7 views

Uploaded by mmbmnbmnb

erte

- Recubrimiento de Bombas Kennametal
- Lathe Cutting Tips
- placare hpl prin lipire pag 38.pdf
- cam_handout.pdf
- Layouts of Spindle Shafts _ MECHLook.pdf
- Relationship between tool flank wear area and component forces in single point turning
- class ppt
- Part Programming Manual CNC
- GA.pdf
- 3D Milling
- Experimental Examination of Main Cutting Force and Surface Roughness Depending on Cutting Parameters
- Catalogue-tungaloy 03 Boring Toolholder
- alati za al
- Speed and Feed for Lathe Machining
- Optimization of Energy Consumption and Surface Quality in Finish Turning
- Nanotecnologia
- Non Conventional Machining
- HPC2014 Leaflet
- (Management and Industrial Engineering) J. Paulo Davim (eds.)-Design of Experiments in Production Engineering-Springer International Publishing (2016).pdf
- Programare Cu Manual Guide Pe o Piesa Data

You are on page 1of 4

jou rnal homep age : ht t p: // ees .e lse vi er . com /ci r p/ def a ult . asp

Ismail Lazoglu (2)a,*, Bircan Bugdayci b

a

Koc University, Manufacturing and Automation Research Center, Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey

b

ETH Zurich, Institutes of Machine Tools and Manufacturing, Zurich, Switzerland

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Determination of the temperatures during machining is one of the most important challenges for

Temperature

accurate milling simulations. Coupled with excessive shearing, plastic deformation and friction in a small

Milling

region of cutting, the temperatures in milling may have very signicant impact on parts and tools such as

Modelling

dimensional errors, residual stresses and tool wear. Temperature exhibits a non-linear complex-

modelling problem in milling process. In this article, for the rst time, a novel thermal modelling is

introduced for fast and accurate prediction of temperatures in end milling processes. A theoretical

modelling approach and experimental validations are presented for various cutting conditions.

2014 CIRP.

detail. Understanding the thermal issues in high performance

Milling is one of the most commonly used machining processes milling will shed more light on the diffusion wear, tool life, residual

in various industries such as aerospace, automotive, dies/moulds, stresses, surface integrity, form errors, deformations, part accuracy

energy and biomedical industries. Besides mechanical issues such that are directly affected by the temperature eld [3].

as forces and vibrations, temperature is one of the critical The majority of existing research in literature is for orthogonal

phenomena in high performance milling. turning mainly due to its relative simplicity as compared to oblique

Coupled with excessive deformations taking place in a small milling process. Komanduri and Hou [4] solved Jaegers classical

area, temperatures exhibit a non-linear complex-modelling heat source method to calculate the temperature rise at any point

problem in metal cutting. The temperature eld in milling directly due to stationary or moving plane heat source of different shapes

affect tool life, surface and subsurface quality of part, material and heat intensities. Later, this solution is extended using the

structure transformation, dimensional and form tolerances, Hahns moving oblique band heat source method. In the rst part,

deections and residual stresses. Understanding the temperature the heat formed in the shear plane is introduced as a plane heat

eld and selecting appropriate cutting conditions in milling is one source and the temperature distribution on the tool and workpiece

of the key factors in todays competitive machining world. calculated accordingly.

Therefore, it is critical to model and investigate the temperature As the computational capabilities increase, numerical meth-

elds produced in milling. ods are also favoured by many researchers. Rech et al. [5]

Although there are some theoretical models for the tempera- developed a tribometer for friction coefcient in machining and

ture elds for orthogonal machining in the literature, milling implemented resulting heat partitions on 2D orthogonal FEM

temperature modelling is inadequate. simulations.

The keynote paper by Van Luttervelt et al. [1] broadly reviewed Lazoglu and Altintas [6] developed a fast nite difference

the modelling of machining, and stated the importance of model to predict the tool and chip temperature elds in machining

temperatures in order to understand the fundamentals of operations. For orthogonal turning operations, the heat transfer

machining and suggested future directions. Recently, Arrazola between the tool and chip is modelled by using a partition formula

et al. [2] extensively reviewed the models of metal machining. It is to dene the heat interaction between the tool and the workpiece.

clearly seen in both of these comprehensive reviews that although The model considers the deformation energy created in the shear

there are analytical and numerical thermal models available for zone and the friction energy generated at the rake face. Later, the

orthogonal machining process, there is a lack of thermal model for model is extended to interrupted machining by digitizing the time

milling processes in the literature. Both from the academic and varying chip thickness into small discrete elements and modelling

industrial perspectives, there are signicant needs to develop fast each element as a rst-order dynamic system. Time constant of

and precise thermal models for milling processes. The model will each of these elements are identied based on the thermal

properties of the tool and work material, and the initial

temperatures. Later, Lazoglu and co-workers [7,8] modelled the

* Corresponding author. three dimensional temperature elds on the chip, tool and

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2014.03.072

0007-8506/ 2014 CIRP.

114 I. Lazoglu, B. Bugdayci / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 113116

difference method. They validated this model using high precision

infrared camera to determine the temperature distribution in the

tool. A new mathematical modelling approach was introduced for

oblique turning process for three dimensional temperature

predictions [9]. The analytical approach that used elliptic

structural grid generation to solve the temperature eld allows

different cutter geometries to be implemented, and the analytical

nature of the model improves the computational time signi-

cantly.

An extensive review of the temperature measurement techni-

ques in material removal processes can also be found in Davies et

al.s paper [10]. Here in this review, it is appropriately stated that Fig. 1. Illustration of the side and bottom edge cutting forces in at end milling.

centres, milling process temperatures have received substantially Besides cutting forces on the side edges, the effect of cutting

less attention than turning. There are very few experimental forces on the bottom edge must be also taken into account to

measurements available for the temperature in milling due to the precisely model the temperature eld. The bottom edge cutting

measurement difculties. Some of these measurements are based force components are modelled as the following:

on thermocouple, thermograph or IR-CCD measurements. Most 2 3 2 3 2 3

dF B;T;i u K Bc;T;i; j K Be;T;i; j

recently, Ueda et al. [11] introduced a new measurement method

dF B;i 4 dF B;R;i u 5 4 K Bc;R;i; j 5 hS;i; j u 4 K Be;R;i; j 5 (3)

using the two-colour pyrometer with non-contact bre couple for K Bc;Z;i; j K Be;Z;i; j

dF B;Z;i u

milling. However, very few temperature data is available for

milling process. In this equation, dFB,i stands for the effect of the bottom edge of

Here in this paper, a new thermal model of end milling is ith ute to the overall cutting forces, and has three components in

introduced using a semi-analytical approach. The cutting forces tangential, radial and axial directions. The value of each force

in milling are modelled analytically and using the heat partition component depends on the bottom edge cutting force coefcients

approach the heat generated is calculated. The generated heat (KSc,T,i,j, KSc,R,i,j, KSc,Z,i,j), edge force coefcients (KSe,T,i,j, KSe,R,i,j, KSe,Z,i,j)

values are used in the numerical model [9]. For the rst time in and the uncut chip thickness of hS,i,j(u). In order to obtain the

literature, the heating effects of the bottom edge of the cutting cutting coefcients for the bottom edge cutting experiments were

tool are also taken into account. It is shown that the bottom edge conducted at different depths of cuts. By subtracting the data for

effect becomes signicant in the thermal modelling of end different depths of cuts from each other, the effect of bottom edge

milling. Moreover, simulation results and experimental evalua- forces can be isolated to obtain the coefcients.

tion show that temperature elds have a very critical role in The heat generation rates in the shear and frictional zones can

diffusion wear of WC tools with various cobalt-binding con- be determined as follows:

centrations.

t h V w cosan

Q s F s V s (4)

sinfn cosfn an

2. Thermal modelling of end milling

t h V w sinbn

Force modelling is very important input for precise thermal Q f F f V c (5)

model of end milling. The effects of the bottom cutting edge of the cosfn bn an sinfn an

tool must also be taken into account. Therefore, side and bottom where F s , F f , V w , V s and V c are the shear force in the shear plane,

cutting forces are determined separately and then integrated in the the frictional force between the tool rake face and the chip, the

model. The total cutting forces are the sum of side edge cutting cutting velocity, the component of cutting velocity along the shear

forces (~

F S ) and bottom edge cutting forces (~

F B ). plane and the component of cutting velocity along the rake face,

respectively. t , fn , an and bn are the shear stress in the shear plane,

~

F~

FS ~

FB (1) shear angle, normal rake angle and normal friction angle,

respectively.

For the modelling of the side edge, the tool is divided into discs The frictional heat ow rate into the tool per unit area is given as

in the axial direction. The contributions of these elements are follows

calculated separately for each ute and rotation angle. The

contribution of each disc for a given angular immersion position Bt Q f

Q t (6)

(u) is as the following: lcn kt

2 3 where Bt is the recursively determined heat partition into tool, kt is

dF S;T;i; j u

the tool thermal conductivity and

dF S;i; j dF S;R;i; j u 5

4

dF S;Z;i; j u hsechc sinun fn

82 3 2 39 lcontact (7)

< K Sc;T;i; j K Se;T;i; j = sinfn cosan cosun sinan sinun

4 K Sc;R;i; j hS;i; j u K Se;R;i; j 5 wS;i; j

5 4 (2)

: ; is the toolchip contact length, h; an ; hc are the uncut chip

K Sc;Z;i; j K Se;Z;i; j

thickness, the normal rake angle and the chip ow angle, and

In this equation, dFS,i,j is the differential side edge cutting force fn ; un are the normal shear angle and the resultant cutting force

acting on the ith ute at the jth disc along the depth of cut, and oblique angle, respectively.

consists of three components in the radial (R), tangential (T) and The heat balance equation per innitesimal volume can be

axial (Z) directions. The value of each cutting force component written by the following partial differential equation,

depends on the cutting force coefcients (KSc,T,i,j, KSc,R,i,j, KSc,Z,i,j) due

d2 T d2 T d2 T q rC p @T @x @T @y @T @z

to shearing and cutting force edge coefcients (KSe,T,i,j, KSe,R,i,j, (8)

dx2 dy2 dz2 k k @x @t @y @t @z @t

KSe,Z,i,j) due to ploughing, the uncut chip thickness of hS,i,j(u) and the

width of cut of wS,i,j. The cutting coefcients can be determined where T; q; r; C p ; k are the temperature, the heat generation

using the mechanistic or the orthogonal oblique transformation rate per unit volume, the density, the thermal capacitance and the

techniques (Fig. 1). conductivity, respectively [9].

I. Lazoglu, B. Bugdayci / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 113116 115

3. Simulations and model validations titanium salts. The IR camera has the spectral responsivity of 7

14 mm, interlace scanning property of 2:1 and minimum resolv-

All the simulations and validations were performed on able temperature difference of approximately 0.2 8C at 25 8C. The

Aerospace grade Aluminium alloy Al-7050. Firstly, the milling protective window prevents the objective from the chips. IR

cutting force model including the bottom edge effect was validated images were calibrated with thermocouple measurements at

with extensive number of cutting force measurements with rotary various temperatures in order to consider the effects of emissivity.

dynamometer measurements. The force simulations and the The cutting speeds in the IR temperature measurements were

experimental tests were performed with 16 mm diameter, two 40, 120 and 200 m/min. Two rake angles with 6 and 18 deg were

uted, 30 deg helix angle tungsten carbide tool at the spindle speed used in the experiments. The clearance angles of the tools were

of 4000 and 8000 rpm, at the feedrates of 0.1, 0.15 and 0.25 mm/ 6 deg. The cutting conditions for the IR temperature measurement

tooth. In the validation of the force model with the bottom edge experiments are given in Table 1.

effect, the maximum difference observed between the measured

and simulated force magnitudes were less than 10%. A typical Table 1

Cutting conditions for validations.

validation result for the milling force prediction including the

bottom edge effect is shown in Fig. 2. Test No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

500

Fx Simulated

Rake angle (8) 6 6 6 6 18 18 18 18

400 Fy Simulated

Feedrate (mm/rev) 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Fz Simulated

Cutting Forces(N)

300 Fx Experimental

Fy Experimental In order to determine the average shear stress, average friction

200

Fz Experimental and shear angles (Table 2) for orthogonal to oblique force

100 transformation, cutting tests were performed. In these tests,

tangential and feed force components were measured at three

0

different cutting speeds and four feedrate values (Figs. 4 and 5).

-100

-200 Table 2

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Calibration results for Al-7050.

Rotation angle(deg)

Tool rake Chip Shear Average Shear

Fig. 2. Simulated and experimental cutting forces for slot milling (spindle speed of angle (8) ratio angle (8) friction angle (8) stress (MPa)

8000 rpm, axial depth of cut of 2 mm, the feedrate of 0.25 mm/tooth).

6 0.57 31.5 33 287.1

18 0.55 32 40.5 266.8

As the asymptotic case of oblique machining, the orthogonal

machining tests with an infrared (IR) camera system were used

for thermal validations of the model. The IR tests were carried

out on Aerospace grade Al-7050 with WC tools as shown in

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4. Cutting forces measured during orthogonal cutting of Al-7050 for 68 rake

angle tungsten carbide tool.

The tool and the workpiece have the following properties; thermal

conductivity of 84 and 157 W/mK, specic heat capacity of 480 and

860 J/kg K, and density of 15,700 and 2800 kg/m3, respectively.

The simulated maximum temperatures and experimental infra-

red temperature measurements are shown in Fig. 6. The thermal

model shows good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Thermal simulations of the at end milling were also performed

Fig. 3. The infrared camera system integrated to the CNC machine tool for thermal

on Aerospace grade Al-7050 alloy with six tungsten carbide end

model validation tests. mills. All the six end mills were two uted, having 16 mm diameter

and 30 deg helix angle. The major difference between them was

the cobalt binding concentration (Table 3).

The infrared camera (Fig. 3) used in the experiments has an All of the tests were performed as slot milling at the spindle

uncooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. The IR camera has the speed of 8000 rpm and at 2 mm axial depth of cut. The milling

advantage of a ferroelectric phase transition in certain dielectric cutting forces were measured using the Kistler rotary dynamome-

materials and utilizing an array of pyroelectric elements in that ter. Simulations show that the temperature on the cutting tool at

plane, which is a ceramic material of barium, strontium and the maximum chip thickness can reach up to 421 8C (Fig. 7). The

116 I. Lazoglu, B. Bugdayci / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 113116

zone, and wear is highest there also.

The experimental results show that in the milling of Aluminium

alloy Al-7050 with WC tools, temperature plays a very critical role

on the diffusion and weakening of Cobalt binding between

Tungsten and Carbide. When Cobalt concentration in the tungsten

carbide tool is relatively high (1214% Atomic, 910% Weight),

signicant diffusion occurs between Cobalt and Aluminium alloy

under high tool temperatures. The tool life test results showed that

WC tool with 6.2% weight (Tool D) is having between 3 and 9 times

longer tool life compare to tools with higher Cobalt-binding

concentrations.

The simulation results and experimental evaluation shows that

temperature plays a very critical role in the diffusion wear of the

tool. Therefore, thermal modelling of end milling process was very

helpful for understanding the problems such as diffusion wear on

the machining of Al-7050 alloy with WC tools having various

Cobalt binding concentrations.

Fig. 5. Cutting forces measured during orthogonal cutting of Al-7050 for 188 rake

angle tungsten carbide tool.

4. Conclusion

prediction of temperature distribution for at end milling is

presented. Beside the side cutting edges, this method also takes the

heat generated by the bottom edge cutting edges into account. The

thermal model can predict the tool temperature very fast.

Moreover, the model helped to understand the effects of cobalt

concentrations on the tool wear in the milling of Al-7050.

Computation time for milling thermal model is less than a minute.

Therefore, besides understanding and analyzing diffusion wear,

thermal model of end milling can allow for process planning and

optimization in the future.

Acknowledgement

cutting conditions listed in Table 1 at the cutting speed of 200 m/min.

Industries (TAI) Inc. for supporting this research.

Table 3

Composition of tungsten carbide tools in weight and atomic percentages.

Tool W C Co References

Weight Atomic Weight Atomic Weight Atomic

[1] Van Luttervelt CA, Childs THC, Jawahir IS, Klocke F, Venuvinod PK, Altintas Y,

A 79.8 30.4 9.9 57.4 10.4 12.3 Armarego E, Dornfeld D, Grabec I, Leopold J, Lindstrom B, Lucca D, Obikawa T,

B 83.1 37.0 7.3 49.5 9.7 13.5 Shirakashi. Sato H (1998) Present Situation and Future Trends in Modelling of

C 83.6 38.9 6.6 46.7 9.3 13.6 Machining Operations Progress Report of the CIRP Working Group Modelling

D 84.4 35.3 8.7 55.6 6.2 8.1 of Machining Operations. CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 47(2):

E 82.2 35.6 7.6 50.7 10.2 13.8 587626.

F 83.9 40.4 6.0 44.2 9.5 14.3 [2] Arrazola PJ, Ozel T, Umbrello D, Davies M, Jawahir IS (2013) Recent Advances in

Modelling of Metal Machining Processes. CIRP Annals Manufacturing Tech-

nology 62(2):695718.

[3] Jawahir IS, Brinksmeier E, MSaoubi R, Aspinwall DK, Outeiro JC, Meyer D,

Umbrello D, Jayal AD (2011) Surface Integrity in Material Removal Processes:

Recent Advances. CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 60(2):603626.

[4] Komanduri R, Hou ZB (2001) Thermal Modelling of the Metal Cutting Process

Part III: Temperature Rise Distribution Due to the Combined Effects of Shear

Plane Heat Source and the ToolChip Interface Frictional Heat Source. Inter-

national Journal of Mechanical Sciences 43:89107.

[5] Rech J, Arrazola PJ, Claudin C, Courbon C, Pusavec F, Kopac J (2013) Character-

isation of Friction and Heat Partition Coefcients at the Tool-Work Material

Interface in Cutting. CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 62(1):7982.

[6] Lazoglu I, Altintas Y (2002) Prediction of Tool and Chip Temperature in

Continuous and Interrupted Machining. International Journal of Machine Tools

& Manufacture 42:10111022.

[7] Ulutan D, Lazoglu I, Dinc C (2009) Three-Dimensional Temperature Predictions

in Machining Processes Using Finite Difference Method. Journal of Materials

Processing Technology 209:11111121.

[8] Dinc C, Lazoglu I, Serpenguzel A (2008) Analysis of Thermal Fields in Orthogo-

nal Machining with Infrared Imaging. Journal of Materials Processing Technology

198:147154.

[9] Lazoglu I, Islam C (2012) Modelling of 3D Temperature Fields for Oblique

Machining. CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 61:127130.

[10] Davies MA, Ueda T, MSaoubi R, Mullany B, Cooke AL (2007) On the Measure-

ment of Temperature in Material Removal Processes. CIRP Annals

Manufacturing Technology 56(2):581604.

[11] Ueda T, Hosokawa A, Oda K, Yamada K (2001) Temperature on Flank Face of

Fig. 7. Image of the worn tool and simulated tool temperature eld at the spindle Cutting Tool in High Speed Milling. CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology

speed of 8000 rpm and the feedrate of 0.25 mm/tooth. 50(1):3740.

- Recubrimiento de Bombas KennametalUploaded byRobert Cid de Leon
- Lathe Cutting TipsUploaded byDavid Keighley
- placare hpl prin lipire pag 38.pdfUploaded byMaria Arion
- cam_handout.pdfUploaded byRyan Rahman
- Layouts of Spindle Shafts _ MECHLook.pdfUploaded bymonu991
- Relationship between tool flank wear area and component forces in single point turningUploaded byAniruddha Gupta
- class pptUploaded byAatsan Aathil
- Part Programming Manual CNCUploaded byMaximiliano Garcia
- GA.pdfUploaded bydsathiya
- 3D MillingUploaded byMutsikamahwe Brian
- Experimental Examination of Main Cutting Force and Surface Roughness Depending on Cutting ParametersUploaded byTiago Camargo Alves
- Catalogue-tungaloy 03 Boring ToolholderUploaded byAlejandro Alex Enriquez
- alati za alUploaded byAnonymous MrD5oB
- Speed and Feed for Lathe MachiningUploaded byThinesh Chander
- Optimization of Energy Consumption and Surface Quality in Finish TurningUploaded byraman8895
- NanotecnologiaUploaded byviniciushiper
- Non Conventional MachiningUploaded byPrasanna kumar subudhi
- HPC2014 LeafletUploaded byBorad Madan Barkachary
- (Management and Industrial Engineering) J. Paulo Davim (eds.)-Design of Experiments in Production Engineering-Springer International Publishing (2016).pdfUploaded byAstatin Astatin
- Programare Cu Manual Guide Pe o Piesa DataUploaded byFavoreel Patrick
- HW5 SolutionsUploaded byEthan
- ch22Uploaded byonlydlonly
- Prezentare ZVI TOOLS 2018Uploaded byAlexandru Gălan
- Zhou Tool Wear...Uploaded byanon_684089600
- Abrasive water jet cuttingUploaded bypbtambe1150
- Plastics Machining GuidelinesUploaded byMohamed Abdel Moniem
- CNCUploaded byyourstruly999
- Machining Process Monitoring...Uploaded byoptimist5
- How It Works – Getting BoredUploaded byfieldsystem
- Water Jet MachiningUploaded byChirag Bansal

- Goyya IntroUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- 100 problems in stochastic processesUploaded byscrat4acorn
- Modelling of Coolant in DrillingUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- DesignUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- 1-s2.0-S138912861500136X-mainUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- HMT of Aerosols 2Uploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- 8549 u 1015107Uploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- markov chain chapter 6Uploaded bydurga03
- joinyUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- HMT of AerosolsUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- Besides Elastomers Will Continue to Be the Largest Consumer of Butadiene and Should Maintain Their Position of 61 Percent of Total ConsumptionUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- Design of ReactorUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- Ajith Kumar rUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- Kodo Ns3 ExamplesUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- Lecture 34Uploaded byshah_gen89
- Questionnaire_4th april.docxUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- 2Uploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- data offloading.pdfUploaded bymmbmnbmnb
- Not to D0Uploaded bymmbmnbmnb

- As NZS ISO 14343-2006 Welding Consumables - Wire Electrodes Wires and Rods for Arc Welding of Stainless and hUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- PC.format.truePDF October.2013Uploaded byRayLight1979
- CactiUploaded bySai Kyaw Htike
- hw3solnUploaded byLuiz Fernando T. Vargas
- Intelligent Control of an Electric Vehicle IcevUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Practice Testanswers 6Uploaded byMarina Georgiou
- Dashboard UsermanualUploaded bykselvaa1
- ece philosophy paperUploaded byapi-349448402
- Biology Related General Knowledge Questions and Answers - Page 2Uploaded byRajeev Kumar
- Grade 6 ICT NotesUploaded byAnonymous ZONOvdZqln
- Appendix a for Malab Assignment 4Uploaded bySadia Murshad
- BOS SummaryUploaded byRebecca13179
- CPM Tutor Solution V2 1Uploaded byHanaOmar
- Huawei GSM-R SolutionUploaded byLakshmi Kiran
- Instrumen AcUploaded bygusgif
- Scrap Mgt _ Optimization SolutionsUploaded byGurminder Singh Dhir
- Easy Set-up Guide for the 550 Reg MattingUploaded bygenid.ss
- Note 819937 - Correct BW Extractors to Use UTC DeltaID_Ext. Loc NumbersUploaded byPradeep Errapothu
- Orthotropics Oct 05 REVISTAUploaded byAgustín Aramayo
- web application developmentUploaded byKamaljeet Lakhina
- CS_Admin_Config_Guide67.pdfUploaded byabctester2552
- ZW-ErrorUploaded byroberto72080201
- Class Text ElementsUploaded byRavi
- 1537723138398.pdfUploaded byBuşuMihaiCătălin
- Cable HandbookUploaded bymechengineer2009
- Smart Solar Powered ChillerUploaded byCarlos Lehman
- Df6a6.8fut1 dUploaded byJorge Alvarez
- Design and Construction of Load Sharing Control System Using PIC MicrocontrollerUploaded byFuture Technovation
- The Rise and Fall of the HP WayUploaded byBabylyn Sagum-enad
- Esdu CatalogueUploaded byUl