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# Chapter 12: Radiation Heat Transfer

Radiation differs from Conduction and Convection heat t transfer mechanisms, in
the sense that it does not require the presence of a material medium to occur.
Energy transfer by radiation occurs at the speed of light and suffers no attenuation
in vacuum.
Radiation can occur between two bodies separated by a medium colder than both
bodies.
According to Maxwell theory, energy transfer takes place via electromagnetic
waves in radiation. Electromagnetic waves transport energy like other waves and
travel at the speed of light.
Electromagnetic waves are characterized by their frequency ν (Hz) and
wavelength λ (µm), where:
λ=c/ν
where c is the speed of light in that medium; in a vacuum c0 = 2.99 x 108 m / s.
Note that the frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional.
The speed of light in a medium is related to the speed of light in a vacuum,
c = c0 / n
where n is the index of refraction of the medium, n = 1 for air and n = 1.5 for water.
Note that the frequency of an electromagnetic wave depends only on the source
and is independent of the medium.
The frequency of an electromagnetic wave can range from a few cycles to millions
of cycles and higher per second.
Einstein postulated another theory for electromagnetic radiation. Based on this
theory, electromagnetic radiation is the propagation of a collection of discrete
packets of energy called photons. In this view, each photon of frequency ν is
considered to have energy of
e = hν = hc / λ
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where h = 6.625 x 10 J.s is the Planck’s constant.
Note that in Einstein’s theory h and c are constants, thus the energy of a photon is
inversely proportional to its wavelength. Therefore, shorter wavelength radiation
possesses more powerful photon energies (X-ray and gamma rays are highly
destructive).

Chapter 12, E&CE 309, Spring 2005. 1
Majid Bahrami

Fig. 12-1: Electromagnetic spectrum.
Electromagnetic radiation covers a wide range of wavelength, from 10-10 µm for
cosmic rays to 1010 µm for electrical power waves.
As shown in Fig. 12-1, thermal radiation wave is a narrow band on the
electromagnetic wave spectrum.
Thermal radiation emission is a direct result of vibrational and rotational motions of
molecules, atoms, and electrons of a substance. Temperature is a measure of
these activities. Thus, the rate of thermal radiation emission increases with
increasing temperature.
What we call light is the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which lies
Thermal radiation is a volumetric phenomenon. However, for opaque solids such
as metals, radiation is considered to be a surface phenomenon, since the radiation
emitted by the interior region never reach the surface.
Note that the radiation characteristics of surfaces can be changed completely by
applying thin layers of coatings on them.

A blackbody is defined as a perfect emitter and absorber of radiation. At a
specified temperature and wavelength, no surface can emit more energy than a
blackbody.
A blackbody is a diffuse emitter which means it emits radiation uniformly in all
direction. Also a blackbody absorbs all incident radiation regardless of wavelength
and direction.

Chapter 12, E&CE 309, Spring 2005. 2
Majid Bahrami

Fig. For other mediums.742 × 10 8 W .3805 × 10 − 23 ( J / K ) Boltzmann's constant This is called Plank’s distribution law and is valid for a surface in a vacuum or gas.K ) k = 1. it needs to be modified by replacing C1 by C1/n2. A large cavity with a small opening closely resembles a blackbody. 12-2: Variation of blackbody emissive power with wavelength Spectral blackbody emissive power is the amount of radiation energy emitted by a blackbody at an absolute temperature T per unit time.µm ⎠ ( C1 = 2πhc02 = 3.The radiation energy emitted by a blackbody per unit time and per unit surface area can be determined from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Eb = σT 4 (W / m )2 where W σ = 5. and per unit wavelength. E&CE 309.µm 4 / m 2 ) C 2 = hc 0 / k = 1.439 × 10 4 (µm. where n is the index of refraction of the medium. per unit surface area. Chapter 12. 3 Majid Bahrami .67 × 10 −8 m2 K 4 where T is the absolute temperature of the surface in K and Eb is called the blackbody emissive power. C1 ⎛ W ⎞ Ebλ (T ) = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ λ [exp(C 2 / λT ) − 1] 5 ⎝ m . Spring 2005.

8 µm. Spring 2005.K It can be shown that integration of the spectral blackbody emissive power Ebλ over the entire wavelength spectrum gives the total blackbody emissive power Eb: ∞ Eb (T ) = ∫ Ebλ (T )dλ = σT 4 (W / m )2 0 The Stefan-Boltzmann law gives the total radiation emitted by a blackbody at all wavelengths from 0 to infinity. E&CE 309. 4 Majid Bahrami .The wavelength at which the peak emissive power occurs for a given temperature can be obtained from Wien’s displacement law: (λT )max power = 2897. one can write: f λ1 −λ 2 (T ) = f λ 2 (T ) − f λ1 (T ) f λ −∞ (T ) = 1 − f λ (T ) Ebλ Ebλ(T) λ λ1 λ2 Fig. 12-3: Fraction of radiation emitted in the wavelength between λ1 and λ2 Chapter 12. we are often interested in the amount of radiation emitted over some wavelength band. Table 12-2 in Cengel book lists fλ as a function of λT. a non-dimensional quantity fλ is defined which is called the blackbody radiation function as λ ∫ E λ (T )dλ b f λ (T ) = 0 σT 4 The function fλ represents the fraction of radiation emitted from a blackbody at temperature T in the wavelength band from 0 to λ. Therefore. But. To avoid numerical integration of the Planck’s equation.

The emissivity of a surface is not a constant. The total emissivity of a surface is the average emissivity of a surface over all direction and wavelengths: E (T ) E (T ) ε (T ) = = → E (T ) = ε (T ) σ T 4 Eb (T ) σ T 4 Spectral emissivity is defined in a similar manner: E λ (T ) ε λ (T ) = Ebλ (T ) where Eλ(T) is the spectral emissive power of the real surface. E&CE 309.76 micro meter. Spring 2005. Solution The visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum extends from 0.76µm(2500 K ) = 1900 µm. 0 ≤ ε ≤1 Emissivity is a measure of how closely a surface approximate a blackbody. determine the fraction of the radiant energy emitted by the filament that falls in the visible range. ε = ε (T. As shown. Emissivity The emissivity of a surface is defined as the ratio of the radiation emitted by the surface to the radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature.4 to 0. it is a function of temperature of the surface and wavelength and the direction of the emitted radiation. Thus.K → f λ 2 = 0.053035 f λ 2 − f λ1 = 0. λ. Assuming the filament to be a blackbody.Example 12-1 The temperature of the filament of a light bulb is 2500 K.K → f λ1 = 0. θ) where θ is the angle between the direction and the normal of the surface.4 µm(2500 K ) = 1000µm.05271 which means only about 5% of the radiation emitted by the filament of the light bulb falls in the visible range. Also determine the wavelength at which the emission of radiation from the filament peaks. the radiation emission from a real surface differs from the Planck’s distribution. The remaining 95% appears in the infrared region or the “invisible light”. Radiation Properties A blackbody can serve as a convenient reference in describing the emission and absorption characteristics of real surfaces. Chapter 12. Using Table 12-2: λ1T = 0.000321 λ 2T = 0. 5 Majid Bahrami . εblackbody = 1.

Reflectivity ρ: is the fraction of irradiation reflected by the surface. Absorptivity α: is the fraction of irradiation absorbed by the surface. 12-4: Comparison of the emissive power of a real surface and a blackbody. per unit area per unit time. the emissivity of a gray. Therefore. Chapter 12. To make the radiation calculations easier. 6 Majid Bahrami . diffuse surface is the total hemispherical (or simply the total) emissivity of that surface. Spring 2005. Transmissivity τ: is the fraction of irradiation transmitted through the surface. It is the summation of the reflected and the emitted radiation. A gray surface should emit as much as radiation as the real surface it represents at the same temperature: ∞ ∫ ε λ (T )E λ (T )dλ b ε (T ) = 0 σT4 Emissivity is a strong function of temperature. Radiosity J: total radiation energy streaming from a surface. E&CE 309. 12-20 Cengel book. Gray surface: is a surface which its properties are independent from wavelength. we define the following approximations: Diffuse surface: is a surface which its properties are independent of direction. Absorptivity. see Fig. G. and Transmissivity The radiation energy incident on a surface per unit area per unit time is called irradiation.Fig. Reflectivity.

This is called the Kirchhoff’s law. Gλ = ρ λ Gλ + τ λ Gλ + α λ Gλ where ρ λ = ρ λ (T . For example α of the concrete roof is about 0. λ ) spectral reflectivity α λ = α λ (T . E&CE 309. The Kirchhoff’s law can be written in the spectral form: Chapter 12. Spring 2005. Gabs = Eemit ε(T) = α(T) The total hemispherical emissivity of a surface at temperature T is equal to its total hemi-spherical absorptivity for radiation coming from a blackbody at the same temperature T. λ ) spectral absorptivity τ λ = τ λ (T . α Fig.9 for radiation originating from the surroundings (source temperature 300 K). T Eemit T G A. 8 Majid Bahrami . At the steady state (equilibrium) thermal condition Gabs = α G = α σ T4 and radiation emitted Eemit = ε σ T4 Since the small body is in thermal equilibrium. λ ) spectral transmissivity thus 1 = ρλ + τ λ + α λ Note that the absorptivity α is almost independent of surface temperature and it strongly depends on the temperature of the source at which the incident radiation is originating. ε. 12-6: Small body contained in a large isothermal cavity.6 for solar radiation (source temperature 5762 K) and 0. Kirchhoff’s Law Consider an isothermal cavity and a surface at the same temperature T.

Tsky = 285 K for warm cloudy sky Using Kirchhoff’s law we can write α = ε since the temperature of the sky is on the order of the room temperature. surfaces are isothermal and diffuse. Fij = 0 indicates that two surfaces do not see each other directly. In view factor calculations. The radiation that strikes a surface does not need to be absorbed by that surface. Convex surface. Fii is the fraction of radiation leaving surface i that strikes itself directly. View factor (or shape factor) is a purely geometrical parameter that accounts for the effects of orientation on radiation between surfaces. or scatter radiation. Chapter 12. Spring 2005. 12-7: View factor between surface and itself. Fii = 0 Fii = 0 Concave surface. 10 Majid Bahrami .e. and Fii ≠ 0 for concave surfaces. emit. E&CE 309. Fi→j or Fij = the fraction of the radiation leaving surface i that strikes surface j directly. Plane surface. Fij = 1 indicates that the surface j completely surrounds surface i. View factors for selected geometries are given in Table 12-4 and !2-5 and Figs. we assume uniform radiation in all directions throughout the surface. The View Factor Radiation heat transfer between surfaces depends on the orientation of the surfaces relative to each other as well as their radiation properties and temperatures. 12-41 to 12-44 in Cengel book. Fii = 0 for plane or convex surfaces. Calculating view factors between surfaces are usually very complex and difficult to perform. Note the following: The view factor ranges between zero and one. Also the medium between two surfaces does not absorb. Fii ≠ 0 Fig.. i.

View Factor Relations Radiation analysis of an enclosure consisting of N surfaces requires the calculations of N2 view factors. The Reciprocity Rule The view factor Fij is not equal to Fji unless the areas of the two surfaces are equal. Thus the summation rule gives N equations. Chapter 12. we usually form an enclosure. The conservation of energy principle requires that the entire radiation leaving any surface i of an enclosure be intercepted by the surfaces of enclosure. Therefore. Spring 2005. 11 Majid Bahrami . Therefore.5 N (N-1) additional equations. Once a sufficient number of view factors are available. It can be shown that: Ai Fij =Aj Fji The Summation Rule In radiation analysis. the rest of them can be found using the following relations for view factors. all of these calculations are not necessary. the total number of view factors that need to be evaluated directly for an N-surface enclosure becomes ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 N 2 − ⎢ N + N ( N − 1)⎥ = N ( N − 1) ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 Example 12-2 Determine the view factors F12 and F21 for the following geometries: D L=D A1 A1 A1 L A2 A2 L A3 A2 A3 1 2 3 1) Sphere of diameter D inside a cubical box of length L = D. Also reciprocity rule gives 0. N ∑F j =1 ij =1 The summation rule can be applied to each surface of an enclosure by varying i from 1 to N (number of surfaces). However. E&CE 309.

17.F13 = 0.71 A2 L 3) Circular tube: from Fig. 3) End and side of a circular tube of equal length and diameter. F12 = 1 . E&CE 309. From summation rule.5. Chapter 12. A1 πD 2 / 4 F21 = F12 = × 0.5 and L / r1 = 2. Assumptions: Diffuse surfaces. From reciprocity: A1 2L F21 = F12 = × 0. F11 + F12 + F13 = 1 where F11 = 0 By symmetry F12 = F13 Thus.21 A2 πDL The Superposition Rule The view factor from a surface i to a surface j is equal to the sum of the view factors from surface i to the parts of surface j. F13 ≈ 0. 12-43.2) Diagonal partition within a long square duct. Spring 2005.5 = 0. F11 + F12 + F13 = 1 with F11 = 0. with r2 / L = 0.83 = 0. L = D.83 From reciprocity. F12 = 0. F12 = 1 By reciprocity and summation: A1 πD 2 π F21 = F12 = 2 ×1 = A2 6L 6 π F21 + F22 = 1 → F22 = 1 − 6 2) Partition within a square duct: From summation rule. 12 Majid Bahrami . Solution: 1) sphere within a cube: By inspection.

E&CE 309.3) = F1→2 + F1→3 The Symmetry Rule Two (or more) surfaces that possess symmetry about a third surface will have identical view factors from that surface. The base is a square and its side surfaces are isosceles triangles. F12 = F13 = F14 = F15 = 0. 13 Majid Bahrami . F11 = 0 (flat surface). 3 3 = + 2 2 1 1 1 Fig. we have: F12 = F13 = F14 = F15 Also. 12-8: The superposition rule for view factors. we find. Example: 12-3 Find the view factor from the base of a pyramid to each of its four sides. the summation rule yields: F11 + F12 + F13 + F14 + F15 = 1 Since. From symmetry rule. Chapter 12. Spring 2005.25 3 4 2 5 1 Pyramid in example 12-2. F1→(2.

Hottel.The Crossed-Strings Method Geometries such as channels and ducts that are very long in one direction can be considered two-dimensional (since radiation through end surfaces can be neglected). 14 Majid Bahrami . This can be simplified when surfaces are assumed to be black surfaces. The view factor between their surfaces can be determined by cross- string method developed by H. C. 12-9: Cross-string method. E&CE 309. Radiation Heat Transfer The analysis of radiation exchange between surfaces is complicated because of reflection. The net radiation between two surfaces can be expressed as • ⎛ radiation leaving surface 1 ⎞ ⎛ radiation leaving surface 2 ⎞ Q 12 = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ that directly stikes surface 2 ⎠ ⎝ that directly stikes surface 1⎠ • Q 12 = A1 F12 Eb1 − A2 F21 Eb 2 (W ) Applying reciprocity A1 F12 = A2 F21 yields ( ) (W ) • Q 12 = A1 F12σ T14 − T24 Consider an enclosure consisting of N black surfaces maintained at specified temperatures. For each surface i. we can write Chapter 12. as follows: Fi → j = ∑ (crossed strings ) − ∑ (uncrossed strings ) 2 × (string on surface i ) 2 1 L2 C D L1 L5 L5 L6 L6 L4 L3 L4 L3 L1 B L2 A 2 1 Fig. (L5 + L6 ) − (L3 + L4 ) F12 = 2L1 Note that the surfaces do not need to be flat. Spring 2005.

For a surface i that is gray and opaque (εi = αi and αi + ρi = 1). Also the fluid inside the cavity is not participating in the radiation. It is the summation of the reflected and the emitted radiation. the net rate of radiation heat transfer from a surface i of surface area Ai can be expressed as • Q i = Ai ( J i − Gi ) (W ) • ⎛ J − ε i Ebi ⎞ Ai ε i Q i = Ai ⎜⎜ J i − i ⎟⎟ = (Ebi − J i ) ⎝ 1− εi ⎠ 1− εi In electrical analogy to Ohm’s law. Radiosity J is the total radiation energy streaming from a surface. diffuse. Also. per unit area per unit time. a thermal resistance can be defined as • Ebi − J i Qi = Ri 1− εi Ri = Ai ε i where Ri is called the surface resistance to radiation. and gray. E&CE 309. 15 Majid Bahrami . a negative heat transfer rate indicates that the radiation heat transfer is to surface i (heat gain). Chapter 12. ( ) • N • N Q i = ∑ Q ij = ∑ Ai Fij σ Ti 4 − T j4 (W ) j =1 j =1 Using the sign convention. the Radiosity can be expressed as J i = ε i E bi + ρ i Gi J i = ε i E bi + (1 − ε i )Gi (W / m )2 J i = ε i Ebi = σTi 4 (for a blackbody) Note that the radiosity of a blackbody is equal to its emissive power. Q•i Surface i Ebi Ji Fig. It is common to assume that the surfaces are opaque. surfaces are considered to be isothermal. 12-10: Surface resistance to radiation. Now. we can extend this analysis to non-black surfaces. Spring 2005. Using an energy balance.

Net Radiation between Two Surfaces Consider two diffuse. 16 Majid Bahrami . In this cases. Spring 2005.Note that the surface resistance to radiation for a blackbody is zero. a resistance can be defined as • Ji − J j Qij = Rij 1 Rij = Ai Fij where Rij is called the space resistance to radiation. There is no net heat transfer to a reradiating surface. surface and space resistances. the net heat transfer through them is zero. and opaque surfaces of arbitrary shape maintained at uniform temperatures. In an N-surface enclosure. For insulated or adiabatic surfaces. E&CE 309. Ebi Q•ij Ji Jj Ebj Ri Rij Rj Surface i Surface j Fig. • N • N Ji − J j Q i = ∑ Q ij = ∑ (W ) j =1 j =1 Rij We have already derived a relationship for the net radiation from a surface Chapter 12. 12-11: Electrical network. The net rate of radiation heat transfer from surface i to surface j can be expressed • Q ij = Ai J i Fij − A j J j F ji (W ) Applying reciprocity Qij = Ai Fij (J i − J j ) • (W ) In analogy with Ohm’s law. gray. the conservation of energy principle requires that the net heat transfer from surface i to be equal to the sum of the net heat transfers from i to each of the N surfaces of the enclosure. the surface is called reradiating surface.

5. Form an enclosure. etc. One plate is maintained at 1000°C and the other at 500°C. i. 2. Assumptions: Diffuse. Connect the surface resistances with space resistances 4. the walls of which are maintained at 27°C. E&CE 309. Solve the radiations problem (radiosities) by treating it as an electrical network problem. The plates exchange heat with each other and with the room.5 m apart. and opaque surfaces and steady-state heat transfer. neglect other modes of heat transfer. but only the plate surfaces facing each other are to be considered in the analysis.e. The emissivities of the plates are 0. • Ebi − J i Qi = (W ) Ri Combining these two relationships gives: N J − J Ebi − J i =∑ i j (W ) Ri j =1 Rij Method of Solving Radiation Problem In radiation problems. Example 12-4: Hot Plates in Room Two parallel plates 0. conduction and convection.. The plates are located in a very large room. room. The following steps should be taken: 1. We use the network method which is based on the electrical network analogy. either the temperature or the net rate of heat transfer must be given for each of the surfaces to obtain a unique solution for the unknown surface temperature and heat transfer rates. consider fictitious surface(s) for openings. 17 Majid Bahrami . Spring 2005. respectively. gray. the two plates and room. Chapter 12. Draw a surface resistance associated with each surface of the enclosure 3. Solution: This is a three-body problem.2 and 0. Note that this method is not practical for enclosures with more than 4 surfaces. The radiation network is shown below. Find the net heat transfer rate to each plate and the room.0 m are spaced 0.5 by 1.

F12 = F21 = 0. 12-12: Schematic for Problem 12-4 where. We can assume that the room is a blackbody.5 R12 J1 J2 Eb1 Eb2 R1 R2 Q•1 Q•2 R13 R23 Eb3 = J3 = σT43 Q•3 Fig.285 Applying summation rule F11 + F12 + F13 = 1 Chapter 12.2 ε2 = 0.0 m T2 =1000°C 2 Fig. 12-12: Thermal network for Problem 12-4. 12-41 in Cengel book. the shape factor F12 = 0. since its surface resistance is negligible: 1− ε3 R3 = ≈0 A3 >> A3ε 3 From Fig. Spring 2005.285 Using reciprocity and A1 = A2.5 m2 T2 = 500°C = 773 K T3 = 27°C = 300 K ε1 = 0.5 m 0. T1 =1000°C 3 room at 27°C 0. E&CE 309. 18 Majid Bahrami .5 m 1 1. T1 = 1000°C = 1273 K A1 = A2 = 0.

since surface 3 is a blackbody.5m 2) We need to find the radiosity for surface 1 and 2 only.241 kW / m 2 J 3 = Eb 3 = σT34 = 0. E&CE 309.5m 2 ) Space resistances are 1 1 R12 = = = 7.4592 kW / m 2 Substituting values and solving two equations.Since F11 = 0 (flat plate).5m 2 ) 1− ε2 1 − 0.87 kW / m 2 Eb 2 = σT24 = 20. Spring 2005.5m 2) 1 1 R23 = = = 2. 19 Majid Bahrami .175) 0.715) 0.425 kW R1 • Eb 2 − J 2 Q2 = = 2. from symmetry F23 = F13 = 0.0 ( A1ε 1 (0. J3 = Eb3 = σT43 For node J1: Eb1 − J 1 J 2 − J 1 J 3 − J 1 + + =0 R1 R12 R13 For node J2: Eb 2 − J 2 J 1 − J 2 J 3 − J 2 + + =0 R2 R12 R23 where Eb1 = σT14 = 148.5) 0.797 ( A1 F13 (0.797 ( A2 F23 (0.715 Finally.2 ) 0.0.5 R2 = = = 2.594 kW R2 Chapter 12.2 R1 = = = 8.469 kW/m2 and J2 = 15.715 The surface resistances are 1 − ε1 1 − 0. one finds: J1 = 33.0 ( A2 ε 2 (0. F13 = 1 .285 = 0.054 kW/m2 The total heat loss by plate 1 is: • Eb1 − J 1 Q1 = = 14.5m 2 ) 1 1 R13 = = = 2.018 ( A1 F12 (0.285) 0.

The total radiation received by the room is • J1 − J 3 J 2 − J 3 Q3 = + = 17. 20 Majid Bahrami .020 kW R13 R23 Note that from an energy balance. Spring 2005. E&CE 309. we must have: • • • Q 3 = Q1 + Q 2 Chapter 12.