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CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 113116

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CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology


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Thermal modelling of end milling


Ismail Lazoglu (2)a,*, Bircan Bugdayci b
a
Koc University, Manufacturing and Automation Research Center, Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey
b
ETH Zurich, Institutes of Machine Tools and Manufacturing, Zurich, Switzerland

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Determination of the temperatures during machining is one of the most important challenges for
Temperature
accurate milling simulations. Coupled with excessive shearing, plastic deformation and friction in a small
Milling
region of cutting, the temperatures in milling may have very signicant impact on parts and tools such as
Modelling
dimensional errors, residual stresses and tool wear. Temperature exhibits a non-linear complex-
modelling problem in milling process. In this article, for the rst time, a novel thermal modelling is
introduced for fast and accurate prediction of temperatures in end milling processes. A theoretical
modelling approach and experimental validations are presented for various cutting conditions.
2014 CIRP.

1. Introduction help to understand thermal issues in high performance milling in


detail. Understanding the thermal issues in high performance
Milling is one of the most commonly used machining processes milling will shed more light on the diffusion wear, tool life, residual
in various industries such as aerospace, automotive, dies/moulds, stresses, surface integrity, form errors, deformations, part accuracy
energy and biomedical industries. Besides mechanical issues such that are directly affected by the temperature eld [3].
as forces and vibrations, temperature is one of the critical The majority of existing research in literature is for orthogonal
phenomena in high performance milling. turning mainly due to its relative simplicity as compared to oblique
Coupled with excessive deformations taking place in a small milling process. Komanduri and Hou [4] solved Jaegers classical
area, temperatures exhibit a non-linear complex-modelling heat source method to calculate the temperature rise at any point
problem in metal cutting. The temperature eld in milling directly due to stationary or moving plane heat source of different shapes
affect tool life, surface and subsurface quality of part, material and heat intensities. Later, this solution is extended using the
structure transformation, dimensional and form tolerances, Hahns moving oblique band heat source method. In the rst part,
deections and residual stresses. Understanding the temperature the heat formed in the shear plane is introduced as a plane heat
eld and selecting appropriate cutting conditions in milling is one source and the temperature distribution on the tool and workpiece
of the key factors in todays competitive machining world. calculated accordingly.
Therefore, it is critical to model and investigate the temperature As the computational capabilities increase, numerical meth-
elds produced in milling. ods are also favoured by many researchers. Rech et al. [5]
Although there are some theoretical models for the tempera- developed a tribometer for friction coefcient in machining and
ture elds for orthogonal machining in the literature, milling implemented resulting heat partitions on 2D orthogonal FEM
temperature modelling is inadequate. simulations.
The keynote paper by Van Luttervelt et al. [1] broadly reviewed Lazoglu and Altintas [6] developed a fast nite difference
the modelling of machining, and stated the importance of model to predict the tool and chip temperature elds in machining
temperatures in order to understand the fundamentals of operations. For orthogonal turning operations, the heat transfer
machining and suggested future directions. Recently, Arrazola between the tool and chip is modelled by using a partition formula
et al. [2] extensively reviewed the models of metal machining. It is to dene the heat interaction between the tool and the workpiece.
clearly seen in both of these comprehensive reviews that although The model considers the deformation energy created in the shear
there are analytical and numerical thermal models available for zone and the friction energy generated at the rake face. Later, the
orthogonal machining process, there is a lack of thermal model for model is extended to interrupted machining by digitizing the time
milling processes in the literature. Both from the academic and varying chip thickness into small discrete elements and modelling
industrial perspectives, there are signicant needs to develop fast each element as a rst-order dynamic system. Time constant of
and precise thermal models for milling processes. The model will each of these elements are identied based on the thermal
properties of the tool and work material, and the initial
temperatures. Later, Lazoglu and co-workers [7,8] modelled the
* Corresponding author. three dimensional temperature elds on the chip, tool and

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2014.03.072
0007-8506/ 2014 CIRP.
114 I. Lazoglu, B. Bugdayci / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 113116

workpiece material during orthogonal cutting using nite


difference method. They validated this model using high precision
infrared camera to determine the temperature distribution in the
tool. A new mathematical modelling approach was introduced for
oblique turning process for three dimensional temperature
predictions [9]. The analytical approach that used elliptic
structural grid generation to solve the temperature eld allows
different cutter geometries to be implemented, and the analytical
nature of the model improves the computational time signi-
cantly.
An extensive review of the temperature measurement techni-
ques in material removal processes can also be found in Davies et
al.s paper [10]. Here in this review, it is appropriately stated that Fig. 1. Illustration of the side and bottom edge cutting forces in at end milling.

despite the introduction of the extremely high speed machining


centres, milling process temperatures have received substantially Besides cutting forces on the side edges, the effect of cutting
less attention than turning. There are very few experimental forces on the bottom edge must be also taken into account to
measurements available for the temperature in milling due to the precisely model the temperature eld. The bottom edge cutting
measurement difculties. Some of these measurements are based force components are modelled as the following:
on thermocouple, thermograph or IR-CCD measurements. Most 2 3 2 3 2 3
dF B;T;i u K Bc;T;i; j K Be;T;i; j
recently, Ueda et al. [11] introduced a new measurement method
dF B;i 4 dF B;R;i u 5 4 K Bc;R;i; j 5  hS;i; j u 4 K Be;R;i; j 5 (3)
using the two-colour pyrometer with non-contact bre couple for K Bc;Z;i; j K Be;Z;i; j
dF B;Z;i u
milling. However, very few temperature data is available for
milling process. In this equation, dFB,i stands for the effect of the bottom edge of
Here in this paper, a new thermal model of end milling is ith ute to the overall cutting forces, and has three components in
introduced using a semi-analytical approach. The cutting forces tangential, radial and axial directions. The value of each force
in milling are modelled analytically and using the heat partition component depends on the bottom edge cutting force coefcients
approach the heat generated is calculated. The generated heat (KSc,T,i,j, KSc,R,i,j, KSc,Z,i,j), edge force coefcients (KSe,T,i,j, KSe,R,i,j, KSe,Z,i,j)
values are used in the numerical model [9]. For the rst time in and the uncut chip thickness of hS,i,j(u). In order to obtain the
literature, the heating effects of the bottom edge of the cutting cutting coefcients for the bottom edge cutting experiments were
tool are also taken into account. It is shown that the bottom edge conducted at different depths of cuts. By subtracting the data for
effect becomes signicant in the thermal modelling of end different depths of cuts from each other, the effect of bottom edge
milling. Moreover, simulation results and experimental evalua- forces can be isolated to obtain the coefcients.
tion show that temperature elds have a very critical role in The heat generation rates in the shear and frictional zones can
diffusion wear of WC tools with various cobalt-binding con- be determined as follows:
centrations.
t  h  V w  cosan
Q s F s V s (4)
sinfn cosfn  an
2. Thermal modelling of end milling

t  h  V w  sinbn
Force modelling is very important input for precise thermal Q f F f V c (5)
model of end milling. The effects of the bottom cutting edge of the cosfn bn  an sinfn  an
tool must also be taken into account. Therefore, side and bottom where F s , F f , V w , V s and V c are the shear force in the shear plane,
cutting forces are determined separately and then integrated in the the frictional force between the tool rake face and the chip, the
model. The total cutting forces are the sum of side edge cutting cutting velocity, the component of cutting velocity along the shear
forces (~
F S ) and bottom edge cutting forces (~
F B ). plane and the component of cutting velocity along the rake face,
respectively. t , fn , an and bn are the shear stress in the shear plane,
~
F~
FS ~
FB (1) shear angle, normal rake angle and normal friction angle,
respectively.
For the modelling of the side edge, the tool is divided into discs The frictional heat ow rate into the tool per unit area is given as
in the axial direction. The contributions of these elements are follows
calculated separately for each ute and rotation angle. The
contribution of each disc for a given angular immersion position Bt  Q f
Q t (6)
(u) is as the following: lcn  kt
2 3 where Bt is the recursively determined heat partition into tool, kt is
dF S;T;i; j u
the tool thermal conductivity and
dF S;i; j dF S;R;i; j u 5
4
dF S;Z;i; j u hsechc sinun fn
82 3 2 39 lcontact (7)
< K Sc;T;i; j K Se;T;i; j = sinfn cosan cosun  sinan sinun
4 K Sc;R;i; j  hS;i; j u K Se;R;i; j 5  wS;i; j
5 4 (2)
: ; is the toolchip contact length, h; an ; hc are the uncut chip
K Sc;Z;i; j K Se;Z;i; j
thickness, the normal rake angle and the chip ow angle, and
In this equation, dFS,i,j is the differential side edge cutting force fn ; un are the normal shear angle and the resultant cutting force
acting on the ith ute at the jth disc along the depth of cut, and oblique angle, respectively.
consists of three components in the radial (R), tangential (T) and The heat balance equation per innitesimal volume can be
axial (Z) directions. The value of each cutting force component written by the following partial differential equation,
depends on the cutting force coefcients (KSc,T,i,j, KSc,R,i,j, KSc,Z,i,j) due  
d2 T d2 T d2 T q rC p @T @x @T @y @T @z
to shearing and cutting force edge coefcients (KSe,T,i,j, KSe,R,i,j, (8)
dx2 dy2 dz2 k k @x @t @y @t @z @t
KSe,Z,i,j) due to ploughing, the uncut chip thickness of hS,i,j(u) and the
width of cut of wS,i,j. The cutting coefcients can be determined where T; q; r; C p ; k are the temperature, the heat generation
using the mechanistic or the orthogonal oblique transformation rate per unit volume, the density, the thermal capacitance and the
techniques (Fig. 1). conductivity, respectively [9].
I. Lazoglu, B. Bugdayci / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 113116 115

3. Simulations and model validations titanium salts. The IR camera has the spectral responsivity of 7
14 mm, interlace scanning property of 2:1 and minimum resolv-
All the simulations and validations were performed on able temperature difference of approximately 0.2 8C at 25 8C. The
Aerospace grade Aluminium alloy Al-7050. Firstly, the milling protective window prevents the objective from the chips. IR
cutting force model including the bottom edge effect was validated images were calibrated with thermocouple measurements at
with extensive number of cutting force measurements with rotary various temperatures in order to consider the effects of emissivity.
dynamometer measurements. The force simulations and the The cutting speeds in the IR temperature measurements were
experimental tests were performed with 16 mm diameter, two 40, 120 and 200 m/min. Two rake angles with 6 and 18 deg were
uted, 30 deg helix angle tungsten carbide tool at the spindle speed used in the experiments. The clearance angles of the tools were
of 4000 and 8000 rpm, at the feedrates of 0.1, 0.15 and 0.25 mm/ 6 deg. The cutting conditions for the IR temperature measurement
tooth. In the validation of the force model with the bottom edge experiments are given in Table 1.
effect, the maximum difference observed between the measured
and simulated force magnitudes were less than 10%. A typical Table 1
Cutting conditions for validations.
validation result for the milling force prediction including the
bottom edge effect is shown in Fig. 2. Test No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
500
Fx Simulated
Rake angle (8) 6 6 6 6 18 18 18 18
400 Fy Simulated
Feedrate (mm/rev) 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Fz Simulated
Cutting Forces(N)

300 Fx Experimental
Fy Experimental In order to determine the average shear stress, average friction
200
Fz Experimental and shear angles (Table 2) for orthogonal to oblique force
100 transformation, cutting tests were performed. In these tests,
tangential and feed force components were measured at three
0
different cutting speeds and four feedrate values (Figs. 4 and 5).
-100

-200 Table 2
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Calibration results for Al-7050.
Rotation angle(deg)
Tool rake Chip Shear Average Shear
Fig. 2. Simulated and experimental cutting forces for slot milling (spindle speed of angle (8) ratio angle (8) friction angle (8) stress (MPa)
8000 rpm, axial depth of cut of 2 mm, the feedrate of 0.25 mm/tooth).
6 0.57 31.5 33 287.1
18 0.55 32 40.5 266.8
As the asymptotic case of oblique machining, the orthogonal
machining tests with an infrared (IR) camera system were used
for thermal validations of the model. The IR tests were carried
out on Aerospace grade Al-7050 with WC tools as shown in
Fig. 3.

Fig. 4. Cutting forces measured during orthogonal cutting of Al-7050 for 68 rake
angle tungsten carbide tool.

The tool and the workpiece have the following properties; thermal
conductivity of 84 and 157 W/mK, specic heat capacity of 480 and
860 J/kg K, and density of 15,700 and 2800 kg/m3, respectively.
The simulated maximum temperatures and experimental infra-
red temperature measurements are shown in Fig. 6. The thermal
model shows good agreement with the experimental measurements.
Thermal simulations of the at end milling were also performed
Fig. 3. The infrared camera system integrated to the CNC machine tool for thermal
on Aerospace grade Al-7050 alloy with six tungsten carbide end
model validation tests. mills. All the six end mills were two uted, having 16 mm diameter
and 30 deg helix angle. The major difference between them was
the cobalt binding concentration (Table 3).
The infrared camera (Fig. 3) used in the experiments has an All of the tests were performed as slot milling at the spindle
uncooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. The IR camera has the speed of 8000 rpm and at 2 mm axial depth of cut. The milling
advantage of a ferroelectric phase transition in certain dielectric cutting forces were measured using the Kistler rotary dynamome-
materials and utilizing an array of pyroelectric elements in that ter. Simulations show that the temperature on the cutting tool at
plane, which is a ceramic material of barium, strontium and the maximum chip thickness can reach up to 421 8C (Fig. 7). The
116 I. Lazoglu, B. Bugdayci / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 113116

temperature model shows the highest temperature in the cutting


zone, and wear is highest there also.
The experimental results show that in the milling of Aluminium
alloy Al-7050 with WC tools, temperature plays a very critical role
on the diffusion and weakening of Cobalt binding between
Tungsten and Carbide. When Cobalt concentration in the tungsten
carbide tool is relatively high (1214% Atomic, 910% Weight),
signicant diffusion occurs between Cobalt and Aluminium alloy
under high tool temperatures. The tool life test results showed that
WC tool with 6.2% weight (Tool D) is having between 3 and 9 times
longer tool life compare to tools with higher Cobalt-binding
concentrations.
The simulation results and experimental evaluation shows that
temperature plays a very critical role in the diffusion wear of the
tool. Therefore, thermal modelling of end milling process was very
helpful for understanding the problems such as diffusion wear on
the machining of Al-7050 alloy with WC tools having various
Cobalt binding concentrations.
Fig. 5. Cutting forces measured during orthogonal cutting of Al-7050 for 188 rake
angle tungsten carbide tool.
4. Conclusion

First time in this paper, a semi-analytical method for the


prediction of temperature distribution for at end milling is
presented. Beside the side cutting edges, this method also takes the
heat generated by the bottom edge cutting edges into account. The
thermal model can predict the tool temperature very fast.
Moreover, the model helped to understand the effects of cobalt
concentrations on the tool wear in the milling of Al-7050.
Computation time for milling thermal model is less than a minute.
Therefore, besides understanding and analyzing diffusion wear,
thermal model of end milling can allow for process planning and
optimization in the future.

Fig. 6. Comparison on maximum simulated and infrared temperatures for the


Acknowledgement
cutting conditions listed in Table 1 at the cutting speed of 200 m/min.

The authors would like to thank the Turkish Aerospace


Industries (TAI) Inc. for supporting this research.
Table 3
Composition of tungsten carbide tools in weight and atomic percentages.

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