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Evolution Test Review Sheet Name

______________________________________
1. The slow, gradual change in a species is called ___Evolution_____

2. What is biodiversity?
Variety of living organisms in an area

3. What are Homologous structures?


Structures that look the same but serve very different functions, Ex.
Forelimbs of different species have radius, ulna, etc. but function
differently.

What evidence do these similar structures provide in support of evolution?


For Divergent Evolution They suggest a common ancestor because they
have structure in common

4. What was Lamarcks Theory and why was he incorrect?


The theory of inheritance of acquired traits, acquired traits like large muscles
cannot be passed on to offspring.

5. What is Artificial Selection? Give an example.


When humans interfere and breed animals for desired traits like increased milk
production or dog breeding.
Breeding Labradors or Arabian Horses would be an example.

6. What is natural selection? Who proposed Evolution through natural selection?


is the process by which biological organisms with favorable traits survive and
reproduce more successfully than organisms that do not possess such traits.
Charles Darwin Proposed Evolution through Natural Selection.

7. Give an example of natural selection in action.


If you have a population of dogs and some have short hair and other long hair
and temperature drops, the long haired ones will survive longer and pass on
their genes while the short hair ones die off.

8. Why might one variation have a selective advantage over another variation?
Environment might favor one and be against the other. Predators might see one
color over another and keep attacking them, food scarcity or proximity might
also dictate which members eat better or get more food.

9. What is survival of the fittest?


describes the idea that there is, in nature, competition to survive and
reproduce. It is a struggle for existence.

10. How are natural selection, adaptation, and fitness all interrelated?

Adaptations (new behaviors, structures or internal processes) make an organism


survive better in their environment, therefore making them more fit which
means they will be more successful at living and passing their genes, Natural
selection places the pressure on which adaptations are beneficial or detrimental at
the time.
11. What is stabilizing selection? Draw a graph and give an example.
Stabilizing selection favors the average or in-between individuals and selects
against the two extremes.
See Graph C in question 36 for a picture. Example: If there is a population of
wild dogs and they have short, medium, and long coats but live in a temperate
environment, they over time the short coats would die off because they could
not stand winters, and the long coats may die off more because they cannot
stand summers, so the medium coats would be favored and their numbers
would increase.

12. What is disruptive selection? Draw a graph and give an example.


Disruptive selection favors both extremes while selecting against the average or
in-between individuals
See Graph B in question 36 for picture. Remember the sand crab example
involving the oil spill.

13. What is directional selection? Draw a graph and give an example.


Directional favors only one extreme while selecting against the other extreme
and the average individuals. See Graph A for picture in question 36. Example: If
there are three different colors of fiddler crabs, white, brown, and black; and
the sand is black, then predators will easily see white and brown individuals and
select against them, while the black live on and pass on their genes causing an
increase in their numbers over time (favored).

14. What is convergent evolution? Give an example


When environment dictates the evolution of similar structures that have similar
functions but are from different, un-related species. Ex. Include wings of a bat,
bird, or a dragonfly. All have same function and shape, but formed in obviously
different organisms.

15. What is divergent evolution? Give an example


One species gives rise to many species over time. These new species can trace
origin back to a common ancestor. Example: Darwins Finches or the tortoises
he studied.

16. What are vestigial organs? Give at least 3 examples.


Organs/Structures that have no apparent function or benefit for the organism.
Examples: Wisdom teeth, wings in an ostrich, tail bone in humans, eyes for blind
cave fish.

17. What are the major driving forces behind evolution? (Hint: more than one)
Natural Selection, environmental depletion or formation, mass extinctions
events, climate changes, new or reduced food sources

18. According to evolutionists, what factor from question 17 contributes to the most
genetic variation in an organism?
Mutations

19. What is speciation? Give an example.


Evolution of a new species because of geographic, reproductive isolation, or a
change in the number of chromosomes. Ex. Polyploidy in some species of plants,
Abert squirrels separated by Grand Canyon.

20. What species of animal did Darwin focus a lot of his attention on in the Galapagos?
Finches and tortoises

21. Since they went through adaptive radiation, what type of evolution was represented
by these animals? How do you know?
Divergent Evolution because one species became many species and went
through adaptive radiation. Adaptive radiation = divergent evolution.

22. What is adaptive radiation? Explain how homologous structures support the idea of
adaptive radiation.
When a population or a species evolves to fill in niches that were previously
unoccupied. Darwins finches filled in the gaps of eating insects, nectar, hard
nuts, etc. in order to maximize food consumption for energy and therefore
developed beaks. Beaks are homologous in structure and function.

23. What is a mutation? How does it contribute to adaptation or evolution?


Any change in the normal DNA sequence, mutations can give rise to new
structures, behaviors, internal processes that might present as an adaptation
and make an individual more fit or suited to survive in an environment, they
also might cause the death of some and force others to occupy their niche
causing adaptive radiation.

24. If you found two fossils in two different layers of sedimentary rock stacked on each
other? How would you know which one is older? How can you know for sure?
The fossil from the deeper layer would be older because that layer of rock had
to be laid there first before the other layer.

25. According to evolutionists, what type of cell is believed to be the first on earth and
the one that gave rise to all other life?
Prokaryotes (bacteria, single-celled)

26. What major theory did Lynn Margulis propose? Briefly explain the theory
She was a scientist that tried to explain cellular evolution using the
endosymbiont theory where one prokaryote swallowed another prokaryote
forcing it to become a mitochondrion and a chloroplast which later gave rise to
eukaryotes. This gave rise to the first eukaryotic cell. Also called the theory of
endosymbiosis.

27. Two characteristics that help organisms remain fit are mimicry and camouflage.
a. What is mimicry? Looking similar to other species to ward off predators

b. What is camouflage? Blending in with surrounding environment to escape


capture or being preyed upon.

28. Natural selection occurs at which level? Individual or population

29. The following animals in the diagram below are similar; this would be an example of
what type of evolution.
Convergent Evolution

30. The following animals in the diagram below are similar; this would be an example of
what type of evolution.

Divergent Evolution

31. Adaptive radiation is associated with which type of evolution?


Divergent or Convergent
32. Put the fossils the diagram in order of youngest to oldest.

8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

33. What key concept of evolution


is represented in the diagram to the
right?

Homologous Structures and


divergent evolution
34. What type of selection is represented by the graphs below?

Graph A =
____Directional_____ Graph B = __disruptive_____ Graph C =
_____Stabilizing______

Using your evidence of evolution charts, please answer the following questions using the
choices provided.
A. Homologous Structure E. Fossil Evidence
B. Analogous Structure F. Embryological Evidence
C. Vestigial Structure G. Biogeographical Evidence
D. Molecular/Biochemical Evidence

35. A modified structure seen among different groups of descendants. _____A______


36. In the earliest stages of development, a tail and gill slits can be seen in rabbits, fish,
birds and humans. ____F___
37. Exemplified by forelimbs of bats, penguins, lizards, and monkeys. ____A_____
38. The forelimbs of flightless birds. _____C______
39. DNA and RNA comparisons may lead to evolutionary trees or cladograms.
____D______
40. Bird and Butterfly wings have same function but different structures. _____B______
41. A body structure no longer used but may have had a function in an early ancestor.
____C_______
42. Structure associated with divergent evolution. _______A_________
43. Structure associated with convergent evolution. ______B_________
44. Geographic Isolation would fit into this category. _____G_________