FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002 Assignment 1: Argumentative Human Cloning

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All my life, I have been interested in the topic of Cloning, mostly Human Cloning. Since I first heard about this Religion vs. Science dispute and the reasons theologians, priests and just devoted Catholics give to the common people why we shouldn't be cloned, I wanted to investigate about this topic, its pros and cons and the reasons for creating such an enormous controversy around this issue in every single society and culture around the world. It is nearly impossible for me to take a definite position towards this matter, therefore, my work is to enumerate and discuss every single one of the different motives why we should or should not be cloned so that, afterwards, we are able to develop a conclusion of our own. I have found out that most religions are against Human Cloning, giving the only reason that it is playing God, since He is the only one who can create a child and decide his future, his fate. Scientists and everyone who thinks it should not be banned, have a very interesting argument against priests and puritans: they believe that nobody knows what God's intentions really are, so we are only assuming that we know what He trusts that is good for us. Everybody knows that there is nothing in the Bible prohibiting cloning, and neither of the Ten Commandments even mentions this matter. Moreover, every time a doctor performs life-saving surgery or administrates drugs to the patient, he is changing his fate, or supposedly "usurping" the role of God, but there has not been any strong controversies on a surgeon saving someone's life and I strongly believe that whenever the most devoted Catholic or simply anyone who thinks it is "playing" God, happens to be in necessity of life-saving surgery, there is no God or principles present, only his trust for the Doctor and his desires to survive. Other argument against this controversial topic refers to the fact that it is an enormously unsafe and too modern technology to be tested with a human being, stating that for the cloning of Dolly, the sheep, there were 277 embryos required from which there was only one healthy and viable sheep was produced. The other fetuses were gruesomely deformed and either died or were aborted. As a counterargument, scientists declare that cloning is no different from any other new medical technology, since it is as hazardous as the others. Concerning the great amount of embryos needed to obtain one successful individual, specialists claim that procedures such as IVF generate and destroy thousands of "spare" fetuses every year which can be used with the purpose of research in Human Cloning. In addition to this, the number of embryos required is decreasing day by day: this technology is developing and rising just as any other we might be in contact with

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002 everyday: electronics, nanotechnology, and many others which truly grow by the hour.

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Investigating deeply into this matter, I have also found out many other arguments that refer to the fact that Human Cloning damages or interferes in many "ethical" or "moral" values, mainly integrity or dignity. It is said that it may harm the veracity of the word "family" as we know it nowadays, since it does not require the physical presence of a couple to produce offspring, and therefore, the child may be denied the love of one parent, most likely the father. This argument is certainly not suited to the modern age, most societies freely allow single people to reproduce sexually. We all know about the existence of lawful technologies such as sperm donation in which a baby can be born from an unknown and random donor. Therefore, isn't it preferable for a mother to know the genetic heritage of her offspring? Moreover, reproductive cloning will allow homosexual couples to have children genetically related to them both and it has been proved that it is better for the welfare of the child for it to be born into a happy relationship, but the high rates of single parenthood and divorce suggest that this is not always possible. Of course, many other explanations that are for the prohibition of Human Cloning really cannot be contradicted by any appropriate counterargument. Although there is practically an opposition for every one of them, some simply cannot be taken into account because they are premises which contain many flaws or they are unsound in many points of view, whether they are ethical or scientific. Such as the fact that Human Cloning techniques are not truly necessary nowadays. What we need the most is the possibility to obtain live organs to save millions of persons, but certainly no one has the right to create a whole human being for the mere objective of removing its organs whenever it is needed. The ability to create senseless and careless individuals still remains undeveloped and even if this was possible, the idea would be ridiculous all the same. I have tried to include, probably, the most important arguments heard and put in debate every day concerning the subject of Human Cloning so that a personal conclusion can be taken from the information given. It results almost impossible for me to place myself in one definite side concerning this matter since I share many ideas with both points of view. I strongly believe that it may result in one of the world’s most important discoveries, and it can be used to cure over a thousand diseases and aid millions of people, but unfortunately, it can also be used to cause great damage of personal concern and self interest which turns it into a very vulnerable technology. It is only up to us to ensure that Human Cloning will be used to achieve only great objectives for the welfare of the human race. Very interesting piece, very well organized and written. 36 out of 40

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

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Assignment 2: Narrative – Descriptive – Imaginative Poem: “To A Part Of Myself” A sunny night that shone Summer had taken control Over the distance I glanced Once again your intact soul Maybe I didn’t really deserved you But as salvation you appeared So known but yet so new There was no thing else I could do In my mind has now become important Your long ago insignificant decision For long, away you were leaving And I unbelievably sensed no distress In between voices and laughs Our love began to rise Becoming what we maybe never thought, A gleaming fire in our monotonous cold lives Submerged in a river of affection So hard it seems to be aware That time can become our enemy and leave us entirely bare Now you are gone, but not your soul In and out of love I constantly fall I can not cease to think what I should do Nevertheless I have always belonged to you To get this over with Only in time, my enemy, I can trust A rebirth of myself Before I begin to rust Only for existing To thank you I’m obliged

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002 Feels like from beneath the mist Slowly I begin to stand Thousands of miles can break our hearts Eternal love may bring it back to life In this solitude I write Hoping to meet again your beautiful green eyes This poem holds not only a long story but also an important significance to me. It retells the most wonderful story in my life and my favorite love story of all times, not a perfect one, but undoubtedly it holds a happy ending.

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Everything began long before the “sunny night that shone” that my poem begins with, but it is the beginning of the new story, this is why I have decided to include it first. My reencounter with her was sealed that night, the most memorable Christmas Eve in my sixteen years of life, and the most beautiful present someone could have given to me. I remember when I first saw her that night, how she still remained “intact”, even after all she has gone through because of my immaturity. This is probably what attracted me the most. In that moment I may not have thought about it, but I knew she was going to save me, mostly from myself. This is why I believe I did not truly deserved being saved, especially not by someone I had hurt so badly in the past. To convey the idea that we have a long past together, I included “so known but yet so new”. Although I thought I knew her, I realized how much she had changed, matured in every single sense while I remained the same blunt person than before. Gracefully, everything started going perfect, although something happened on the way, she told me she was leaving for half a year to the United States, place where she lived as a little girl and holds special affection for. This was around six months before she left, and I must sadly admit that it did not truthfully disturb me, perhaps due to the fact that the relationship was just beginning once again and I was not sure that it was going to last that much. Now, I find it the most distressing news someone gave me this year, but fortunately we did not give the matter any importance at the moment which allowed us to let things be as they were meant to. This is when we realized how important we truly were for each other and we found in the other what everyday routine could not give us, this represented to me “a gleaming fire in our monotonous cold lives”. The following stanza is perhaps my favorite one. It depicts how perfect we felt with ourselves that we simply could not see time passing by so quickly, and the day she was leaving coming closer every day. This is how “time can become our enemy and leave us entirely bare”, as we felt when we saw the gloomy day approaching. The last stanzas of the poem refer to the time after she was gone, my feelings and how we get through. In this moment I feel particularly strange without

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

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her, I got used to her too fast to lose her so fast. The thousands of miles that separate us make me doubt all the time about how much I really love her, I believe it is because it is impossible for me to tell her what I feel, but in the end something happens that makes every doubt go away, and that is where I am right now, doubtless. My only adversary, the world’s enemy, is time. I need to trust in something we cannot control or have any decision upon, something that cannot be touched or even felt, only suffered. When we wish time goes by quickly is simply because it is not the best moment in our lives. This is why I have decided to live the now and let the future be the future and the past be the past. “A rebirth of myself before I begin to rust”. The end of the poem is entirely dedicated to the light of my eyes. Someone that makes my life worthy “only for existing” must have the merit of my gracefulness. Now, I am thinking much clearer and I have had the opportunity to see and to be properly grateful for many things. This can be clearly seen in the last stanza, which holds a visible positive atmosphere compared to the rest of the poem, but still holds a part of the old me, the one that does not cease to think and imagine her comeback, “hoping to meet again your beautiful green eyes”. To conclude, I must say that I find it an effective poem that clearly depicts my feelings and may stir the emotions of the reader deeply. Although this has been my work, I must admit I cannot take any credit for it, since every single word simply flew out of me whenever she came to my mind.

Excellent poem, written with a wide array of literary techniques and very well supported in the explanation to the poem. 36 out of 40.

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

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Assignment 3: Reading and writing Bush’s speech on Iraq’s war

(March 19, 2003. 10:16 P.M. EST) THE PRESIDENT: “My fellow citizens, at this hour, American and coalition forces are in the early stages of military operations to disarm Iraq, to free its people and to defend the world from grave danger. On my orders, coalition forces have begun striking selected targets of military importance to undermine Saddam Hussein's ability to wage war. These are opening stages of what will be a broad and concerted campaign. More than 35 countries are giving crucial support -- from the use of naval and air bases, to help with intelligence and logistics, to the deployment of combat units. Every nation in this coalition has chosen to bear the duty and share the honor of serving in our common defense. To all the men and women of the United States Armed Forces now in the Middle East, the peace of a troubled world and the hopes of an oppressed people now depend on you. That trust is well placed. The enemies you confront will come to know your skill and bravery. The people you liberate will witness the honorable and decent spirit of the American military. In this conflict, America faces an enemy who has no regard for conventions of war or rules of morality. Saddam Hussein has placed Iraqi troops and equipment in civilian areas, attempting to use innocent men, women and children as shields for his own military -- a final atrocity against his people. I want Americans and all the world to know that coalition forces will make every effort to spare innocent civilians from harm. A campaign on the harsh terrain of a nation as large as California could be longer and more difficult than some predict. And helping Iraqis achieve a united, stable and free country will require our sustained commitment. We come to Iraq with respect for its citizens, for their great civilization and for the religious faiths they practice. We have no ambition in Iraq, except to remove a threat and restore control of that country to its own people.

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

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I know that the families of our military are praying that all those who serve will return safely and soon. Millions of Americans are praying with you for the safety of your loved ones and for the protection of the innocent. For your sacrifice, you have the gratitude and respect of the American people. And you can know that our forces will be coming home as soon as their work is done. Our nation enters this conflict reluctantly -- yet, our purpose is sure. The people of the United States and our friends and allies will not live at the mercy of an outlaw regime that threatens the peace with weapons of mass murder. We will meet that threat now, with our Army, Air Force, Navy, Coast Guard and Marines, so that we do not have to meet it later with armies of fire fighters and police and doctors on the streets of our cities. Now that conflict has come, the only way to limit its duration is to apply decisive force. And I assure you, this will not be a campaign of half measures, and we will accept no outcome but victory. My fellow citizens, the dangers to our country and the world will be overcome. We will pass through this time of peril and carry on the work of peace. We will defend our freedom. We will bring freedom to others and we will prevail. May God bless our country and all who defend her.”

Source: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030319-17.html George W. Bush is probably the most controversial president in the world, due to the obvious fact that he is the Head of no less than the United States of States of America and every decisions he makes affect most citizens in the whole world. Perhaps his most notorious and discussed resolution from the last years has been the declaration of war on Iraq, on the basis that Saddam Hussein, who was producing biological and nuclear weapons, needed to be disarmed at once. As the war went by the whole world noticed this was, by no means, the main reason for the invasion. Since no weapons have been found, and no people freed, but actually slaved under a different type of dictatorship, I have decided to analyze one of George W. Bush's speeches referring to the war in Iraq. This was extracted from the White House's database dating March 19, year 2003, six days after the US Army quietly began the attack in the Middle East country, better known by its enormous oil wells than its history or its people.

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

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As despised as George W. Bush can be all over the world, there is one thing I must admit, he is a first-class speaker. Despite the content of his speeches, they are excellently well written, and his use of words is very effective. Then, why do not we all believe he does only what is best for the well-being of humanity? Well, his talking is not and will never be successful enough to justify such a terrible thing as war. Every single one of his speeches addressed to the US population begins with the well-known phrase "My fellow citizens", used to convey the idea that he is one of them and he makes the people not only be aware of this, but also believe it, so from the very beginning he places himself at the same level of his countrymen. By doing this he achieves more credibility when referring to problems affecting every citizen, including himself of course. In the following sentence, he uses the words "to defend the world from grave danger", making reference to the entire human race from the very start, to instill feelings of great importance in his listeners, since the matter affects simply every single living soul. In the following paragraph, the President mentions several words that have an enormous meaning and connotation, "to bear the duty and share the honor of serving in our common defense". He illustrates the fact that every nation which is giving aid to the US in this war is honorable for such decision and I believe the word "bear" holds a special importance since it depicts that it is not a simple matter. The third paragraph becomes essential in the speech. It is the moment when he refers directly to the Army and the soldiers fighting in Iraq. He places a sort of responsibility on them, since he mentions that it is up to them to free an entire country, giving an extra incentive to the military forces in Middle East or perhaps he is only trying to transfer some of the blame into other people. His aim is now not "his" aim and duty but the one of the US Army. In the next paragraph, still addressing to the Army, it seems almost as if he was speaking as a Football team coach who is playing against a tough team. In this part, I believe he does wrong in putting himself in that ridiculous paper. He is talking about a war, where people will die and suffer and be slaved, not freed; but still he refers to the fact as a simple occasional event. Later on, the President makes reference to two facts, both of which I find entirely dishonest and thoughtless where he mentions that “coalition forces will make every effort to spare innocent civilians from harm” and that “We have no ambition in Iraq, except to remove a threat and restore control of that country to its own people.” Now that the war is relatively over, the whole world is aware that both of the issues mentioned above have certainly not been fulfilled as the President indicated: first of all, the number of civilian deaths has been enormous and many videos reveal the careless attitude towards them, where we see missiles falling

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

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anywhere, almost randomly. Second of all, I believe we all have had the chance to realize what Bush’s intentions in Iraq really were, a three lettered word for which the whole world is moved upside down: oil. This fact is perfectly depicted by Michael Moore in the film “Fahrenheit 9/11”. No “weapons of mass murder” nor real threats were found in “a nation as large as California”. Another inexplicable issue is mentioned in a previous paragraph where he makes reference to the soldiers in Iraq. The US President assures they shall be back “as soon as their work is done”. Most of them have died or still remain in Middle East with absolutely no purpose at all. In the last three paragraphs he keeps on trying to justify the unjustifiable. Constantly referring to the “outlaw regime” in Iraq, he tries to convince his audience that to attack now a nation that has never done anything to the US or its allies is justified. This fact is also beautifully described in Michael Moore’s film. Finally, in the last paragraph, I believe the President does well in not referring to the war anymore but to give hope to the people all around the world, even though this may not be his true objective in Iraq, he still does perfect in mentioning the word “peace” for the first time in reference to the entire planet. I have also noticed that this last paragraph begins with the same phrase as the very beginning of the speech, “My fellow citizens”. I think this is a good resource since it attracts the audience to listen carefully to what is coming next, and at the same times makes everyone aware that the end is approaching.

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

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Draft George W. Bush is probably the most controversial president in the world, due to the obvious fact that he is the Head of no less than the United States of States of America and every single one of his decisions affect most citizens in the whole world. Perhaps his most notorious and discussed resolution from the last years has been the declaration of war to Iraq, on the bases that Saddam Hussein, who was producing biological and nuclear weapons, needed to be disarmed at once. As the war went by the whole world noticed this was, by no means, the main reason for the invasion of Iraq. Since no weapons have been found, and no people freed, but actually slaved under a different type of dictatorship, I have decided to analyze one of George W. Bush's speeches referring to the war in Iraq. This has been extracted from the White House's database dating on March 19, year 2003, six days after the US Army quietly began the attack in the Middle East country, better known by its enormous oil wells than its history or its people. As despised as George W. Bush can be all over the world, there is one thing I must admit, he is a first-class speaker. Despite the content of his speeches, they are excellently well written, and his use of words is very effective. Then, why do not we all believe he does only what is best for the well-being of humanity? Well, his talking is not and will never be successful enough to justify such a terrible thing as war. Every single one of his speeches addressed to the US population begins with the well-known phrase "My fellow citizens", used to convey the idea that he is one of them and make the people not only be aware of this, but also believe it, so from the very beginning he places himself at the same level of its countrymen. By doing this he achieves more credibility when referring to problems affecting every citizen, including himself of course. In the following sentence, he uses the words "to defend the world from grave danger", making reference to the entire human race from the very start, to instill feelings of great importance in his listeners, since the matter affects simply every single living soul. In the following paragraph, the President mentions several words that have an enormous meaning and connotation, "to bear the duty and share the honor of serving in our common defense". He illustrates the fact that every nation which is giving aid to the US in this war is honorable for such decision and I believe the word "bear" holds a special importance since it depicts that it is not a simple matter. The third paragraph becomes essential in the speech. It is the moment when he refers directly to the Army and the soldiers fighting in Iraq. He places a sort of

FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH Coursework portfolio Alvarez, Rodolfo Luis AR512 0002

11

responsibility on them, since he mentions that it is up to them to free an entire country, giving an extra incentive to the military forces in Middle East or perhaps he is only trying to transfer some of the blame into other people. His aim is now not "his" aim and duty but the one of the US Army. In the next paragraph, still addressing to the Army, it seems almost as if he was speaking as a Football team coach who is playing against a tough team. In this part, I believe he does wrong in putting himself in that ridiculous paper. He is talking about a war, were people will die and suffer and be slaved, not freed; but still he refers to the fact as a simple occasionally event. Later on, the President makes reference to two facts, both of which I find entirely dishonest and thoughtless where he mentions that “coalition forces will make every effort to spare innocent civilians from harm” and that “We have no ambition in Iraq, except to remove a threat and restore control of that country to its own people.” Now that the war is relatively over, the whole world is aware that both of the issues mentioned above have certainly not been fulfilled as the President indicated: first of all, the number of civilian deaths has been enormous and many videos reveal the careless attitude towards them, where we see missiles falling anywhere, almost randomly. Second of all, I believe we all have had the chance to realize what Bush’s intentions in Iraq really were, a three lettered word for which the whole world is moved upside down: oil. This fact is perfectly depicted by Michael Moore in the film “Fahrenheit 9/11”. No “weapons of mass murder” nor real threats were found in “a nation as large as California”. Another inexplicable issue is mentioned in a previous paragraph where he makes reference to the soldiers in Iraq. The US President assures they shall be back “as soon as their work is done”. Most of them have died or still remain in Middle East with absolutely no purpose at all. In the last three paragraphs he keeps on trying to justify the unjustifiable. Constantly referring to the “outlaw regime” in Iraq, he tries to convince his hearers that to attack now a nation that has never done anything to the US or its allies is justified. This fact is also beautifully described in Michael Moore’s film. Finally, in the last paragraph, I believe the President does well in not referring to the war anymore but to give hope to the people all around the world, even though this may not be his true objective in Iraq, he still does perfect in mentioning the word “peace” for the first time in reference to the entire planet. I have also noticed that this last paragraph begins with the same phrase as the very beginning of the speech, “My fellow citizens”. I think this is a good resource since it attracts the audience to listen carefully to what is coming on, and at the same times makes everyone aware that the end is approaching. Excellent choice of text, thoroughly explained with shrewd supporting arguments. 10 points out of 10.