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Particulars Description Area 2,75,069 sq. k Population 76,210,007 Capital Hyderabad Principal Languag Telugu and Ur
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History and Geography
The earliest mention of the Andhras is said to be in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 B.C.). It indicates that the Andhras, originally an Aryan race living in north India migrated to south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans. Regular history of Andhra Desa, according to historians, begins with 236 B.C., the year of Ashoka's death. During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties that ruled over the area in succession were the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi followed by Mir Qumruddin and his successors, known as the Nizams. Gradually, from the 17 th century onwards, the British annexed territories of the Nizam and constituted the single province of Madras.
Charminar, Hyderabad After Independence, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State came into being on 1 October 1953. With the passing of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, there was a merger of Hyderabad State and Andhra State, and consequently Andhra Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956.
Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orissa and Chhattisgarh, on the west by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by the Bay of Bengal with a coastline of 974 km.
Agriculture is the main occupation of about 62 per cent of the people in Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major food crop and staple food of the State contributing about 77 per cent of the foodgrain production. Other important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane. Forests cover 23 per cent of the State's area. Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casurina, bamboo, softwood, etc. The Government decided to arrange crop loans to the farmer at concessional rates of interest from the kharif season (2008) under the 'Pavala Vaddi' (3% rate of interest) scheme and also increased the loan amount to farmers from Rs. 23,000 crores in 2007-08 to Rs. 26,000 crores in 2008-09 to achieve the goal of increasing food grain production. Under the Centre's Rs. 60,000 crore loan waiver scheme. 77 lakh farmers of the State benefit to the tune of Rs. 12,000 crore. The prestigious 'Jalayagnam' project is designed by the Government to save the farmer from the vagaries of monsoons and provide assured irrigation facility to every acre of land. Farming in Andhra Pradesh today is so encouraging and remunerative that no farmer entertains farmers' suicides.
Important irrigation schemes implemented in the State are Vamsadhara Project Stage-I, Godavari Delta System, Yeleru Reservoir Project, Krishna Delta System, Pennar Delta System, Pennar River Canal System, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy Sagar Project, Tungabhadra Project high level canal Stage-I, Tungabhadra Project low level canal, Sriramsagar Stage-I, Nizamsagar Project, Nagarjuna Sagar Project and Rajolibanda Diversion scheme. Andhra Pradesh is the first state to involve the farmers in the management of irrigation sources.
Important power projects in the State are: the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal power projects. The Srisailam Hydro Electric project (Right Bank) with an installed capacity of 770 MW and the Srisailam Left Bank HES capacity of 900 MW and the Nagarjunasagar complex with 960 MW are the principal sources of hydel generation. Vijayawada Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,260 MW and Kothagudem Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,200 MW are the main sources of thermal power generation. The 1,000 MW coal-based Simhadri Thermal Power station aims at supplying the entire energy generated to the State. Installed capacity of the state as on May'08 is 12,382 MW For massive capacity addition of 8860 MW, 17 new projects are programmed by APGENCO which are expected to complete within next five years.
Industry and Minerals
There are several major industries in operation around Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. They manufacture machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, fertilizers, electronic equipments, aeronautical parts, cement and cement products, chemicals, asbestos, glass and watches. Andhra Pradesh has the largest deposits of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. Other important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to the entire South India. The State Government has been promoting the manufacturing sector in a big way by providing concessions in power tariff, allotting land and relaxing labour laws in SEZs. AP has promoted 71 SEZs of which 52 have been notified by the Government of India with an investment potential of Rs. 35,000 crore and creation of employment for 25 lakh persons. According to RBI Report of August 2007, Andhra Pradesh ranked second among States in the Country in attracting investments of Rs. 25,173 crore in 2006-07. The Confederation of Indian Industry lauded Andhra Pradesh as the Best Performing State in the manufacturing sector.
Andhra Pradesh has been forging ahead in the sphere of Information Technology. It is ahead of other states in exploiting the opportunities to the hilt. The State Government has introduced many schemes to utilize the maximum number of skilled human resources in the I.T. Sector. During 2007-08 I.T. exports crossed Rs. 26,000 crores. The Government is making efforts to spread I.T. to Tier II cities like Warangal, Tirupathi, Kakinada, Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Guntur and Kadapa. As a result, job opportunities in the I.T. sector in Tier II cities have improved. The IIT coming up in Medak district will become operational from the coming academic year. Further, the Government succeeded in persuading BITS Pilani to open a campus in Hyderabad which will become operational from the coming academic year. The Government is according top priority to I.T. development by creating the requisite infrastructure and setting up of 3 Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Idupulapaya in Kadapa District, Nuzvid in Krishna District and Basara in Adilabad District) under Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies to turn out qualified personnel.
Roads: National Highways passing through Andhra Pradesh constitute 4,647 km. There are 63,863 km of state roads including 10,412 km of State highways and 1,24,142 km of Panchayati Raj roads in the State as on March 2008. Railways: Of the railways route covering 5,107 km in Andhra Pradesh, 4,633 km is broad-gauge, 437 km is metre-gauge and 37 km is narrow gauge. Aviation: Important airports in the State are located at Hyderabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam. International flights are operated from Hyderabad. Ports: Visakhapatnam is a major port. There are minor ports in the State. Andhra Pradesh has emerged as the country's no. 2 in the share of Cargo handling and its capacity has gone up.
Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Yadagirigutta, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakonda and Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala-Tirupathi, Sri Mallikarjunaswamy Temple at Srisailam, Kanaka Durga Temple at Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple at Annavaram, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam, Sri Sita Rama Temple at Bhadrachalam, Araku Valley, Ho rsley Hills, Nelapattu, etc., are the major tourist attractions in Andhra Pradesh. Thirty-three life-size statues of eminent Telugu personalities of the State were erected on Tankbund of Hussainsagar lake in Hyderabad. A giant statue of Lord Buddha of a height of about 60 feet has been erected on the Gibraltar rock in the Hussainsagar lake, which separates Hyderabad and Secunderabad cities.
Descriptio 44,212 sq.
Population 21,144,564 Capital Chandigarh Principal Languag Hindi
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History and Geography
Haryana has a proud history going back to the Vedic Age. The state was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty, which has given the name Bharat to India. Haryana finds mention in the great epic of Mahabharata. Kurukshetra, the scene of the epic battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, is situated in Haryana. The state continued to play a leading part in the history of India till the advent of the Muslims and the rise of Delhi as the imperial capital of India. Thereafter, Haryana functioned as an adjunct to Delhi and practically remained anonymous till the First War of India's Independence in 1857. When the rebellion was crushed and the British administration was re-established, the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari of the Haryana region were deprived of their territories. Their territories were either merged with the British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. Haryana thus became a part of the Punjab province. With the reorganisation of Punjab on 1 November 1966, Haryana was made into a full-fledged state. The state is bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. National Capital Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana.
Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 65 per cent population in Haryana with contribution of 26.4 per cent in GDP of the State. The quantum of food grains production, which was nearly 25.92 lakh tonnes at the time of inception of the state, is likely to touch 153.08 lakh tonnes in 2007-08 due to crop intensification and increase in production of principal crops. Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, barley and pulses, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds and potato are the major crops of the state. Under the diversification of crops, more and more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds, vegetable and fruits. Cultivation of new crops like castor, soyabean, groundnuts and horticulture crops are also being encouraged. Sustainable agriculture is being promoted through the propagation of resource conserving technologies and organic farming. Dhaincha and Moong have also been encouraged to maintain soil fertility.
In view of the importance of Information Technology in the globalisation process throughout the world, the State Government has formulated an IT Policy which provides several incentives for IT and ITES/BPO Industry. Government has also recently announced a policy for Technology Parks, which gives considerable flexibility for setting up Technology Parks and IT Corridors. The objective of this policy is also to promote convergence of Information Technology with frontier technologies like Nano Technology, Bio Technology, Mobile Computing an d Robotics, etc. Further, Gurgaon has been developed as a preferred investment destination for both IT and
ITES/BPO companies. Now, Gurgaon has become the home of the corporate world in India. The State Government is planning to set up Hi-Tech Habitat Centre in the Electronic City, Gurgaon for IT/ITES/BPO companies, which would provide world-class facilities. Besides Gurgaon, the state also intends to develop other areas in NCR region, especially those alongside the Kundli-ManesarPalwal Express Highway and Faridabad, as satellites of Gurgaon-Manesar Mega IT Hub. The software exports from Haryana during 2007-08 were Rs. 17,500 (approximately) crore. The Government is in the process of setting up 1159 Rural and 104 Urban ICT based Common Service Centres under the State brand name e-Disha Ekal Sewa Kendra in the State and work of CSC implementation has already been started. The rollout in rural areas has been achieved 100%, while in urban/showcase CSCs it is 67%. At present B2C services like computer training, eticketing, mobile recharge, job placement services, internet surfing, DTP etc. are being provided through these centres and the Government also proposes to start G2C services like bus passes, electricity bill collection, issuing of nakal (land record), issuing of certificates like SC/BC/Income/Domicile, birth/death and issuing of new Ration Cards through these centres. Under the Computer Training Programme, more than 23000 Government Employees have been trained.
Haryana has a large industrial base having more than 1,343 large and medium and 80,000 small scale units in the State. Name any item, it is produced in Haryana. Haryana is the largest producer of passenger cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators, scientific instruments, etc. Haryana is the largest exporter of Basmati rice to the overseas market. Panipat handlooms and carpets are known all over the world besides, the famous Pachranga Achaar. Since July 1991, 3828 IEMs were filed and out of these 2228 IEMs were implemented with Capital Investment of Rs 21,578 crore and generating employment for 3,92,237 persons. As a result of the new Industrial Policy, the State has received about 94 proposals for setting up of SEZs in the State which is envisaging an investment of Rs. 2.00 lakh crore in the industrial infrastructure. These projects on implementation would create several thousand crores investment in the industrial sector besides, generating huge employment. The State is developing industrial model townships at Faridabad, Rohtak and Jagadhari besides expansion of IMT Manesar in Gurgaon. Petrochemical Hub is coming up with investment of Rs.33,000 crore at Panipat. KundliManesar-Palwal Expressway is being developed with an investment of Rs. 2000 crore. This will create a large number of economic hubs all along the expressway generating new investment opportunities in the industrial and service sector. The State is also fully exploring the potential of economic development by developing new industrial estates at Bahadurgarh, Rohtak as well as expanding industrial infrastructure at Sonipat, Kundli, Rai and Barhi. Many proposals for setting up new industrial estates at different locations particularly in Ambala, Saha, Yamuna Nagar, Barwala, Karnal, Rohtak and Kaithal are under consideration with the State Government. There is a great demand from industries for allotment of industrial land in the industrial estates developed by the HSIDC and HUDA. During this period of the present Government, 94 new industrial units in the large and medium sectors and 5031 new small-scale industrial units with investment of Rs. 4124 crore have been set up generating direct employment for more than 92,559 persons. Besides, a large number of industrial units have undergone expansion and as a result of it fresh investment of more than Rs. 35,000 crore has been created. Recently, Indian Oil Corporation
has set up Paraxylene/PTA project at Panipat with an investment of about Rs. 5000 crore. Maruti Udyog Hero Honda and many other automobile ancillaries are undergoing expansion programme with investment of about Rs. 10,000 crore. At present, investment proposals of about Rs. 70,000 crore are under implementation in the Industrial Sector. Similarly, new investment in IT and Textile sector particularly the readymade garment is coming up in the State.
To ensure equitable distribution of water for irrigation and drinking purpose through out the State, the Government has been constructing a canal namely Bhakra Main Line-Hansi Branch-Buttana Branch Multipurpose link Channel of 109 kilometer length to the tune of Rs. 354 crores. To utilise surplus water of river Yamuna during monsoon season the construction work of Dadupur-Shahbad Nalvi Canal project has been taken up at an estimated cost of Rs. 267 crores. 590 cusecs surplus flood water will be used for irrigation and ground water recharging facilities to an area of 92,532 hectares falling in districts Yamuna Nagar, Ambala and Kurukshetra. The Government has sanctioned four projects of low height dams namely Kaushalaya dam, Dangrana dam, Dewanwala dam and Chhamla dam at an estimated cost of Rs. 118 crores, Rs. 63.69 crores, Rs. 132.70 crores and Rs. 20.41 crores respectively on river Ghaggar and its tributaries to prevent wasteful flow of water and loss to property by flood during the Monsoon season.
Haryana became the first State in the country to achieve 100 per cent rural electrification in 1970. Starting with 20,000 tube wells in 1966 there were 4.51 lakh tube wells in March 2008. The average power availability during 2007-08 was 723.10 lakh units a day. The number of consumers in 2007-08 was 42.70 lakh. The installed generation capacity as on 31 March 2008 was 4368 MW.
Roads: In Haryana, all villages stand connected with metalled roads. The length of roads in the State is 31,010 km. Railways: Kalka, Kurukshetra, Rohtak, Jind, Hissar,Ambala, Panipat and Jakhal are important railway stations. There is a railway workshop at Jagadhari. Aviation: There are civil aerodromes at Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul.
Haryana-Surajkund-Fair Haryana has a network of 44 Tourist Complexes in the State. Some of the important tourist complexes are: Blue Jay (Samalkha), Skylark (Panipat), Chakravarty Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodal), Shama (Gurgaon), Jungle Babbler (Dharuhere), Gauriyya (Bahadurgarh), Myna (Rohtak), Blue Bird (Hisar), Red Bishop (Panchkula) and Pinjore Gardens (Pinjore). Surajkund and Badkhal Lake near Delhi, Sultanpur bird sanctuary (Sultanpur, Gurgaon) and Damdama in Gurgaon and fascinating pocket of pines at Morni Hills are other attractions of tourist interest. The famous Surajkund Crafts Mela is held every year in the month of February. Similarly Pinjore Heritage Festival is celebrated every year.
Particulars Description Area 2,40,928 sq. Population 166,052,859 Capital Lucknow Principal Languag Hindi and Ur
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History and Geography
The history of the State of Uttar Pradesh is very ancient and interesting. It is recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha. Many great sages of the Vedic times like Bharadwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkya, Vasishta, Vishwamitra and Valmiki flourished in this state. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh. In the sixth century B.C., Uttar Pradesh was associated with two ne religions - Jainism and w Buddhism. It was at Sarnath that Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order, and it was in Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh, where Buddha breathed his last. Several centres in Uttar Pradesh like Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi and Mathura became reputed centres of learning. In the medieval period, Uttar Pradesh passed under Muslim rule and led the way to new synthesis of Hindu and Islamic cultures. Ramananda and his Muslim disciple Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas and many other intellectuals contributed to the growth of Hindi and other languages. Uttar Pradesh preserved its intellectual excellency even under the British administration. The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province, and called it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The name was shortened to the United Provinces in 1935. In January 1950, the United Provinces was renamed as Uttar Pradesh. The State is bounded by Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh in the north, Haryana in the west, Madhya Pradesh in the south, and Bihar in the east. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into two distinct regions, Southern hills and Gangetic plain.
Agriculture is the main occupation of 66 per cent of the population of the state. The net cultivated area in the state is 167.50 lakh hectares. In the year 2003-04 the state produced 255.67 lakh metric tonnes of wheat, 130.22 lakh metric tonnes of rice, 23.80 lakh metric tonnes of pulses and 6.44 lakh metric tonnes of oilseeds and 1127.54 lakh tonnes sugar cane. Total foodgrains production during 2003-2004 was 442.58 lakh metric tonnes.
Industry and Minerals
During the year 2004-2005 there were 521835 small-scale industrial units involving a total investment of Rs. 5131 crore and employment opportunities for 2001000 persons. About 45.51 lakh tonnes of sugar was produced in the state during the year 2003-2004. There were 68 textile units. Thirty-two automobile units with an investment of Rs. 5,740 crore provided jobs to 20280 persons. It is planned to develop 102 sectors of NOIDA by th year 2011. The Authority includes industrial sectors,housing sectors,group housing sectors, residential buildings, commercial assets and institutional sectors. Steps have been taken to develop other industrial areas in the state on the pattern of Noida and Greater Noida. A Software Technology Park has been set up in Kanpur while five more Software Parks are proposed to be set up. Under the public sector, mining of limestone, magnesite, phosphate, dolomite and silicon-sand is carried out. The bulk minor and some of the major minerals like limestone, silica-sand, pyrophyllite and diaspore is mostly with the private sector. Important based industries include large cement plants in Sonebhadra.
Irrigation and Power
UP Power Corporation, UP State Power Generation and UP Hydel Power Corporation had been formed by reorganising UP State Electricity Board on 14 January 2000. During 2004-05 an expenditure of Rs 98715 crore was made to raise the irrigation potential to a level of 319.17 lakh hectares. At the time of inception the total installed capacity of UPSEB, including thermal and hydro, was 2,635 MW which has now been raised to 4621 MW.
Roads: The total road length of PWD in the state is 118946 km. This includes 3869 km of national highways, 9097 km of state highways, 105980 of other district roads and 72,931 km of rural roads. Railways: Lucknow is the main junction of the northern network. Other important railway junctions are Agra, Kanpur, Allahabad, Mughalsarai, Jhansi, Moradabad, Varanasi, Tundla, Gorakhpur, Gonda, Faizabad, Bareilly and Sitapur. Aviation: There are airports at Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi, Bareilly, Hindon (Ghaziabad), Gorakhpur, Sarsawa (Saharanpur) and Fursatganj (Raebareli).
Kumbh Mela, Allahabad The biggest congregation, perhaps of the world, Kumbha Mela is held at Allahabad every twelfth year and Ardh kumbh Mela every sixth year. Magh Mela is also held at Allahabad in January when the people come in large number to have a dip in the holy Sangam. Among other fairs is the fortnight long Jhoola fair of Mathura, Vrindavan and Ayodhya, when idols are placed in gold and silver jhoolas or cradles. A dip in the Ganga on Kartik Poornamasi is supposed to be the holiest and there are big congregations at garhmukteshwar, Soran, Rajghat, kakora, Bithur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi and Ayodhya. A famous cattle fair is held at Bateswar in Agra district. Dewa in Barabanki district has became famous because of the Muslim saint Waris Ali Shah. Besides, important festivals of the Hindus, Muslims, etc., are widely celebrated in the state.
Taj Mahal, Agra Uttar Pradesh has varied attractions for all kinds of tourists. Besides ancient places of pilgrimage like Varanasi, Vindhyachal, Ayodhya, Chitrakoot, Prayag, Naimisharanya, Mathura, Vrindavan, Dewa Sharief, Dargah of Sheikh Saleem Chishti in Fatehpur Sikri, Sarnath, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Sankisa, Kampil, Piprahwa and Kaushambi, places like Agra, Ayodhya, Sarnath, Varanasi, Lucknow, Jhansi, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kannauj, Mahoba, Devgarh, Bithur, and Vindhyachal have rich treasures of Hindu and Islamic architecture and culture.
Particulars Description Area 53,484 sq. km Population 8,489,349 Capital Dehradun Principal Languag Hindi, Garhwali, Kuma
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History and Geography
Uttarakhand finds mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures as Kedarkhand, Manaskhand and Himavant. The Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudra Gupta, the Pauravas, Katuris, Palas, the Chandras and Pawaras and the British have ruled it in turns. It is often called the Land of the Gods (Dev Bhoomi), because of its various holy places and abundant shrines. The hilly regions of Uttarakhand offer unspoilt landscapes to the tourist-pilgrim. The present State of Uttarakhand was earlier a part of the United Province of Agra and Awadh, which came into existence in 1902. In 1935, the name of the State was shortened to the United Province. In January 1950, the United Province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand remained a part of Uttar Pradesh before it came into being on 9 November, 2000, the 27th State of India. Located in the foothills of the Himalayas, the State has international boundaries with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east. On its north-west lies Himachal Pradesh, while on the south is Uttar Pradesh.
About 90 per cent of the population of Uttarakhand depends on agriculture. The total cultivated area in the State is 7,84,117 hectares.
Industry and Minerals
The State is rich in mineral deposits like limestone, marble, rock phosphate, dolomite, magnesite, copper graphite, gypsum, etc. The number of small scale industries is 25,294 providing employment to 63,599 persons. As many as 1802 heavy and medium industries with an investment of Rs 20,000 crore employ 5 lakh persons. Most of the industries are forest-based. There is a total of 54,047 handicraft units in the state.
Irrigation and Energy
Agricultural land under irrigation is 5,91,418 hectares. The State has excellent potential for hydropower generation. There are a number of hydro-electric projects on the rivers Yamuna, Bhagirathi, Bhilangana, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Saryu Gauri, Kosi and Kali generating electricity. Out of 15,667 villages, 14,447 villages have been electrified.
Roads: The total length of metalled roads in Uttarakhand is 21,490 km. The length of PWD roads is 17,772 km. The length of roads built by local bodies is 3,925 km. Railways: The main railway stations are Dehradun, Hardwar, Roorkee, Kotdwar, Kashipur, Udhamsingh Nagar, Haldwani, Ramnagar and Kathgodam.
Aviation: There are air strips at Jolly Grant (Dehradun), and Pantnagar (Udham Singh Nagar). Air strips at Naini-Seni (Pithoragarh), Gauchar (Chamoli) and Chinyalisaur (Uttarkashi) are under construction. From this year Pawan Hans Ltd., has started helicopter service from Rudraprayag to Kedarnath for pilgrims.
The world-famous Kumbh Mela/Ardh Kumbh Mela is held in Hardwar at an interval of every twelfth/sixth year. Other prominent fairs/festivals are: Devidhura Mela (Champawat), Purnagiri Mela (Champawat), Nanda Devi Mela (Almora), Gauchar Mela (Chamoli), Baisakhi (Uttarkashi), Magha Mela (Uttarkashi), Uttaraini Mela (Bageshwar), Vishu Mela (Jaunsar Vavar), PeeraneKaliyar (Roorkee), and Nanda Devi Raj Jat Yatra, held every twelfth year.
Nainital Prominent places of pilgrimage/tourist interests are Gangotri, Yamunotri, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Hardwar, Rishikesh, Hemkund Sahib, Nanakmatta, etc. Kailash Mansarovar Yatra can be performed through Kumaon region. The world-famous Valley of Flowers, Pindari Glacier, Roop Kund, Dayara Bugyal, Auli, and hill stations like Mussoorie, Dehradun, Chakrata, Nainital, Ranikhet, Bageshwar, Bhimtal, Kausani are the important places of tourist interest.
Particulars Description Area 3,42,239 sq. km Population 56,473,122 Capital Jaipur Principal Languag Hindi and Rajasth
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History and Geography
Rajasthan, the largest State in India in terms of area, prior to independence, was known as Rajputana or the home of Rajputs - a martial community who ruled over this area for centuries. The history of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times. Around 3,000 and 1,000 B.C., it had a culture akin to that of the Indus Valley Civilisation. It was the Chauhans who dominated Rajput affairs from seventh century and by 12th century, they had become an imperial power. After the Chauhans, it was the Guhilots of Mewar who controlled the destiny of the warring tribes. Besides Mewar, the other historically prominent states were Marwar, Jaipur, Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur and Alwar, while the other states were only offshoots of these. All these states accepted the British Treaty of Subordinate Alliance in 1818, protecting the interest of the princes. This naturally left the people discontented. After the revolt of 1857, the people united themselves under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi to contribute to the freedom movement. With the introduction of provincial autonomy in1935 in British India, agitation for civil liberties and political rights became stronger in Rajasthan. The process of uniting the scattered states commenced from 1948 to 1956, when the States Reorganisation Act was promulgated. First came Matsya Union (1948), consisting of a fraction of states. Slowly and gradually, other states merged with this Union. By 1949, major states like Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaislmer joined this Union, making it the United State of Greater Rajasthan. Ultimately in 1958, the present state of Rajasthan formally came into being, with Ajmer state, the Abu Road Taluka, and Sunel Tappa joining it.
The entire western flank of the state borders with Pakistan, while Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh bind Rajasthan in north, north-east, south-east and Gujarat in south-west.
Total cultivable area in the State is 217 lakh hectares (2006-2007). The estimated food grain production is 155.10 lakh tonnes (2007-08). Principal crops cultivated in the State are rice, barley, jowar, millet, maize, gram, wheat, oilseeds, pulses, cotton and tobacco. Cultivation of vegetable and citrus fruits such as orange and malta has also picked up over last few years. Other crops are red chillies, mustard, cumin seeds, fenugreek methi and asafoetida hing.
Industry and Minerals
Endowed with a rich culture, Rajasthan is also rich in minerals and is fast emerging on the industrial scenario of the country. Some of the important Central undertakings are Zinc Smelter Plant at Devari (Udaipur), Copper Plant at Khetri Nagar (Jhunjhunu) and Precision Instrument Factory at Kota. Major industries are textiles and woollens, sugar, cement, glass, sodium plants, oxygen, vegetable dyes, pesticides, zinc, fertilizers, railway wagons, ball bearings, water and electricity metres, sulphuric acid, television sets, synthetic yarn and insulating bricks. Besides precious and semi-precious stones, caustic soda, calcium carbide, nylon and tyres, etc., are other important industrial units. Rajasthan has rich deposits of zinc concentrates, emerald, garnet, gypsum, silver ore, asbestos, felspar and mica. The State also abounds in salt, rock phosphate, marble and red stone deposits. The first Export Promotion Industrial Park of the country has been established and made operational at Sitapura (Jaipur).
Irrigation and Power
By the end of March 2007 irrigation potential of 34.85 lakh hectares was created in the state through various major, medium and minor irrigation projects (2007-08) and additional irrigation potential of 92,200 hectares ( excluding IGNP & CAD) had been created upto March 2007. The installed power capacity in the State has become 6335.33Mw upto December 2007 of which 4000 Mw is produced from State- owned projects, 521.85 Mw from collaboration projects and 1813.18 Mw from the allocation from Central power generating stations.
Roads: The total length of roads in the State is around 1,58,250 km. Railways: Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kota, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur are some of the main railway junctions. Aviation: Regular air services connect Jaipur, Jodhpur and Udaipur with Delhi and Mumbai.
Rajasthan is a land of festivals and fairs. Besides the national festivals of Holi, Deepawali, Vijayadashmi, Christmas, etc. birth anniversaries of Gods and Goddesses, saintly figures, folk heroes and heroines are celebrated. Important fairs are Teej, Gangaur (Jaipur), annual Urs of Ajmer Sherif and Galiakot, tribal Kumbh of Beneshwar (Dungarpur), Mahaveer fair at Shri Mahavirji in Swai Madhopur, Ramdeora (Jaisalmer), Janbheshwari Fair (Mukam-Bikaner), Kartik Poornima and Cattle Fair (Pushkar-Ajmer) and Shyamji Fair (Sikar), etc.
Deserts of Jaisalmer Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Mount Abu, Sariska Tiger Sanctuary in Alwar, Keoladeo National Park at Bharatpur, Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Pali and Chittorgarh are important places of tourist interest in the state
Area 55,673 sq. k Population 6,077,900 Capital Shimla Principal Languag Hindi & Pah
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History and Geography
Himachal situated in the heart of the Western Himalaya, identified as "Dev Bhumi" is believed to be the abode of Gods and Goddesses. The entire State is punctuated with stone as well as wood temples. The rich culture and traditions has made Himachal unique in itself. The shadowy valleys, rugged crags, glaciers and gigantic pines and roaring rivers and exquisite flora and fauna compose the symphony that is for ever Himachal. Himachal Pradesh came into being as a Union Territory in April 1948 as a result of integration of 30 princely states spread over 27,000 sq.km. In 1954, when another "C" class state of Bilaspur merged in Himachal Pradesh, its area increased to 28,241 sq.km. The position remained unchanged till 1966. On reorganisation of the State, the hilly areas of Punjab were merged with the State, increasing its size to 55,673 sq.km. Himachal Pradesh, today is quoted as a successful model of not only hill area development but also for having realised development in education, health and social services.
Shimla The State came into being as a union territory in April 1948, as a result of integration of 30 princely states spread over 27,000 sq. km. In 1954, when another 'C' class State of Bilaspur merged with Himachal Pradesh, its area increased to 28,241 sq. km. The position remained unchanged till 1966, when on reorganisation of the states, the hilly areas of Punjab were merged with the state increasing its size to 55,673 sq. km. Proportionately, the population also increased from 1.4 million to 2.8 million, now standing at 60,77,248 according to census 2001.
Agriculture being the main occupation of the people of Himachal Pradesh has an important role in the economy of the state. It provides direct employment to about 69 per cent of the main working population. Income from agriculture and allied sectors accounts for nearly 22.1 per cent of the total State Domestic Product. Out of the total geographical area of 55.673 sq. km., area of operational holding is about 9.79 lakh hectare owned by 9.14 lakh farmers. The marginal and
small farmers possess 86.4 per cent of the total land holdings. The cultivated area in the state is only 10.4 per cent. About 80 per cent of the area is rain fed and farmers depend on weather gods for rains. The food grain production in 2006-2007 has been 16 lakh M.tonnes.
Nature has endowed Himachal Pradesh with a wide range of agro-climatic conditions which have helped the farmers to cultivate large varieties of fruits ranging from temperate to sub-tropical. The main fruits under cultivation are apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot nut and citrus fruits like mango, litchi, guava and strawberry. The total area under fruits, which was only 792 hectares in 1950, has increased to 2.23 lakh hectares now. Similarly, the fruit production has also increased from 1200 MT in 1950 to 6.95 lakh tonnes in 2007 seven lakh tonnes is the new target fixed for fruit production for year 2006-07. Horticulture generates gross domestic income of about Rs. 2200 crore annually. The Horticulture Technology Mission for the integrated development of horticulture is being implemented with a total outlay of Rs. 80 crore during the tenth five -year plan period. This Mission is based on the "end to end approach" taking into account the entire gamut of horticulture development with all backward and forward linkages in a holistic manner. Under this scheme, four centres of excellence are being created in different Agro-Climatic Zones with common facilities like water harvesting, vermicompost, greenhouses, organic farming and farm mechanisation.
Roads are the lifelines and major means of communication in the predominantly hill State of Himachal Pradesh. Out of its 55,673 sq. km area, 36,700 km is inhabited out which 16,807 inhabited villages are scattered over slopes of numerous hill ranges and valleys. Realising the importance of construction of roads for connecting production areas with market centres, Himachal Pradesh Government has decided to connect every panchayat with roads in the next two years. When the Pradesh came into existence in 1948 there were 288 km. of roads. This number had gone up to 30,264 km by 15 August 2007.
Keeping in view the importance of bio-technology, special emphasis is being laid on exploiting the vast bio-technology potential available in the state. A separate Department of Bio-technology has been set up in the state. State's own bio-technology policy has been formulated. All biotechnological units are entitled for incentives which have been allowed for industrial units. The State Government proposes to set up Bio-Technology Park in Solan District.
Irrigation and Water Supply
Net sown area in the State was 5.83 lakh hectares till 2007.Villages have been provided with the facility of drinking water. Over 14,611 hand pumps have been installed in the State so far. For better reform in water supply and irrigation sector, the State Government has taken up a WASH project with the total cost of Rs. 339 crore for irrigation as well as for drinking water supply schemes with GTZ.
The total geographical area of the state is 55,673 sq km. As per record, the total forest area is 37,033 sq. km. Out of this; 16,376 sq. km. area is not fit for tree growth comprising alpine pastures, area under permanent snow, etc. The cultivable recorded forest area is only 20,657 sq. km. Efforts are being taken to bring maximum area under green cover by implementing State's own projects, Government of India's projects and also through external aided projects. The World Bank has also sanctioned a Rs. 365 crore Integrated Watershed Development Project for the Mid Himalayas. 545 panchayats of 42 developmental blocks in 10 districts would be covered during the next six years. There are 2 National Parks and 32 wild life sanctuaries in the State. Total area under wild life sanctuaries is 5562 Km area under National Parks is 1440 Km and total area of Protected Area Network is 7002 Km.
Tourism Industry in Himachal Pradesh has been given very high priority and the Government has developed an appropriate infrastructure for its development which includes provision of public utility services, roads, communication network, airports, transport facilities, water supply and civic amenities, etc. The State Government is poised to transform the State into "A Destination for All Seasons and All Reasons". The State Tourism Development Corporation contributes 10 per cent to the State exchequer. The corporation contributes more than Rs. 2.00 crore per annum by way of Sales tax, luxury tax and passenger tax. In the year-2007, tourist arrivals in the State were 8.3 million of which 2008 lakh were foreigners. The State has a rich treasure of places of pilgrimage and of anthropological value. The State has also the pride of being the home to Rishies like Vyas, Parashar, Vashist, Markandey and Lamas, etc. Hot water springs, historic forts, natural and man-made lakes, shepherds grazing their flock are sources of immense pleasure and joy to the tourist. The State Government is aiming at promoting sustainable tourism, encouraging private sector to develop tourism related infrastructure in the State without disturbing the existing ecology and environment. The main thrust is on employment generation and promoting new concepts of tourism in the State. In order to increase the duration of the stay of the visitors/tourists, a special emphasis is being laid on the development of activities-based on tourism. For the promotion and development of the State from the tourism point of view, the Government is focusing on the following areas:
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History related tourism Identification of new areas/tourist destinations and promotion of village tourism Improvement of infrastructure, (4) Pilgrimage tourism Tribal tourism Ecotourism Health tourism Promotion of adventure tourism Wildlife tourism Cultural tourism.
For the year 2006-07, there is an allotment of Rs. 6276.38 lakh for the development of tourism in the State. A sum of Rs. 8 crore for the development of Kullu-Manali- Lahaul and Spiti and Leh Monastic circuit, Rs.21.00 crore for Kangra,Shimla and Sirmaur Circuit, Rs.16.00 crore for Bilaspur-Mandi and Chamba circuit and Rs.30.00 lakh for construction of tourism information centre at Manali has been sanctioned by the Government of India. Rs.67.57 crore, Central financial assistance has been received for 1545 projects in respect of festivals and other major events.
Jammu & Kashmir
Particulars Description Area 2,22,236 sq. km Population 10,069,987 Capital Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter) Principal Languag Urdu, Dogri, Kashmiri, Pahari, Punjabi, Ladakhi, Balti, Gojri and Da
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History and Geography
According to the most popular legend that is also recorded in Rajtarangani and Nilmat Purana, two most authoritative books, Kashmir was once a large lake and it was Kashyap Rishi who drained it off the water, making it a beautiful abode. But geologists have their own theory, which says that geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the mountain at Khadianayar, Baramulla and thus emerged the Valley of Kashmir, the paradise on earth. Ashoka introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3rd century B.C., which was later strengthened by Kanishka. Huns got the control of the valley in the early 6th century. The Valley regained freedom in 530 A.D. but soon came under the rule of the Ujjain Empire. After the decline of the Vikramaditya dynasty, the valley had its own rulers. There was a synthesis of Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Lalitaditya (697-738 A.D.) extended his rule up to Bengal in the
east, Konkan in the south, Turkistan in the northwest and Tibet in the northeast. Considered as the most famous Hindu ruler, Lalitaditya was known for constructing beautiful buildings. Islam came to Kashmir during 13th and 14th century A.D. Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) was the most famous Muslim ruler, who came to Kashmir when the Hindu king Sinha Dev fled before the Tatar invasion. Later Chaks overran Haider Shah, son of Zain-ul-Abedin. They continued to rule till 1586 when Akbar conquered Kashmir. In 1752, Kashmir passed on from the feeble control of the Mughal emperor of the time to Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. The Valley was ruled by the Pathans for 67 years. The name of Jammu figures in the Mahabharata. Recent findings of Harappan remains and artifacts of Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta periods at Akhnoor have added new dimensions to its ancient character. The land of Jammu was divided into 22 hill principalities. Raja Maldev, one of the Dogra rulers, conquered many territories to consolidate his kingdom. Raja Ranjit Dev ruled over Jammu from 1733 to 1782. His successors were weak, and thus Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed the territory to Punjab. He later handed over Jammu to Raja Gulab Singh, a scion of the old Dogra ruling family, who had grown powerful among Ranjit Singh's governors and had annexed almost the whole Jammu region. The State was governed by Dogra rulers till 1947, when the Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of the Indian Union on 26 October, 1947. Jammu and Kashmir is situated between 32° -15' and 37° -05' north latitude and 72° -35' and 83° 20' longitude East. Geographically, the State can be divided into four zones. First, the mountainous and semi mountainous plain commonly known as Kandi belt, the second, hills including Shivalik ranges, the third mountains of Kashmir Valley and Pir Panchal range and the fourth is Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil. Geographically and culturally, the state has three district regions - Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
Handicrafts, being the traditional industry of the State, has been receiving priority attention of the Government in view of its large employment base and expert potential, paper-machie, wood carving, carpets, shawl-making, embroidery, etc., are among Kashmir's exquisite handicrafts. This industry, particularly the carpets earn substantial foreign exchange. The handicrafts sector provides employment to about 3.40 lakh artisans. The number of industrial units has gone up. The Rs 19 crore Export Promotion Industrial Park has been established at Kartholi, Jammu. A similar Park is being set up at Ompora, Budgam. Jammu has Urban Haats while a similar Haat is being commissioned in Srinagar. Software Technology park involving Rs 6.50 crore has been commissioned at Ragreth Srinagar.
About 80 per cent population of the State depends on agriculture. Paddy, wheat and maize are the major crops. Barley, bajra and jowar are cultivated in some parts. Gram is grown in Ladakh. The area under orchards is 242 lakh hectares. The State produces fruit worth Rs 2,000 crore annually including export of walnuts worth Rs 120 crore. Jammu and Kashmir State has been declared as Agri Export Zone for apple and walnuts. Market Intervention Scheme has also been launched for improving quality fruit for export by ensuing proper grading. The horticulture sector generates employment for 25 lakh people directly or indirectly.
Top priority has been accorded to power sector with great thrust to tap State's vast hydroelectric potential estimated at 20,000 MW. New policy announced to promote private investment in small hydroelectric projects up to 25 MW. Seven hydel projects with generating capacity of 2798 MW have been given to NHPC for execution. The State's total requirement met by purchasing power from national grid.
The State's literacy rate is 54.46 per cent as per 2001 census, with rural literacy of 48.22 per cent and urban 72.17 per cent. Male literacy is estimated at 67.75 per cent and female at 41.82 per cent. There are five Universities and 41 Colleges, including 8 in private sector.
Roads: The road length maintained by PWD in the State has reached to 15,012 km. Railways: Because of the difficult terrain Railway network has not developed as in other parts of the Country. At present Jammu is the Rail head of the State and the line has been extended upto District Udhampur only (90 kms). The work on Udhampur-Qazigund rail line is under progress and intra rail link between Quzigund to Bramulla is complete. However the railway traffic has been thrown open from Baramulla to Anantnag. Aviation: Srinagar, Jammu and Leh are the major airports connecting Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of the country. The Srinagar airport has been upgraded to international level.
On the tenth day of the bright fortnight Assuj is celebrated as the day of victory of Rama over Rawana. Shivratri festival is also celebrated in Jammu and Kashmir. Four Muslim festivals celebrated in the State are Id-ul-Fitr, Idul-Zuha, Id-Milad-un-Nabi and Meraj Alam. Muharram is also observed. The Hemis Gumpa festival of Ladakh takes place in the month of June. A special feature of the Hemis festival is its mask dance. In Spituk monastery in Leh, enormous statues of Goddess Kali are exhibited once in the year on the occasion of the annual festival which falls in January. Other festivals celebrated are Lohri marking a climax of winter. Sinh Sankranti observed in Ramban and adjoining villages. Mela Pat observed in Bhadarwah in the month of August.
Kashmir-Flower-Seller in Dal Lake Kashmir Valley is described as the paradise on earth. Chashmashahi springs, Shalimar Bagh, Dal Lake, Dachigam, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg and Amarnath shrine in the Valley, Vaishnodevi shrine and Patnitop near Jammu and Buddhist monasteries in Ladakh are important tourist destinations. Ladakh festival on 15 September and Sindhu Darshan in June are popular events.
Particulars Descriptio Area 50,362 sq. Population 24,358,999 Capital Chandigarh Principal Languag Punjabi
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History and Geography
Ancient Punjab formed part of the vast Indo-Iranian region. In later years, it saw the rise and fall of the Mauryans, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas. Medieval Punjab witnessed the supremacy of the Muslims. Ghaznavi was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs, the Lodhis and the Mughals. Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries marked a period of
watershed in the history of Punjab. Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received a great impetus. Sikhism began as a socio-religious movement, which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa. They rose to challenge tyranny and after centuries of servitude, established a humane Punjabi Raj based on secularism and patriotism. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the words of a Persian writer, changed Punjab from Madam Kada to Bagh -Bahisht (from the abode of sorrow to the garden of paradise). But soon after his death, the entire edifice collapsed due to internal intrigues and British machinations. After two abortive Anglo-Sikh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849. The fight against the British rule had begun long before Mahatma Gandhi's arrival on the scene. The revolt found expression through the movement of a revivalist or reformist character. First, it was the Namdhari sect, which believed in self-discipline and self-rule. Later, it was Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the Freedom Movement. Punjab was in the vanguard of India's freedom struggle on all fronts in India and abroad. Punjab's hardships did not end with Independence, as it had to face the misery of Partition with large-scale bloodshed and migration. Besides their rehabilitation, there was the task of reorganisation of the State. Eight princely states of East Punjab were grouped together to form a single state called PEPSU Patiala and the East Punjab States Union - with Patiala as its capital. PEPSU state was merged with Punjab in 1956. Later in 1966, Haryana was carved out of Punjab. Situated in the north-western corner of the country, Punjab is bound on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the north-east by Himachal Pradesh, and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan.
Punjab State with only 1.5 per cent geographical area of country produces 22 per cent of Wheat 12 per cent of Rice and 12 per cent of Cotton in the country. The cropping intensity of Punjab State is more than 186 per cent which has earned a name of "Food basket of the country and granary of India". It has been pooling 40-50 per cent of rice and 50-70 per cent of wheat for the last two decades. In Punjab per hectare consumption of fertilizer is 177 kg as compared to 90 kg at national level. Also Punjab State has been awarded National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for consecutively ten years from 1991-92 to 1998-99 and 2001 to 2003-04.
There are 2.04 lakh small-scale units in the State. These units produce bicycle parts, sewing machines, hand tools, machine tools, auto parts, electrical items, sports goods, surgical instruments, leather goods, hosiery, knitwear, nuts and bolts, textiles, sugar, vegetable oil, etc., giving employment to about 9.35 lakh persons. In large/medium sector there are 600 large/medium scale units. S Nagar, Mohali in the vicinity of Chandigarh has emerged as an attractive destination for IT and IT enabled industries. Under the Industrial Infrastructure Upgradation Scheme (IIUS). Government of India has sanctioned two projects namely Knitwear Cluster and Bicycle Parts Cluster at Ludhiana for implementation in Punjab. The primary objective of the scheme is to enhance International Competitiveness of the domestic industry by providing quality infrastructure through public/private participation in clusters/locations which have greater potential to become globally competitive.
Punjab being an agrarian state, a very high priority is being given to agricultural Development. The water available in Punjab is much less as compared to the land potential. Therefore, to maximise production per unit of water resources, it is emphasised to utilise every drop of water available judiciously and carefully. Even Government of Punjab is taking up a number of projects for the diversification of crop. Due to better irrigation management, an additional 0.97 lakh hectare of area has been brought under cotton crop in various cotton growing districts of Punjab. The Geographical area of the State is 50.36 lakh hectares having a cultural area of 42.90 lakh hectares out of which 33.88 lakh hectares is commanded by a vast network of canal infrastructure having a length of 14,500 km of main and branch canals distributaries and minors. Ranjit Sagar Dam is a multipurpose river valley project which has been constructed 8 km upstream of Madhopur Head Works. It comprises of 160 metre high earth core-cum gravel shell dam on river Ravi with a gross potential to the tune of 3.48 lakh hectares of land. Punjab Irrigation and Drainage Project Phase II with credit assistance from World Bank has been completed. Irrigation potential of the existing irrigation system has been improved by completing the lining of 1,092 km length of channels, lining of 33,000 km of water courses and modernisation of 295 canal regulation structures have been completed under the World Bank Project. Rehabilitation of 1,260 km length of Channels and 53 km new Channels have also been completed with state funds. The number of projects for raising the capacity of 6 canal systems and raising the capacity of 3 canals of Bathinda Canal System amounting to Rs 18.83 crore have been completed. Project for remodeling of UBDC System to utilise additional supplies available on completion of Ranjit Sagar Dam has been taken up under AIBP Scheme. A total length of 298 km of main/branch canals out of 364.10 km and 1507 km length of lined/unlined distributaries/minors out of 1,557.25 km length provided in the project has since been completed at a cost of Rs 140 crore. For early completion of on-going UBDC Project, the balance work was taken up on war footing which the funds of Rs 20 crore were released by the State government. The bottleneck of feeding required discharges in Kasur Branch Lower and Sabraon Branch Canal Systems has removed by undertaking the remodeling of their parent channel, i.e., Kasur Branch Upper, thereby restoring adequate canal water supplies to the vast agricultural area of UBDC System. It is proposed to convert Banur Canal System from non-perennial to perennial for which the Project costing Rs 38.08 crore is under sanction of NABARD. Similarly, the Project for side lining Main Branch Canal costing Rs 39.55 crore is also under sanction of NABARD. Above all, a consolidated Project costing Rs 299.22 crore for increasing capacity of various channels of BML Canal System, Sirhind Canal System, Sirhind Feeder System, Bist Doab Canal System and Eastern Canal System has been proposed for funding by NABARD, under which an additional irrigation potential of 33,000 hectares besides providing better irrigation facilities and about 1,98,000 hectares is targeted, thereby giving boost to food grain production in the State. The backward Kandi Area in Punjab has been developed by construction of 11 Low Dams irrigating area of 12000 hectares and completion of Kandi canal will irrigate are of 19867 hectares bringing on green revolution to the area. 1615 deep tubewell for irrigation purposes and additional length of 3905 km water courses stands lined on the state. The impact water table in the southern part of state of Punjab has been reduced by construction of new drains and renovating of existing 8000 km of drain, 1800 km of flood protection embankments and about 3800 river training work have also been completed. Installation of shallow tubewells along Sirhind Feeder in the most critical areas also helped arresting the seepage from the Canal. On the irrigation front about 60 per
cent of the total irrigated land is served private/government tubewells and remaining 40 per cent is irrigated through canals.
The construction of Bhakra Nangal Complex including Bhakra Dam, Bhakra Main line, Nangal Hydel Channel, Ganguwal and Kotla Power House, Harike Barrage, Sirhind Feeder, remodelling of Madhopur Headwork into Barrage, etc., and Beas Dam at Pong have been some of the major Irrigation and Hydroelectric Projects which have played a significant role in considerable enhancing the irrigation and power potential of the State. Madhopur Beas Link was constructed to transfer surplus water of Ravi to Beas. A similar Beas-Satluj Link Project envisages the utilisation of the Beas water for the production of electricity at Slapper and then this water to Gobind Sagar lake. The Mukerian and Anandpur Sahib Hydroelectric projects are two important irrigation and power projects. Ranjit Sagar Dam is multipurpose River Valley Project, comprising a 160 metre high earth core cum gravel shell dam on river Ravi, with a gross storage capacity of a reservoir as 3,280 million cusecs. It provides additional irrigation potential of 3.48 lakh hectares of land. All the four units of Ranjit Sagar Dam (4 x 150 MW) have been commissioned successfully. Annual generation from this project shall be 2,100 MU's out of which 4.6 per cent of energy generated shall be supplied free of cost to Himachal Pradesh and 20 per cent energy generated shall be supplied to J&K at genuine cost. By the completion of this dam water of all three rivers allocated to Punjab under Indus Water Treaty will be harnessed. About Rs 500 crore per annum has started accruing and this project is likely to cover its own cost by the next four to five years.
Punjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA) has implemented a special programme of 2HP Solar Photovoltaic. Water Sets for irrigation purposes in the state with financial assistance of Rs 41.45 crore from the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Government of India. So far 1,700 of such solar water pumps sets have been installed in the state share FY 2000-01. Another 700 of solar pumps sets are under execution. PEDA has also taken up the execution of eight Mini Hydel Projects with a total capacity 9.8 MW on canal falls as technology demonstration projects. Another 44 Micro Hydel Projects with a total capacity of 36 MW have been allocated to private sector on BOO basis. PEDA has also commissioned 200 kwp Solar Photovoltaic Grid Interactive Power Plant at village Khatkar Kalan, Distt. Nawanshahar at a total cost of Rs 4.5 crore with 67 per cent grant from MNES Govt. of India. This project has been dedicated to the nation on 23 March 2003 by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Honourable President of India. PEDA has also been sanctioned 1 MW Biomethanation cattle dung based demonstration power project at Haebowal Dairy Complex (Ludhiana). The cost of this project is Rs 14 crore (approximately). MNEX has provided 50 per cent grant for this project. This project was commissioned on 3 November 2004. The work of Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy on Jalandhar-Kapurthala Road with grant of Rs 38 crore from MNES, is also under execution.
Roads: Public Works Department Building and Roads branch has been responsible for assets of State Government in terms of roads, bridges and buildings. The total Network Length is 50,506 km. Punjab Roads and Bridges Development Board was established as a statutory body in 1998 with the enactment of PRBDB Act (No. 22) of 1998 with a basic aim of mobilising additional resources for state roads. Railways: The length of the rail routes passing through the State is around 3,726.06 km. Rail communication with Pakistan also emanates from Punjab (Amritsar). Aviation: There are Four Civil Aviation Clubs at Ludhiana, Patiala, Amritsar and Jalandhar, one domestic airport at Chandigarh; International Airport at Rajasansi (Amritsar) and two aerodromes at Patiala and Sahnewal (Ludhiana).
Fairs and Festivals
Besides festivals of Dussehra, Diwali, Holi, other important festivals/fairs/melas are Maghi Mela at Mukatsar, Rural Sports at Kila Raipur, Basant at Patiala, Hola Mohalla at Anandpur Sahib, Baisakhi at Talwandi Saboo, Urs at Rauza Sharif at Sirhind, Chappar Mela at Chappar, Sheikh Farid Agam Purb at Faridkot, Ram Tirath at Village Ram Tirath, Shaheedi Jor Mela at Sirhind, Harballah Sangeet Sammelan at Jalandhar and Baba Sodal at Jalandhar. In addition to above fairs and festivals, 3 heritage festivals at Amritsar, Patiala, Kapurthalla are also celebrated every year and are very popular among the tourists.
Golden Temple, Amritsar Punjab is recognised as the granary of India and also enjoy, a fairly high per capita income. However, the State has to infuse additional funds for ensuring balanced development. Tourism, International and domestic, offers the best prospects of helping the State both in the short term and
on a long term basis earn substantial amount of revenue for meeting necessary requirements of the State. It has to be recognised that tourism not only generates employment, it also upgrades human skills and the infrastructure created for tourism is used by all other sectors of the economy. Therefore, development of tourism must not be viewed in isolation and the State must adopt an integrated approach for its development. Since tourism is a composite sector, its development presupposes participation of different agencies and necessitates cooperation and coordination at different level. The State recognises that uncontrolled growth of tourism can damage not only our cultural heritage but also our social and cultural values. Therefore, the State would introduce suitable legislation for an orderly and regulated growth of tourism and promotion of culture of Punjab. The State Government has announced new Tourism Policy to develop tourism as the major industry of Punjab by providing leadership and organisational and strategic direction, to improve the quality of the tourism product, to develop places of tourist interest, to provide necessary facilities for all categories of tourist and pilgrims, to market Punjab Tourism products internationally and domestically so as to provide employment and for the economic, environment, social and cultural benefit of our citizens with the following objectives to achieve the desired results envisaged in the document. The State has a large number of places of tourist interest some of which include Golden Temple, Durgiana Mandir, Jallianwala bagh in Amritsar, Takhat Sri Kesgarh Sahib and Khalsa Heritage Complex at Anandpur Sahib, Bhakra Dam, Qila Androon and Moti Bagh Palace at Patiala, Wetland at Harike Pattan Sanghol for archeological importance and Chattbir Zoo, Mugh. Complex at Aam Khas Bagh and Rauza Sharif of Sheikh Ahmed at Graves of Afghan Rules, Sodal Temple at Jalandhar commemorative Maharishi Balmiki Heritage.
Particulars Description Area 114 sq. km Population 900,635 Capital Chandigarh Principal Languag Hindi, Punjabi, Engl
State Government Portal (External website that opens in a new window)
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History and Geography
Assembly Building, Chandigarh Chandigarh is a fully grown town of most modern architectural splendour. The city nestles in a picturesque setting in the foothills of Shivalik hills and enjoys the popular epithet the "City Beautiful". Representative of modern Architecture & Town Planning, the city is a creation of the French Architect, Le Corbusier, Chandigarh and the area surrounding it were constituted as a Union Territory on 1 November 1966. It serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana States. It is bounded on North and West by Punjab and on the East and South by Haryana.
Chandigarh Administration is moving on four broad fronts. First, it is our aim to provide, with the help of information technology, an accessible and transparent administration. We were among the earliest to implement the provisions of the Right to Information Act. A number of services, for which citizens earlier had to go to government offices, are now available on computer and mobile phones. All rules are being reviewed to see what simplification can be carried out to make them user-friendly. The purpose is to minimise the exercise of discretion, and minimise the leg work of the citizen in dealing with the Administration. Secondly, the Administration is working towards a higher rate of economic growth by encouraging economic activities which provide greater value addition, such as knowledge based industries, high-end commercial activity, etc., Chandigarh already has the highest per capita income in the country. Thirdly, the Administration is seeking to provide infrastructural services such as electricity supply, water supply, health and educational services and public transport which should compare with those in advanced countries. It will take time, but we believe that our ambitions can be achieved in the medium term. Fourthly, the Administration is all too conscious of the fact that the benefits of development do not reach everyone equally. Hence there is a special emphasis on reaching out to those whom development has by-passed.
The Union Territory Chandigarh has limited area under Agriculture. The agricultural land is being gradually acquired for the expansion of Chandigarh City, and cultivated area has shrunk from 5,441 hectares in 1966 to 1,400 hectares in 2002-03. The main sources of irrigation are deep-bore tube-wells installed by the Administration and shallow tube-wells installed by individual farmers. The main crop of foodgrain is wheat and it is sown nearly in 700 hectares of land. The Department is making efforts to promote techniques of harvesting by following measures: 1. Extension and Farmers Study/Training Tour 2. Development of Kitchen Garden 3. Soil and Water Conservation.
The Administration is developing the Phase-III of the Industrial Area at the revenue estate of village Mauli Jagran. 152 acres of land have been acquired. After a gap of 17 years, Chandigarh was awarded Silver Medal amongst all UTs for its excellent display at the recently held India International Trade Fair, 2007, New Delhi.
Construction work of Chandigarh Administration's visionary project RGCTP is in its full swing. Completion of Phase III will provide direct employment to 35000 professionals, thereby increasing the direct employment of RGCTP to 67,000 and would create 2, 00,000 indirect jobs in Chandigarh. The Entrepreneur Development Centre at the RGCTP is being set up over an area of 1.5 acres approximately. The centre would become operational this year. Chandigarh has become a role model in using information technology to provide fast and user friendly services for the masses. Under the E-Governance initiatives of the Department, seven more Gram Sampark Centres have been set up in the villages of Dhanas, Khudda Jassu, Kaimbwala, Raipur Khurd, Raipur Kalan, Makhan Majra and Bahlana in 2007. As many as seven more Gram Sampark Centres in villages Palsora, Dadu Majra, Hallo Majra, Khuda Alisher, Daria, Mauli Jagran and Maloya have been made operative. In addition to the existing Centres some more Sampark Centres have been proposed and new services like payment of BSNL bills, power bills, water bills, payment of LIC premium, school fees collection and tube well booking, especially for rural citizens , has also been incorporated or are being afoot. The Administration is working on energy conservation. A Work order has been issued to the Tata BP Solar Ltd. for commissioning the State Level Energy Park at the Botanical Garden. Under the Solar Lighting initiative, all street lights in the villages would be replaced with solar based street lights.
Provisions of sufficient electricity to all the residents of UT are also getting attention of the Administration. To improve the voltage profile and to reduce the load on the power distribution network of UT, the Electricity Wing had planned to add 80 MVAR Automatic Capacitor Banks at various existing 66KV Grid Sub-Station located at different points in the periphery of UT. Use of CFL has been made mandatory inside all government buildings. Similarly, all institutional buildings will have to provide solar lighting in their parking spaces within their complexes. The Electricity Wing also achieved its target in reduction of transmission & distribution losses from 20.89% to 19.29%. The reduction is around 1.5%. Every effort is being made to reduce the losses further in the next year by another 1.5%.
In order to sensitise the poor and weaker sections of the society about the rights and different benefits being extended to them by the State Legal Services Authority, 14 legal awareness seminars have already been organized in different villages of the UT. Cement concrete paving and underground drains in village Kajheri and Palsora have been completed. 70 per cent work in village Mauli Jagran has been completed.
The Administration has opened a Girls Hockey Academy in sector-18 and would shortly start two more girls academies - one for Cricket and another for Football. The Administration successfully organized a One-day International Cricket match between India and Australia on October 8, 2007 by upgrading the Cricket Stadium of Sectot-16. Various facilities of international standards and latest ground equipments have been added. A new athletic-cum-Football stadium would be built with all state of-art-facilities in Sector 56 with a seating capacity of 40,000 spectators, the process for which has already started. Indoor provisions for Basket Ball, Volley Ball, Judo and wrestling will also be provided in this stadium. In the year 2007, the Chandigarh Sports Council had set up two more new in-house Academies, in Hockey and Cricket to churn out high class first rate players from the UT. All facilities including board and lodging, education, diet, sport gear etc. are being provided free-of-cost to the trainees in the academies.
Social Welfare has been a major focus of the Administration. Many people-friendly and innovative schemes for them have been launched by Administration. To wipe away the menace of casteism and encourage the people for inter-caste marriage, a sum of Rs. 5,000 is granted to the married couples provided that one of the spouses belongs to SC Community. The Administration has enhanced the amount to Rs. 50,000. Under the Balika Samridhi Yojana, A sum of Rs. 500 is being given to the newly born girl child in the BPL families. The Chandigarh Administration has decided to set up a Preparatory School for Children with Special Needs (for 50 children) which will run in the premises of PRAYAS
Building, Sector 38. An outlay of about Rs. 14 lakh has been proposed in the Annual Plan 2008-09 for purchase of equipments and other contingent expenditure. The Vocational Training Centre for Street Children in Maloya with the capacity to provide training for 900 children is under construction. The Administration has set up a child help line.
Telemedicine Project has been launched with state-of-art facilities at Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32, Chandigarh aiming to help needy patients to avail the expert advice of the doctors of specialized fields in PGI and ensuring them high-quality medical services. The Government Multi Speciality Hospital (GMSH), Sector 16 has been upgraded by adding a Trauma Unit having 28 beds with Emergency Operation Theatres. The Administration has launched the project for improving the Monitorable Indicators of Reproductive and Child Health in UT at a cost of Rs. 5,273 per mother and her child. Seven more "State of the art" operation theatres including pre-anaesthesia, post-anaesthesia rooms and a post operative ward has been commissioned in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. "SAMARTH" a residential house for mentally retarded individuals had also been set up in Sector 15, Chandigarh. A huge total of around 5.6 crore has been sanctioned for the Residential Accommodation of the eligible faculty staff of GMCH.
Chandigarh Administration is coming up with its World Class Project, the multi institutional 'Chandigarh Education City' at Sarangpur with a total area of 130 acres. Administration has enhanced the attendance scholarship being given to girl students of general category from Rs. 30 per month to Rs. 250 per month for a period for Class 1st to 5th. For ensuring enrolment and education among schedule caste boys and girls, Administration has also decided to increase the attendance scholarship being given to the Scheduled Castes students studying in Class 1st to 8th from Rs. 30 per month to Rs. 250 per month in the age group of 6 to 14 years. It has been decided to increase the scholarship to the meritorious SC/ST students of Class 9th to 12th; it has been now increased to Rs. 300 per month whereas it was Rs. 20/- and 25/- earlier. Chandigarh Administration has also decided to exempt the tuition fees of Muslims, Christians, Other Backward Classes, Handicapped, Ward of Freedom Fighters, Ex-serviceman, widows and divorcees having family income below Rs. 1.5 lakh per year. For the children belonging to low income groups and slum based families, it has decided to give incentive of Rs. 250 per month to rope in the children presently not enrolled in any school on their fresh enrolment.
Administration has taken many innovative and novel measures like Wedding Tourism. With the focus on extending efficient medical, educational and entertainment oriented facilities,
Administration is promoting Cinematic Tourism, Sports Tourism and Medical Tourism in a big way. Chandigarh International Airport will prove to be a big leap for Tourism in the region.
Chandigarh Housing Board is working on various projects. CHB being a Nodal agency for th e implementation of the 'Chandigarh Small Flats Scheme-2006' has during the year finalized the process for implementation of the construction of 25,728 One Room Tenement under the scheme in two phases. Construction of 1024 Flats in Sector 49 and 1120 Flats in Sector 38 (West) under the scheme has already commenced. Similarly, construction at the remaining six locations will commence in due course of time. The Board during the year, has completed construction of 326 Prefab Shelters in Sector-56 for allotment to rag pickers of the City. Construction of 400 EWS houses in Sector-49 & 288 EWS houses in Sector-38 (W) under the scheme is in progress and is likely to be completed by February, 2009. A special self-financing Housing Scheme has ben launched by the Board for allotment of Dwelling Units to the employees of the Administration which will be constructed over 45.5 acres of land in Sectors-52 and 56. Reservation of 5 per cent in favour of employees retiring within three years and those who have retired in the last three years has been kept in the scheme. Reservation of 3% for physically challenged persons has also been made. As a step towards utilization of land vacated by Slum Dwellers in Sector-26 (East) Madrasi Colony, CHB has commenced construction of 160 EWS houses in the area. The work is likely to be completed by March, 2009. The construction of 256 one bedroom and 208 two-bedroom flats are in progress and are likely to be completed by June, 2008. The construction of 400 EWS and 288 EWS are likely to be completed by March, 2009.
Municipal Corporation Chandigarh has upgraded the Sewage Treatment Plant at Diggian at a cost of Rs. 28 crore. MC also bagged the 1st prize both in water supply and sewage/drainage services from the Government of India, which was awarded by the Prime Minister of India. A Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System has been installed at a cost of Rs. 700 crore to keep surveillance and monitor the water supply. It will save power consumption, reduce operation and maintenance cost by approximately Rs. 3 crore annually. To save portable water & provide additional water for landscaping, a project amounting to Rs. 36 crores has been taken up. This project will generate 10 MGD tertiary water. The existing Dhobi Ghat of Sector 15 has been converted into Automatic Laundry Marts, The first of its kind in India. Adding another milestone to up-gradation of the environment in City Beautiful, The Municipal Corporation has set up a Solid Waste Processing Plant at Dadu Majra at a cost of Rs. 30.00 crores on 10 acres. The plant is one of its kinds in northern India.
Chandigarh Administration comprehending the need for a user friendly transport system has decided to launch a Mass Rapid Transport System shortly. The UT Administration and the State Governments of Punjab and Haryana have come together for the implementation of the project. Administration will soon introduce Air Conditioned and Double Decker buses. 85 buses were purchased and put on routes during the year 2007-08. CTU has computerized 70 per cent of its working and is in the process of further computerization. The Undertaking is also in the process of installing a Global Positioning System to monitor its fleet in a phased manner. The first phase of the ISBT Sector 43 has already started functioning and the second phase is scheduled for completion later this year.
Government of NCT of Delhi
Particulars Description Area 1,483 sq. km Population 13,80 million Capital Delhi Principal Languag Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu & Engl
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History and Geography
Parliament of India, New Delhi Delhi finds prominent reference right from the times of the epic Mahabharata. Its control passed from one ruler/dynasty to another, beginning with the Mauryas, Pallavas, Guptas of Central India, and then to the Turk and Afghan during the 13th to 15th centuries, and finally to the Mughals in the 16th century. In the latter half of the 18th century and early 19th century, the British rule was established in Delhi. In 1911, Delhi became the centre of all activities after the capital was shifted from Kolkata. It was made a Union Territory in 1956. Lying in the northern part of the country, Delhi is surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the east, where it borders with Uttar Pradesh. The 69th Constitutional amendment is a milestone in Delhi's history, as it got a Legislative Assembly with the enactment of the National Capital Territory Act, 1991.
The principal food crops are wheat, bajra, jowar, gram and maize. However, emphasis has now shifted from food crops to vegetables and fruit crops, dairy, poultry-farming, floriculture, etc., as these are more remunerative than food crops in the territory.
Delhi is not only the largest commercial centre in northern India, but also the largest centre of small industries. These are manufacturing a wide variety of items like television, tape recorders, light engineering machines and automobile parts, sports goods, bicycles and PVC goods including footwear textiles, fertilizers, medicines, hosiery, leather goods, software, etc. Delhi's new millennium industrial policy, emphasizes setting up of high tech and sophisticated industries in electronics, telecommunications, software industries, IT enabling services, etc. The industries, which are non-polluting and encourage high value addition and depend largely on skilled manpower are being promoted. DSIDC is setting up a Training Institute for Gems and Jewellery and Assaying and Hallmarking Centre at Okhla in the building of Hi tech Vocational Centre. For the purpose of relocating industrial units functioning in residential non-conforming areas, the Government of NCT of Delhi took possession of 1900 acres of land at village Bawana, Holambi Kalan and Holambi Khurd for developing new industrial estates. Bawana Industrial area developed by DSIDC is the largest in Asia and is spread over 1900 acres of land. At Narela 900 plots have been developed and allotted and another 600 plots are being developed. Work of construction of 378 flatted factories at Jhilmil Industrial Area for relocation of smaller units has been completed. 450 acres of land have been taken for development at the Bhorgaarh industrial estates. In addition to the above, 652 hectares of land is being acquired for development into a huge industrial area in Kanjhawala/Kerala.
Irrigation and Power
Due to fast urbanisation taking in the rural areas of Delhi, cultivable command area under irrigation is getting reduced day by day. Two schemes, namely, "Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme Phase-III" and "Improvement and Extension of Effluent Irrigation System from Coronation Treatment Plant" are under execution. Irrigation of about 350 hectares with state tubewells and 1,376 hectares from effluent water is being provided in the rural area of NCT of Delhi. In addition about 4,900 hectares of land is being irrigated from western Yamuna Canal network. The firm availability of power for Delhi from its own generating units at Rajghat Power Houses, IP Station and Gas Turbines including Badarpur Thermal Station is of the order of 850-900 MW. The remaining power is drawn from Northern Regional Grid. Delhi has also envisaged a number of generating projects to be taken up. Pragati Combined Cycle Power Project has been established at Indraprastha Estate. A 330 MW Pragati Power Project under construction is scheduled to be commissioned soon. The test run for its first phase of 100 MW has already started. The work of newly planned 330 MW gas based power plant under Pragati-II and 1000 MW power plant planned at Bawana are going on. Existing coal based Indraprastha plant is being replaced by 1000 MW gas based plant. To streamline the distribution of power, DVB has been privatised and Delhi is now served by the two of the best electric utilities in India, BSES and Tata Power (NDPL).
Delhi is well connected by roads, rail and air with all parts of India. It has three airports - Indira Gandhi International Airport for the international flights, Palam Airport for national air services and Safdarjung Airport for training purposes. It has three important railway stations - Delhi Junction, New Delhi Railway Station and Nizamuddin Railway Station. Delhi has three inter-state bus terminals at Kashmeri Gate, Sarai Kalen Khan and Anand Vihar. Keeping in view the rising vehicular pollution and chaotic traffic condition in the city of Delhi, it has been decided to start Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) in Delhi. The Project is under implementation and is using the state of-the-art modern technology. The metro rail project has come in Delhi. Now three metro corridors are existing in phase-1 of Delhi Metro comprising of three corridors of total length of 65.1 Km has been completed and operational in record time with full commissioning of line from Shahdara to Rithala and Vishwa Vidyalaya to Central Secretariat. The third line from Barakambha road to Dwarka has also been approved to provide better connectivity to the commuters from NCR region.
Being a cosmopolitan city, all major festivals of India are celebrated here. Moreover, some tourism festivals have become regular annual events of Delhi. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation organises Roshnara Festival, Shalimar Festival, Qutub Festival, Winter Carnival, Garden Tourism and Mango Festival every year.
Jantar Mantar, New Delhi Important tourist places are Lal Quila (Red Fort), Jama Masjid, Qutub Minar, India Gate, Laxmi Narain Mandir (Birla Mandir), Humayun's Tomb, Lotus Temple, etc. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Limited conducts city sight-seeing and excursion tours. The Corporation has also introduced adventure tourism activities, such as para-sailing, rockclimbing and boating. The Corporation has also developed Delhi Haat, where coffee and food items of different states are available at one place. More such Haats are coming up in different parts of the city. The "Garden of five Senses" in the South District of Delhi attracts a lot of tourists visiting Delhi.
Particulars Area Population Capital
Description 38,863 sq. km 31,841,374 Thiruvananthapu
Principal Langua alayalam M
State Government Portal (External website that opens in a new window) District WebSite
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Kerala: At a Glance
Hedged in between the Western Ghats with its highest peaks of Anamudi and Agasthyarkoodam on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west and blessed by North-East (October - November) and South-West (June - August) monsoon seasons this evergreen land of Kerala on the South-Western part of the Indian peninsula, with mountains, hills valleys and lakes, deserves to be praised with the epithet 'God's own Country' which the famous English Poet Dylan Thomas used to eulogise the Wales Countryside. The geographical data of Kerala is North Latitude between 8018' and 12048' East longitude between 74052' and 77022'.
A Living Heritage
The long interconnected lakes having rich wealth of estuarine fishes, mussels and clams and with coconut groves and occasional paddy fields on either side constitute National Water way III of India stretching from Thiruvananthapuram in the south to the northern most districts. This ancient conduit to take merchandise by heavy boats to the ports of Muziris (Present Kodungalloor) Aleppo (Present Alappuzha) Ayi (Present Vizhinjam) Kollam and Beypore thronged first by Romans and afterwards by Chinese, Syrians, Arabs and in recent centuries by Europeans for trade is now the golden Pathway of tourists and luxury boats. A few of the interconnected lagoons witness some of the most spirited boat races in the world such as the Nehru Trophy, Uthruttathi and Aranmula boat races. The total length of the waterways is 1687 Kms. The famous beaches of Kovalam Varkala, Cherayi, Muzhuppilangadu and Bekal brace up nearer the National Waterway III though, otherwise well-connected with the international airports of Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode and also the newly coming up Kannur airport. N.H.47 traverses the state from the south end to Palakkad for Bangalore and N.H.17 from Kochi to Mangalore for Mumbai. Besides them there are state highways such as the M.C. Road, Kochi-Madurai, Thiruvananthapuram Thenkasi, Kozhikode-Mysore, Vadakara - Virajpettah - Bangalore roads. With 1, 54, 679 Kms road length Kerala occupies top-notch position in road connectivity.
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About Kerala Agriculture & Irrigation Area Art & Culture Demography Economy Education Fairs & Festivals Geography Health History Industries & Minerals Infrastructure and Communication Natural Resources The Capital of Kerala Travel & Tourism
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Contribution to Bharat Varsha
Viewing from the historical angle one would find that Kerala's contribution to Indian nationhood was outstanding. 'Bharat Varsha' has always been a concept of the Intellectual and emotional unity of life in the Indian sub continent even when it was under the tutelage of opposing rulers. When the peninsula was plunged into intellectual vacuum and darkness with the eclipse of Jainism and Buddhism Sree Sankaracharya emerged from the village of Kalady near Kochi from Kerala and established intellectual centres or mutts at the far corners of Bharat Varsha and brought about that intellectual unity. The serious confrontations with foreign forces on the shores of Kerala resulted in deeper interactions producing tolerance of the neighbour's faith. At the dawn of the twentieth century Sree Narayana Guru reinforced this secular ethos of Kerala by reinterpreting the true spirit and authority of the Hindu scriptures. The biggest singular contribution of Kerala to Bharat Varsha is this secular ethos.
Kerala Model of Development
Kerala has been hailed as a model of development for having achieved a status fulfilling all the parameters of social well-being comparable to those of the developed countries of the world. The state achieved total literacy almost two decades back. It has the lowest infant mortality rate and life expectancy is 71 years for both male and female, which is the highest in the country. Maternal mortality rate is also the lowest. The state has also the lowest birth rate. This spectacular achievement in spite of having only a moderate per capita income has led economists to look upon Kerala as an economic miracle. Behind these achievements several factors are discernible such as the spread of education among all sections of the population as Dr. Amarthya Sen so forcefully emphasised, a large non-resident population and their remittances back home, successful cultivation of commercial crops especially rubber and spices, spread of cooperative movement, the services of social organisations in education and healthcare and fairly high wages for labou rers. Kerala has been the first state to achieve democratic revolution, and no wonder, she heralded the phenomenon of bringing a communist government to power through ballot in world history.
Kerala has also been the first state in the country to implement land reforms. The State is giving impetus to the decentralised system of development carried out through assemblages of families in every locale, called Kudumbasree under the Grama Panchayat. Kerala's system of decentralised development has been looked upon as a model by other states and many foreign countries. Incidentally Kerala is the only state with hospital facility in every village Kerala also enjoys the highest communication infrastructure in the country.
Economy Looks Forward
Focusing on economic development in the state one would find that the tertiary or the service sector has performed exceptionally and consistently well over the years of the state. Development on the industrial sector has been very little satisfactory owing to a variety of reasons but chiefly the unavailability of land at affordable prices for the purpose. The state government is making all out efforts to make rapid strides in IT industry in the state, the results of which are visible in the
increased revenue from export of IT products. But Kerala's forte is in tourism industry which has been growing at a fast rate. Hill stations life Vagamon, Munnar, Thekkady and Wayanad are attracting more and more tourists besides the beaches and backwaters. Incidentally, Kerala has the highest thorium deposit in the world. Once the country achieves the technology of laser isotope separation of thorium, this mineral will fetch for the country an economic bonanza equal to that of oil in the gulf countries or even bigger than that production.
Increased Food Crop Production
On the agricultural front, Kerala's food crop is not sufficient for her needs. Paddy cultivation has been steadily losing in extent and yield. The production has come down from 13 lakh tonnes to 6.29 lakh tonnes over the years. The state is making concerted efforts to increase the extent by farming paddy on fallow lands and promoting better agricultural practices. The results are extremely encouraging. Kerala is the largest producer of natural rubber in the country and it is also the biggest producer of spices like pepper, cardamom, nutmeg, cinnamon etc.
Future with Sea-borne Commerce
The long coastline of Kerala with an array of minor ports have promoted the development of fishery sector as an important component of Kerala's economy and source of employment. Kochi Port and Cochin shipyard have made Kochi the hub of commercial activity. The transshipment terminal being built at Vallarpadom Under the Central Government will further increase commerce in the southern region in a few years. If and when the deep sea mother port at Vizhinjam proposed by the State Government becomes a reality Kerala is poised to become the commercial hub of entire South Asia. * Exclusively prepared content for NPI by CSP Kerala
Particulars Description Area 3,07,713 sq. Population 96,752,247 Capital Mumbai Principal Languag Marathi
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History and Geography
The first well-known rulers of Maharashtra were the Satavahanas (230 B.C. 225 A.D.), who were the founders of Maharashtra, and have left a plethora of literary, epigraphic, artistic and archaeological evidence. This epoch marks tremendous development in every field of human endeavour. Then came the Vakatakas, who established a pan-Indian empire. Under them, Maharashtra witnessed an all-sided development in the fields of learning, arts and religion. Some of the Ajanta Caves and fresco paintings reached the high-level mark during their rule. After the Vakatakas and after a brief interlude of the Kalachuri dynasty, the most important rulers were the Chalukyas, followed by the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas, apart from the Shilaharas on the coast. The Yadavas, with Marathi as their court language extended their authority over large parts of the Deccan. While the Bahamani rule brought a degree of cohesion to the land and its culture, a uniquely homogeneous evolution of Maharashtra as an entity became a reality under the able leadership of Shivaji. A new sense of Swaraj and nationalism was evolved by Shivaji. His noble and glorious power stalled the Mughal advances in this part of India. The Peshwas established the Maratha supremacy from the Deccan Plateau to Attock in Punjab. Maharashtra was in the forefront of the freedom struggle, and it was here that the Indian National Congress was born. A galaxy of leaders from Mumbai and other cities in Maharashtra led the Congress movement under the guidance of Tilak, and later Mahatma Gandhi. Maharashtra was the home of Gandhiji's movement, while Sevagram was the capital of nationalistic India during the Gandhian era. The administrative evolution of the state of Maharashtra is the outcome of the linguistic reorganisation of the States of India, effected on 1 May, 1960. The State was formed by bringing together all contiguous Marathi-speaking areas, which previously belonged to four different administrative hegemonies - the district between Daman and Goa that formed part of the original British Bombay Province; five districts of the Nizam's dominion of Hyderabad; eight districts in the south of the Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh) and a sizeable number of petty native-ruled state enclaves lying enclosed within the above areas, which later merged with adjoining districts. Located in the north centre of Peninsular India, with the command of the Arabian Sea through its port of Mumbai, Maharashtra has a remarkable physical homogeneity, enforced by its underlying geology. The dominant physical trait of the State is its plateau character. Maharashtra is a plateau of plateaus, its western upturned rims rising to form the Sahyadri Range parallel to the sea-coast, and its slopes gently descending towards the east and south-east. Satpuda ranges cover northern part of the State, while Ajanta and Satmala ranges run through central part of the State. Arabian Sea guards the western boundary of Maharashtra, while Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are on the northern side. Chhattisgarh covers the eastern boundary of the State. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are on its southern side.
About 65 per cent of the total workers in the State depend on agriculture and allied activities. Principal crops grown in the State are rice, jowar, bajra, wheat, tur, mung, urad, gram and other pulses. The State is a major producer of oilseeds. Groundnut, sunflower, soyabean are major oil seed crops. Important cash crops are cotton, sugarcane, turmeric and vegetables. The State has an area of 12.90 lakh hectares under various fruit crops like mango, banana, orange, grape, cashewnut, etc.
The State has been identified as the country's powerhouse and Mumbai, its capital as the centre point of India's financial and commercial markets. Industrial sector occupies a prominent position in the economy of Maharashtra. Food products, breweries, tobacco and related products, cotton textiles, textile products, paper and paper products, printing and publishing, rubber, plastic, chemical and chemical products, machinery, electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, and transport equipment and parts contribute substantially to the industrial production in the state.
Irrigation and Power
By the end of June-2005, 32 major, 178 medium and about 2,274 state sector minor irrigation projects had been completed. Another 21 major and 39 medium irrigation projects are under construction. The gross irrigated area in 2004-2005 was 36.36 lakh hectares. Maharashtra had an installed capacity of 12,909 MW in 2004-2005. The PLF in the State was 81.6 per cent and power generation was 68,507 million KWH.
Roads:Total length of roads in the State as in March 2005 was 2.29 lakh km consisting of 4,367 kms of national highways, 33,406 kms of state highways, 48,824 kms of major district roads, 44,792 kms of other district roads, and 97,913 kms of village roads. Railways: Maharashtra has 5,527 kms of railway routes of which 78.6 per cent are broad gauge, 7.8 per cent meter gauge and 13.6 per cent narrow gauge. Aviation: Maharashtra has a total of twenty-four Air fields/airports. Of these 17 are under the control of the State government, four are managed and controlled by the International Airports Authority/Airports Authority of India and three by the Ministry of Defence. The Airfields under the control of the State government have no facilities for the operation of commercial flights at present. Ports: Mumbai is a major port. There are two major and 48 notified minor ports in the State.
Maharashtra Ellora Caves Some important tourist centres are: Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Kanheri and Karla caves, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran and Panchgani, Jawhar, Malshejghat, Amboli, Chikaldara, Panhala Hill stations and religious places at Pandharpur, Nasik, Shirdi, Nanded, Audhanagnath, Trimbakeshwar, Tuljapur, Ganpatipule, Bhimashanker, Harihareshwar, Shegaon, Kolhapur, Jejuri and Ambajogai.
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