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OMAE2015

May 31-June 5, 2015, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

OMAE2015-41397

Zhejiang University Zhejiang University Zhejiang University

Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

Zhejiang University Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd

Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Tianjin, China Tianjin, China

ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION

The application of pipeline end manifold (PLEM) in As oil/gas field developments move further away from

subsea field has been increased dramatically because of its existing subsea structures, it becomes more advantageous to

economical and convenient factors as a subsea facility, however, consider subsea tie-ins of their export systems with existing

implementing it into the deep waters is still quite challenging. deepwater pipeline system that offer spare transport capacity.

Reference software tools relating to this project should be This necessitates incorporating pipeline end manifolds (PLEM)

developed to provide some theoretical technique support for the at both pipeline ends to tie in the system [1]. Also, the PLEM is

engineers. Throughout this paper, the installation of PLEM, a kind of cluster manifold, which can also play an important

which is welded to the lower flexible pipe and tractived by the role in some aspects such as gathering oil and gas, appointing

wire rounding through the suction pile, is studied in the 3D chemical agents, gas and water.

space. The mathematical model and its dedicated algorithm of This new and fascinating application of the PLEM as a

the installation system is established, and the iterative subsea facility in the oil and gas field has captured the

procedures to calculate the mechanical behavior of the pipeline researchers attention. Extensive researches have been

and the tractive wire in the installation project are illustrated. conducted relating to PLEM, most of which are mainly focused

The initial configuration of the system can be obtained based on on the design challenges that might be encountered in some

the catenary theory, and its final form, when subjected to tough conditions [2-7]. Although the equipment design and the

environmental loads, can be acquired through the overall offshore operations are some key points in the installation

iterations by satisfying the compatibility and equilibrium campaign, the mechanical behavior of the installation system,

requirements. Results derived from the proposed method are such as the axial tension and displacement of the pipe and wire,

confirmed to be accurate and reliable when compared with the are also of great importance to its success. To the best

ones achieved from the OrcaFlex simulation. knowledge of the author, the studies on the mechanical behavior

of the PLEM installation system are still rare. Xavier M et al[8]

presented some relevant aspects of the successful installation of

the PLEM, including its design, modifications to the pipelay

vessel and offshore operations in the installation campaign.

John Sokol[9] addressed the installation challenges of the

related project and presented the methods and equipment that

were employed to successfully complete the installation. Wang

Hui et al[10-11] reported the tension control and the length

control installation method of the PLEM. The FEM software

was also used for the simulations of the whole installation

process and at the special location of PLEM. However, those

literatures presented above are mainly focused on software Figure 1. PLEM installation process.

simulation and the representation of the installation process,

there are hardly any theoretical analysis of the installation For the sake of convenience in the analysis, the PLEM can

model, which can be of great importance for the engineers to be simplified into a rigid cuboid, which only allows the

evaluate the safety of the installation process. translation movements. The line between the two connecting

Therefore, mathematical models related to the installation points, which are positioned at the center of the upper and lower

of the PLEM should be proposed, and reference software tools surface of PLEM, is supposed to go through the center of

gravity. The following assumptions can be made: the bending

should be developed. This is essential in assisting the engineers

stiffness of the flexible pipeline can be negligible, as it will not

to efficiently make crucial decisions about the success and have significant impact on the kinematics when the pipeline is

security of the installation process. During the installation, the long enough suspended in the subsea. The suction pile is

bend radius of the pipeline and the axial tension of the whole regarded as a fixed pulley in the model, and the friction acting

installation system should be controlled in an appropriate scope on the relative part can be neglected.

to prevent the strength damage. The displacement of the PLEM

in the subsea during installation should also be under the 2.1. Initial configuration

control of the engineers. In this paper, the mathematic model of The mathematical model of the PLEM installation can be

the PLEM installation is established and an iterative method is seen in Figure 2, and an iterative method is used to study the

introduced herein to calculate those quantities, which are quite mechanical behavior of the PLEM installation system in 3D

useful for the guidance of the operation. Numerical simulations space. In order to reduce the iterations needed to determine the

using OrcaFlex are also conducted to verify the accuracy and final shapes under environmental loads, a reasonable trial form

reliability of this proposed method. should be chosen. For simplicity, a two-dimensional shape only

subjected to dead gravity load along the entire length in Plane

2. Mathematical Model XZ is selected as the initial configuration.. Before acquiring this

The installation process of the PLEM in practical initial form, some unknown geometric and mechanical

engineering can be seen in Figure 1. The PLEM is welded to the parameters should first be solved, which include the force

lower flexible pipeline, and the other end is connected to the components of each point, and the wire lengths divided by the

tractive cable which rounds through the suction pile that has pulley. Catenary theory can be applied to solve this problem.

been anchored on the seabed. There are a lot of uncertainties

A B

before the PLEM arrives at the seabed, which may result in sea surface

catastrophic fail. Thus, this phase of the installation process

j+1

should be paid special attention to, and the mechanical behavior Ti+1 i+1

z

of the pipeline and the tractive wire should be carefully j Fxi i

DW

observed. Fyi

y Gi

x

flexible pipe

Z

wire

Y O X

seabed

TAX 1 TAX TAZ

system in 3D space. 2 2

T2 T2

S AO ch ch 1 AX CZ

wpip TAX TAX

T BZ

T AZ

TAX T 2 TDZ

2

T2 T2

A

B

T BX ch 1 AX ch 1 AX OAZ

T AX wwir TAX TAX (9)

flexible pipe wire

2 2 2

SOB ch ch 1 BX (10)

wwir

H OB

TBX TBX

H AO

T DZ

C simultaneously be solved. The initial configuration of the

T OAZ T OBZ installation system can then be obtained. When the wire and the

D

O flexible pipe are submerged in water, buoyant force should be

S AO S OB

subtracted from the dry weight.

Figure 3. Initial form of PLEM installation system.

2.2. Form and internal force of the system

In practical engineering, these quantities can be regarded The assumed initial configuration of the installation system

as known quantities: the length of the flexible pipe LAC and the cannot satisfy the equilibrium and the compatibility

total length of the tractive wire Lwir, the horizontal and vertical requirements under environmental loads. Thus, to meet those

distances from Point A and Point B to Point O, which are demands, an iterative procedure should be used to update the

illustrated as SAO, HAO, SOB, and HOB, respectively. Suppose that, installation form, internal forces and the starting point reactions

the vertical component forces of the Point O in the two sides of when subjected to environmental loads.

the pulley are TOAZ and TOBZ. The other component forces of the A three-dimensional coordinate system can be set up by

corresponding points are illustrated in Figure 3. According to locating the origin at the position of Point O, at where the

the equilibrium of the force, equations 1-5 can be obtained: tractive wire can be divided into two segments in the analysis

TAZ LAC wpip TCZ (1) (the lengths of which have already been calculated out in

TCZ Fplem TDZ (2) Section 2.1). Point O is selected to be the starting point of the

iterative procedure assuming the mechanical behavior of Part

TDZ LDO wwir TOAZ (3)

OB and Part OA can be obtained from the iterative procedure

TBZ LOB wwir TOBZ (4) within the overall iterations.

T 2

OBZ T 2

BX T 2

OAZ T 2

AX

(5) The tractive wire and the flexible jumper can be divided

Where, wpip and wwir are the distributed weight of the into short straight elements, and the PLEM is regarded as a

flexible pipe and the tractive wire, LDO and LOB are the singular element. The origins of the local frames of reference of

supposed lengths in the two sides of the pulley, which are to be its two parts are set at j and i, which are the node numbers

solved. Fplem is the weight of the PLEM. According to the counting from the starting point O to its two separate sides,

properties of the catenary , the horizontal forces in its two sides respectively. The divisions of the wire and flexible pipe can be

remain unchanged and the axial tensions of the wire at the two decided according to the required precision and the time

sides of Point O should be equal. The installation system should consumption of the analysis. The distributed loads acting on

also satisfy the compatibility requirement, some of which can be each element can be replaced by the equivalent concentrated

derived through the catenary theory. The height of PLEM is load Fxi, and Fyi, which are applied to the center of the element.

defined as hplem. Those related equations are presented below: Mathematical model of the PLEM installation is illustrated in

Lwir LDO LOB (6) Figure 2. The way Ahmadizadeh[12] addresses the space

structuralslack cable, has motivate the author a lot to deal

H AO T 2

AX TAZ

2

TAX

2

TCZ2 / wpip hplem with the problem of PLEM installation, and the iterative

T 2

AX TDZ

2

TAX

2

TOAZ

2

/ wwir (7)

procedures are presented in the following ways:

(1). Calculate the load components (Fxi, Fyi ,Fzi) acting on

H OB T 2

BX TBZ2 TBX

2

TOBZ

2

/ wwir (8) each differential element. The sign is defined as that, when the

direction of the load is along the positive direction of the axis, converge, and the calculation will repeat and always flutter

its value is positive, otherwise, it is negative. nearby certain components of the starting point.

(2). Taking the left part OA as an example, start from Node (4). The above procedures are repeated until the relative

1(Point O), shown in Figure 2. The component forces of the error in the prediction of Point A is less than a certain specified

starting point O (TOAX, TOAY , TOAZ) are calculated from the value :

initial assumption of the installation system. Its better to choose (15)

X 2 Y 2 Z 2

the components much closer to its real ones when subjected to

Then, the sub-iteration of the left part is finished. The

environmental loads to reduce the iterations. Thus, components

resultant force of Point O in the left part can be obtained from

TOAX, and TOAY can be adjusted according to the moment

the below formula, which are the results of the latest calculated

balance of Point A. The subsequent nodal components can be

starting point components:

obtained from the equilibrium of the internal force:

(16)

(TAX , TAY , TAZ ) j 1 (TAX , TAY , TAZ ) j Fx , Fy , Fz (11) T T 2 T 2 T 2

OA OAX OAY OAZ

j

(5). The resultant force of Point O in the right part, TOB can

The subscript A represents that the calculated nodal

be acquired from the same iterative procedures presented

components are at the left part OA, and j is the node number,

above.

counting from Point O. Most of the time, Fzj is the element

(6). Compare the resultant forces TOA with TOB. They

weight, and buoyant force should be taken off when it is

should equal, but here, the length LDO and LOB used in the above

submerged in the water.. The bending stiffness of the flexible

procedure are from the conditions when only it was subjected to

pipe can be neglected, so Element j will surely lies along the

gravitational loads. As a result, the compared values are

direction of the resultant force of Node j+1, TA,j+1. Thus, the

dispersed in the first iteration. Therefore, the lengths of those

updated points of the subsequent nodes can be derived from:

two segments should be adjusted according to the different

X A , YA , Z A j 1 X A , YA , Z A j value of the corresponding resultant forces:

(12)

l j (TAX , TAY , TAZ ) j 1 / (TAX

2

TAY

2

TAZ2 ) j 1 LDO, p 1 LDO, p (TOA, p TOB, p ) / Lwir

LDB, p 1 LDB, p (TOA, p TOB, p ) / Lwir (17)

Where, lj is the element length, its value should be taken

accordingly from the corresponding divisions of each part. Subscript p is the overall iteration number. is also the

When it comes to the singular element PLEM, the new nodal proportional gain controlling the modification of the two

position of its second end can be obtained just by simply adding segments lengths. The selection of this value may have a big

the height of the PLEM. difference on the convergence and the time consumption. After

(3). After all the subsequent node positions are updated, the adjustment, LDO,p+1 and LOB,p+1 are treated as the known

the new location of the last point n (XA, YA, ZA)n may not quantities, on the basis of the catenary theory illustrated in

necessarily be the same as its actual one (XA, YA, ZA), the Section 2.1, the initial configuration can be once again

deviation of the end pipeline from its actual point A can be achieved. Starting from step (1), the next iteration begins. The

evaluated as: iterations are stopped until the difference between those two

(X , Y , Z ) ( X A , YA , Z A )n ( X A , YA , Z A ) (13) resultant forces of Point O at the two sides of the pulley is small

The assumed starting point components should be enough:

modified based on the following rules: TOA TOB 1 (18)

TOAX , TOAY , TOAZ k 1 TOAX , TOAY , TOAZ k is the predetermined convergence tolerance of the whole

X Y Z (14) iteration. The overall analysis is conducted on basis of the

( TOAX , k , TOAY , k , TOAZ , k ) accomplishment of the local analysis, thus, should not be

S AO S AO S AO

smaller than .

The subscript k represents the iteration number of the left

(7). After the accomplishment of the overall iteration, the

part OA, and is the positive constant, it is the proportional

displacement and the axial tension of the installation system can

gain that control the magnitude of the adjustment made on the be obtained, and the bend radius of the flexible pipeline can be

starting point reactions. Usually, the value of can be chosen also derived from the following formula:

in accordance with the accuracy required. It should be noted i a i / 2sin arccos (bi 2 ci 2 ai 2 ) 2bi ci (19)

that if is selected to be too large, the iteration may not

Where Point A and B to O are 400m and 300m, respectively. The other

ai ( X i 1 X i 1 ) (Yi 1 Yi 1 ) (Zi 1 Zi 1 )

2 2 2

, parameters of the flexible pipe, tractive wire, and the PLEM can

be seen in Table 3-4.

bi ( X i X i 1 )2 (Yi Yi 1 )2 (Zi Zi 1 )2 ,

Table 1. Parameters of sea water and wave.

ci ( X i 1 X i )2 (Yi 1 Yi )2 (Zi 1 Zi )2 . Parameter Value

Density of sea water, (kg/m3) 1025

Water depth, DW (m) 1200

3. Analysis example

Wave height, Hs (m) 1

The world leading commercial software OcraFlex[13] is Wave period, Ts (s) 8

utilized to simulate the installation project in order to verify the

accuracy and reliability of this proposed method. Table 2. Data for current profile.

Water depth(m) Current velocity(m/s) Direction()

3.1. Environmental load calculation 0 1 0

When calculating the environmental loads, the current can 300 0.43 16

be assumed to be a steady flow, that is to say, the inertia force 500 0.28 34

caused by the current can be neglected. The horizontal force 850 0.35 71

acting on each element in the x-axis and y-axis directions can be 1050 0.47 146

derived based on the Morison formula and geometric 1200 0.48 180

relationship:

li du Table 3. Parameters of flexible pipe and wire.

Fxi (0.5 CD D(v v cos u u ) CM D 2 )dl (20)

0 4 dt Parameter Flexible pipe Wire

li Total length(m) 1000 1600

Fyi 0.5 CD Dv v sin dl (21) Distributed dry weight(N/m) 803.7 350

0

Where, is the density of water, CD is the drag coefficient, Outer diameter(m) 0.245 0.15

CM is the inertia coefficient, D is the outer diameter of the

Table 4. Parameters of PLEM

element, and is the current direction. u and du/dt are the Parameter PLEM

water particle velocity and acceleration caused by waves, which Weight (KN) 240

can be evaluated in accordance with Airys theory: Height (m) 1.5

Length (m) 4

H s cosh(2 Z / ) 2 t (22)

u cos (X ) Width (m) 2

Ts sinh(2 DW / ) Ts Drag coefficient 1.32

du 2 2 H s cosh(2 Z / ) 2 t (23) Inertia coefficient 2

sin (X )

dt Ts 2 sinh(2 DW / ) Ts

3.2. Comparison and discussion

gT 2 2 DW (24)

s tanh( ) Comparisons are carried out between the results obtained

2 from the proposed method and OrcaFlex simulation. The axial

Where, Hs is the wave height, Ts is the wave period, is tension along the length of the flexible pipe and the tractive

the wave length, DW is the water depth, and t is the time. When wire from the two solutions are illustrated in Figures 4 and 5,

Z> DW, that is to say, above the sea surface, the horizontal respectively. From those two graphs, it can be observed that the

forces applied to those elements can be regarded as zero. two sets of results are in good agreement with each other from

Those environmental parameters are listed in Table 1-2. the sense of wholeness. However, the axial tension along the

The wave direction is assumed to be in parallel with the positive tractive wire from the OrcaFlex simulation is not so pliable at

direction of X-axis. The current direction is set as 0when it the lowest Point O. That is because the way the finite-element

is along the wave direction, and 180 when in the reverse model established contributes a lot to this phenomenon. It is

direction. Interpolation method can be applied to derive the quite discommodious to simulate the pulley in OrcaFlex

current velocity v and its direction in different water depths. software, so the hinge joint is utilized to replace it. The two

Point A, B, and O are in the same vertical plane, the distance segment lengths of the tractive wire on both sides of Point O

from Point A to the sea surface is 15m, which is 13m higher have already been calculated out from the proposed method

than Point Bs. The horizontal distances along the X-axis of written in Matlab. From the curves, it can be seen that the top of

the flexible pipe(Point A) and the tractive wire(Point B) are the

1400

two most dangerous points during the installation, and should OrcaFlex simulation

be paid special attention to during the installation. 1200 Proposed method

550 1000

500 800

OrcaFlex simulation

Z Axis(m)

Proposed method

450 600

Axial tension(KN)

400 400

350

200

20

0 16

300 12

-450 8

-300

m)

-150 4

is(

250 0

XA 0

Ax

x is(m 150

) 300

Y

200

Figure 6. Comparison of the displacement in 3D space.

Length of the pipeline from Piont A to C(m)

140.0k

Figure 4. Comparison of axial tension along pipeline.

120.0k

Bend radius(m)

Proposed method

OrcaFlex simulation 80.0k

200 Proposed method

Axial tension(KN)

60.0k

150 40.0k

20.0k

100 0.0

50 Length of the pipeline from Piont A to C(m)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Figure 7. Comparison of the bend radius of the pipeline.

Length of the tractive wire from Point D to B(m)

4. Conclusion

In this paper, the mathematical model of PLEM installation

Figure 6 shows the comparison of the installation system is established, and an iterative method is proposed to deal with

configuration, and Figure 7 illustrates the variation of the bend its 3D analysis. Equations 14 and 17 can govern the

radius along the flexible pipe. The results achieved from the convergence and the calculation speed of the iterations, so, the

proposed method are in consistent with the ones obtained from selection of those two proportional gains should be taken great

the OrcaFlex simulation, and the differences between those two care of. The dedicated algorithm is programmed in Matlab,

solutions are within the limited error. It can also be found out which can be used as the reference tools for engineers.

that the minimum bend radius of the flexible pipe occurs at the Since it is quite difficult to simulate the pulley in OrcaFlex,

points which are quite near to the soldering point of the PLEM in order to verify the accuracy and reliability of this proposed

and the top end of the pipe. Thus, more attention should be paid method, a hinge joint is used to replace it in OcaFlex model.

to those points during the installation project. That is to say, the lengths of the tractive wire at the two sides of

The above comparisons of the results between the two Point O should be the known quantities in the FEM model, so

solutions indicate that the mathematical model and the iterative the lengths can be taken as the ones calculated from the

method proposed in this paper are correct and effective. proposed method. The difference between the axial tensions of

the tractive wire at the two sides of Point O is about 4% from

the OrcaFlex model, which is within the acceptable tolerance

scope. The results from the two methods are consistent, which Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, June

shows that this proposed method can give a good estimation of 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France, OMAE2013-11432.

the mechanical behavior of the installation system and it can [6] Per Damsleth, Basel Abdalla, and KC Tang, Large

provide some theoretical reference for the engineers in practical diameter, deep water PLEM concepts, In Proceedings of

project.

the ASME 2012, 31st International Conference on Ocean,

Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2012), July 1-6,

2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, OMAE2012-83403.

[7] Robinson R., and Grass J., Design Challenges of a 48 inch

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Pipeline Subsea Manifold, Offshore Technology Conference

The authors have been supported by the National Major Project

OTC15275, Houston, May 2003

of China (Grant No.2011ZX05027-004).

[8] Jasmin ISJ, and Mohamed ABM, Deepwater pipeline

end manifold design challenges, In Proceedings of OPE

REFERENCES Malaysia at the 6th PetroMin Deepwater &Subsea and

[1] Yong Bai and Qiang Bai, Subsea Engineering Handbook, Under-water Technology Conference. 2008.

Gulf Professional Publishing, USA, 2010, pp633-634. [9] Xavier M, Sampaio R, Johnson K, Moen K, Hiller D, and

[2] Sokol J., Steffy M., The Bombax Pipeline Project Tanscheit P, Installation of reeled rigid pipelines connected to

Installation and Positioning of Large Manifold, Spool Supports large and heavy subsea structures in ultra deepwater, In

and Spool Pieces, Offshore Technology Conference Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Offshore and Polar

OTC15273, Houston, May 2003 Engineering Conference. 2008, paper no. I-08-066.

[3] Damsleth P, Abdalla B, and Tang KC, Challenges and [10] Wang Hui, He Ning, and Wang Bo, Analysis of PLEM

concept solutions for 46-inch diameter deepwater PLEM installation in LiWan Project, Ship Building of China, vol.5 1,

connector qualification, In The Twenty-second International Special 2, pp131-137, 2010.

Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. 2012, paper no. I- [11] Wang Hui, He Ning, and Wang Bo, PLET installation

12-316. based on tension control and length control, In Proceedings of

[4] Pomar A, Sayed AA, and Nico Daddario, Temsah field the Twentieth International Offshore and Polar Engineering

PLEMs replacement challenges & technology, In SPE North Conference. 2010, paper no. 327-332, ISOPE, Beijing, China,

Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition.2010, paper no. June 20-25, 2010.

SPE128836. [12] M.Ahmadizadeh, Three-dimensional geometrically

[5] Jeroen Timmermans, Ian Luff, and Nicholas Long, Large nonlinear analysis of slack cable structures, Computers and

diameter pipeline PLEM design for remote, arctic application, Structures, 128(2013):160-169.

In Proceedings of the ASME 2013, 32nd International [13] Orcina, 2009, OrcaFlex Manual, Version 9.3a, UK.

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