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# 11/22/2010 (Mon)

PY105
Fluids The post-test is available on WebCT. Please complete it before Dec. 10.
Its worth 0.5 point no matter what your score is as long as you put your
best effort in it. Note that 0.5 point corresponds to about 1.4 point on a
test.

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## Fluids are materials that can flow.

The buoyant force is an upward force exerted by a
Formally, they are defined as materials that have no fluid on an object that is either fully or partly
shear rigidity. In other words, you can deform it with immersed in that fluid.
zero shear force. As a result, they do not maintain a
well-defined shape.

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## A Wooden Block A Wooden Block, II

This example continues from example 1. Suppose a smaller wooden
A wooden block with a weight of 100 N floats exactly 50% block with a weight of 50 N is added on top of the first block and the
submerged in a particular liquid. The upward buoyant force resulting stack (1 and 2) still floats on the liquid. The upward buoyant
exerted on the block by the liquid force exerted on the stack of blocks by the liquid

1. has a magnitude of 50 N
1. has a magnitude of 100 N
2. has a magnitude of 100 N
2. has a magnitude of 50 N 3. has a magnitude of 150 N
3. depends on the density of the liquid
4. depends on the density of the block Ans. 150 N, which is 50 N bigger than before.

5. depends on both the density of the liquid and the Where does the extra buoyant force come from?
density of the block
Note that the first block sinks more into the liquid after the smaller
FB
block is added. The extra buoyant force comes from an increase in
Net force = 0 the fraction of the first block immersed in the liquid.
Ans. 100 N FB = mg
mg 5 6

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Three beakers of liquids
The identical wooden block, with a weight of 100 N, floats in all three Mass Density
cases shown below, but a different percentage of the block is
submerged in each case. In which case does the block experience the
largest buoyant force? The mass density is the mass m of a substance
divided by its volume V:

m
25% submerged 80% submerged 50% submerged
=
V

Ans. The buoyant force is the same in all three cases. SI Units of Mass Density: kg/m3

What is the difference in the three liquids that give rise to the different
submerged volumes?
The densities of the liquids are different. In the order of low to high
density, 2 < 3 < 1.
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## A table of mass densities Archimedess Principle

Material Density (kg/m3) Any fluid applies a buoyant force to an object that is
partially or completely immersed in it; the magnitude
Interstellar space 10-20
of the buoyant force FB is:
Air (20C, 1 atm.) 1.21
Water (4C, 1 atm.) 1000 FB = Wfluid displaced
Sun (average) 1400 Where Wfluid is the weight of the fluid displaced by the
Earth (the planet) 5500 portion of the object immersed in the fluid. If you know
the mass density fluid of the fluid and the volume
Iron 8700 Vimmerse of the object immersed in the fluid, you can
Mercury (the metal) 13600 find FB:

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## Archimedess Principle Fraction of Object Volume Immersed

FB = fluidVimmerseg At equilibrium, FB = mg

## Since the maximum immersed volume Vimmerse is fluidVimmerseg objectVobjectg

the total volume of the object Vtot, the maximum
buoyant force on an object by a fluid is:
Vimmerse/Vobject = object /fluid
FB,max = fluidVtotg
This is valid only if fluid object with which the
For an object to float, FB,max mg = objectVtotg. fraction of volume immersed is less than 1.
So the condition for an object to float on a fluid
is: If fluid < object, FB < mg even at 100%
fluid object immersion and cannot support the object from
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sinking to the bottom of the water. 12

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Fraction of immersed volume, I Fraction of immersed volume, II

A rectangular block with mass density object is put into a For the same block and fluid in the last example, what
fluid with a higher mass density of fluid. What fraction of the fraction of the blocks volume is immersed in the fluid if the
blocks volume is immersed in the fluid? block is partially supported by the tension T of a string?

Solution:
Solution: FBD
Let Vtot be the total volume of FBD
Let Vtot be the total volume of the FB =
the block.
block. FB = fluidVimmerseg fluidVimmerseg
Net force = 0 T
Net force = 0
objectVtotg = fluidVimmerseg + T
objectVtotg = fluidVimmerseg
Vimmerse object T
Vimmerse object = 1 mg = objectVtotg
= Vtot flluid mg
Vtot flluid mg = objectVtotg
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m = mass of object = objectVtot

## Three blocks, I Three blocks, II

A string A string

A string
A string
In the figure shown above, three blocks A, B and C with
identical volume are totally submerged in the same fluid. It Continue from the previous example. Compare the density
is given that the tensions in the string attached to block A of the object with that of the fluid.
and C are not zero. Which object has the largest buoyant
1. object < fluid 2. object = fluid 3. object > fluid
force acting on it?
1. A 2. B 3. C
4. The cubes have equal buoyant force
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Reason: FB = fluidVimmerseg is the same for all three blocks.

## Three blocks, II Three blocks, III

A string
Ans. A < B = fluid < C

Reasoning:
Draw the FBD for each object. There, we can see that FB =
mg + T for A, FB = mg for B and FB = mg T for C. Since
FB is the same for all three objects, mA < mB < mC. (choice 2) (choice 2) (choice 1)

## Consider the same three objects as in the last example. Suppose we

Moreover, because FB = mg for B. So the density of B must place them in three identical beakers of fluid, each with total
be the same as the density of the fluid. weight, W, as shown in the figures above. Then we put a balance
underneath each beaker. Which of the following statements is
correct about the reading of the balance?

## 1. The reading is less than W plus the weight of the object

2. The reading is equal to W plus the weight of the object
17 3. The reading is bigger than W plus the weight of the object 18

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Three blocks, III A Wooden Cube and a Metal Cube
A string A wooden cube measuring 20.0 cm on each side
floats in water with 80.0% of its volume submerged.
Suspended by a string below the wooden cube is a
metal cube. The metal cube measures 10.0 cm on
each side and has a density 5 times that of water.
(a) Which cube has a larger buoyant force acting on
Balance reading Balance reading Balance reading it?
Ans.:
= W + W object = W + W object < W + W object [ ] the wooden cube [ ] the metal cube
Reasoning: [ ] neither, theyre equal
Draw the FBD for the beaker+water+object system for each case. (b) Taking the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3, what is the
There, we can see that FN = W+W object for A and B but is W+W objectT density of the wooden cube?
for C, where FN is the normal force from the balance. (c) What is the tension in the string between the cubes? Assume
T the string itself has negligible mass and volume.
(d) The pair of blocks is now placed in a different liquid. In this new
A B C liquid, the buoyant force acting on the wooden cube is exactly the
same as the buoyant force acting on the metal cube. What is the
FN FN FN 19 density of this new liquid? 20
W + W object W + W object W + W object

A Wooden Cube and a Metal Cube A Wooden Cube and a Metal Cube
(b) Taking the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3, what is
(a) Which cube has a larger buoyant force acting on it? the density of the wooden cube?
[ ] the wooden cube [ ] the metal cube
Let V1 and V2 be the total volume of the FBD of the whole system
[ ] neither, theyre equal
wooden and metal cube, respectively: FB1+FB2
Solution FB1 + FB2 = (m1+m2)g = (1V1+2V2)g (1)
1 =?
The submersed volume of the wooden cube V1= (0.2)3m3 = 8(0.1)3m3 = 8V2
= (20 cm)3 x 80% = 6,400 cm3. Vmetal,immerse= V2 = (0.1)3m3
Vwood,immerse=(0.2)3*80%=(0.2)3(0.8)m3=6.4V2 5000kg/m3
The submersed volume of the metal cube
= (10 cm)3 = 1,000 cm3. (1) (6.4V2+V2)liqg = (1*8V2+2V2)g
7.4*1000V2 = (1*8V2+5000*V2) (m1+m2)g
Since Fbuoyant Vimmerse, the buoyant force acting on the
wooden cube is bigger 7.4*1000 - 5000 = 1*8
1= 2400/8 = 300 kg/m3
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A Wooden Cube and a Metal Cube A Wooden Cube and a Metal Cube
(c) What is the tension in the string between the cubes?
(d) The pair of blocks is now placed in a different liquid. In
Assume the string itself has negligible mass and volume.
this new liquid, the buoyant force acting on the wooden
cube is exactly the same as the buoyant force acting on
From part (b), T = 4waterV2g
the metal cube. What is the density of this new liquid?
= 4 x 1000 kg/m3 x (0.1 m)3 x 10m/s2
= 40 N Solution FBD of the whole system

## 2FB2 (FB1 = FB2)

FB1 = FB2 V1=V2=0.13
2FB2 = (m1 + m2)g . (1)
300kg/m3
m1 = 1(0.2)3
m2 = 2(0.1)3
(1) 2liq(0.1)3 = 300(0.2)3+5000(0.1)3 5000kg/m3

## 2liq = 2400 +5000 = 7400 kg/m3

23 liq = 3700 kg/m3 (m1+m2)g 24