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A. B.

Brown Unit 1 Fabric Filter Air System Introduction

Introduction to the Fabric Filter Air Compressor System
The FLS Fabric Filter System uses compressed air at 55 psig for Jet Pulse cleaning of the
Filter Bags and Control Air at 80 psig for the Damper Actuators. This air is supplied by two
(2) Atlas Copco Oil Free Screw Compressors and two (2) Sahara Air Dryers, an Air Receiver,
air manifolds, solenoid valves, diaphragm valves and piping. The Jet Pulse system provides
short duration jet pulses of air to clean the filter bags.

Two Atlas Copco ZT90 compressors have been installed to provide compressed air for the
Filter Bag cleaning process. The ZT90 compressors are 480V 125 HP motor driven, 2-stage,
oil-free, screw compressors with Atlas Copco Elektronikon controllers. Each compressor is
sized to give 100% of the compressed air required for the Jet Pulse Cleaning system and
Damper Control Air. Any time Unit 1 and the Fabric Filter are in service, at least one
compressor and one air dryer must be online with the second compressor and dryer in

Two Sahara Air Dryers have been installed to filter and dry the air. The air compressors and
the air dryers are installed in the new compressor building located on the north side of the
Fabric Filter Structure.

A 2 cross over pipe is installed to allow the A Compressor to feed the B Air Dryer or the B
Compressor to feed the A Air Dryer should the need ever arise.

One Air Receiver has been installed. The Air Receiver is a 36 diameter 10 2 tall carbon
steel tank manufactured by Manchester Tank of Bedford Indiana. The tanks Maximum
Allowable Working Pressure is 200 psig. The receiver tank is located on a concrete pad on
the south east corner outside of the compressor building.

Atlas Copco ZT-90 Compressor Sahara Air Dryer Air Receiver

80 PSIG Control Air Supply to
H13-HDR the Fabric Filter Dampers

60 PSIG Air Supply to the
Fabric Filter Jet Pulse
H12-HDR Cleaning Manifolds

155 psig
155 psig

H1-HDR Compressor A
Air Dryer A MCC Controller
155 psig
H7-HDR or B
Air Dryer B


Compressed Air Flow Diagram

Air Compressor Operation

Compressor Controller:
The air compressors are controlled by an Atlas Copco Elektronikon Programmable
Controller. In general, the controller regulates the following functions:
Controlling the Compressor Monitor components subject to service
Protecting the Compressor Monitor Compressor Status and
Monitoring Permissives to start Alarms

The Elektronikon Controllers are located on the East side of both Compressors. The
Elektronikon is a proprietary Atlas Copco controller. It is capable of operating the
compressor as a stand alone unit or when programmed into MCC (Multiple Compressor
Control) Mode, monitoring and controlling start and stop functions of several compressors at
a time. In MCC mode, the Elektronikon can manage the Lead/Lag cycles of both
compressors. At A. B. Brown, the West compressor is programmed as the MCC (Multiple
Compressor Controller). When the compressors are in MCC control, the local Start and Stop
buttons on the compressors are disabled.

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Introduction to the ABB1 Fabric Filter Air System

Scroll Keys

Start Button Tabulator Key

Stop Button

Function Keys Power On LED

Automatic Control LED

Alarm Indication LED

The controller is capable of displaying 4 lines of 40 characters. The display will indicate the
sensor for which the display is activated. The unit of measure and actual reading of the
sensor, and a message regarding the compressor operating condition i.e. compressor off,
compressor unloaded, etc. is displayed.

To access the stored data, the scroll keys are used. The scroll keys are labeled with vertical
arrows which allow scrolling through the display.

The tabulator key labeled with two horizontal arrows, allows the operator to select the
parameter indicated by a horizontal arrow. Only the parameters followed by an arrow
pointing to the right are accessible for modification.

The function keys (F1/F2/F3) are used to call up settings, programs, status motor overload,
shut-down, service required messages, or an emergency stop. The function keys will also
allow access to all data collected by the regulator. The function of the keys varies depending
on the displayed menu. The actual function is indicated on the bottom line of the display just
above the relevant key. The illustration above shows that the F1 key will access the

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Compressor Operating Modes
MCC Mode:

The normal control mode for the Fabric Filter compressors is MCC Mode. The Fabric Filter
A compressor is programmed to use the control logic called MCC (Multiple Compressor
Control). The MCC Controller will allow the A (1) compressor to control both the A
(1) and B (2) compressors during normal operation and will initiate Lead/Lag swap
automatically on a pre-set timed cycle. Currently, the timed cycle is for lead/lag to
automatically swap compressors every two weeks. Only compressor A (1) has the
capability to operate as the MCC controlling compressor. All MCC programming is from the
A Compressors display screen. MCC mode is also indicated on the compressor control
screens as LAN Control or CC Regulating.

Local Control Mode:

Another optional control mode is Local Control Mode. When the compressors are in local
control mode, each compressors Elektronikon Controller will start and stop the compressors
whenever the compressor senses that additional compressed air is required by the Fabric Filter
Systems. Swapping the lead/lag is not automatic in this mode and must be done manually by
starting one compressor and placing the other in standby. You must also adjust the pressure
set point limits by staggering the set points that initiate the auto start command for the
compressor in standby mode, so that the standby (Lag) compressor will start when air supply
demand on the system exceeds the supply capability of the Lead compressor.

Elektronikon Controller:

When operating in either MCC Mode or Local Control Mode, the compressors will function
with one compressor in service (Lead) and one compressor in standby (Lag). The controller
maintains net pressure within programmed limits (110-125 psig) by automatically loading and
unloading the Lead compressor based on air consumption. To accomplish this function, the
controller takes into account the unloading pressure, the loading pressure, minimum stop time,
and the maximum number of starts. The controller stops the Lead compressor whenever
possible to reduce the power consumption and restarts it automatically when the net pressure
decreases below the set points. In the event the expected unloading period is below a
programmed value, the regulator keeps the compressor running unloaded to prevent short
standstill periods.

When shutting down the compressor, the controller will unload the compressor for the
programmed time and then stop the compressor. The ZT90 has an unloading delay time of
three (3) seconds.

The Elektronikon also monitors start Permissives. Whether the start is initiated by the
Elektronikon or by an operator, the controller checks the start Permissives and reacts
accordingly. If the start Permissives are not met, the unit will not start.

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Introduction to the ABB1 Fabric Filter Air System
To protect the compressor, several temperature and pressure sensors are provided on the
compressor. If one of these measurements exceeds the programmed shut-down levels, the
compressor will be stopped. This will be indicated on the Elektronikon display panel.

The Elektronikon monitors critical functions of the unit and will warn the operator if
conditions are approaching shut down limits. These warning will be displayed on the
controllers Status display screen.
The controller will also indicate when service is required on critical components of the
compressor. If a time interval is exceeded, a message will appear on the display panel.
The controller is also capable of re-starting the compressor once power is restored after a
voltage failure. The compressor auto re-start on loss of power function is disabled from the
factory and must be energized in the field if desired. For safety reasons, the normal operating
mode at A. B. Brown with this function is disabled.

Compression Cycle

Inlet Air Filter Air Inlet Louver Electric Auto Drain

Heat and water (by-products of the compression process) are generated when the air is
compressed. These by-products must be dealt with before the air is sent to the Air Dryer.
Ambient air enters the compressor cabinet through the Inlet Louver located on the end of the
compressor cabinet. Air is drawn into the inlet air filter and compressed to 35 lbs in the 1st
stage or low-pressure element. The air then passes through an Inter-cooler for cooling before
it is further compressed to 110-125 lbs in the 2nd stage or high-pressure element. The air then
travels through a silencer before it is cooled in the compressors Pre-cooler and After-cooler.
The compressed air is then sent to the Sahara Air dryers for additional water removal and

During compression, cycle water is removed from the air in the compressors condensate drain
system. The compressor has two (2) condensate drain traps installed. One trap is located
down stream of the intercooler to prevent condensate from entering the compressors 2nd stage
element. The second trap is downstream of the After-cooler to prevent condensate from
entering the compressed air outlet pipe to the Sahara Air Dryers.

Condensate enters the electronic water drain via an inlet and accumulates in a collector. A
capacitive sensor continuously measures the collectors liquid level. As soon as the collector
is filled to a certain level, a pilot valve is activated and a diaphragm opens, discharging the
condensate to the floor. When the water level in the collector drops to a certain point, the
outlet closes quickly without wasting compressed air.
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Compressor Cooling System

The ZT90 is an air cooled compressor. The compressors

cooling system serves to cool both the compressed air and
the compressor lube oil. Ambient air is drawn into the
compressor compartment and blown out through a set of
motor operated louvers mounted on the top west side of
the compressor enclosure. This air is pulled across the
compressors coolers to cool the compressed air and the
compressor lube oil. Air becomes hot during the
compression process and must be cooled. The air Cooling Air
compressor uses an Inter-Cooler, a Pre-cooler and an Louvers
After-Cooler to cool the air and the compressor lube oil.

Air from the 1st stage compression cycle enters the Inter-cooler at 356 F and is cooled to 95
F. The inter cooler is a forced air cooler mounted horizontally in the air compressor directly
above the compressor. The inter-cooler uses a radiator style air cooler and a 240V 5 HP
motor driven fan to cool the compressed air. After 2nd stage compression and before the air
leaves the compressor, it is again cooled in the Pre- cooler and the After-cooler. Air enters
the Pre-cooler at 311 F and is cooled to 200 F. The After cooler cools the air from 200 F
down to 88 F. The compressed air then leaves the Air compressor and goes to the Air Dryer.

The Sahara Regenerative Air Dryers

The Sahara Air Dryers remove water and dry the air. Air
entering the dryer is saturated with water. When it leaves
the dryer the moisture content of the air is -40 F dew
point at Line Pressure. The Dryer Skid is a twin tower
regenerative dryer system with an Air to Air Cooler, Water
Separator, 2 Pre filters, 2 Desiccant Towers, 2 After-filters,
an Allen Bradley PLC Controller, a Dew Point Monitor,
piping, instrumentation, valves, and gauges. The Dryer is
designed for an Inlet Flow rate of 453 SCFM at 115-150

Air to Air
Heat Exchanger Water Separator Timed Auto Drains

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Introduction to the ABB1 Fabric Filter Air System
Air to Air Heat Exchanger:

Compressed Air entering the dryer should be below 144 F. Air enters the dryer skid and
passes through the Air to Air Heat Exchanger. The Heat exchanger is either on or off. The
Heat Exchanger is not controlled by a thermostat or other
device that would automatically turn it on or off.
Typically during the summer, the Heat Exchanger will run
and during the winter it will be turned off.
Inlet Air
Water Separator: Gauge

From the Heat Exchanger, air passes through an Inline

Water Separator. The water separator has a Sure Drain
dual timed automatic solenoid valve which can be set to Pre-Filters
drain water at regular intervals from 0 to 50 minutes, and
for pre-set open durations of 1 to 15 seconds.


The Pre-filters are designed to protect the desiccant bed by removing oil, entrained water,
pipe scale and other contaminates which could damage the desiccant. The pre-filters have the
same Sure Drain automatic drain valves as the Water Separator.

Regenerative Desiccant Dryer Towers:

The compressed air then enters one of the Regenerative
Desiccant Dryer Towers. Each tower holds 270 lbs of
3/16" Activated Alumina desiccant. Air enters the tower at
the bottom and is directed by non-lubricated switching
valves into the dryer tower. When wet air encounters dry
desiccant, moisture is transferred from the air to the
desiccant. The direction of airflow during drying is
upward flow. The design of the towers prevents
fluidization of the desiccant. At the top of the dryer, the
dry processed air is directed to the after-filters of the dryer
through check valves. During this process, fifteen (15)
percent of the dry air is re-directed thru an orifice union
into the regenerating tower. The regenerating tower is
depressurized to atmospheric pressure where the dry air is
used to regenerate the desiccant. After removing the
moisture from the off stream towers desiccant, the purge
air exits the dryer through a muffler and is blown out to the
atmosphere. After a preset time (4 minutes or 2 minutes
depending on the length of cycle time set with the operator
interface, 8 minutes or 4 minutes optional) or based on the
Sahara Dew Point Meter (SDPM), the dryer will shift
towers. Desiccant Towers

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At tower shift, the regenerating tower is gradually re-pressurized, the switching valves shift
and the off-stream tower is depressurized. An independent solenoid valve controls each

It is important that the regenerating tower depressurize to Atmospheric pressure. Gauges are
provided, which indicate the pressure in each tower. If the regenerating tower shows 5+ psig
of pressure, it is an indication that the discharge mufflers are starting to plug. Sahara
recommends that the mufflers should always be replaced and not cleaned. Cleaning is only a
temporary solution and the mufflers tend to plug more quickly after a cleaning.

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Introduction to the ABB1 Fabric Filter Air System
After Filters:
The dry air leaves the desiccant towers and passes
through one of the dryers After Filters. The After
Filters are installed to catch any Desiccant which
might be carried by the air from the Towers.

The Sahara Dryers outlet piping share a common 4

pipe between the Dryers and the Receiver Tank. The
receiver Tank is fitted with a pressure relief valve set
at 155 psig, a local pressure gauge and a manual drain

From the Receiver Tank the air flows to the Fabric Filter pressure reducing station located on
the Inlet Damper Deck of the Fabric Filter structure. The pressure reducing regulators are set
at 80 psig for the Damper Control Air supply and 55psig for the Jet Pulse Cleaning System.

Powering up and operating the Sahara Air Dryers:

The Dryer control panel face plate has a Dryer Power
On Switch, Enclosure Heater Switch, Heat Exchanger
Power Switch, Power on Light and Common Alarm

Power for the Compressors and Air Dryers comes

from the Unit 1 Pulse Jet Fabric Filter MCC located
on the West Side of the Fabric Filter structure. The
Breakers for the Compressors and the Air Dryers are
located in this MCC Building.

The Dryers and the Air Compressors also have Local

Disconnects located in the Compressor Building. The
Local disconnects for the Air Compressors are located
on the North wall of the Compressor Building between the Air Compressors. The Local
disconnects for the Air Dryers are located on the South wall between the dryer skids.

Compressors Air Dryer Local Compressor

Local 480V 480V Breaker

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Sahara Dew Point Controller:

The SAHARA Dew Point Meter (SDPM) is a

microprocessor based single channel analyzer with a
4-20 mA recorder output. It is designed to measure
water content in gases. It operates over a range of
-148 F to +86 F (-100 C to +30 C) dew/frost point.
The SAHARA Dew Point Meter (SDPM) displays
dew/frost point in F or C depending on the current
setup. The temperature scale is fixed.

During operation, the measurement is displayed on the

front of the panel digital LCD. This signal is also
available as a current output linear scale signal on the Air Flow Regulator Valve
rear terminal block. The Dew point meter is designed
to meet specified accuracy within 3 minutes of turn Inlet Air Supply Valve
on. The analyzer is located inside the control cabinet
of the dryer in the lower left corner of the enclosure.

Dry air from the active Desiccant Tower is passed

across the sensor and the moisture content is analyzed.
When the Dryer is in Dew Point Control, there must
be flow across the sensor/analyzer. This is
accomplished by the use of Stainless Steel needle
valves. These valves are located on the bottom left
corner of the Control Cabinet and must be adjusted to
allow dry air flow across the SDPM sensor.

The Allen Bradley Controller:

The Operator interface for the Dryer is equipped with

an Allen Bradley PLC controller. The PLC will
default to the Main Screen upon start-up of the Dryer.
The up and down arrow keys will allow for toggle
between the main screen and the other three screens.

Highlight the appropriate screen, ensure the arrow is

pointing to the selection and press the return key to
access that screen. Screen Two is the Status screen
and displays the status of the Dryer. For instance, the Allen-Bradley PLC
screen will display which tower is the on-stream tower
and which tower is in regeneration. The screen will also display which dryer is in re-
pressurization or standby.

The bottom left of this screen displays the time remaining until standby or tower shift,
depending on the setting selected on screen three.

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Introduction to the ABB1 Fabric Filter Air System
The bottom right corner allows for additional screen selection using the up and down arrow
keys. Similar to the main screen, select an alternate screen by highlighting the appropriate
screen with the arrow pointing to the screen name and press the return key.

Screen three allows for changing the dryers control settings. The F2 key allows for toggling
between the 4 minute and 8 minute time cycle settings. If the screen reads 4 minute, the dryer
will switch every 2 minutes (120 seconds). If the screen reads 8 minute, the dryer will switch
towers every 4 minutes (240 seconds). When the F2 key is pressed, the display will toggle
back and forth between the 4 Minute and 8 Minute cycles. When changing the Cycle
time, the new cycle will not take effect until the current cycle is complete and the towers shift.
Standard operation for a -40 F dew point should be in the 8 minute time cycle.

To change to SDPM (Dewpoint) control from timed control, press the F3 button. The tag on
the screen displays the current cycle. Dew point (SDPM) mode is the most efficient mode of

Pressure Regulating:

Air from the compressors is at 110-125 psig and must be regulated down to 80psig for the
Damper Control Air and 55psig for the Jet Pulse Cleaning System. This is accomplished by
two pressure regulators located on East end the Fabric Filter Structure.

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