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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Anaphylactic reactions (anaphylaxis) are sudden, widespread, potentially severe and life-threatening allergic reactions.

PREDISPOSING FACTORS PRECIPITATING FACTORS

Age - children Asthmatic people


Sex Male & Female Exposure to allergens (eg.
Family history of anaphylaxis penicillin, bee sting, seafoods,
peanuts, milk, eggs)

Initial exposure to allergen

1st exposure (B-lymphocyte differentiation)

Formation of IgE antibodies

IgE antibodies accumulates and attach to membranes


of mast cells

Mast cells are sensitized by IgE antibody


2nd exposure (allergic response)

Sensitized mast cells exposed again with allergen

Mast cells degranulates


Urine Exam
Administer Blood exam
epinephrine
Release of histamine, bradykinin, and
prostaglandin

Increased capillary permeability Peripheral vasodilation Constriction of smooth muscle

Extravasation of intravascular fluids Increase systemic vascular


resistance Bronchoconstriction Laryngospasm Gastrointestinal
cramps
Angioedema, hives Decreased cardiac output
Dyspnea, vomiting
wheezing Abdominal
cramps
Decreased tissue perfusion

Diarrhea
pallor,
Monitor v/s q 4 hours. Monitor v/s Administer Increase Assess bowel
Administer epinephrine Assess capillary bronchodilat fluid intake. sounds.
and antihistamine refill and note or Administer Assess pain
immediately. areas of pallor IV lines. scale.
Increaase
noted.
fluid intake
and avoid
high fiber
foods

Anaphylactic shock

tracheostomy or Cardiac Arrest


Airway Blockage
cricothyrotomy

Respiratory arrest

Death
LEGENDS:

= disease process

= medications

= diagnostic tests

= signs and symptoms

= nursing management

= complications

= surgical management