than 500 x 10.
2.0 OBJECTIVE

1. The boundary layer velocity layer was measured and the growth of the boundary layer for the
flat plate with smooth and rough surface was observed.

2. The boundary layer properties for the measured velocity profile was measured.

3. The effect of surface roughness on the development of the boundary layer was studied.
3.0 THEORY

The fluid flow theory that has been tested by experimental has shown that when a fluid flows
over a surface there is no slip (no slip boundary condition, V=0) at the surface. The fluid in
contact with the surface stays with it. Therefore the surface properties effects the speed of the
fluid follow contacted to it. The relative velocity increases from zero at the surface to that of the
free stream some little distance away from the surface. This is caused by the factor of friction, as
the velocity profile furthest apart from the plate which effects the velocity by friction. The fluid
in this small distance is called Boundary Layer.
Steady stream of fluid moving from left to right over a smooth plate is assumed. The free stream
velocity, U, is constant over the entire plate. It was founded that the boundary layer grows in
thickness the further it traveled downstream.

U U

Laminar Turbulence

Transition

Figure 3.1: Boundary Layer growth

The initial motion is laminar with a gradual increase in thickness. If the plate is sufficiently long
a transition to turbulence occurs.
Laminar Boundary Layer

Laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no
disruption between the layers. At low velocities, the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing,
and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. The characteristic of a laminar
boundary layer flow are steady and smooth. There are no cross-currents perpendicular to the
direction of flow, nor eddies or swirls of fluids. The particles of the fluid motion are very orderly
placed and particles are close to a solid surface moving in straight lines parallel to that surface.
Laminar flow is a flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion and low
momentum convection.

When a fluid is flowing through a closed channel such as a pipe or between two flat plates, either
of two types of flow may occur depending on the velocity and viscosity of the fluid: laminar
flow or turbulent flow. Laminar flow tends to occur at lower velocities, below a threshold at
which it becomes turbulent. Turbulent flow is a less orderly flow regime that is characterised
by eddies or small packets of fluid particles which result in lateral mixing. In non-scientific
terms, laminar flow is smooth while turbulent flow is rough.

In laminar boundary layer the flow is steady and smooth. Consequently the layer is thin. This
give rise to drag. The velocity gradient is moderate and although significant viscous stresses exist
is too small, so that skin friction is very small.
Turbulence Boundary Layer
In turbulence boundary layer the flow is unsteady and not smooth, but eddying. When specifying
velocities, we must consider mean values over a small time interval and not instantaneous values
as before. The distribution of mean velocity in any one time interval is the same as in another.
Thus we can still draw velocity profiles, which have meaning. Due to the eddying nature of the
flow there is a lot of movement of fluids between inner and outer layers of the regions. Thus the
velocity near the wall will be higher than in a laminar boundary layer where the movement and
energy transfer do not occur. The velocity gradient at the wall is consequently much higher so the
skin friction and drag are also higher.

For piping renold number measurement:


The specific calculation of the Reynolds number, and the values where laminar flow occurs, will
depend on the geometry of the flow system and flow pattern. The common example is flow
through a pipe, where the Reynolds number is defined as:
V DH V D H q DH
= = =
A

where:

DH is the hydraulic diameter of the pipe; its characteristic travelled length, L, (m).

Q is the volumetric flow rate (m3/s).

A is the pipe's cross-sectional area (m2).

v is the mean velocity of the fluid (SI units: m/s).


is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pas = Ns/m2 = kg/(ms)).

is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, = /p (m2/s).

is the density of the fluid (kg/m3).

For standard flow Reynold number measurement:


u uL
= =

where:

is the density of the fluid (SI units: kg/m3)

u is the velocity of the fluid with respect to the object (m/s)

L is a characteristic linear dimension (m)

is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pas or Ns/m2 or kg/(ms))

is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid (m2/s).

Boundary layer properties and measurement are explained below

The boundary layer thickness, , is defined as the distance from the surface to the point where
the velocity is within 1 percent of the stream velocity.

uy= 0.99U

The displacement thickness, *, is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be
displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass deficit as exists in the boundary layer.

u
= 1

0
( U)dy

The momentum thickness, , is define as the thickness of a layer of fluid of velocity, U (free
stream velocity), for which the momentum flux is equal to the deficit of momentum flux through
the boundary layer.


u u
=
0 U
1(U
dy )
The equation for velocity measured by pitot tube is given as

u=
2(oil g h)
air

The Blasiuss exact solutions to the laminar boundary yield the following equations for the above
properties.

5.0 x

Re x

1.72 x

Re x

0.664 x

Re x
Due to the complexity of the flow, there is no exact solution to the turbulent boundary layer. The
velocity profile within the boundary layer commonly approximated using the 1/7 power law.

1
u y 7

U

The properties of boundary layer are approximated using the momentum integral equation,
which result in the following expression.

0.370 x
1
Re x 5

0.0463 x
1
Re x 5

0.036 x
1
Re x 5

Another measure of the boundary layer is the shape factor, H, which is the ratio of the
displacement thickness to the momentum thickness, H = */. For laminar flow, H increases
from 2.6 to 3.5 at separation. For turbulent boundary layer, H increases from 1.3 to
approximately 2.5 at separation.

U
0.99U
x
area = u ( U - u) dy
0

u
y
*
( U - u) dy
area = 0

Figure 3.2: Boundary Layer thickness definitions


4.0 PROCEDURE

1. The apparatus has been setup on the bench. Smooth surface of the plate is used for the first
part of the experiment.

2. The position of the central plate was adjusted to set the measurement plate at the required
distance from leading edge which is 50mm.

3. The fan was switched on and the air flow speeds was adjusted to set the air stream velocity at
medium speed. The total pressure of the pitot tube was read for a range of several points as the
tube traverse toward the plate at an interval of 0.25mm.

4. As the pressure begins to fall, the increment of the advanced should be reduced so as to clearly
define the velocity profile. The pressure reading will not fall to zero as the pitot tube has a finite
thickness. A further indication that the wall has been reach is that the pressure reading will be
zero.

5. Step 2 to step 4 were repeated for setup of measurement plane at 200mm.

6. The entire experiment was repeated for the rough surface plate.
5.0 APPARATUS

1. Figure 5.1: Multi tube manometer (measures of pressure in the pitot tube).

2. Figure 5.4: combined with micrometer gauge, plate holder and air flow to the plate surface.

3. Figure 5.2/5.3: Flat plate with 2 surface type (rough and smooth)

4. Figure 5.5: Ruler (measure distance on flat plate)

Figure 5.1: Full set up apparatus Figure 5.2: Surface plate


(rough) Figure 5.3: Surface plate
(smooth).

Figure 5.5: Ruler Figure 5.6: Micrometer screw


Figure 5.4: Liquid used
gage
6.0 DATA TABULATION

Test 1 : smooth plate

Distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.05m

Micrometer Static Pitot tube Differential Differential


reading, y pressure pressure manometer manometer u u u u
(1 )
(mm) manomete manomete height height h U U U
(m/s)
r (mBar) r (mBar) (mBar) (mm)
0 9.4 11.6 2.2 28.16 18.80 0.7740 0.1749
0.25 9.4 11.6 2.2 28.16 18.80 0.7740 0.1749
0.50 9.4 11.6 2.2 28.16 18.80 0.7740 0.1749
0.75 9.4 11.6 2.2 28.16 18.80 0.7740 0.1749
1.00 9.4 11.6 2.2 28.16 18.80 0.7740 0.1749
1.25 9.4 11.8 2.4 30.72 19.64 0.8087 0.1547
1.50 9.4 12.0 2.6 33.28 20.44 0.8415 0.1333
1.75 9.4 12.4 3.0 38.40 21.96 0.9041 0.0867
2.00 9.4 12.4 3.0 38.40 21.96 0.9041 0.0867
2.25 9.4 12.4 3.0 38.40 21.96 0.9041 0.0867
2.50 9.4 12.4 3.0 38.40 21.96 0.9041 0.0867
2.75 9.4 12.4 3.0 38.40 21.96 0.9041 0.0867
3.00 9.4 12.4 3.0 38.40 21.96 0.9041 0.0867
3.25 9.4 12.7 3.3 42.24 23.03 0.9481 0.0492
3.50 9.4 12.7 3.3 42.24 23.03 0.9481 0.0492
3.75 9.4 12.8 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9625 0.0361
4.00 9.4 13.0 3.6 46.08 24.05 0.9901 0.0098
4.25 9.4 13.0 3.6 46.08 24.05 0.9901 0.0098
4.50 9.4 13.0 3.6 46.08 24.05 0.9901 0.0098
4.75 9.4 13.0 3.6 46.08 24.05 0.9901 0.0098
5.00 9.4 13.0 3.6 46.08 24.05 0.9901 0.0098
5.25 9.4 13.0 3.6 46.08 24.05 0.9901 0.0098
5.50 9.4 13.0 3.6 46.08 24.05 0.9901 0.0098

Table 6.1: Smooth plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.05m

Free stream velocity, U (m/s) = 24.29 m/s

Reynolds number, Ux/ = 0.821 x 10 (laminar flow)


Test 2: smooth plate

Micrometer Static Pitot tube Differential Differential


reading, y pressure pressure manometer manometer u u u u
(1 )
(mm) manomete manometer height height h U U U
r (mBar) (mBar) (mBar) (mm) (m/s)

0 9.3 11.4 2.1 26.88 18.37 0.8018 0.1589

0.25 9.3 11.5 2.2 28.16 18.80 0.8206 0.1472


0.50 9.3 11.9 2.6 33.28 20.44 0.8922 0.0962

0.75 9.3 12.0 2.7 34.56 20.83 0.9092 0.0826


1.00 9.3 12.2 2.9 37.12 21.59 0.9424 0.0543

1.25 9.3 12.4 3.1 39.68 22.32 0.9742 0.0251

1.50 9.3 12.5 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.99 0.0099


1.75 9.3 12.5 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.99 0.0099

2.00 9.3 12.5 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.99 0.0099


2.25 9.3 12.5 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.99 0.0099

2.50 9.3 12.5 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.99 0.0099


2.75 9.3 12.5 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.99 0.0099

3.00 9.3 12.5 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.99 0.0099

Distance from leading edge, x (m) = 0.2m

Table 6.2: Smooth plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.20m

Free stream velocity, U (m/s) = 22.91 m/s

Reynolds number, Ux/ = 3.1 x 10 (laminar flow)


TEST 3 (Rough plate)

Distance from leading edge, x (m) = 0.05m

Micromete Static Pitot tube Differential Differential


r reading, y pressure pressure manometer manometer u u u u
(1 )
(mm) manometer, manometer, height, height, U U U
(m/s)
(mBar) (mBar) (mBar) h (mm)
0.00 9.4 11.5 2.1 26.88 18.37 0.7777 0.1729
0.25 9.4 11.5 2.1 26.88 18.37 0.7777 0.1729
0.50 9.4 11.9 2.5 32.00 20.05 0.8488 0.1283
0.75 9.4 12.1 2.7 34.54 20.83 0.8819 0.1041
1.00 9.4 12.5 2.9 37.12 21.59 0.9141 0.0785
1.25 9.4 12.6 3.1 39.68 22.32 0.9873 0.0125
1.50 9.4 12.6 3.2 40.94 22.67 0.9600 0.0384
1.75 9.4 12.7 3.3 42.24 23.03 0.9750 0.0244
2.00 9.4 12.7 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9900 0.0099
2.25 9.4 12.7 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9900 0.0099
2.50 9.4 12.7 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9900 0.0099
2.75 9.4 12.7 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9900 0.0099
3.00 9.4 12.7 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9900 0.0099
3.25 9.4 12.7 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9900 0.0099
3.50 9.4 12.7 3.4 43.52 23.38 0.9900 0.0099

Table 6.3: Rough plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.05m

Free stream velocity, U (m/s) = 23.62 m/s

Reynolds number, Ux/ = 0.7993 x 10 (laminar flow)


TEST 4 (Rough plate)

Distance from leading edge, x (m) = 0.20m

Micromete Static Pitot tube Differentia Differentia


r reading, y pressure pressure l l u u u u
(1 )
(mm) manometer, manometer, manometer manometer U U U
(mBar) (mBar) height, height, (m/s)
(mBar) h (mm)
0.00 9.2 11.3 2.1 26.88 18.37 0.7781 0.1727
0.25 9.2 11.3 2.1 26.88 18.37 0.7781 0.1727
0.50 9.2 11.3 2.1 26.88 18.37 0.7781 0.1727
0.75 9.2 11.7 2.5 32.00 20.05 0.8492 0.1280
1.00 9.2 11.9 2.7 34.54 20.83 0.8823 0.1038
1.25 9.2 12.1 2.9 37.12 21.59 0.9144 0.0783
1.50 9.2 12.2 3.0 38.40 21.96 0.9301 0.0650
1.75 9.2 12.4 3.2 40.96 22.68 0.9606 0.0378
2.00 9.2 12.5 3.3 42.24 23.03 0.9754 0.0240
2.25 9.2 12.6 3.4 43.52 23.37 0.9898 0.0100
2.50 9.2 12.6 3.4 43.52 23.37 0.9898 0.0100
2.75 9.2 12.6 3.4 43.52 23.37 0.9898 0.0100
3.00 9.2 12.6 3.4 43.52 23.37 0.9898 0.0100
3.25 9.2 12.6 3.4 43.52 23.37 0.9898 0.0100
3.50 9.2 12.6 3.4 43.52 23.37 0.9898 0.0100
3.75 9.2 12.6 3.4 43.52 23.37 0.9898 0.0100

Table 6.4: Rough plate with distance from leading edge, x (m) : 0.20m

Free stream velocity, U (m/s) = 23.61 m/s

Reynolds number, Ux/ = 0.3127 x 10 (laminar flow)


7.0 RESULT ANALYSIS

GRAPH

u
Figure 7.1: Graph of distance from leading edge, y (mm) versus U
1.2

Distance from leading edge, y (mm)


0.8 Smooth plate ( x= 0.05m) u/U Smooth plate ( x= 0.2m) u/U Rough pate (x=0.05m) u/U

0.6

0.4
Rough plate (x=0.2m) u/U

0.2

0
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00

u u
(1 )
Figure 7.2: Graph of distance from leading edge, y (mm) versus U U
0.2

0.18

0.16

Distance from0.14
leading edge, y (mm)
(mm) Smooth plate ( x= 0.05m) u/U (1 - u/U) Smooth plate ( x= 0.2m) u/U (1 - u/U)

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06 Rough pate (x=0.05m) u/U (1 - u/U) Rough plate (x=0.2m) u/U (1 - u/U)

0.04

0.02

0
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00
Based on the graph that has been plotted, there are different between graph plotted in Figure 1
(Graph of distance from leading edge, y (mm) versus u/U) and Figure 2 (Figure 7.2: Graph of
distance from leading edge, y (mm) versus u/U(1-u/U)

For Figure 7.1, u/U is a velocity profile of the boundary layer. Based on the Figure 1, for the
shape of the graph of Smooth plate (x= 0.05m), Smooth plate (x= 0.05m), Rough pate (x=0.05m)
and Rough plate (x=0.2m) is almost the same which is in parabolic form (as the distance from
leading edge, y (mm) increase, the velocity profile (u/U) is increases). For all 4 test that has been
conducted, the only different is the distance from leading edge, y (mm taken for velocity profile
to archive uniform velocity. For smooth plate (x= 0.05m) the leading edge taken for it to achieve
uniform velocity is at distance 4mm from leading edge. For smooth plate (x= 0.20m) the leading
edge taken for it to achieve uniform velocity is at distance 1.50mm from leading edge. . For
rough plate (x= 0.05m) the leading edge taken for it to achieve uniform velocity is at distance
2.00mm from leading edge. For rough plate (x= 0.20m) the leading edge taken for it to achieve
uniform velocity is at distance 2.25mm from leading edge. Based on the research from the other
source, this experiment is not very successful because there should be a turbulent on the rough
surface (Reynolds number > 500000). In this experiment the Reynolds number is less than
expected value.

Based on the graph in Figure 7.1, the rough surface line is not really in parabolic form, as
conclusion it is not very success experiment because there is error from the experiment. But the
shape of the graph can be referring as the velocity profile of the boundary layer. With good and
reliable equipment, the precise experiment can be made in order to achieve the objective of the
experiment.
For Figure 7.2, u/U(1-u/U) is momentum thickness, which refer to the thickness of a layer of
fluid of velocity, U (free stream velocity), for which the momentum flux is equal to the deficit of
momentum flux through the boundary layer. It is used to determining the drag on the object. The
highest drag is on the surface of the plate. For smooth plate (x= 0.05m), the momentum thickness
at the surface plate is 0.1749. For smooth plate (x= 0.20m), the momentum thickness at the
surface plate is 0.1589. For rough plate (x= 0.05m), the momentum thickness at surface plate is
0.1727. For rough plate (x= 0.20m), the momentum thickness at the surface plate is 0.1727. For
smooth plate (x= 0.05m), the momentum thickness at the boundary layer is 0.0098. For smooth
plate (x= 0.20m), the momentum thickness at the boundary layer is 0.0099. For rough plate (x=
0.05m), the momentum thickness at the boundary layer is 0.0099. For rough plate (x= 0.20m),
the momentum thickness at the boundary layer is 0.01.Based on the Figure 7.2, it is proven that
the momentum thickness value is depend on the surface of the plate since rough surface plate has
higher momentum thickness value compare to the smooth surface plate.
Theoretical Experimenta Percentag
value l value e Error (%)
Test 1 : smooth plate (x=0.05m)

(m) 0.0008725 0.00375 329.8

* (m) 3.0 x 10 0.125 x 10 95.8

(m) 1.159 x 10 5.0 x 10 331.4

Test 2 : smooth plate (x = 0.2m)

(m) 0.00179 0.00125 30.2

* (m) 6.178 x 10 4.167 x 10 32.55

(m) 2.385 x 10 1.667 x 10 71.8

Test 3 : rough plate (x=0.05m)

(m) 0.0008843 0.0035 295.8

* (m) 8.843 x 10 1.1667 x 10 86.8

(m) 1.174 x 10 4.667 10 297.5

Test 4 : rough plate (x=0.2m)

(m) 0.00565 0.00375 33.6

* (m) 0.00195 0.00125 35.9

(m) 7.510 x 10 0.00500 565.8

Table 7.1: Comparison between experimental and theoretical value


From the experiment that has been done, the pressure values have obtained from the manometer.
However, the values are different from the calculation and theory based on the Table 7.1. This is
because of some errors that occurred during the experiment was done. The percentage error from
the experiment is quite high which is not good and consider this experiment is not very
successful. The errors might be occurred because of the micrometer values were not accurate as
there are parallax error when the data was taken. Furthermore the micrometer was not in good
condition as it was not firmly gripped at the holder. Some of vibration that occurred at the
machine was also caused the errors. The roughness of the surfaces affects the values of the
pressures. Greater value of was obtained when the plane is rough while the value becomes
lesser when the distance from the edge of the plate is further. The free stream velocity calculated
was based on the roughness or smoothness of the surfaces.

Based on the table 7.1 the percentage error can be calculated as follow,

Experimental Value Theoretical Value 100


Percentage Error = Theoritical

Sample calculation

Example at distance from leading edge x= 0.05m of smooth plate at point


y=0.75mm:

From eqn :


( oil g h)
velocity ,u (m/s) 2
air

Constant values
air =1.225 kg/m

oil =784 kg/m

5
air =1.81 x 10 m/s

Differential manometer height h (mBar) =

pitot tube pressure manometer(mBar) static pressure manometer(mBar)

h (mBar) = 11.6 9.4

= 2.2 mBar *1 mBar = 12.8mm

h (mm) = 2.2 x 12.8 = 28.16 mm

velocity ,u (m/s)
2(784 x 9.81 x 0.02816)
1.225

= 18.80 m/s

Take the value for constant seven readings on manometer pitot tube pressure:

where u=0.99U

u
U= 0.99 **
R e x <5 x 10 islaminar

R e x >5 x 10 isturbulent
24.05
U= 0.99 = 24.29 m/s

Ux 1.225 x 24.29 x 0.05


Reynolds number , R e x = =
1.81 x 105

0.822 x 10(laminar flow)

Theoretical value:

The Blasiuss laminar boundary layer:

Boundary layer thickness,


5x
=

( 5 )( 0.05)
= 0.822 x 10 = 8.725 x 10m

Displacement thickness,
1.72 x
=

(1.72 ) (0.05)
= 0.822 x 10 = 3.0 x 10 m


Momentum thickness,
0.664 x
=

( 0.664 ) (0.05)
= 0.822 x 10 = 1.159 x 10 m

Ratio displacement thickness to the momentum thickness, H



H=

3.0 x 10
= 1.159 x 10 = 2.60
Experimental value:

Boundary layer thickness :


u y y
*= (1 Uu ) dy where U = 2( )- ( )
0

*= (12( y )( y )) dy
0

= [ y
y y
+
3 ]
= [
11+
1
3 ]

= 3


* = 3

1.25
= 3 = 0.4167 mm

Momentum thickness :


u y y
= Uu (1 Uu ) dy where U = 2( )- ( )
0

y y
2( )( )

y y
= (
() 12( )( ) dy


)

0
y
2( )

y y y
= 5( + 4( - ( ) dy

0

= [
5
1 +1
3
1
5 ]
2

= 15

2
=
15

2
= 15 (1.25) = 1.6667mm

8.0 DISCUSSION

In this experiment, the velocity profiles in the boundary layer of a flat plate were measured for a
flat plate with both a smooth and rough surfaces. Based on Figure 7.1 and 7.2 the velocity
profile, u/U and momentum thickness, were measured by using formula and compare it
between experimental and theoretical value. It is shown that velocity profile of the boundary
layer is different based on the surface of the plate and the position along the path. There are 4
tests that has been conducted to measure and taken the data of the static pressure manometer and
pitot tube pressure manometer to calculate the 2 the velocity profile, u/U and momentum
thickness, . The two graph has been plotted which is graph of distance from leading edge, y
(mm) versus u/U and graph of distance from leading edge, y (mm) versus u/U(1-u/U). u/U is the
velocity profile and u/U(1-u/U) is to measured momentum thickness. All the description of the
graph has been discussed in the result analysis part.

There are different between experimental value and theoretical value of boundary layer thickness
, displacement thickness *, and momentum thickness at different leading distance and
surface. For test 1 (smooth plate at leading distance 0.05m) the percentage error for boundary
layer thickness is329.8%, for displacement thickness * is 95.8% and for and momentum
thickness is 331.4%. For test 2 (smooth plate at leading distance 0.2m) the percentage error for
boundary layer thickness is 30.2%, for displacement thickness * is 32.55% and for and
momentum thickness is 71.8%. For test 3(rough plate at leading distance 0.05m) the
percentage error for boundary layer thickness is 295.8%, for displacement thickness * is
86.5% and for and momentum thickness is 297.5%. For test 4(rough plate at leading distance
0.2m) the percentage error for boundary layer thickness is 33.6%, for displacement thickness
* is 35.9% and for and momentum thickness is 565.8%.

The percentage is quite huge due to error during experimental is conducted. The errors might be
occurred because of the micrometer values were not accurate as there are parallax error when the
data was taken. Furthermore the micrometer was not in good condition as it was not firmly
gripped at the holder. Some of vibration that occurred at the machine was also caused the errors.

9.0 CONCLUSION

The boundary layer velocities on the velocity profile for flat plate with smooth
and rough surface have been obtained where the data can be seen from the
Table 6.1-6.2-6.3-6.4. The experiment was conducted with 4 test (test 1 with
measured from 0.05m distance from edge plate and test 2 was measured at
0.2m distance from edge of plate both is a smooth plate. Meanwhile, test 3 and
4 was done with the same distance which is test 1 same with test 3, 2 same
with 4, but both on a rough surface. The growth of the boundary layer both for
the smooth and rough surface increased as the distance thickness of the
boundary layer increase or known as the distance from the plate to the
measured point (y value). The further the distance of measured point from the
plate, significantly the value of velocity become constant as it is the limit of the
fluids velocity or known as the stream velocity. This conclude that velocity that
is further from the plate does not get disturb by any external properties such as
turbulent flow or friction. The characteristics of the flat plate gives the different
variety of the velocity profile and different position in velocity profile produces
different value of velocity. Therefore effecting the value and height of boundary
layer thickness, boundary layer displacement and boundary layer momentum
can be seen from the Table 6.1-6.2-6.3-6.4. In a nutshell the smoothness or
roughness of a surfaces effects the flow properties (boundary layers, velocity,
and the transition flow period from laminar to turbulent). Other than that , as
the flow distance is further from the first edge of the plate (0.2m from plate) all
the values of boundary layer (boundary layer thickness, boundary layer
displacement and boundary layer ) is smaller than the measurement at that is
0.05m from edge of plate. Based on the theory and figure 1.1 shows that as
the flow furthers from edge of plate starts to transition from laminar to
turbulent. This is why values on 0.05m to edge are bigger than values
from 0.2m from edge. In a nutshell the further the flow from the collision point
between plate and fluid flow the flow tend to develop to a turbulent flow .One of
the main factors is the friction cause between the surface and the fluid. This
interaction between the two medium will satisfies two different character
development of boundary. The rougher the surface the more friction is develop
in the contact of two medium. As amount of friction is indirectly proportional to
the velocity of a moving medium. Therefor it can be concluded that all the
objective for the experiment is acceptable to be successful even with a few
errors that occurred and affected the percentage error, because the growth of
boundary layer for flat plate for both surface was observed, the boundary layer
velocities was measured, boundary layer properties was obtained and the effect
of surface roughness on the development of the boundary layer was verified.

. The boundary layer velocity layer was measured and the growth of the boundary layer for the
flat plate with smooth and rough surface was observed.

2. The boundary layer properties for the measured velocity profile was measured.

3. The effect of surface roughness on the development of the boundary layer was studied.

The velocity profiles of the flat plate have been obtained through data read and the
graphs have been plotted.
10.0 REFERENCES

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