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Copyright 1998 ASM International

Metals Handbook Desk Edition, Second Edition All rights reserved.


J.R. Davis, Editor, p 153-173 www.asminternational.org

Structure/Property
Relationships in Irons and Steels
Bruce L. Bramfitt, Homer Research Laboratories, Bethlehem Steel Corporation

Basis o f Material Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


Role o f Microstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Ferrite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Pearlite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Ferrite-Pearl ite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Bainite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Martensite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... 164
Austenite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Ferrite-Cementite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Ferrite-Martensite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Ferrite-Austenite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Graphite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Cementite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

This Section was adapted from Materials 5election and Design, Volume 20, ASM Handbook, 1997,
pages 3 5 7 - 3 8 2 . Additional information can also be found in the Sections on cast irons and steels w h i c h
immediately f o l l o w in this H a n d b o o k and by consulting the index.

THE PROPERTIES of irons and steels are structure-sensitive properties, for example, yield in both theoretical and practical terms, with par-
linked to the chemical composition, processing strength and hardness. The structure-insensitive ticular focus on the role of microstructure.
path, and resulting microstructure of the material; properties, for example, electrical conductivity,
this correspondence has been known since the are not discussed in this Section. Processing is a
early part of the twentieth century. For a particular means to develop and control microstructure, for Basis of Material Selection
iron and steel composition, most properties depend example, hot rolling, quenching, and so forth. In In order to select a material for a particular
on microstructure. These properties are called this Section, the role of these factors is described c o m p o n e n t , the designer m u s t have an intimate

" "o" - grade 50). 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 200x Fig. :2 Microstructu
r e p e a r linterlamellarf
ite a typicalspacing.fUllY2%pearlitiC
+ni4%rai
tal steel
l picralShowingetch.
500xthecharacteristic fine
154/Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

k n o w l e d g e o f w h a t p r o p e r t i e s are r e q u i r e d . C o n - Table I Mechanical properties of selected steels


s i d e r a t i o n m u s t b e g i v e n to the e n v i r o n m e n t
( c o r r o s i v e , h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e , etc.) a n d h o w the Tensile Yield Elongation
c o m p o n e n t w i l l be f a b r i c a t e d ( w e l d e d , b o l t e d , strength strength iaS0muma, ReductionHardness,
etc.). O n c e t h e s e p r o p e r t y r e q u i r e m e n t s are es- Steel Condition MPa ksi MPa kd
t a b l i s h e d the m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s c a n be-
Carbon steel bar(a)
g i n . S o m e o f the p r o p e r t i e s to b e c o n s i d e r e d
are: 1006 Hot rolled 295 43 165 24 30 55 86
Colddrawn 330 48 285 41 20 45 95
1008 Hot rolled 305 44 170 24.5 30 55 86
Mechanical properties Other properties/ Colddrawn 340 49 285 41.5 20 45 95
Strength characteristics 1010 Hot rolled 325 47 180 26 28 50 95
Tensile strength (ultimate Formability Cold drawn 365 53 305 44 20 40 105
strength) Dmwability 1012 Hot rolled 330 48 185 26.5 28 50 95
Yield strength Stretchability Colddrawn 370 54 310 45 19 40 105
Compressive strength Bendability 1015 Hot rolled 345 50 190 27.5 28 50 101
Hardness Wear resistance Cold drawn 385 56 325 47 18 40 111
Toughness Abrasion resistance 1016 Hot rolled 380 55 205 30 25 50 110
Notch toughness Galling resistance Cold dmwn 420 61 350 51 18 40 121
Fracture toughness Sliding wear resistance 1017 Hot rolled 365 53 200 29 26 50 105
Ductility Adhesive wear resistance Cold drawn 405 59 340 49 18 40 116
Total elongation Machinability 1018 Hot rolled 400 58 220 32 25 50 116
Reduction in area Weldability Cold drawn 440 64 370 54 15 40 126
Fatigue resistance 1019 Hot rolled 405 59 225 32.5 25 50 116
Cold drawn 455 66 380 55 15 40 131
1020 Hot rolled 380 55 205 30 25 50 l 1l
Cold drawn 420 61 350 51 15 40 121
Table 1 lists m e c h a n i c a l properties of selected s t e e l s 1021 Hot rolled 420 61 230 33 24 48 116
in v a r i o u s h e a t - t r e a t e d or c o l d - w o r k e d c o n d i t i o n s . Colddrawn 470 68 395 57 15 40 131
In the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , w h a t is r e q u i r e d for 1022 Hot rolled 425 62 235 34 23 47 121
one a p p l i c a t i o n m a y be t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e for Colddrawn 475 69 400 58 15 40 137
a n o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n . For e x a m p l e , steel b e a m s for 1023 Hot rolled 385 56 215 31 25 50 111
a r a i l w a y b r i d g e r e q u i r e a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t set o f Cold drawn 425 62 360 52.5 15 40 121
p r o p e r t i e s than the s t e e l r a i l s that are a t t a c h e d to 1524 Hot rolled 510 74 285 41 20 42 149
Cold drawn 565 82 475 69 12 35 163
the w o o d e n ties on the b r i d g e deck. In d e s i g n i n g
1025 Hot rolled 400 58 220 32 25 50 116
the b r i d g e , the steel m u s t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h
Colddrawn 440 64 370 54 15 40 126
to w i t h s t a n d s u b s t a n t i a l a p p l i e d l o a d s . In fact, 1026 Hot rolled 440 64 240 35 24 49 126
the d e s i g n e r w i l l g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t a s t e e l w i t h Colddrawn 490 71 415 60 15 40 143
h i g h e r s t r e n g t h than a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d . A l s o , the 1527 Hot rolled 515 75 285 41 18 40 149
d e s i g n e r k n o w s that the s t e e l m u s t h a v e f r a c t u r e Colddmwn 570 83 485 70 12 35 163
t o u g h n e s s to r e s i s t the g r o w t h and p r o p a g a t i o n o f 1030 Hot rolled 470 68 260 37.5 20 42 137
c r a c k s a n d m u s t be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g w e l d e d so Cold drawn 525 76 440 64 12 35 149
that s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s can be j o i n e d w i t h o u t 1035 Hot rolled 495 72 270 39.5 18 40 143
sacrificing strength and toughness. The steel Colddrawn 550 80 460 67 12 35 163
1536 Hot rolled 570 83 315 45.5 16 40 163
b r i d g e m u s t a l s o be c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t . T h i s can
COlddrawn 635 92 535 77.5 12 35 187
be p r o v i d e d b y a p r o t e c t i v e l a y e r o f p a i n t . I f 1037 Hot rolled 510 74 280 40.5 18 40 143
p a i n t i n g is not a l l o w e d , s m a l l a m o u n t s o f c e r t a i n Cold drawn 565 82 475 69 12 35 167
a l l o y i n g e l e m e n t s s u c h as c o p p e r and c h r o m i u m 1038 Hot rolled 515 75 285 41 18 40 149
can be a d d e d to the s t e e l to i n h i b i t or r e d u c e Colddrawn 570 83 485 70 12 35 163
c o r r o s i o n rates. Thus, the s t e e l s e l e c t e d for the 1039 Hot rolled 545 79 300 43.5 16 40 156
b r i d g e w o u l d be a h i g h - s t r e n g t h l o w - a l l o y Cold drawn 605 88 510 74 12 35 179
( H S L A ) s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l s u c h as A S T M A 5 7 2 , 1040 Hot rolled 525 76 290 42 18 40 149
g r a d e 50 or p o s s i b l y a w e a t h e r i n g s t e e l s u c h as Colddrawn 585 85 490 71 12 35 170
1541 Hot rolled 635 92 350 51 15 40 187
A S T M A 5 8 8 . A t);pical H S L A s t e e l h a s a f e r r i t e -
Cold drawn 705 102.5 600 87 10 30 207
p e a r l i t e m i c r o s t r u c t u r e as s e e n in Fig. 1 and is
Annealed, cold drawn 650 94 550 80 10 45 184
m i c r o a l l o y e d w i t h v a n a d i u m a n d / o r n i o b i u m for 1042 Hot rolled 550 80 305 44 16 40 163
s t r e n g t h e n i n g . (Microalloying is a t e r m u s e d to Colddrawn 6!5 89 515 75 12 35 179
d e s c r i b e the p r o c e s s o f u s i n g s m a l l a d d i t i o n s o f Normalized, cold drawn 585 85 505 73 12 45 179
carbonitride forming elements--titanium, vana- 1043 Hot rolled 565 82 310 45 16 40 163
d i u m , and n i o b i u m - - t o s t r e n g t h e n s t e e l s by g r a i n Cold drawn 625 91 530 77 12 35 179
r e f i n e m e n t and p r e c i p i t a t i o n h a r d e n i n g . ) Normalized, cold drown 600 87 515 75 12 45 179
On the o t h e r hand, the s t e e l r a i l s m u s t h a v e 1044 Hot rolled 550 80 305 44 16 40 163
high strength coupled with excellent wear resis- 1045 Hot rolled 565 82 310 45 16 40 163
Colddmwn 625 91 530 77 12 35 179
tance. M o d e m rail s t e e l s c o n s i s t o f a f u l l y p e a r l i -
Annealed, cold drawn 585 85 505 73 12 45 170
tic m i c r o s t r u c t u r e w i t h a fine p e a r l i t e i n t e r l a m e l - 1046 Hot rolled 585 85 325 47 15 40 170
l a r s p a c i n g , as s h o w n in Fig. 2. P e a r l i t e is u n i q u e Cold drawn 650 94 545 79 12 35 187
b e c a u s e it is a l a m e l l a r c o m p o s i t e c o n s i s t i n g o f Annealed, cold drawn 620 90 515 75 12 45 179
88% soft, d u c t i l e ferrite a n d 12% hard, b r i t t l e 1547 Hot rolled 650 94 360 52 15 30 192
c e m e n t i t e (Fe3C). The h a r d c e m e n t i t e p l a t e s pro- Cold drawn 710 103 605 88 10 28 207
vide excellent wear resistance, especially when Annealed, cold drawn 655 95 585 85 10 35 187
e m b e d d e d in soft ferrite. P e a r l i t i c s t e e l s h a v e 1548 Hot rolled 660 96 365 53 14 33 197
h i g h s t r e n g t h and are f u l l y a d e q u a t e to s u p p o r t Colddrawn 735 106.5 615 89.5 10 28 217
h e a v y a x l e l o a d s o f m o d e m l o c o m o t i v e s and Annealed, cold drawn 645 93.5 540 78.5 10 35 192
(continued)
f r e i g h t cars. M o s t o f the l o a d is a p p l i e d in c o m -
pression. Pearlitic steels also have relatively
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt-
p o o r t o u g h n e s s and c a n n o t g e n e r a l l y w i t h s t a n d ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25
i m p a c t l o a d s w i t h o u t f a i l u r e . T h e rail s t e e l c o u l d in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref 1
not m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the b r i d g e b u i l d e r ,
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 155

Table I (continued) and the HSLA structural steel could not meet the
requirements of the civil engineer who designed
the b r i d g e o r the r a i l s y s t e m .
Tensile Yield Elongation
strength strength in 50 ram, Reduction Hardness, A similar case can be made for the selection of
Steel Condition MPa ksi MPa ksi % ~a area, % HB cast irons. A cast machine housing on a large
lathe requires a material with adequate strength,
C a r b o n steel bar(a) (continued) r i g i d i t y , a n d d u r a b i l i t y to s u p p o r t t h e a p p l i e d
1049 Hot rolled 600 87 330 48 15 35 179 l o a d a n d a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f d a m p i n g c a p a c i t y in
Cold drawn 670 97 560 81.5 10 30 197 o r d e r to r a p i d l y a t t e n u a t e ( d a m p e n ) v i b r a t i o n s
Annealed, cold drawn 635 92 530 77 10 40 187
f r o m the r o t a t i n g p a r t s o f t h e l a t h e . T h e c a s t i r o n
1050 Hot roned 620 90 340 49.5 15 35 179
Cold da'awn 690 100 580 84 10 30 197 jaws of a crusher require a material with substan-
Annealed, cold drawn 655 95 550 80 10 40 189 tial w e a r r e s i s t a n c e . F o r t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , a c a s t -
1552 Hot rolled 745 108 410 59.5 12 30 217 i n g is r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e w e a r - r e s i s t a n t s t e e l s a r e
Annealed, cold drawn 675 98 570 83 10 40 193 v e r y d i f f i c u l t to m a c h i n e . F o r the m a c h i n e h o u s -
1055 Hot rolled 650 94 355 51.5 12 30 192 i n g , g r a y c a s t i r o n is s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e it is r e l a -
Annealed, cold drawn 660 96 560 81 10 40 197 tively inexpensive, can be easily cast, and has the
1060 Hot rolled 675 98 370 54 12 30 201 a b i l i t y to d a m p e n v i b r a t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f t h e
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 620 90 485 70 10 45 183 g r a p h i t e f l a k e s p r e s e n t in its m i c r o s t r u c t u r e .
1064 Hot rolled 670 97 370 53.5 12 30 201
These flakes are dispersed throughout the ferrite
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 615 89 475 69 10 45 183
1065 Hot rolled 690 100 380 55 12 30 207 a n d p e a r l i t e m a t r i x ( F i g . 3). T h e g r a p h i t e , b e i n g a
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 635 92 490 71 10 45 187 m a j o r n o n m e t a l l i c c o n s t i t u e n t in the g r a y i r o n ,
1070 Hot rolled 705 102 385 56 12 30 212 p r o v i d e s a t o r t u o u s p a t h f o r s o u n d to t r a v e l
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 640 93 495 72 10 45 192 t h r o u g h t h e m a t e r i a l . W i t h so m a n y f l a k e s , s o u n d
1074 Hot rolled 725 105 400 58 12 30 217 w a v e s a r e e a s i l y r e f l e c t e d a n d the s o u n d d a m p -
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 650 94 505 73 10 40 192 ened over a relatively short distance. However,
1078 Hot rolled 690 1130 380 55 12 30 207 f o r t h e j a w c r u s h e r , d a m p i n g c a p a c i t y is n o t a
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 650 94 500 72.5 10 40 192 r e q u i r e m e n t . In this c a s e , a n a l l o y w h i t e c a s t i r o n
1080 Hot rolled 770 112 425 61.5 10 25 229
is s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f its h i g h h a r d n e s s a n d w e a r
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 675 98 515 75 10 40 192
1084 Hot rolled 820 119 450 65.5 10 25 241 resistance. The white cast iron microstructure
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 690 100 530 77 10 40 192 s h o w n in F i g . 4 is g r a p h i t e f r e e a n d c o n s i s t s o f
1085 Hot rolled 835 121 460 66.5 10 25 248 m a r t e n s i t e in a m a t r i x o f c e m e n t i t e . B o t h o f t h e s e
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 695 100.5 540 78 10 40 192 constituents are very hard and thus provide the
1086 Hot rolled 770 112 425 61.5 10 25 229 r e q u i r e d w e a r r e s i s t a n c e . T h u s , in t h i s e x a m p l e
Spheroidized aimealed, cold drawn 670 97 510 74 10 40 192 the g r a y c a s t i r o n w o u l d n o t m e e t t h e r e q u i r e -
1090 Hot rolled 840 122 460 67 10 25 248 ments for the jaws of a crusher and the white cast
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 695 101 540 78 10 40 197
i r o n w o u l d n o t m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e
1095 Hot rolled 825 120 455 66 10 25 248
lathe housing.
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 680 99 525 76 10 40 197
1211 Hot rolled 380 55 230 33 25 45 121
Colddrawn 515 75 400 58 10 35 163 Role of Microstructure
1212 Hot rolled 385 56 230 33.5 25 45 121
Cold drawn 540 78 415 60 10 35 167 In s t e e l s a n d c a s t i r o n s , t h e m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l
1213 Hot rolled 385 56 230 33.5 25 45 121 constituents have the names ferrite, pearlite,
Cold drawn 540 78 415 60 10 35 167 b a i n i t e , m a r t e n s i t e , c e m e n t i t e , a n d a u s t e n i t e . In
12L14 Hot rolled 395 57 235 34 22 45 121 m o s t a l l o t h e r m e t a l l i c s y s t e m s , the c o n s t i t u e n t s
Cold drawn 540 78 415 60 10 35 163
a r e n o t n a m e d , b u t a r e s i m p l y r e f e r r e d to b y a
1108 Hot roUed 345 50 190 27.5 30 50 101
G r e e k l e t t e r (ct, 13, Y, e t c . ) d e r i v e d f r o m t h e l o c a -
Colddrawn 385 56 325 47 20 40 121
1109 Hot rolled 345 50 190 27.5 30 50 101 tion of the constituent on a phase diagram. Fer-
Cold drawn 385 56 325 47 20 40 121 r o u s a l l o y c o n s t i t u e n t s , o n the o t h e r h a n d , h a v e
11i7 Hot roned 425 62 235 34 23 47 121 b e e n w i d e l y s t u d i e d f o r m o r e t h a n 1 0 0 y e a r s . In
Colddrawn 475 69 400 58 15 40 137 the e a r l y d a y s , m a n y o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s w e r e
1118 Hot rolled 450 65 250 36 23 47 131 petrographers, mining engineers, and geologists.
Colddrawn 495 72 420 61 15 40 143 Because minerals have long been named after
1119 Hot roned 425 62 235 34 23 47 121 t h e i r d i s c o v e r e r o r p l a c e o f o r i g i n , it w a s n a t u r a l
Colddrawn 475 69 400 58 15 40 137 to s i m i l a r l y n a m e the c o n s t i t u e n t s in s t e e l s a n d
1132 Hot roUed 570 83 315 45.5 16 40 167
cast irons.
Cold drawn 635 92 530 77 12 35 183
~1137 Hot roiled 605 88 330 48 15 35 179 It c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h e f o u r e x a m p l e s d e s c r i b e d
Colddrawn 675 98 565 82 10 30 197 above have very different microstructures: the
1140 Hot rolled 545 79 300 43.5 16 40 156 structural steel has a ferrite plus pearlite micro-
Colddrawn 605 88 510 74 12 35 170 structure; the rail steel has a fully pearlitic mi-
1141 Hot roned 650 94 355 51.5 15 35 187 c r o s t r u c t u r e ; the m a c h i n e h o u s i n g ( l a t h e ) h a s a
Colddrawn 725 105.1 605 88 10 30 212 ferrite plus pearlite matrix with graphite flakes;
1144 Hot rolled 670 97 365 53 15 35 197 and the jaw crusher microstructure contains
Colddrawn 745 108 620 90 10 30 217
m a r t e n s i t e a n d c e m e n t i t e . In e a c h c a s e , the m i -
1145 Hot rolled 585 85 325 47 15 40 170
c r o s t r u c t u r e p l a y s the p r i m a r y r o l e in p r o v i d i n g
Colddrawn 650 94 550 80 12 35 187
1146 Hot roUed 585 85 325 47 15 40 170 the properties desired for each application. From
Cold drawn 650 94 550 80 12 35 187 t h e s e e x a m p l e s , o n e c a n see h o w m a t e r i a l p r o p e r -
1151 Hot rolled 635 92 350 50.5 15 35 187 ties c a n b e t a i l o r e d b y m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l m a n i p u l a -
Colddrawn 705 102 595 86 10 30 207 tion or alteration. Knowledge about microstruc-
t u r e is t h u s p a r a m o u n t in c o m p o n e n t d e s i g n a n d
(continued) a l l o y d e v e l o p m e n t . In the p a r a g r a p h s t h a t f o l l o w ,
e a c h m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n t is d e s c r i b e d
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt- w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the p r o p e r t i e s t h a t
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25 can be developed by appropriate manipulation of
in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref 1 the m i c r o s t r u c t u r e t h r o u g h d e f o r m a t i o n ( e . g . , h o t
and cold rolling) and heat treatment. Further de-
156 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

t a i l s a b o u t these m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n t s can ]'able 1 (continued)


be f o u n d in R e f 2 to 6.
Tensile Yield Elongatba
Ferrite strength strength inSOnma, l~lt~tion Hardm~
Steel Condition MPa ksi MPa ksi % ~aarea, % lib
A w i d e v a r i e t y o f s t e e l s and c a s t i r o n s f u l l y
Low-alloy steels(b)
e x p l o i t the p r o p e r t i e s o f ferrite. H o w e v e r , o n l y a
1340 Normalized at 870 C (1600 F) 834 121 558 81 22.0 63 248
f e w c o m m e r c i a l s t e e l s are c o m p l e t e l y f e r r i t i c . A n
Annealed at 800 C (1475 F) 703 102 434 63 25.5 57 207
e x a m p l e o f the m i c r o s t r u c t u r e o f a f u l l y f e r r i t i c , 3140 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 889 129 600 87 19.7 57 262
u l t r a l o w c a r b o n s t e e l is s h o w n in Fig. 5. Annealed at 815 C (1500 F) 690 100 420 61 24.5 51 197
F e r r i t e is e s s e n t i a l l y a s o l i d s o l u t i o n o f iron 4130 Normalized at 870 C (1600 F) 670 97 435 63 25.5 59.5 197
c o n t a i n i n g c a r b o n or o n e or m o r e a l l o y i n g ele- Annealed at 865 C (1585 F) 560 81 460 67 21.5 59.6 217
m e n t s s u c h as s i l i c o n , c h r o m i u m , m a n g a n e s e , Water quenched from 855 C (1575 F) 1040 151 979 142 18.1 63.9 302
a n d n i c k e l . T h e r e are t w o t y p e s o f s o l i d solu- and tempered at 540 C (1000 F)
4140 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 1020 148 655 95 17.7 46.8 302
tions: i n t e r s t i t i a l and s u b s t i t u t i o n a l . In an i n t e r -
Annealed at 815 C (1500 F) 655 95 915 60 25.7 56,9 197
stitial solid solution, elements with small atomic
Water quenched from 845 C ( 1550 F) 1075 156 986 143 15.5 56,9 311
d i a m e t e r , for e x a m p l e , c a r b o n and n i t r o g e n , oc- and tempered at 540 C (1000 F)
c u p y s p e c i f i c i n t e r s t i t i a l sites in the b o d y - c e n - 4150 Normalized at 870 C ( 1600 F) 1160 168 731 106 11.7 30,8 321
t e r e d c u b i c (bcc) i r o n c r y s t a l l i n e l a t t i c e . T h e s e Annealed at 830 C (1525 F) 731 106 380 55 20.2 40,2 197
sites are e s s e n t i a l l y the o p e n s p a c e s b e t w e e n the oil quenched from 830 C (1525 F) 1310 190 1215 176 13.5 47.2 375
l a r g e r iron a t o m s . In a s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d s o l u - and tempered at 540 C (1000 F)
tion, e l e m e n t s o f s i m i l a r a t o m i c d i a m e t e r r e p l a c e 4320 Normalized at 895 C (1640 oF) 793 115 460 67 20.8 51 235
Annealed at 850 C (1560 F) 580 84 425 62 29.0 58 163
or s u b s t i t u t e for iron a t o m s . The t w o t y p e s o f
4340 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 1282 186 862 125 12.2 36.3 363
s o l i d s o l u t i o n s i m p a r t d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to Annealed at 810 C (1490 oF) 745 108 470 68 22.0 50.0 217
ferrite. For e x a m p l e , i n t e r s t i t i a l e l e m e n t s l i k e Oil quenched from 800 C (1475 F) 1207 175 1145 166 14.2 45.9 352
c a r b o n and n i t r o g e n can e a s i l y d i f f u s e t h r o u g h and tempered at 540 C (1000 F)
the o p e n bcc l a t t i c e , w h e r e a s s u b s t i t u t i o n a l ele- 4419 Normalized at 955 C (1750 oF) 515 75 350 51 32.5 69.4 143
ments like manganese and nickel diffuse with Annealed at 915 C (1675 F) 450 65 330 48 31.2 62.8 121
g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y . T h e r e f o r e , an i n t e r s t i t i a l s o l i d 4620 Normalized at 900 C (1650 oF) 570 83 365 53 29.0 66.7 174
s o l u t i o n o f iron and c a r b o n r e s p o n d s q u i c k l y dur- Annealed at 855 C (1575 oF) 510 74 370 54 31.3 60.3 149
4820 Normalized at 860 C (1580 oF) 758 110 485 70 24.0 59.2 229
ing heat t r e a t m e n t , w h e r e a s s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d
Annealed at 815 C (1500 F) 685 99 460 67 22.3 58.8 197
s o l u t i o n s b e h a v e s l u g g i s h l y d u r i n g h e a t treat- 5140 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 793 115 470 68 22.7 59.2 229
m e n t , s u c h as in h o m o g e n i z a t i o n . Annealed at 830 C (1525 F) 570 83 290 42 28.6 57.3 167
A c c o r d i n g to the i r o n - c a r b o n p h a s e d i a g r a m Oil quenched from 845 C (1550 F) 972 141 841 122 18.5 58.9 293
(Fig. 6a), v e r y l i t t l e c a r b o n ( 0 . 0 2 2 % C) can dis- and tempered at 540 C (1000 F)
s o l v e in ferrite (ctFe), e v e n at the e u t e c t o i d t e m - 5150 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 869 126 530 77 20.7 58.7 255
p e r a t u r e o f 727 C ( 1 3 3 0 F). (The i r o n - c a r b o n Annealed at 825 C (1520 oF) 675 98 360 52 22.0 43.7 197
p h a s e d i a g r a m i n d i c a t e s the p h a s e r e g i o n s that Oil quenched from 830 C (1525 F) 1055 159 1000 145 16.4 52.9 311
and tempered at 540 C (1000 F)
e x i s t o v e r a w i d e c a r b o n and t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e . 5160 Normalized at 855 C (1575 oF) 1025 149 650 94 18.2 50.7 285
The d i a g r a m r e p r e s e n t s e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n s . Annealed at 815 C (1495 oF) 724 105 275 40 17.2 30.6 197
F i g u r e 6(b) s h o w s an e x p a n d e d i r o n - c a r b o n dia- Oil quenched from 830 C (1525 F) 1145 166 1005 146 14.5 45.7 341
g r a m w i t h b o t h the e u t e e t o i d and e u t e c t i c re- and tempered at 540 C (1000 oF)
g i o n s . ) At r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e , the s o l u b i l i t y is an 6150 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 938 136 615 89 21.8 61.0 269
o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e l e s s ( b e l o w 0 . 0 0 5 % C). H o w - Annealed at 815 C (1500 oF) 670 97 415 60 23.0 48.4 197
ever, e v e n at t h e s e s m a l l a m o u n t s , the a d d i t i o n o f Oil quenched from 845 C (1550 F) 1200 174 1160 168 14.5 48.2 352
and tempered at 540 C (1000 oF)
c a r b o n to p u r e iron i n c r e a s e s the r o o m - t e m p e r a -
8620 Normalized at 915 C 0675 F) 635 92 360 52 26.3 59.7 183
ture y i e l d s t r e n g t h o f i r o n by m o r e t h a n five Annealed at 870 C (1600 oF) 540 78 385 56 31.3 62.1 149
t i m e s , as s e e n in Fig. 7. If the c a r b o n c o n t e n t 8630 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 650 94 425 62 23.5 53.5 187
e x c e e d s the s o l u b i l i t y l i m i t o f 0 . 0 2 2 % , the car- Annealed at 845 C (1550 F) 565 82 370 54 29.0 58.9 156
bon f o r m s a n o t h e r p h a s e c a l l e d c e m e n t i t e (Fig. Water quenched from 845 C (1550 F) 931 135 850 123 18.7 59.6 269
8). C e m e n t i t e is a l s o a c o n s t i t u e n t o f p e a r l i t e , as and tempered at 540 C (1000 F)
s e e n in Fig. 9. The r o l e o f c e m e n t i t e and p e a r l i t e 8650 Normalized at 870 C (1600) 1025 149 690 100 14 45.0 302
on the m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t e e l is d i s c u s s e d Annealed at 795 C ( 1465 F) 715 104 385 56 22.5 46.0 212
oil quenched from 800 C (1475 F) 1185 172 1105 160 14.5 49.1 352
below.
and tempered at 540 C ( 1000 F)
The i n f l u e n c e o f s o l i d - s o l u t i o n e l e m e n t s on the 8740 Normalized at 870 C (1600 oF) 931 135 605 88 16.0 47.9 269
y i e l d s t r e n g t h o f ferrite is s h o w n in Fig. 10. H e r e Annealed at 815 C (1500 oF) 696 101 415 60 22.2 46.4 201
one c a n c l e a r l y see the s t r o n g e f f e c t o f c a r b o n on Oil quenched from 830 C ( 1525 F) 1225 178 1130 164 16.0 53.0 352
i n c r e a s i n g the s t r e n g t h o f ferrite. N i t r o g e n , a l s o and tempered at 540 C (1000 oF)
an i n t e r s t i t i a l e l e m e n t , has a s i m i l a r effect. P h o s - 9255 Normalized at 900 C ( 1650 oF) 931 135 580 84 19.7 43.4 269
p h o r u s is also a f e r r i t e s t r e n g t h e n e r . In fact, there Annealed at 845 C (1550 oF) 779 113 485 70 21.7 41.1 229
are c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e s t e e l s c o n t a i n i n g Oil quenched from 885 C (1625 F) 1130 164 924 134 16.7 38.3 321
and tempered at 540 C ( 1000 oF)
p h o s p h o r u s (up to 0 . 1 2 % P) for s t r e n g t h e n i n g .
9310 Normalized at 890 C (1630 F) 910 132 570 83 18.8 58.1 269HRB
T h e s e s t e e l s are the r e p h o s p h o r i z e d s t e e l s ( t y p e Annealed at 845 C (1550 oF) 820 119 450 65 17.3 42.1 241HRB
1211 to 1215 series). M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t y data
Ferritie stainless steels(b)
for t h e s e s t e e l s can be f o u n d in T a b l e 1.
In Fig. 10, the s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n ele- 405 Annealed bar 483 70 276 40 30 60 150
ments of silicon, copper, manganese, molybde- Cold draw n bar 586 85 483 70 20 60 185
409 Annealed bar 450 65 240 35 25 75HRB
n u m , n i c k e l , a l u m i n u m , and c h r o m i u m are s h o w n
430 Annealed bar 517 75 310 45 30 --65" 155
to h a v e far l e s s e f f e c t as ferrite s t r e n g t h e n e r s (confnued)
than the i n t e r s t i t i a l e l e m e n t s . In fact, c h r o m i u m ,
n i c k e l , and a l u m i n u m in s o l i d s o l u t i o n h a v e very
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt-
l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the s t r e n g t h o f ferrite.
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25
In a d d i t i o n to c a r b o n ( a n d o t h e r s o l i d - s o l u t i o n in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref I
e l e m e n t s ) , the s t r e n g t h o f a f e r r i t i c s t e e l is a l s o
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 157

Table 1 (continued) d e t e r m i n e d b y its g r a i n size a c c o r d i n g to t h e


Hall-Petch relationship:
Tensile Yield Elongation
strength strength in 50ram, Reduction Hardness, Gy = Go + kyd -1/2 (Eq 1)
Steel Ccmdition MPa ksi MPa ksi % in area, % HB

Ferritic stainless steels(b) (continued)


430 (cont'd) Annealed and cold drawn 586 85 483 70 20 65 185 w h e r e Oy is the y i e l d s t r e n g t h (in M P a ) , ~ o is a
442 Annealed bar 515 75 310 45 30 50 160 c o n s t a n t , ky is a c o n s t a n t , a n d d is t h e g r a i n d i a m e -
Annealed at 815 C (1500 F) and cold 545 79 427 62 35.5 79 92HRC t e r (in m m ) .
worked T h e g r a i n d i a m e t e r is a m e a s u r e m e n t o f s i z e o f
446 Annealed bar 550 80 345 50 25 45 86HRB the f e r r i t e g r a i n s in the m i c r o s t r u c t u r e , f o r e x a m -
Annealed at 815 C (1500 F) and cold 607 88 462 67 26 64 96HRB p l e , n o t e the g r a i n s in the u l t r a l o w c a r b o n s t e e l in
drawn F i g . 5. F i g u r e 11 s h o w s t h e H a l l - P e t c h r e l a t i o n -
Martensilic stainless steels(b) s h i p f o r a l o w - c a r b o n f u l l y f e r r i t i c steel. T h i s
403 Annealed bar 515 75 275 40 35 70 82HRB r e l a t i o n s h i p is e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t f o r u n d e r -
Tempered bar 765 111 585 85 23 67 97HRB standing structure-property relationships in
410 Oil quenched from 980 C ( 1800 F); 1085 158 1005 146 13 70 ... steels. Control of grain size through ther-
tempered at 540 C (1000 F);.16 nun momechanical treatment, heat treatment, and/or
(0.625 in.) bar m i c r o a l l o y i n g is vital to the c o n t r o l o f s t r e n g t h
Oil quenched from 980 C (1800 F); 1525 221 1225 178 15 64 45HRB a n d t o u g h n e s s o f m o s t steels. T h e r o l e o f g r a i n
tempered at 40 C (104 F); 16 mm s i z e is d i s c u s s e d in m o r e d e t a i l b e l o w .
(0.625 in.) bar
620 90 20 60 235 T h e r e is a s i m p l e w a y to s t a b i l i z e f e r r i t e ,
414 Annealed bar 795 115
Cold drawn bar 895 130 795 115 15 58 270 t h e r e b y e x p a n d i n g the r e g i o n o f f e r r i t e i n t h e
Oil quenched from 980 C (1800 F); 1005 146 800 116 19 58 ... iron-carbon phase diagram, namely by the addi-
tempered at 650 C (1200 oF) t i o n o f a l l o y i n g e l e m e n t s s u c h as s i l i c o n , c h r o -
420 Annealed bar 655 95 345 50 25 55 195 mium, and molybdenum. These elements are
Annealed and cold drawn 760 110 690 100 14 40 228 called ferrite stabilizers because they stabilize
431 Annealed bar 860 125 655 95 20 55 260 f e r r i t e at r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e t h r o u g h r e d u c i n g t h e
Annealed and cold drawn 895 130 760 110 15 35 270 amount of y solid solution (austenite) with the
Oil quenched from 980 C (1800 F); 831 121 738 107 20 64 ...
f o r m a t i o n o f w h a t is c a l l e d a y - l o o p a s s e e n at the
tempered at 650 C (1200 oF)
1140 166 17 59 45HRC f a r l e f t in F i g . 12. T h i s i r o n - c h r o m i u m p h a s e d i a -
Oil quenched from 980 C (1800 F); 1435 208
tempered at 40 C (104 F) gram shows that ferrite exists up above 12% Cr
440C Annealed bar 760 110 450 65 14 25 97HRB a n d is s t a b l e u p to t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t ( l i q u i d u s
Annealed and cold drawn bar 860 125 690 100 7 20 260 temperature). An important fully ferritic family
Hardened and tempered at 315 C 1970 285 1900 275 2 10 580 o f s t e e l s is the i r o n - c h r o m i u m f e r r i t i c s t a i n l e s s
(6OOF) s t e e l s . T h e s e s t e e l s a r e r e s i s t a n t to c o r r o s i o n , a n d
Austenitle stainless steels(b) a r e c l a s s i f i e d as t y p e 4 0 5 , 4 0 9 , 4 2 9 , 4 3 0 , 4 3 4 ,
380 55 52 ... 87HRB 436, 439, 442, 444, and 446 stainless steels.
201 Annealed 760 110
50% hard 1035 150 760 ll0 12 ... 32HRC T h e s e s t e e l s r a n g e in c h r o m i u m c o n t e n t f r o m 11
Full hard 1275 185 965 140 8 ... 41HRC to 3 0 % . A d d i t i o n s o f m o l y b d e n u m , s i l i c o n , n i o -
Extra hard 1550 225 1480 215 1 ... 43HRC bium, aluminum, and titanium provide specific
202 Annealed bar 515 75 275 40 40 ...... properties. Ferritic stainless steels have good
Annealed sheet 655 95 310 45 40 ...... d u c t i l i t y ( u p to 3 0 % t o t a l e l o n g a t i o n a n d 6 0 %
50% hard sheet 1030 150 760 110 10 _ ... r e d u c t i o n in a r e a ) a n d f o r m a b i l i t y , b u t l a c k
301 Annealed 725 105 275 40 60 70' ... strength at elevated temperatures compared with
50% hard 1035 150 655 95 54 61 ...
austenitic stainless steels. Room-temperature
Full hard 1415 205 1330 193 6 ...
275 40 55 ... 80HRB y i e l d s t r e n g t h s r a n g e f r o m 1 7 0 to a b o u t 4 4 0 M P a
302 Annealed strip 620 90
25% hard strip 860 125 515 75 12 _ 25HRC ( 2 5 to 6 4 k s i ) , a n d r o o m - t e m p e r a t u r e t e n s i l e
Annealed bar 585 85 240 35 60 70" 80HRB s t r e n g t h s r a n g e f r o m 3 8 0 to a b o u t 5 5 0 M P a (55
303 Annealed bar 620 90 240 35 50 55 160 to 8 0 ksi). T a b l e 1 lists t h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s
Colddrawn 690 100 415 60 40 53 228 of some of the ferritic stainless steels. Type 409
304 Annealed bar 585 85 235 34 60 70 149 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l is w i d e l y u s e d f o r a u t o m o t i v e e x -
Annealed and cold drawn 690 100 415 60 45 ... 212 haust systems. Type 430 free-machining stainless
Cold-drawn high tensile 860 125 655 95 25 ... 275 s t e e l h a s the b e s t m a c h i n a b i l i t y o f all s t a i n l e s s
305 Annealed sheet 585 85 260 38 50 _ 80HRB
steels other than that of a low-carbon, free-ma-
308 Annealed bar 585 85 205 30 55 65' 150
c h i n i n g m a r t e n s i t i c s t a i n l e s s s t e e l ( t y p e 41.6).
309 Annealed bar 655 95 275 40 45 65 83HRB
310 45 45 _ 85HRB Another family of steels utilizing a ferrite sta-
310 Annealed sheet 620 90
Annealed bar 655 95 275 40 45 65' 160 bilizer (y-loop) are the iron-silicon ferritic alloys
314 Annealed bar 689 100 345 50 45 60 180 c o n t a i n i n g u p to a b o u t 6 . 5 % Si ( c a r b o n - f r e e ) .
316 Annealed sheet 580 84 290 42 50 _ 79HRB These steels are of commercial importance be-
Annealed bar 550 80 240 35 60 70" 149 cause they have excellent magnetic permeability
Annealed and cold-drawnbar 620 90 415 60 45 65 190 and low core loss. High-efficiency motors and
317 Annealed sheet 620 90 275 40 45 ... 85HRB transformers are produced from these iron-sili-
Annealed bar 585 85 275 40 50 ... 160 con electrical steels (aluminum can also substi-
321 Annealed sheet 620 90 240 35 45 _ 80HRB
t u t e f o r s i l i c o n in t h e m ) .
Annealed bar 585 85 240 35 55 65' 150
O v e r t h e p a s t 2 0 y e a r s o r so, a n e w b r e e d o f
Annealed and cold-drawn bar 655 95 415 60 40 60 185
260 38 40 ... ... very-low-carbon fully ferritic sheet steels has
330 Annealed sheet 550 80
Annealed bar 585 85 290 42 45 ... 80HRB emerged for applications requiring exceptional
347 Annealed sheet 655 95 275 40 45 _ 85HRB f o r m a b i l i t y ( s e e F i g . 5). T h e s e a r e the i n t e r s t i -
Annealed bar 620 90 240 35 50 65" 160 t i a l - f r e e (IF) s t e e l s f o r w h i c h c a r b o n a n d n i t r o -
(continued) g e n a r e r e d u c e d in t h e s t e e l m a k i n g p r o c e s s to
very low levels, and any remaining interstitial
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt- c a r b o n o r n i t r o g e n is t i e d u p w i t h s m a l l a m o u n t s
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25 of alloying elements (e.g., titanium or niobium)
in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref 1
that form preferentially carbides and nitrides.
158/Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Table I (continued) pearlite forms. Pearlite is formed by cooling the


steel through the eutectoid temperature (the tem-
perature o f 727 C in Fig. 6) by the following
qI~mBe Yield Elongation
inS0mm, ReductionHardness, reaction:
st~ngth strength
Sted Cand~laa MPa k~ MPa I~ % in area, % liB
Austenilic stainless steels(b) (continued) Austenite ~ cementite + ferrite ffXl2)
347 (eont'd) Annealedandcolddrawnbar 690 100 450 65 40 60 212
384 Annealed wire 1040 C (1900 F) 515 75 240 35 55 72 70HRB The cementite and ferrite form as parallel plates
Maraging steels(b) called lamellae (Fig. 13). This is essentially a
18Ni(250) Annealed 965 140 655 95 17 75 30 HRC c o m p o s i t e m i c r o s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f a very
Aged bar 32 mm (1.25 in.) 1844 269 1784 259 11 56.5 51.8 HRC hard carbide phase, cementite, and a very soft and
Aged sheet 6 mm (0.25in.) 1874 272 1832 266 8 40.8 50.6HRC ductile ferrite phase. A fully pearlitic microstruc-
18Ni(300) Annealed 1034 150 758 110 18 72 32HRC ture is formed at the eutectoid composition of
Aged bar 32 mm (1.25 in.) 2041 296 2020 293 11.6 55.8 54.7 HRC 0.78% C. As can be seen in Fig. 2 and 13, pearlite
Aged sheet 6 mm (0.25 in.) 2169 315 2135 310 7.7 35 55.1HRC forms as colonies where the lamellae are aligned
18Ni(350) Annealed 1140 165 827 120 18 70 35 HRC in the s a m e orientation. The properties of fully
Aged bar 32 mm (l.25 in.) 2391 347 2348 341 7.6 33.8 58.4 HRC pearlitic steels are determined by the spacing be-
Aged sheet 6 mm (0.25 in.) 2451 356 2395 347 3 15.4 57.7 HRC
tween the ferrite-cementite lamellae, a dimension
(a) All values are estimated minimumvalues; type 1100 series steels ate rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt- called the interlamellar spacing, X, and the colony
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25 size. A simple relationship for yield strength has
in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Some: Ref 1 been developed by Heller (Ref 10) as follows:

fly = -85.9 + 8.3 (X-t/2) (Eq 3)


T h e s e steels have very low strength, but are used tions, that is, the stacked steel layers in the rotor
to produce c o m p o n e n t s that are difficult or im- and stator o f the motor.
where fly is the 0.2% offset yield strength (in
possible to form from other steels. Very-low-car- As noted previously, a n u m b e r of properties
MPa) and X is the interlamellar spacing (in mm).
bon, fully ferritic steels (0.001% C) are n o w be- are exploited in fully ferritic steels:
Figure 14 s h o w s Heller's plot of strength versus
ing m a n u f a c t u r e d for automotive c o m p o n e n t s interlamellar spacing for fully pearlitic eutectoid
that harden during the paint-curing cycle. These Iron-silicon steels: Exceptional electrical steels.
steels are called bake-hardening steels and have properties It has also been s h o w n by Hyzak and Bernstein
controlled a m o u n t s o f carbon and nitrogen that I r o n - c h r o m i u m steels: Good corrosion resis- ( R e f 11) that strength is related to interlamellar
c o m b i n e with other elements, s u c h as titanium tance spacing, pearlite colony size, and prior-austenite
and niobium, during the baking cycle (175 C, or Interstitial-free steels: Exceptional forma- grain size, according to t h e following relation-
350 F, for 30 min). The process is called aging, bility ship:
and the strength derives from the precipitation o f Bake-hardening steels: Strengthens during
paint cure cycle
t i t a n i u m / n i o b i u m carbonitrides at the elevated
L a m i n a t i o n s t e e l s : Good electrical properties YS = 52.3 + 2.18 (~-1/2) - 0 . 4 (de-L'2) - 2 . 8 8 (d-1/2)(Eq 4)
temperature.
Another form of very-low-carbon, fully ferritic
steel is motor lamination steel. The carbon is re- where YS is the yield strength (in MPa), d e is the
m o v e d from these steels by a process known as pearlite colony size (in mm), and d is the prior-
PearlRe
decarburization. The decarburized (carbon-free) austenite grain size (in mm). From Eq 3 and 4, it
ferritic steel has good permeability and suffi- As the carbon content of steel is increased be- can be seen that the steel composition does not
ciently low core loss (not as low as the iron-sili- yond the solubility limit (0.02% C) on the iron- have a major influence on the yield strength of a
con alloys) to be used for electric motor lamina- carbon binary phase diagram, a constituent called fully pearlitic eutectoid steel. There is s o m e solid-

Fig, 3 Microstructure of a gray cast iron with a ferrite-pearlite matrix. Note the graphite Fig. 4 Microstructure of an alloy white cast iron. White constituent is cementite and the
flakes dispersed throughout the matrix. 4% picral etch. 320x. Courtesy of A.O. darker constituent is martensite with some retained austenite. 4% picral etch.
Benscoter, Lehigh University 250x. Courtesy ofA.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and S t e e l s / 1 5 9

steel will typically have a total elongation of austenite grain size. Unfortunately, these three
more than 50%, whereas a fully pearlitic steel factors are rather difficult to measure. To deter-
(e.g., type 1080) will typically have a total elon- m i n e interlamellar spacing, a scanning electron
gation of about 10% (see Table 1). A low-carbon m i c r o s c o p e (SEM), or a t r a n s m i s s i o n electron
fully ferritic steel will have a room-temperature m i c r o s c o p e (TEM) is needed in order to resolve
Charpy V-notch impact energy of about 200 J the spacing, Generally, a magnification of
(150 f t . lbf), whereas a fully pearlitic steel will 10,000x is adequate, as seen in Fig. 13. Special
have room-temperature impact energy of under statistical procedures have been developed to de-
10 J (7 f t . lbf). The transition temperature (i.e., termine an accurate m e a s u r e m e n t o f the spacing
the temperature at which a material changes from ( R e f 12). The colony size and especially the
ductile fracture to brittle fracture) for a fully prior-austenite grain size are very difficult to
pearlitic steel can be approximated from the fol- m e a s u r e and require a skilled metallographer us-
lowing relationship (Ref 11): ing the light microscope or SEM and special
etching procedures.
B e c a u s e of poor ductility/toughness, there a r e
TT = 217.84 - 0.83 (de-1/2) - 2.98(d -1"~) (Eq5)
only a few applications for fully pearlitic steels,
including railroad rails and wheels and high-
strength wire. By far, the largest tonnage applica-
where TT is the transition temperature (in C).
tion is for rails. A fully pearlitic rail steel pro-
From Eq 5, one can see that both the prior-
austenite grain size and pearlite colony size con- vides excellent wear resistance for r a i l r o a d
Fig. 5 Microstructure of a fully ferritic, ultralow carbon trol the transition temperature of a pearlitic steel. wheel/rail contact. Rail life is m e a s u r e d in mil-
steel. Marshalls etch + HF, 300x. Courtesy of lions of gross tons (MGT) of travel and current
A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University Unfortunately, the transition temperature of a
fully pearlitic steel is always well above r o o m rail life easily exceeds 250 MGT. The wear resis-
temperature. This m e a n s that at room tempera- tance of pearlite arises from the unique morphol-
ture the general fracture mode is cleavage, which ogy of the ferrite-cementite lamellar composite
solution strengthening of the ferrite in the lamel- is associated with brittle fracture. Therefore, where a hard constituent is embedded into a soft-
lar structure (see Fig. 10). fully pearlitic steels should not be used in appli- ductile constituent. This m e a n s that the hard ce-
The thickness of the cementite lamellae can cations where t o u g h n e s s is important. Also, pear- m e n t i t e plates do not abrade away as easily as the
also influence the properties of pearlite. Fine ce- litic steels with carbon contents slightly or mod- rounded cementite particles found in other steel
mentite lamellae can be deformed, compared erately higher than the eutectoid c o m p o s i t i o n microstructures, that is, tempered martensite and
with coarse lamellae, which tend to crack during (called hypereutectoid steels) have even poorer bainite, which is discussed later. Wear resistance
deformation. toughness. o f a rail steel is directly proportional to hardness.
Although fully pearlitic steels have high From Eq 4 and 5, one can see that for pearlite, This is s h o w n in Fig. 15, which indicates less
strength, high hardness, and good wear resis- strength is controlled by interlamellar spacing, weight loss as hardness increases. Also, w e a r re-
tance, they also have poor ductility and tough- colony size, and prior-austenite grain size, and sistance (less weight loss) increases as inter-
ness. For example, a low-carbon, fully ferritic t o u g h n e s s is controlled by colony size and prior- lamellar spacing decreases, as s h o w n in Fig. 16.

Carbon, at.%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1180 I I I I I I
1154C - ~...~ 2125
1140
Fe-C equilibrium (experimental)
I
2.08 ~
"'"
J., ~1,,/8 C-'~ 2050
1100 - - Fe-Fe3C equilibrium (experimental)
.o"Y 211 -- 1975
1060
*' Y
.~ -- 1900
1020

(~Fe) -- 1825
980
auatenite u-
o
-- 1750
940
D AUS tenite + cementite -- 1700
O. 900 ~ 9 1 2 C , / "
E E
~ ~0F.) ferrite . ,-~ -- 1625
86O
-- 1550
820 %~ 770 C (Curie temperature) -*~
.../ -- 1475
780
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-- - ' - ~ 0.68 7 738 C - 1400
I ~ 0.0206 ~ ~, .'"
740
I 1325
727 C --

700 /
0.0218 I
I Ferrite + cementite I - 1250
66O I I I I
Fe 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2
Carbon, wt%
Fig. 6 ( a ) Iron-carbon phasediagram showing the austenite (y Fe)and ferrite (ocFe)phase regions and eutectoid composition and temperature. Dotted lines representiron-graphite equi-
librium conditions and solid lines representiron-cementite equilibrium conditions. Only the solid lines are important with respect to steels.Source: Ref 2
160/Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Thus, the m o s t important microstructural pa- processes where steel parts are continuously the rod is transformed at a temperature of about
rameter for controlling hardness a n d wear resis- cooled, that is, air cooled, and so forth. 540 C (1000 F) by passing it through a lead or
tance is the pearlite interlamellar spacing. Fortu- As s h o w n in Fig. 17, the p e a d i t e transforma- salt bath at this temperature. This develops a
nately, interlamellar spacing is easy to control tion temperature (indicated by the pearlite-start microstructure with a very fine pearlite inter-
and is d e p e n d e n t solely on transformation tem- curve, Ps) decreases with increasing cooling rate. lamellar spacing because the transformation
perature. The hardness of peaflite increases with decreas- takes place at the n o s e of the C C T diagram, that
Figure 17 shows a continuous cooling transfor- ing transformation temperature. Thus, in order to is, at the lowest possible pearlite transformation
mation (CCT) d i a g r a m for a typical rail steel. A provide a rail steel with the h i g h e s t hardness and temperature (see Fig. 17). The rod is then cold
C C T d i a g r a m is a time versus temperature plot wear resistance, one m u s t cool the rail from the drawn to wire. B e c a u s e o f the very fine inter-
s h o w i n g the regions at which various constitu- austenite at the fastest rate possible to obtain the lamellar spacing, the ferrite and cementite lamel-
c n t s - - f e r d t e , pearlite, bainite, and m a r t e n s i t e - - lowest transformation temperature. This is done lae b e c o m e aligned along the wire axis during
form during the continuous cooling of a steel in practice by a process known as head harden- the deformation process. Also, the fine ccmentite
component. U s u a l l y several cooling curves are ing, which is simply an accelerated cooling proc- lamella tend to bend and deform as the wire is
s h o w n with the associated start and finish trans- ess u s i n g forced air or water sprays to achieve elongated during drawing. The resulting wire is
formation temperatures of each constituent. the desired cooling rate (Ref 15). Because only one of the strongest commercial products avail-
T h e s e diagrams should not be confused with iso- the head of the rail contacts the wheel of the
able; for example, a commercial 0.1 m m (0.004
thermal transformation (IT or T T T ) diagrams, railway car and locomotive, only the head re-
in.) diam wire can have a tensile strength in the
which are derived by rapidly q u e n c h i n g very thin quires the higher hardness and wear resistance.
range of 3.0 to 3.3 GPa (439 to 485 ksi), and in
s p e c i m e n s to various temperatures, and maintain- A n o t h e r application for a fully pearlitic steel is
ing that temperature (isothermal) until the speci- h i g h - s t r e n g t h wire (e.g., piano wire). Again, the special cases a tensile strength as h i g h as 4.8
m e n s begin to transform, partially transform, and composite m o r p h o l o g y of lamellar ferrite and ce- G P a (696 ksi) can be obtained. These wires are
fully transform, at which time they are quenched mentite is exploited, this time during wire draw- used in m u s i c a l instruments because of the sound
to room temperature. An IT d i a g r a m does not ing. A fully pearlitic steel rod is heat treated by a quality developed from the high tensile stresses
represent the transformation behavior in m o s t process k n o w n as patenting. During patenting, applied in stringing a piano and violin and are
also used in wire rope cables for suspension
bridges.

1~M 3270 Ferrite-Pearlite


The m o s t c o m m o n structural steels produced
1~ 3090
have a m i x e d ferrite-pearlite microstructure.
Their applications include b e a m s for bridges and
2910
high-rise buildings, plates for ships, and rein-
forcing bars for roadways. These steels are rela-
1! 2730 tively inexpensive and are produced in large ton-
GFe nages. They also have the advantage o f being
1~ 2550 able to be produced with a wide range of proper-
ties. The microstructure of typical ferrite-pearlite
2370 steels is s h o w n in Fig. 18.
In m o s t ferrite-pearlite steels, the carbon con-
2190 tent and the grain size determine the micro-
structure and resulting properties. For example,
Fig. 19 s h o w s the effect of carbon on tensile and
11 2010
impact properties. The ultimate tensile strength
steadily increases with increasing carbon con-
lC 1830 ~ tent. This is caused by the increase in the volume
fraction o f pearlite in the microstructure, which
has a strength m u c h higher than that of ferrite.
Thus, increasing the volume fraction o f pearlite
E
i~ E 1470 has a profound effect on increasing tensile
strength.
7 1290 However, as seen in Fig. 19, the yield strength
is relatively unaffected by carbon content, rising
rILE[ from about 275 MPa (40 ksi) to about 415 MPa
(60 ksi) over the range of carbon content shown.
This is because yielding in a ferrite-pearlite steel
-~ 930
is controlled by the fcrrite matrix, which is gen-
erally considered to be the continuous phase (ma-
4 750

3 570 O3

"~ 35 241 ~:

-'~ 25 ~' ..... 172


I P_~
"N,
30 / 103=
Fe 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0
0
Carbon, wt% o~ 10 ~
o. 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 o
Fig. 6(b) Expanded iron-carbon phase diagram showing both the eutectoid (shown in Fig. 6a) and eutectic regions.
o
Carbon, wt%
6
Dotted lines represent iron-graphite equilibrium conditions and solid lines represent iron-cementite equilib-
rium conditions. The solid lines at the eutectic are important to white cast irons and the dotted lines are important to gray Fig, 7 Increase in room-temperature yield strength of
cast irons. Source: Ref 2 iron with small additions of carbon. Source: Ref 7
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 161

Fig. 8 Photomic.rograph of an annealed low-carbon sheet steel with grain-boundary ce- Fig. 9 Photomicrograph of pearlite (dark constituent) in a low-carbon steel sheet. 2% ni-
mentite. 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 1000x tal + 4% picral etch. 1000x

trix) in the microstructure. Therefore, pearlite has no effect on yield strength, whereas the yield pact energy versus test temperature, the shelf en-
plays only a minor role in yielding behavior. strength in Fig. 19 i n c r e a s e s somewhat with car- ergy decreases from about 200 J (150 ft lbf) for
From Fig. 19, one can also see that ductility, as bon content. According to Eq 6, m a n g a n e s e , sili- a 0.11% C steel to about 35 J (25 f t . lbf) for a
represented by reduction in area, steadily de- con, and nitrogen have a pronounced effect on 0.80% C steel. Also, the transition temperature
creases with increasing carbon content. A steel yield strength, as does grain size. However, in increases from about - 5 0 to 150 C ( - 6 0 to 300
with 0.10% C has a reduction in area of about most ferrite-pearlite steels nitrogen is quite low F) over this s a m e range o f carbon content. The
75%, whereas a steel with 0.70% C has a reduc- (under 0.010%) and thus h a s m i n i m a l effect on effect of carbon is due mainly to its effect on the
tion in area of only 25%. Percent total elongation yield strength. In addition, as discussed below, percentage of pearlite in the microstructurc. This
would show a similar trend, however, with values nitrogen has a detrimental effect on impact prop- is reflected in the regression equation for transi-
m u c h less than percent reduction in area. erties. tion temperature below (Ref 16):
Much work has been done to develop empirical The regression equation for tensile strength for
equations for ferrite-pearlite steels that relate the s a m e steels is as follows (Ref 16):
strength and t o u g h n e s s to microstructural fea- TT = - 1 9 + 44(Si) + 700(N~/2)
tures, for example, grain size and percent of + 2.2(P) - 11.5 (d -1/2) (F_.q8)
pearlite as well as composition. One such equa- TS = 294,1 + 27.7(Mn) + 83.2(Si)
+ 3.9(P) + 7.7(d -lt2) (F-47)
tion for ferrite-pearlitc steels under 0.25% C is as
follows (Ref 16): It can be seen in all these relationships that
where TS is the tensile strength (in MPa) and P is ferrite grain size is an important parameter in
pearlite content (%). Thus, in distinction to yield i m p r o v i n g both strength and toughness. It can
YS = 53.9 + 32.34 (Mn) + 83.2(Si)
+ 354.2(Nf) + 17.4(d-U2) strength, the percentage o f pearlite in the micro- also be seen that while pearlite is beneficial for
(Eq 6)
s t r u c t u r e h a s an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on t e n s i l e increasing tensile strength and nitrogen is benefi-
strength. cial for increasing yield strength, both are harm-
where Mn is the m a n g a n e s e content (%), Si is the T o u g h n e s s of ferrite-pearlite steels is also an ful to toughness. Therefore, m e t h o d s to control
silicon content (%), Nf is the free nitrogen content important consideration in their use. It has long the grain size of ferrite-pearlite steels have rap-
(%), and d is the ferrite grain size (in mm). Equa- been k n o w n that the absorbed energy in a Charpy idly evolved over the past 25 years. T h e two m o s t
tion 6 shows that carbon content (percent pearlite) V-notch test is decreased by increasing carbon important m e t h o d s to control grain size are con-
content, as seen in Fig. 20. In this graph of im- trolled rolling and microalloying. In fact, these

4-375
I 600
C and N 80
500
+225 80
Si & 400
.--~_m+150

"~ +75
/ ~ 300

200 "N.
y - - Ni and AI 20 |
o 0
100
-75
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 I I I I I I I I I I I I
Alloy content, wt% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Fig, 1 0 Influence of solid-solution elements on the Grain diameter (d-l~), mm -1~
changes in yield stress of low-carbon ferritic
steels. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 11 Hall-Petch relationship in low-carbon ~mtic steels, souse: Ref 8
162 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Chromium, at.% acicular morphology and the carbides are dis-


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 crete particles. Because of these morphological
20OO I I I i I I I I I differences, bainite has much different property
characteristics than pearlite. In general, bainitic
1863 C steels have high strength coupled with good
1800 toughness, whereas pearlitic steels have high
strength with poor toughness.
Another difference between baiaite and pearl-
1600 1538 C 1516 : ~ ...... ite is the complexity of the bainite morphologies
compared with the simple lamellar morphology
21
1400 - 1394 C of pearlite. The morphologies of bainite are still
oo being debated in the literature. For years, since
the classic work of Bain and Davenport in the
1200 - ~ (~Fe,Cr) 1930s (Ref 18), there were two classifications of
(9
:L bainite: upper and lower bainite. This nomencla-
E
1000 _ ( ~ F e ) / / _ 1 2 . 7
ture was derived from the temperature regions at
which bainite formed during isothermal (constant
oc/I temperature) transformation. Upper bainite
oc formed isothermally in the temperature range of
8001:-- -.7 400 to 550 C (750 to 1020 F), and lower
bainite formed isothermally in the temperature
I
~nn I Magnetic
-/
" ~ "---- . . . . .
(I o I, "* ". range of 250 to 400 C (480 to 750 F). Exam-
Itransformabon.- ,, : 475 o C "-.. ples of the microstructure of upper and lower
/ o.'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =.." . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ".,.. bainite are shown in Fig. 21. One can see that
400 i r'1 I I I I I I I t "'~ both types of bainite have an acicular morphol-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ogy, with upper bainite being coarser than lower
Fe Chromium, wt% Cr bainite. The true morphological differences be-
tween the microstructures can only be deter-
Fig. 12 Iron-chromium phase diagram. Source: Ref 9 mined by electron microscopy. Transmission
electron micrographs of upper and lower baiaite
are shown in Fig. 22. In upper bainitc, the iron
carbide phase forms at the lath boundaries,
methods are used in conjunction to produce in retarding austenite recrystallization, thus al-
whereas in lower bainite, the carbide phase forms
strong, tough ferrite-pearlite steels. lowing a wide window of rolling temperatures
on particular crystallographic habit planes within
Controlled rolling is a thermomechanical for controlled rolling. Without retarding recrys-
the laths. Because of these differences in mor-
treatment in which steel plates are rolled below tallization, as in normal hot rolling, the pancake-
phology, upper and lower bainite have different
the recrystailization temperature of aastcnite. type grains do not form and a fine grain size
mechanical properties. Lower bainite, with a fine
This process results in elongation of the austenite cannot be developed. Microalloyed steels are
acicular structure and carbides within the laths,
grains. Upon further rolling and subsequent cool- used in a wide variety of high tonnage applica-
has higher strength and higher toughness than up-
ing to room temperature, the austenite-to-ferrite tions including structural steels for the construc-
tion industry (bridges, multistory buildings, per bainite with its coarser structure.
transformation takes place. The ferrite grains are Because during manufacture most steels un-
restricted in their growth because of the "pan- etc.), reinforcing bar, pipe for gas transmission,
dergo continuous cooling rather than isothermal
cake" austeaite grain morphology. This produces and numerous forging applications.
holding, the terms upper and lower baiaite can
the fine ferrite grain size required for higher become confusing because "upper" and "lower"
strength and toughness. Bainite are no longer an adequate description of mor-
Microalloying is the term applied to the addi- phology. Bainite has recently been reclassified
tion of small amounts of special alloying ele- Like pearlite, bainitc is a composite of ferrite by its morphology, not by the temperature range
ments (vanadium, niobium, or titanium) that aid and cementitc. Unlike pearlite, the ferritc has an in which it forms (Ref 19). For example, a recent
classification of bainite yields three distinct
types of morphology.

Class 1 (B1): Acicular ferrite associated with


intralath (plate) iron carbide, that is, cemcn-
tite (replaces the term "lower bainite")

Interlamellar spacing (Sp), nm


300 200 100 80 60
I I f I
900
O.
8O0 S
. j ,-
~ 7oo
.~>6OO
~.500
0

400
60 80 100 120 140
Reciprocal root of
Interlamellar spacing (Sp-1/2), mm-1/2

Fig. 14 Relationship behveen peadite interlamellar


spacing and yield strength for eutectoid steels.
Fig, 13 SEM micrograph of pearlite showing ferrile and cementite lamellae. 4% picral etch. 10, O00x Source: Ref I0
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels/163

1.6 1.6

/
1.2 1,2
o~

o o= j
J~
0.8 z 0.8 /~
o
i<
0.4 0.4

0 0
2OO 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26
Brinell hardness, HB Pearlite spacing, pm
Fig. 15 Relationship between hardnessand wear resistance(weight loss)for rail steels. Relationship between pearlite interlamellar spacing and wear resistance
Source: Ref 13 Fig. 16 (weight loss)for rail steels.Source: Ref 13

Class 2 (B2): Acicular ferrite associated with ties (for example, 0.003%) has a pronounced ef- cept) (in ram), and n is the n u m b e r o f carbides per
i n t e r l a t h (plate) particles or films of cementite fect on retarding the ferrite transformation. Thus, m m 2 in the plane of section.
and/or austenite (replaces the term "upper in a boron-containing steel (e.g., l/2Mo + B), the With bainitic steels, the lath width of the
bainite") ferrite nose in the C C T diagram is p u s h e d to bainite obeys a Hall-Petch relationship as shown
Class 3 (B3): Acicular ferrite associated with a slower cooling rates. Boron retards the nuclea- in Fig. 25. The lath size is directly related to the
constituent consisting of discrete islands of tion of ferrite on the austenite grain boundaries austenite grain size and decreases with decreas-
austenite and/or martensite and, in doing so, permits bainite to be formed ing bainite transformation temperature. B e c a u s e
(Fig. 23). W h e n e v e r boron is added to steel, it of the fine microstructure of bainite, the m e a s -
The bainitic steels have a wide range of me- m u s t be prevented from combining with other u r e m e n t of lath size and carbide density can only
chanical properties depending on the micro- elements such as oxygen and nitrogen. Generally, be done by SEM or TEM.
structural m o r p h o l o g y and composition; for ex- a l u m i n u m and titanium are added first in order to In low-carbon bainitic steels, type B 2 (upper)
ample, yield strength can range from 450 to 950 lower the o x y g e n and nitrogen levels o f the steel. bainite has inferior t o u g h n e s s to type B 1 (lower)
MPa (65 to 140 ksi), and tensile strength from E v e n when adequately protected, the effective- bainite. In both cases, strength increases as the
530 to 1200 M P a (75 to 175 ksi). Another aspect n e s s of boron decreases with increasing carbon transition temperature decreases. In type B 2 (up-
of a bainitic steel is that a single composition, content and austenite grain size.
per) bainite, the carbides are m u c h coarser than
I/2Mo-B steel for example, can yield a bainitic A t t e m p t s have been made to quantitatively re-
in type B 1 (lower) bainite and h a v e a tendency to
microstructure over a wide range o f transforma- late the microstructural features o f bainite to me-
crack and initiate cleavage (brittle) fracture. In
tion temperatures. The C C T diagram for this chanical properties. One such relationship is (Ref
type B l bainite, the small carbides h a v e less ten-
steel is shown in Fig. 23. Note that for this steel 22):
dency to fracture. One can lower the transition
the bainite start (Bs) temperature is almost con-
temperature in type B l bainitic steels by provid-
stant at 600 C (1110 F). This flat t r a n s f o r m a -
tion region is important because transformation YS = -194 + 17.4(d -1/2) + 15(nl/4) (Eq 10) ing a finer austenite grain size through lower-
temperature plays an important role in the devel- temperature t h e r m o m e c h a n i c a l treatment and
opment of microstructure. A constant transforma- grain refinement.
tion temperature permits the d e v e l o p m e n t of a where YS is the 0.2% offset yield strength (in Bainitic steels are used in m a n y applications
similar microstructure and properties over a wide MPa), d is the bainite lath size (mean linear inter- including pressure vessels, b a c k u p rolls, turbine
range of cooling rates. This has m a n y advantages
in the m a n u f a c t u r i n g of bainitic steels and is par-
ticularly advantageous in thick sections where a
wide range in cooling rates is found from the
surface to the center of the part. 9oo
In designing a bainitic steel with a wide trans-
formation region, it becomes critical that the
pearlite and ferrite regions are pushed as far to
the right as possible on the C C T diagram; that is,
pearlite and ferrite form only at slow cooling 700
rates. Alloying elements such as nickel, chro- ?
m i u m , and m o l y b d e n u m (and m a n g a n e s e ) are se- 600 _I o.n,r .e
lected for this purpose. Clmln ~ ~s
~_ 1 -643 \\1 ~ ~
For low-carbon bainitic steels, the relationship tz 500 2 - 600
between transformation temperature and tensile E 0-545_ ( % ~ . 'Bf
strength is s h o w n in Fig. 24 (martensite is dis- 400 4 - 500
cussed in the next section). Note the rapid in- 5 - 450
crease in tensile strength as the transformation 6 400
300
temperature decreases. For these steels, a regres- 7 - 352 Ms \ "~
sion equation for tensile strength has been devel- 8 - 300
oped as follows (Ref 21): 200 9 - 253
10 - 225 Martensite
100 11 - 1 8 9
T S = 246.4 + 1925(C) + 231(Mn + Cr) + 185(Mo) 12 - 50
+ 92(W) + 123(Ni) + 62(Cu) + 385(V + 11) (Eq9)
0 I I I I I I
10 lO0 1000
In addition to the elements carbon, nickel, Time, s
chromium, m o l y b d e n u m , vanadium, and so forth, Fig. 17 ^ ccT diagram of a typical rail steel (composition: 0.77% C, 0.95% Mn, 0.22% Si, 0.014% P, 0.017% S, 0.10%
it is well k n o w n that boron in very small quanti- Cr). Source:Ref 14
164 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

(a) (h)

Fig. 18 Microstructureof typical ferrite-pearlitestructuralsteelsat two differentcarboncontents.(a)0.10%C. (b)0.25%C. 2% nital + 4% picraletch.200x

rotors, die blocks, die-casting molds, nuclear re- by rapid quenching. Most all the conventional The martensite start temperature (Ms) for type
actor c o m p o n e n t s , and e a r t h m o v i n g equipment. alloying elements in steel promote hardenability. 4340 is 300 C (570 F). Carbon lowers the M s
O n e m a j o r advantage of a bainitic steel is that an For example, type 4340 steel s h o w n in Fig. 26 temperature, as s h o w n in Fig. 27, and alloying
optimal s t r e n g t h / t o u g h n e s s combination can be has significant levels o f carbon, m a n g a n e s e , elements such as carbon, m a n g a n e s e , chromium,
produced without e x p e n s i v e heat treatment, for nickel, copper, and m o l y b d e n u m to promote har- nickel, and m o l y b d e n u m also lower M s tempera-
example, q u e n c h i n g and tempering as in marten- denability. More details about hardenability can ture. M a n y empirical equations have been devel-
sitic steels. be found in R e f 2. oped over the past 50 years relating M s tempera-

Martensite 2O0 160


(271)
Martensite is essentially a supersaturated solid Notched impact tests / oo
solution o f carbon in iron. The a m o u n t of carbon
120
in martensite far exceeds that found in solid solu-
"~ (217) ~ e
tion in ferrite. B e c a u s e of this, the normal body- ,~ If energy
centered cubic (bcc) lattice is distorted in order >:, 120 j ~ ," Transitiontemperature E
80 e
to a c c o m m o d a t e the carbon atoms. The distorted (163)
lattice b e c o m e s body-centered tetragonal (bet). 8
In plain-carbon and low-alloy steels, this super- = 80 40
,==
saturation is generally produced through very (106)
rapid cooling from the austenite phase region
CO
(quenching in water, iced-water, brine, iced- ~ 40 ==
brine, oil or aqueous p o l y m e r solutions) to avoid 0 (54) ~ ~ '------ o
forming ferrite, pearlite, and bainite. Some
highly alloyed steels can form martensite upon 0 -4O
air cooling (see the discussion o f m a r a g i n g steels
later in this section). D e p e n d i n g on carbon con-
tent, martensite in its q u e n c h e d state can be very ~ 100
hard and brittle, and, because of this brittleness, .cg
~ 80 ~ ~'~UItimate:
~ ' ~strength I t~
martensitic steels are usually tempered to restore
s o m e ductility and increase toughness.
Reference to a C C T diagram s h o w s that =0= Yield strength
martensite only forms at high cooling rates in
plain-carbon and low-alloy steels. A C C T dia- . 60 ~
g r a m for type 4340 is s h o w n in Fig. 26, which
indicates that martensite forms at cooling rates
exceeding about 1000 C/rain. Most commercial
martensitic steels contain deliberate alloying ad-
=m Reductionin area
ditions intended to suppress the formation o f
other c o n s t i t u e n t s - - t h a t is ferrite, peariite, and 03
20 - - Smooth tensile testa I
b a i n i t e - - d u r i n g continuous cooling. This m e a n s
that these constituents form at slower cooling 0
rates, allowing martensite to form at the faster 0 0.1 0.2 0:3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
cooling rates, for example, during oil and water Carbon,wt%
quenching. This concept is called hardenability
and is essentially the capacity o f a steel to harden Fig. 19 Mechanicalpropertiesof ferrite-pearlitesteelsasa functionof carboncontent.Source:Ref2
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 165

Temperature, F tions. The important microstructural units m e a s -


-1 O0 0 100 200 300 400 ured in lath martensite are lath width and packet
250 I I I F I size. A packet is a grouping o f laths having a
175 c o m m o n orientation.
Plain-carbon and low-alloy martensitic steels
0.11%C 150 are rarely used in the a s - q u e n c h e d state because
200 of poor ductility. To increase ductility, these
martensitic steels are tempered (reheated) to a
125 a=
>~ temperature below 650 C (1200 F). During
= tempering, the carbon that is in supersaturated
150 g solid solution precipitates on preferred crystal-
t~ f 100 lographic planes (usually the octahedral {111}
x
_E planes) of the martensitic lattice. B e c a u s e of the
preferred orientation, the carbides in a tempered
100 / 0.20% C .." ....................... 0.31 YoC - 75 martensite have a characteristic a r r a n g e m e n t as
seen in Fig. 31.
Tempered martensite has similar morphologi-
__ 0.41%C 060%C- cal features to type B) (lower) bainite. However,
50 ~~........~ ."".""" .- s ~ ~ ",. . . . . . . . ~0.49%C 2 50
a distinction can be m a d e in terms o f the orienta-
oO."
,'1 , , .-" " ' . t . . - " --.-'.'. .......... tion differences of the carbide precipitates. This
,.: ... s .o. "~ .." .. " ~'~ 0.80%C 25 can be seen by comparing type B l bainite in Fig.
22 with tempered martensite in Fig. 31. However,
0 0 unless the carbide m o r p h o l o g y is observed it is
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 very difficult to distinguish between B] bainite
Temperature, C and tempered martensite.
The hardness of martensite is determined by its
Fig. 20 Effect Of carbon content in ferrite-peadite steels on Charpy V-notch transition temperature and shelf energy. carbon content, as s h o w n in Fig. 32. Martensite
Source: Ref 17 attains a m a x i m u m hardness o f 66 H R C at carbon
contents of 0.8 to 1.0%. The reason that the hard-
ness does not m o n o t o n i c a l l y increase with carbon
ture to composition. O n e recent equation by An- to carbon content, as s h o w n in Fig. 27. Lath is that retained austenite is f o u n d when the car-
drews (Ref 24) is: martensite forms at carbon contents up to about bon content is above about 0.4% (austenite is
0.6%, plate martensite is found at carbon con- m u c h softer than martensite). Figure 33 s h o w s
tents greater than 1.0%, and a m i x e d martensite the increase in volume percent retained austenite
M s (C) = 539 - 423(C) - 30.4(Mn) - 12.1(Cr) microstructure forms for carbon contents be- with increasing carbon content. Yield strength
- 17.7(Ni) - 7_5(Mo) (Eq 11) also increases with increasing carbon content as
tween 0.6 and 1.0%. An example of lath marten-
site is s h o w n in Fig. 28 and plate martensite in seen in Fig. 34. This empirical relationship be-
Fig. 29. Generally, plate martensite can be distin- tween the yield strength and carbon content for
With sufficient alloy content, the M s tempera- u n t e m p e r e d low-carbon martensite is (Ref 25):
ture can be below r o o m temperature, which guished from lath martensite by its plate mor-
m e a n s that the transformation is incomplete and phology with a central mid-fib. Also, plate
retained austenite can be present in the steel. martensite m a y contain n u m e r o u s microcracks, YS (MPa) = 413 + 17.2 x 10P(C1/2) (Eq 12)
The microstructure of martensitic steels can be as s h o w n in Fig. 30. These form during transfor-
generally classed as either lath martensite, plate mation when a growing plate impinges on an ex-
martensite, or mixed lath and plate martensite. In isting plate. Because of these microcracks, plate Lath martensite packet size also has an influence
plain carbon steels, this classification is related martensite is generally avoided in most applica- on the yield strength, as s h o w n in Fig. 35. The

(a) (b)

Fig. 21 Microstructure of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel.2% nital + 4% picral etch. 500x
166 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

(a) (b)

Fig, 22 TEM micmgraphs of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel

linear behavior follows a Hall-Petch type rela- maintain m u c h of the hardness and strength of quenched rod has a hardness of 601 HB. Note
tionship of (d-l/2). the q u e n c h e d martensite and provide a small im- that by tempering at 650 C (1200 F), the hard-
M o s t martcnsitic steels are used in the tem- p r o v e m e n t in ductility and toughness (Ref 26). n e s s (see x-axis) decreased to 293 HB; or to less
pered condition where the steel is reheated after This treatment can be used for bearings and gears than half the a s - q u e n c h e d hardness. The tensile
q u e n c h i n g to a temperature less than the lower that are subjected to compression loading. Tem- strength has decreased from 1960 MPa (285 ksi)
critical temperature (Act). Figure 36 s h o w s the pering above 425 C (796 F) significantly im- at a 200 C (400 F) tempering temperature to
decrease in hardness with tempering temperature proves ductility and toughness but at the expense 965 M P a (141 ksi) at a 650 C (1200 F) temper-
for a n u m b e r o f carbon levels. Plain-carbon or of hardness and strength. The effect of tempering
low-alloy martensitic steels can be tempered in ing temperature. However, the ductility, repre-
temperature on the tensile properties of a typical
lower or higher temperature ranges, depending sented by total elongation and reduction in area,
oil-quenched low-alloy steel (type 4340) is
on the balance of properties required. Tempering s h o w n in Fig. 37. These data are for a 13.5 m m increases dramatically. The tempering process
between 150 and 200 C (300 and 390 F) will (0.53 in.) diam rod quenched in oil. The as- can be retarded by the addition of certain alloy-
ing elements such as vanadium, m o l y b d e n u m ,
m a n g a n e s e , c h r o m i u m , and silicon. Also, for
tempering, temperature is m u c h more important
1 0 0 0 ~ 1800 than time at temperature.
Ac3 = 930 C Temper embrittlement is possible during the
t e m p e r i n g of alloy and low-alloy steels. This em-
900 Fs 1!0 1600 brittlement occurs when quenched-and-tempered
.0o steels are heated in, or slow cooled through the
340 to 565 C (650 to 1050 F) temperature
,oo ?-- range. Embrittlement occurs when the embrit-
tling elements, antimony, tin, and phosphorus,
o 6oo " concentrate at the austenite grain boundaries and
create intergranular segregation that leads to in-
500 - . . . . -- + tergranular fracture. T h e element m o l y b d e n u m

~'E ~ l I I "l\ ~ \1 I I \ ~l~""r I I I ~ ~ I I I X I I I II -1800


1200 "'"q'e

~-. 1050 ~ ' ~


200 ~ ~ 400
" 900
100 200
750
0 32 .==
/)
10 102 103 104 105
i.~ 600 ~1 Ferrite +
Seconds I ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' I ~ ' ' ~I eel==, peadite
1 10 102 103
450 Martensites Bainites ', ~* "/45
~'~
Minutes I ' I ' ' I ' I I I I I ~-'- i i 1-
1 4 10 30 3OO 4OO 500 600 7OO 8O0
Time Hours Transformation temperature, C

Fig. 23 A CCT diagram of a I/2Mo-B steel. Composition: 0.093% C, 0.70% Mn, 0.36% Si, 0.51% Mo, 0.0054% B. Fig. 2 4 Relationship between transformation tempera-
Austenitized at Ac 3 + 30 C for 12 rain. Bs, bainite start; Bo bainite finish; Fs, ferrite start; Fo ferrite finish. Num- ture and tensile strength of ferrite-pearlite, bain-
bers in circles indicate hardness (HV) after cooling to room temperature. Source: Ref 20 itic, and martensitic steels. Source: Ref 5
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 167

/
1600 870
900
t~
IL
to
750 1400 760
~ QII)

" 600
1200 650

450
15 20 25
Grain size (d-1/2), mm-1/2 1000 540 ~
o
g
Fig. 25 Relationship between bainite lath width (grain
size) and yield strength. Source: Ref 5
E 800 425 E

has been shown to be beneficial in preventing


temper embrittlement.
The large variation in mechanical properties o f 600 315
q u e n c h e d - a n d - t e m p e r e d martensitic steels pro-
vides the structural designer with a large n u m b e r
of property combinations Data, like that shown
in Fig. 37, are available in the Section "Carbon
400 205
and Alloy Steels" in this Handbook as well as
Volume 1 of the ASM Handbook and the ASM
Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels.
Hardnesses of q u e n c h e d - a n d - t e m p e r e d steels can
be estimated by a m e t h o d established by Grange 200 95
et al. (Ref 27). The general equation for hardness 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000
is: Cooling timel s

HV = HV C + AHVMn + AHVp + AHVsi + AHVNi


Fig, 26 The CCT diagram for type 4340 steel austenitized at 845 C (I 550 F). Source: Ref 23

+ AHVcr + AHVMo + AHVv (Eq 13)


e x a m p l e s of hardness conversion tables for TS (MPa) = - 42.3 +3.6 HB (Eq 14)
where HV is the estimated hardness value (Vick- steels, which can be found in the Section "Glos-
ers). sary of Terms and Engineering Data" in this For the above example, a type 4340 quenched-
In order to use this relationship, one m u s t de- Handbook), a Brinell hardness of 363 HB equates and-tempered (540 C, or 1000 F) steel with a
termine the hardness value of carbon (HVc) from to a Vickers hardness of 383 HV. The calculated calculated hardness of 363 HB would have an
Fig. 38. For example, if one a s s u m e s that a tem- value of 380 HV (in the table above) is very estimated tensile strength f r o m Eq 14 of 1265
pering temperature of 540 C (1000 F) is used close to the actual m e a s u r e d value of 383 HV. M P a (183 ksi). F r o m Table 1, this m e a s u r e d ten-
and the carbon content of the steel is 0.2% C, the Thus, this m e t h o d can be used to estimate a spe- sile strength of a type 4340 q u e n c h e d - a n d - t e m -
HV c value after tempering will be 180 HV. Sec- cific hardness value after a q u e n c h i n g - a n d - t e m - pered (540 C, or 1000 F) steel is 1255 M P a
ond, the effect o f each alloying e l e m e n t m u s t be pering heat treatment for a low-alloy steel. Also, (182 ksi).
determined from a figure such as Fig. 39. This as a rough approximation, the derived Brinell It is seen that q u e n c h e d - a n d - t e m p e r e d marten-
graph represents a tempering temperature of 540 h a r d n e s s value can be used to estimate tensile sitic steels provide a wide range of properties.
C (1000 F). Graphs representing other temper- strength by the following equation (calculated The design engineer can c h o o s e from a large
ing temperatures can be found in R e f 27.
from A S T M E 140 conversion table): n u m b e r of plain-carbon and low-alloy steels. In

.8o
To illustrate the u s e of the Grange et al.
method, the s a m e type 4340 steel s h o w n in Fig.
37 is used. The composition of the steel is 0.41% 870 1600
C, 0.67% Mn, 0.023% P, 0.018% S, 0.26% Si,
1.77% Ni, 0.78% Cr, and 0.26% Mo. A s s u m i n g a 1400
540 C (1000 F) tempering temperature, the es-
timated h a r d n e s s value for carbon is 210 HV.
650 1200
From Fig. 38, the hardness values for each of the
other alloying elements are: ~o
ii
o
cff 540 lOOO =d
Element Ccetent, % Hardaess,HV
425 ~""~.,,~ 800
Carbon 0.41 210 Q_

Manganese 0.67 38 E
Phosphorus 0.023 7 315 ~o ff
Silicon 0.26 15
Nickel 1.77 12 205 400
Chromium 0.78 43
Molybdenum 0.26 55
Total hardness 380 95 l%~: ~ .........

Lath .... ?~Mixea


/ , ~ ~:,: Plate
D20 0
According to Fig. 37, the hardness value after 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
tempering at 540 C (1000 F) was 363 HB (see Carbon, wt%
Brinell hardness values along x-axis). F r o m the
A S T M E 140 conversion table (included in the Fig. 27 Effect of carbon content on M s temperature in steels. Source: Ref 6
168 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Fig. 28 Microstructure of a typical lath martensite. 4% picral + HCI. 200x Fig. 29 Microstructure of a typical plate martensite. 4% picral + HCI. 1000x

addition to this large list of steels, there are two h i g h - s t r e n g t h stainless steels because they can be 8.5 to 12.5% Co, 4 to 5% Mo, 0.20 to 1.8% Ti,
other commercially important categories o f fully treated to achieve a yield strength between 550 and 0,10 to 0.15% A1. Because of the high alloy
martensitic steels, namely, martensitic stainless MPa (80 ksi) and 1725 MPa (250 ksi), as seen in content, especially the cobalt addition, they are
steels and m a r a g i n g steels. Table 1. On the other hand, ferritic stainless very expensive. Their high strength is developed
Like the ferritic stainless steels, martensitic steels, which do not contain carbon, are not con- by austenitizing at 850 C (1560 F), followed by
stainless steels (e.g., type 403, 410, 414, 416, sidered h i g h - s t r e n g t h steels because their yield air cooling to r o o m temperature to form lath
420, 422, 431, and 440) are h i g h - c h r o m i u m iron strength range is only 170 to 450 MPa (25 to 64 martensite. However, the martensitic constituent
alloys (12 to 18% Cr), but with deliberate addi- ksi). B e c a u s e of their high strength and hardness, in m a r a g i n g steels is relatively s o f t - - 2 8 to 35
tions of carbon (0.12 to 1.2% C). T h e s e steels coupled with corrosion resistance, martensitic H R C - - w h i c h is an advantage because the com-
use carbon in order to stabilize austenite in iron- stainless steels are used for knives and other ap- ponent can be m a c h i n e d to final form directly
c h r o m i u m alloys (Fig. 12). The expanded region plications requiring a cutting edge as well as upon cooling. The final stage o f strengthening is
of austenite is called the y-loop. In the Fe-Cr s o m e tool steel applications (for example, molds through an aging process, carried out at 480 C
phase diagram (without C), the y-loop e x t e n d s to for producing plastic parts). (900 F) for 3 h. During aging, the hardness in-
about 12% Cr (see Fig. 12). With carbon addi- Maraging steels are a separate class of marten- creases to about 51 to 58 HRC depending on the
tions, austenite can exist up to 25% Cr. T h e s e sitic steels and are considered ultrahigh-strength grade o f m a r a g i n g steel. The aging treatment pro-
steels can be heat treated m u c h like those of the steels with yield strength levels as high as 2500 motes the precipitation of a rodlike intermetallic
low-alloy steels. However, martensitic stainless MPa (360 ksi), as seen in Table 1. In addition to c o m p o u n d Ni3Mo. These precipitates can only be
steels, with s u c h high c h r o m i u m contents, can extremely high strength, the maraging steels observed at high magnification (e.g., by TEM).
form martensite on air cooling, even in thick sec- have excellent ductility and toughness. These The precipitates strengthen the surrounding ma-
tions. Martensitic stainless steels are considered very-low carbon steels contain 17.5 to 18% Ni, trix as they form during aging. Full hardening

Fig. 30 Microcracks formed in plate martensite. 4% picral + HCl/sodium metabisulfite Fig. 31 Ttransmission electron micrograph showing carbide morphology in tempered
etch. 1000x martensite
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 169

L
900 700
o
65
800 ] M s temperature
500
>o
700 6o
-> 100 3OO E
> ot~ =o
"I- 600 -.r
of "~ 75 100
=
500 so ~ 8
t~ Lath marten ' l i t e , ' ~ ~ ~"~1..........~ --
t~ 03
relative volh/ - - - ~ ~ ~ / <
"1- E
40
400 40

25
o
300 30 20 p-

20 Retained 7, vol%
200 1o .t ~ I I I
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
100 J I I I I I Carbon, wt%
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Carbon, wt% Fig. 33 Effectof carbon content on the volume percent of retained austenite (7) in as-quenched martensite. Source:
Ref 4
Fig. 3 2 Effect of carbon content on the hardness of
martensite. Source: Ref4
alloying elements), their susceptibility to stress- elongation in the annealed condition to about
corrosion cracking (certain austenitic steels), 25% elongation after cold working.
can be developed, even in very thick sections. their relatively low yield strength, and the fact Some austenitic stainless steels (type 200, 201,
Maraging steels are used for die-casting molds that they cannot be strengthened other than by 202, and 205) employ interstitial solid-solution
and aluminum hot-forging dies as well as numer- cold working, interstitial solid-solution strength- strengthening with nitrogen addition. Austenite,
ous aircraft and missile components. ening, or precipitation hardening. like ferrite, can be strengthened by interstitial
The austenitic stainless steels (e.g., type 301, elements such as carbon and nitrogen. However,
302, 303, 304, 305,308, 309, 310, 314, 316, 317, carbon is usually excluded because of the delete-
Austenite 321, 330, 347, 348, and 384) generally contain rious effect associated with precipitation of chro-
from 6 to 22% Ni to stabilize the austenite at mium carbides on austenite grain boundaries (a
Austenite does not exist at room temperature room temperature. They also contain other alloy- process called sensitization). These chromium
in plain-carbon and low-alloy steels, other than ing elements, such as chromium (16 to 26%) for carbides deplete the grain-boundary regions of
as small amounts of retained austenite that did corrosion resistance, and smaller amounts of chromium, and the denuded boundaries are ex-
not transform during rapid cooling. However, in manganese and molybdenum. The widely used tremely susceptible to corrosion. Such steels can
certain high-alloy steels, such as the austenitic type 304 stainless steel contains 18 to 20% Cr be desensitized by heating to high temperature to
stainless steels and Hadfield austenitic manga- and 8 to 10.5% Ni and is also called 18-8 stain- dissolve the carbides and place the chromium
nese steel, austenite is the microstructure. In less steel. From Table 1, the yield strength of back into solution in the austenite. Nitrogen, on
these steels, sufficient quantifies of alloying ele- annealed type 304 stainless steel is 290 MPa (40 the other hand, is soluble in austenite and is
ments that stabilize austenite at room tempera- ksi), with a tensile strength of about 580 MPa (84 added for strengthening. To prevent nitrogen
ture are present (e.g., manganese and nickel). ksi). However, both yield and tensile strength can from forming deleterious nitrides, manganese is
The crystal structure of austenite is face-centered be substantially increased by cold working as added to lower the activity of nitrogen in the
cubic (fee) as compared to ferrite, which has a shown in Fig. 40 (see Table 1). However, the austenite, as well as to stabilize the austenite.
(bcc) lattice. A fcc alloy has certain desirable increase in strength is offset by a substantial de- For example, type 201 stainless steel has compo-
characteristics; for example, it has low-tempera- crease in ductility, for example, from about 55% sition ranges of 5.5 to 7.5% Mn, 16 to 18% Cr,
ture toughness, excellent weldability, and is non-
magnetic. Because of their high alloy content,
austenitic steels are usually corrosion resistant. ASTM grain size
Disadvantages are their expense (because of the 2 4 6 8 10 12
1200 i i = i i =
120

260 a. E
oo-~,~11700
,50
J~- 220
t300 "~ 800 o-o~ 80
"o
180
o,
-lltOO "o

"~ 140 so "~


600 ~ ~ -r.,

~. 100
o Y
I I I
t oo
I
400 ~ . ~ 40 o

60
0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Carbon content, wt% Lath martensite packet size (d-1/2), mm -1/2
Fig. 3 4 Relationshipbetween carbon content and the Fig. 3 5 Relationship between lath martensite packet size (dl and yield strength of Fe-0.2%C (upper line) and Fe-Mn
yield strengthof martensite.Source: Ref 4 (lower line) martensites. Source: Ref 2
170 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Tempering temperature,F Hardness, HB


200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 555 477 415 363 293
70 300
(2070) \
250 \
60 (172o)
0 ,0,,o N Tensilestrength

~-o.~c % I1.
200
n- 50 ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ (13oo) - - 'Yield' point
'\ - N N N

J::
NiX
= 0=00=0; 150
5
t~
o}
(1030)
~=
"l-
m 40 ~ ~ 0.10"0.
~20 ~/oC ~ ~ 70
- - Reductionin area --~ 6O
30 100 4O
(690)

20
400 600
Elongation
' i ~ '
800 1 0 0 0 1200
(200) (320) (430) (540) (650)
!i
Tempering temperature, F(C)
5ILl

\
10 I I I I I I Fig. 37 Effect of tempering temperature on the me-
As- 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 chanical properties of type 4340 steel. Source:
Ref 2
quenched Tempering temperature, C

Fig. 36 Decreasein the hardnessof martensitewith temperingtemperaturefor various carbon contents.Source: Ref 2
ture (Ac]), the process of spheroidization takes
place. Figure 41 shows a fully spheroidized steel
3.5 to 5.5% Ni, and 0.25% N. The other type 2xx microstructure. The microstructure before sphe-
tic, these steels can be work hardened to provide
series of steels contain from 0.25 to 0.40% N. roidization is pearlite. During spheroidization,
higher hardness and wear resistance. A work-
Another important austenitic steel is austenitic hardened Hadfield manganese steel has excellent the cementite lamellae of the pearlite must
manganese steel. Developed by Sir Robert Had- resistance to abrasive wear under heavy loading. change morphology to form spheroids. The proc-
field in the late 1890s, these steels remain Because of this characteristic, these steels are ess is controlled by the diffusion rate of carbon
austenitic after water quenching and have consid- ideal for jaw crushers and other crushing and and portions of the lamellae must "pinch-off"
erable strength and toughness. A typical Hadfield grinding components in the mining industry. (dissolve) and that dissolved carbon must diffuse
manganese steel will contain 10 to 14% Mn, 0.95 Also, Hadfield manganese steels have long been to form a spheroid from the remaining portions
to 1.4% C, and 0.3 to 1% Si. Solution annealing used for railway frogs (components used at the of lamellae. This process takes several hours.
is necessary to suppress the formation of iron junction point of two railroad lines). Spheroidization takes place in less time when the
carbides. The carbon must be in solid solution to starting microstructure is martensite or tempered
stabilize the austenite. When completely austeni- martensite. In this process, the spheroidized car-
Ferrite-Cementite bides are formed by growth of carbides formed
during tempering.
900 When plain-carbon steels are heated to tem- A fully spheroidized structure leads to im-
As-quenched peratures just below the lower critical tempera- proved machinability. A steel in its fully sphe-
800 65
As-quenched / ~0~F I 8O
hardiness " ~ - / / I 400F
'= / Mo

/
70

0= ], / .., > 60
e

"
"f" /b'/'' 600 F..,@ =
n-
"1-
,6 z ~ " l " - ~.c. 50 =" ~ 50 tw p
"O

400
-. ~,,,,, ~o- I 800 F""
45
40 ~
il
~
.E
4o
j .S/ ! Cr

o Si
~ 3o
300
; ; ~ o ~ ~.,,,~ ~ , - , 1000OF.o" 30 o
20
200 ~....,~1200 F=o=
1300 F lO
j f
100
0.2 0.4 0.6
I
0.8 1.0 0
Carbon, % 0.02 0.04 o.o6 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 1 2
Element content, %
Fig. 38 Relationship between hardness of tempered
martensite with carbon content at various tem- Fig. 39 E ~ of alloying elementson the retardationor softeningduring tempering at 540 C (1000 F) relative to iron-
pering temperatures.Source: Ref 2 carbon alloys. Source:Ref 2
Strudure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 171

1200 0 ~+, , + , . . + .,yff/S+~ ++ z9 O,o,:" Q ~ - *o "


/

100o / f
-- /
-- Tensile/~stStrength s~t" ~
"x ~, o+u t z ,
DO o v
. # =
",-,~', . = o
o o ~ o
~, .o0. %0 :':,~, - ,,~. o- ~
~ mo
. " ," ~. t)
I rength
= 600 / / ' (0.2*/.offset)
OC~ 06 o o " +' (/)1 (7 * . , ~ ,,,,. ~ ====, I=, .',,a
'~'~
0 oo o oo v . ,0 I= ~F' = ,~,=p " %

O . .++ o,,o 0+,o+ .~l..~,,o.: .o ~, .= . . . . ~ +


~ o + "o. o ~>/2 + .~.,o,'-." , ."1 ". ~ == ~+)1 ^+L
~- 40 =m ~:~ ,e-~a ~, ~" 0,//~,,.. ,,- .. oOo..~:" 0~"o o:.- "'+,~" +o~"~'~ ~o'+<3c
o
200 ~- []
~ 20 o 2+ :+" ' . oo ,,? a : - - , . 0- v++o
. ~',,*" o o ~'

0 ~
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Cold work. %
e:+ e" ooV+ '~ d'-" o~;~, + " \
Fig. 40 Influence of cold work on mechanical proper-
ties of type 304 stainlesssteel.Source:Ref 4

roidized state is in its softest possible condition. Fig, 41 Microstructureof a fullyspheroidizedsteel.4 % picraletch.1000x
Some steels, such as type 1020, are spheroidized
before cold forming into tubing because
spheroidized steels have excellent formability. 15 to 20% martensite in a matrix of ferrite. The 980X of similar tensile strength. These charac-
Ordinary low-carbon, cold-rolled, and an- microstructure of a typical dual-phase steel is teristics are especially important in formability.
nealed sheet steels have ferritic microstructures shown in Fig. 42. In most plain-carbon and low- A unique characteristic of a ferrite-martensite
with a small amount of grain-boundary cemen- alloy steels, the presence of martensite in the dual-phase steel is its substantial work hardening
tite, as shown in Fig. 8. These carbides nucleate microstructure is normally avoided because of capacity. This allows the steel to strengthen
and grow on the ferrite grain boundaries during the deleterious effect that martensite has on duc- while being deformed. By proper design of the
the annealing process, which takes place in the tility and toughness. However, when the marten- stamping dies, this behavior can be exploited to
lower portion of the intercritieal temperature re- site is embedded in a matrix of ferrite, it imparts produce a high-strength component. Most con-
gion (i.e,, the region between the A 3 and A 1 tem- ventional high-strength steels have limited form-
desirable characteristics. One desirable charac-
peratures shown in the iron-carbon diagram, Fig. ability because their high strength is developed
teristic is that dual-phase steels do not exhibit a
6). Many modern-day automotive sheet steels are prior to the forming process.
yield point. Figure 43 compares the stress-strain
produced with very low carbon levels to avoid behavior of four steels: plain carbon, SAE 950X,
these grain-boundary carbides because they de- and SAE 980X, which exhibit a yield point with FerriteoAustenite
grade formability. the fourth, a dual-phase steel (GM 980X). This
means that the cosmetically unappealing Ltiders High-alloy steels having approximately equal
bands that form during the discontinuous yield- proportions of fcc austenite and bcc ferrite, with
Ferrite-Martensite ferrite comprising the matrix, are referred to as
ing (i.e., yield point) are absent in a dual-phase
duplex stainless steels. The microstructure of a
A relatively new family of steels called dual- steel. Also note in Fig. 43 that the dual-phase
typical duplex stainless steel is shown in Fig. 44.
phase steels consists of a microstracture of about steel has much more elongation than the SAE
Although the exact amount of each phase is a
function of composition and heat treatment, most
alloys are designed to contain about equal
amounts of each phase in the annealed condition.

100
~" (552)(690)80~ / ........ ~',1'IGM 980X'

~v 60 t" ~ J ~ /
(414) ~'~
/ SAE 950X
40
~ (276) / Plainc a / ~ n ~

038)
0
0 10 20 30
I
40
Strain in two-inch gage length, %

Fig. 43 Comparisonof the stress-strainc u r v e s of three


discontinuouslyyielding sheetsteels(plain car-
loon,5AE 950X, and SAE980X) and a dual-phasesteel(GM
980X). in addition to the differences in yielding behavior,
note the higher percentageof uniform elongation in the
dual-phase steel compared with the conventional SAE
Fig. 42 Microstructureof a typical dual-phasesteel.2% nital etch. 250x 980X of similar tensilestrength.Source:Ref 2
172 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

The duplex structure results in i m p r o v e d stress-


corrosion cracking resistance, c o m p a r e d with
austenitic stainless steels, and i m p r o v e d tough-
n e s s and ductility, compared with the ferritic
stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels are capa-
ble of tensile yield strengths ranging f r o m 400 to
550 MPa (60 to 80 ksi) in the annealed condition,
which is approximately twice the strength of
either phase alone.
The principal alloying e l e m e n t s in duplex
stainless steels are c h r o m i u m and nickel, but ni-
trogen, m o l y b d e n u m , copper, silicon, and tung-
sten m a y be added to control structural balance
and to impart certain corrosion-resistance char-
acteristics. Four commercial groups o f duplex
stainless steels, listed in order o f increasing cor-
rosion resistance, are:

Fe-23Cr-4Ni-0.1N
Fe-22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-0.15N
Fe-25Cr-5Ni-2.5Mo-0.17N-Cu Fig. 44 Microstructure of a typical mill-annealed duplex stainless steel plate showing elongated austenite islands in the
Fe-25Cr-7Ni-3.5Mo-0.25N-W-Cu ferrite matrix. Etched in 15 mL HCI in 100 mL ethyl alcohol. 200x

B e c a u s e o f their excellent corrosion resistance,


ferrite-austenite duplex stainless steels have gies as seen in Fig. 45. Type A, because o f its ter the matrix microstructure to obtain desired
found widespread use in a range o f industries, r a n d o m orientation and distribution, is preferred properties. The matrix can be fully ferritic, fully
particularly the oil and gas, petrochemical, pulp in m a n y applications, for example, cylinders of pearlitic, fully martensitic, or fully bainitie, de-
and paper, and pollution control industries. They internal combustion engines. The matrix of a pending on composition and heat treatment. The
are c o m m o n l y used in aqueous, chloride-contain- typical gray cast iron is usually pearlite. How- yield strength o f typical ductile cast irons ranges
ing e n v i r o n m e n t s and as r e p l a c e m e n t s for ever, ferrite-pearlite or martensitic micro- from 276 to 621 MPa (46 to 76 ksi), and their
austenitic stainless steels that have suffered structures can be developed by special heat treat- tensile strengths range from 414 to 827 MPa (60
stress-corrosion cracking or pitting during ser- ments. As a structural material, gray cast iron is to 120 ksi). Total elongation ranges from about 3
vice. selected for its high compressive strength, which to 18%. Heat treated, austempered ductile irons
ranges from 572 to 1293 MPa (83 to 188 ksi), have yield strengths ranging from 505 to 950
although tensile strengths of gray iron range only MPa (80 to 138 ksi), tensile strengths ranging
from 152 to 431 MPa (22 to 63 ksi). Gray cast from 860 to 1200 MPa (125 to 174 ksi), and total
Graphite irons are used in a wide variety of applications,
elongations ranging from 1 to 10%. Uses for due-
tile iron include gears, crankshafts, paper-mill
W h e n carbon contents o f iron-carbon alloys including automotive cylinder blocks, cylinder
dryer rolls, valve and p u m p bodies, steering
exceed about 2%, there is a tendency for graphite heads and brake drums, ingot molds, m a c h i n e
knuckles, rocker arms, and various machine com-
to form (see Fe-C diagram in Fig. 6b). This is h o u s i n g s , pipe, pipe fittings, manifolds, compres-
ponents.
especially true in gray cast iron in w h i c h graph- sors, and pumps.
ite flakes are a p r e d o m i n a n t microstructural fea- A n o t h e r form of graphite in cast iron is
ture (Fig. 3). Gray cast iron has been used for spheroidal graphite found in ductile cast irons
centuries because it melts at a lower temperature (also called nodular cast irons). The micro- Cementite
than steel and is easy to cast into various shapes. structure of a typical ductile cast iron is shown in
Fig. 46. This form of graphite is produced by a A m a j o r microstructural constituent in white
Also, the graphite flakes impart good ma- cast iron is cementite. The microstructure of a
chinability, acting as chip breakers, and they also process called inoculation, in which a m a g n e -
typical white cast iron is s h o w n in Fig. 47. The
provide excellent d a m p i n g capacity. D a m p i n g ca- s i u m or cerium alloy is thrust into molten cast
cementite f o r m s by a eutectic reaction during so-
pacity is important in m a c h i n e s that are subject iron immediately prior to the casting operation.
lidification:
to vibration. However, gray cast iron is limited to T h e s e elements form intermetallic c o m p o u n d s
applications that do not require t o u g h n e s s or duc- that act as a nucleating surface for graphite. With
tility, for example, total elongation o f less than a spherical morphology, the graphite no longer Liquid ~-~ Cementite + Austeuite (Eq 15)
1%. The flake m o r p h o l o g y of the graphite pro- renders the cast iron brittle as do graphite flakes
vides for easy crack propagation under applied in gray cast iron. Ductile irons have m u c h higher
stress. ductility and toughness than gray iron and thus T h e e u t e c t i c c o n s t i t u e n t in w h i t e cast iron is
Gray cast irons usually contain 2.5 to 4% C, 1 expand the use of this type of ferrous alloy. M o s t called ledeburite and has a two-phase morphology
to 3% Si, and 0.1 to 1.2% Mn. T h e graphite ductile iron castings are used in the as-cast form. shown as the smaller particles in the white matrix
flakes can be p r e s e n t in five different morpholo- However, heat treatment can be employed to al- in Fig. 48. The eutectic is s h o w n in the Fe-C

Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E

./T.,i! .~>..'
i:t"
,/ I/ / ; [_,~'~"
~,~.<.'.,..~ .~ ~.:
72,:
/ ,'~..,,~,,, ,,. --'~,1 '~. '

Uniform distribution, Rosette grouping, Superimposed flake size, Interdendritic segregation, Interdendritie segregation,
random orientation random orientation random orientation random orientation preferred orientation

Fig. 45 Classificationof different graphite flake morphology


Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 173

Fig, 46 Microstructure of a typical ductile (nodular) cast Fig, 47 Microstructure of a typical white cast iron. 4% picral etch. 100x. Courtesy of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University
iron showing graphite in the form of spheroids.
2% nital etch. 200x. Courtesy of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh
University

binary diagram in Fig. 6(b). The austenite in the


eutectic (as well as the austenite in the primary
phase) transforms to pearlite, ferrite-pearlite, or
martensite, depending on cooling rate and compo-
sition. Because of the high percentages of cemen-
tite, white cast irons are used in applications
requiring excellent wear and abrasion resistance.
These irons contain high levels of silicon, chro-
mium, nickel, and molybdenum and are termed
alloy cast irons. Such applications include steel
mill rolls, grinding mills, and jaw crushers for the
mining industry. Hardness is the primary me-
chanical property of white cast iron and ranges
from 321 to 400 HB for pearlitic white iron and
400 to 800 HB for alloy (martensitic) white irons.

REFERENCES

1. P.D. Harvey, Ed., Engineering Properties of Steel,


American Society for Metals, 1982
2. G. Krauss, Principles of the Heat Treatment of Steel,
American Society for Metals, 1980
Fig. 48 Microstructure of the eutectic constituent ledebutite in a typical white cast iron. 4% picral etch. 500x. Courtesy
of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University
3. R.W.K. Honeycombe, Steels--Microstructure and
Properties, American Society for Metals, 1982
4. W.C. Leslie, The Physical Metallurgy of Steels,
12. G.E Vander Voort and A. Ro6sz, Metallography, Vo117 19. B.L. Bramfitt and J.G. Spoer, MetalL Trans. A, Vol
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