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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

ARYA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


SP-40, RIICO INDUSTRIAL AREA, JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) 302 022

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the following students

Name of students Roll no.

1.Sweta Pritam 13EAIEC153


2.Writik Saha 13EAIEC171
3.Yayati Garg 13EAIEC172

Of final (VIIIth Sem.) year Bachelor of Technology course in Electronics &


Communication Engineering have successfully completed their major project

DIGITAL WEIGHING MACHINE In the partial fulfillment of requirement


as prescribed by the Rajasthan Technical University, Kota in the year 2017. It
has been found satisfactory and is approved for the submission

Er.Vidhi Vart Er.Maliram Dhabas


(Project Co-ordinator) (Project Guide)
Dept. of Electronics & Comm. Engg. Dept. of Electronics & Comm. Engg.

Er. Ashok Kajla


(Head of Department)
Dept. of Electronics & Comm. Engg.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I
It was a wonderful and learning experience to work on this project, thanks to all the faculty
members and technical staff along with my group members with great gratitude. We wish to
acknowledge all of them.
First of all we are highly thankful to our project guide Er. Vidhi Vart under whose guidelines
we were able to complete our project. We are whole heartedly thankful to him for giving us his
valuable time & attention and providing us a systematic way for completing our project in time.
We must make special mention of Er.Maliram Dhabas, our project incharge for their co-
operation & assistance in solving the technical problems. We would like to thank our H.O.D.
Er.Ashok Kajla sir & all Lab Technical Staff for providing us assistance in various h/w & s/w
problems encountered during the course of our project.
We are also very thankful to our respected principal Prof. (Dr.) R. C. Bansal sir who gave us
an opportunity to present this project.
A great deal of thanks to Dr. Arvind Agarwal and Dr. Puja Agarwal and the entire faculty
member for imparting knowledge and success of the seminar.
In the last but not the least were thankful to my family members without their support
imagining this was next to impossible.

Sweta Pritam (13EAIEC153)


Writik Saha (13EAIEC171)
Yayati Garg (13EAIEC172)

ABSTRACT
II
The aim of this project is to develop a precise weight measuring kit using ADC. It can be used
as a stamp-value calculator device for the postal operations that are carried out in a post
office. There is a need for precise weighing scale to measure small weight in grams and display
it. This concept can be achieved by an electronic weighing machine.

This system is built using an MG87FE/L52 microcontroller, which uses weight sensor by a
spring loaded variable resistor to determine the weight of a particular letter or object placed
on it. This data is processed through an ADC which is interfaced with the microcontroller to
generate an appropriate display on an LCD both in terms of weight and its corresponding
stamp value required.

MG87FE/L52 is a single-chip 8 bits microcontroller with the instruction sets fully compatible
with industrial-standard 80C51 series microcontroller. 8K bytes flash memory and 256 bytes
RAM has been embedded to provide wide field application. In-System-Programming and In-
Application-Programming allow the users to download new code or data while the
microcontroller sits in the application. This device executes one machine cycle in 6 clock or 12
clock cycles. MG87FE/L52 has four 8-bit I/O ports, one 4-bit I/O ports, three 16-bit
timer/counters, an eight-source, four-priority-level interrupt structure, an enhanced UART, on-
chip crystal oscillator.

A Weighing is one of the essential tools in day today life. With the growth of education,
commercial activities, industrial production and consumerism the usage of weighing machines
are widespread and every year new weighing machines are to be produced. The weighing
machines are used in all offices, commercial establishments, industries and even in households.
There is a continued demand for these items.

LIST OF COMPONENTS

III
S No. COMPONENT NAME QUANTITY

1 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
1.1 MG87FE/L52 1
1.2 LM 7085 1

2 IC BASE
2.1 28-PIN BASE 1
2.2 16-PIN BASE 1

3 DIODES
3.1 1N4007 4

4 TRANSISTORS
4.1 BC 557 B 3

5 ELECTRONICS
5.1 RESISTORS 14
5.2 CAPICATORS

65 MISCELLANEOUS
6.1 LED-RED 1
6.2 12V DC BATTERY 1
6.3 BURGE STRIP MALE (6 PINS) 2
6.4 BURGE STRIP MALE (2 PINS) 4
6.5 2 PIN CONNECTING WIRES 4
6.6 PLAIN PCB 1
6.7 SWITCH 2
6.8 SOLDERING WIRE (50 GM) -
6.9 CONNECTING WIRES -

TABLE TABLE NAME PAGE NO.


IV
NO.

2.1 PIN DESCRIPTION 4-6


7.1 HEXADECIMAL ENCODING ON 7 SEGMENT LCD 36-37
LIST OF TABLE

LIST OF FIGURE

FIGURE TITLE OF FIGURE PAGE

NO. NO.

V
2.1 PIN DIAGRAM OF MG87FE/L52 6

2.2 MPC89E52A BLOCK DIAGRAM 7

3.1 IC 7805 9

3.2 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR IC CIRCUIT 9

4.1 LED 11

4.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF LED 11

4.3 RESISTORS 12

4.4 (A) RESISTOR, (B) RHEOSTAT (VARIABLE 13


RESISTOR), AND (C) POTENTIOMETER

4.5 IEC RESISTOR SYMBOL 13

4.6 SERIES RESISTORS 14

4.7 PARALLEL RESISTORS 14

4.8 CAPACITORS 16

4.9 CAPACITOR WORKING 17

4.10 CONNECTING WIRES (MALE AND FEMALE) 17

4.11 SWITCH (PUSH BUTTON AND 2 PIN ON/OFF) 18

4.12 DIODE (IN4007) 19

4.13 TRANSISTOR 20

5.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY 27

5.2 BATTERY 28

5.3 WORKING OF BATTERY 29

6.1 LOAD CELL 31

6.2 STRAIN GAUGE ON LOAD CELL 33

6.3 STRAIN GAUGE 33

6.4 COMPRESSION AND TENSION (LOAD CELL) 33

VI
7.1 SEVEN SEGMENT LCD DISPLAY 34

7.2 THE INDIVIDUAL SEGMENTS OF A SEVEN- 35


SEGMENT DISPLAY

8.1 STRUCTURE OF A STRAIN GAUGE 39

8.2 FLEXIBLE ROD DESIGN 39

8.3 PIN LOAD CELL 40

8.4 RING LOAD CELL 40

10.1 SEVEN SEGMENT LCD DISPLAY 47

10.2 MAIN CIRCUIT BOX 47

10.3 WEIGHING MACHINE BASE 48

10.4 FINAL MODEL 48

10.5 FINAL MODEL(WORKING) 49

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER CONTENTS PAGE

NO. NO.

CERTIFICATE I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT II
ABSTRACT III
LIST OF COMPONENTS IV
LIST OF TABLE V
LIST OF FIGURE VI-VII

VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII-X
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1- 2
1.1 HISTORY 1
1.2 TESTING AND CERTIFICATION 2
CHAPTER 2 MICROCONTROLLER MG87FE/L52 3-7
2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 3
2.2 FEATURES 3
2.3 PIN DESCRIPTION 4
CHAPTER 3 IC 7085 8-9
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO VOLTAGE REGULATOR 8
3.2 IC 7085 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 8
3.3 7085 VOLTAGE REGULATOR IC CIRCUIT 9
CHAPTER 4 COMPONENTS USED 10 - 20
4.1 LIGHT EMITING DIODE 10
4.2 REGISTOR 12
4.3 CAPACITOR 14
4.4 CONNECTING WIRES 17
4.5 SWITCHES 18
4.6 1N4007 DIODE 17
4.7 TRANSISTOR 20
CHAPTER 5 POWER SUPPLY 21 - 30
5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POWER SUPPLY 21
5.2 GENERAL CLASSIFICATION 21
5.2.1 FUNCTIONAL 22
5.2.2 MECHANICAL 22
5.2.3 POWER CONVERSION METHOD 22
5.3 TYPES OF POWER SUPPLY 22
5.4 DESCRIPTION OF POWER SUPPLY USED 26
5.5 BATTERY 27
5.5.1 WORKING OF BATTERY 28
5.5.2 TYPES OF BATTERY 29
CHAPTER 6 LOAD CELL 31 - 33

VIII
6.1 INTRODUCTION 31
6.2 STRAIN GAUGE LOAD CELL 31
6.3 WORKING 32
CHAPTER 7 SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY 34 37
7.1 OVERVIEW 34
7.2 CONCEPT AND VISUAL STRUCTURE 34
7.3 DISPLAYING LETTERS 35
CHAPTER 8 WORKING OF WEIGHING MACHINE 38 41
8.1 INTRODUCTION 38
8.2 OPERATING PRINCIPLE 38
8.3 DESIGN 39
8.4 APPLICATION RANGE OF STRAIN GAUGE 40
CELLS
8.5 ADVANTAGES 41
8.6 LIMITATIONS 41
CHAPTER 9 CALIBRATION & PROGRAMMING 42 46
9.1 KEYS DURING OPERATIONS: 42
9.2 OPERATIONS 42
9.3 CALIBRATION 43
9.4 PROGRAMMING 43
9.5 MENUS 43
9.5.1 MENU P1 43
9.5.2 MENU P2 43
9.5.3 MENU P3 44
9.6 OPERATING MODES 44
9.6.1 MODE 1 : COUNTING SCALE 44
9.6.2 MODE 2 : BUZZER MODE 44
9.6.3 MODE 3 : KG/QTY/LITRE MODE 45
9.7 ADD WEIGHT/AMOUNT TO MEMORY 45
(M+/MR FUNCTION)
9.8 LOAD CELL COUNT 45

IX
9.9 PLU OPERATION 45
9.9.1 TO SAVE ANY RATE IN PLU MEMORY,DO 45
AS BELOW:
9.9.2 TO GET ANY RATE FROM PLU MEMORY, 46
DO AS BELOW:
CHAPTER 10 RESULT 47 49
CONCLUSION 50
REFERENCES 51