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SAP 2000

Software Workshop

Prepared By :
Ammar Khalouf
Workshop Schedule:

Session 1:
Brief Background about Finite element method.
Introduction to CSI Structural Package.
Start with SAP 2000 User Interface.

Session 2:
SAP 2000 (Tutorial 1) Beam analysis and design.
SAP 2000 (Tutorial 2) 2D Truss analysis and design.

Session 3:
SAP 2000 (Tutorial 3) 2D Frame analysis and design.
SAP 2000 (Tutorial 4) 3D Steel and concrete framed structure.

Session 4:
SAP 2000 (Tutorial 5) Truss bridge analysis and design.

Session 5:
Integration with AutoCAD
Session 1

Introduction
Introduction:

Any type of engineering system (Structural , Mechanical , Electrical , etc)


is defined by:

-Governing equation : coming from the fundamental principles of physics


such as: equilibrium, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, and
Newton's laws of motion

-Boundary Conditions: that limits the behavior of the system and make it
solvable (have unique solution).

Example: Single spring problem is a very simple example of an engineering


system.
Now imagine if the system was more complicated :

-Non-simple arbitrary geometry.


-Materials have complex behavior and properties.
- Complex governing equation (Second-order Differential equations).
-Even if we know the equation , no direct way of solving it !
-Divide the complex shape into lots of simpler shapes. (Discretization)

-Solve the governing equation over each simpler shape.

-Join all the simpler shapes together, ensuring compatibility and


equilibrium at the inter-element boundaries.

-But ! , This will require thousands of simultaneous equations.


-Equations are better represented in Matrix Format called :

The Stiffness Matrix


-Solution Process is done using computer device.

-Results often displayed on a contour diagram.


-Final Picture: Stress Distribution on the bridge
Finite Element Method

Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computerized approximate method for


predicting how an element reacts to real-world forces.

FEA works by breaking down a real object into a large number


(thousands to hundreds of thousands) of finite elements, such as little
cubes. Mathematical equations help predict the behavior of each
element. A computer then adds up all the individual behaviors to predict
the behavior of the actual object.
-Video On The Finite Element Method:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrpj3cZrKn4
CSI Structural Package
SAP 2000
SAP2000 is a general purpose finite element program which performs the
static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear analysis of structural systems.

https://wiki.csiamerica.com/display/sap2000/Home
-SAP 2000 Features:
-SAP 2000 Features:
-SAP 2000 Features:
- Example Models:
SAP 2000 User Interface
SAP 2000 User Interface
SAP 2000 Documents

Include:

-Software Manuals.

-Step-by-Step Tutorials.

-Steel Design Examples.

-Concrete Design Examples.

-Verification Manuals.

Very Important and Useful !!


Session 2

Tutorials (1-2)
Tutorial 1

Beam Analysis
-Tutorial 1:Beam Analysis
Exercise 1:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-SAP 2000 Solution:

-Bending Moment Diagram:

-Design Sections with Capacity ratios:

Laterally restrained Unrestrained


-Tutorial 1:Beam Analysis
Exercise 2:
-Load Arrangements:
-Load Calculations:
-Load Combinations:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:

-SAP 2000 Solution:


-Tutorial 1:Beam Analysis
Exercise 3:
-Loadings: -Combinations:
-Self weight of the beam. ULS: 1.35 (D.L)+1.5 (L.L)
-Point Loads are super imposed loads. SLS: 1.0 (D.L) + 1.0 (L.L)
-Distributed Loads are live loads.

-Design the continuous beam using UKB Section. Grade (S275)


-Check live load serviceability for limiting deflection of : (span/360).
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution: Design of span (BC)
-Manual Solution: Design of span (BC)
-Manual Solution: Design of span (BC)
-SAP 2000 Solution:

-Bending Moment Diagram:

-Design Sections with Capacity ratios:


Tutorial 2

Plane Truss
-Tutorial 2: Plane Truss
Exercise 1:

-Ignore Self weight of the truss.

-Assume all connections are pinned.

-Design member FI for Tension.


using (Hollow) or (Angle) sections.

-Grade of Steel (S355).


-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution: Design of member (FI)
-SAP 2000 Solution:

-Axial Force Diagram:


-SAP 2000 Solution:
-Design Sections as (CHS):
-SAP 2000 Solution:
-Design Sections as (UKA):
-Tutorial 2: Plane Truss
Exercise 2:

-Ignore Self weight.

-Assume welded connections.

-Grade of Steel (S275).


-Manual Solution: Design of member (AB)
-Manual Solution: : Design of member (AB)
-Manual Solution: Design of member (AB)
-Manual Solution: Design of member (AB)
-SAP 2000 Solution:

-Axial Force Diagram:


-SAP 2000 Solution:
-Design Sections:
Session 3

Tutorials (3-4)
Tutorial 3

2D Frame Analysis
-Tutorial 3: 2D Frame Analysis

-Ignore Self weight of the frame.

-Load applied is Ultimate.

-Assume rigid connections.

-Design a bracing member as RHS section.

-Grade of Steel (S275).


-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution: Design of member (HG)
-Manual Solution: Design of member (HG)
-Manual Solution: Design of member (HG)
-SAP 2000 Solution: Axial force diagram
-SAP 2000 Solution: Design sections
Tutorial 4

Steel and concrete framed structure


-Tutorial 4: Introduction
-Tutorial 4: Introduction
-Tutorial 4: Introduction
-Tutorial 4: Introduction
-Tutorial 4: Introduction
-Tutorial 4: Steel and concrete framed structure

-Live load = 2.5 kN/m2

-ULS : 1.35 DL + 1.5 LL

-Grade of Steel (S355).

-Assume all beams are simply supported.

-Assume all columns are hinged.

-Check central column capacity for compression.

-Check beams capacity for bending.


-Tutorial 4: Steel and concrete framed building

-Plan view

.
-Tutorial 4: Steel and concrete framed building

-Typical Section:

-3D Side View


-Manual Solution: Beam (A3-B3)
-Manual Solution: Beam (B5-9)
-Manual Solution: Column (B5)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (A3-B3)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (A3-B3)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (A3-B3)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (A3-B3)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (B5-9)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (B5-9)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (B5-9)
-Manual Solution: Design of beam (B5-9)
-Manual Solution: Design of column (B5)
-Manual Solution: Design of column (B5)
-Manual Solution: Design of column (B5)
-SAP 2000 Solution: Analysis results

Secondary Beam
(A3-B3)

Main Beam
(B5-9)

Column (B5)
-SAP 2000 Solution: Beam design sections
-SAP 2000 Solution: Columns design sections
Session 4

Tutorial (5)
Tutorial 5

Truss bridge analysis


-Tutorial 5: Truss bridge analysis
-Tutorial 5: Truss bridge analysis
-Tutorial 5: Truss bridge analysis
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-Manual Solution:
-SAP 2000 Solution: Bridge 3D model
-SAP 2000 Solution: Using Static Load Case

Support reactions

Axial force diagram


-SAP 2000 Solution: Design check

Capacity ratios
-SAP 2000 Solution: Using Moving Load Case.

Influence Line for Top Chord

Envelope Axial Force diagram


-SAP 2000 Solution: Using Moving Load Case.

Capacity ratios
-SAP 2000 Solution: Static vs Dynamic

Capacity ratios (Static)

Capacity ratios (Dynamic)


Session 5

Integration with AutoCAD


-Part 1: Import CAD drawing to SAP 2000
Structural Layout drawing
-Part 1: Import CAD drawing to SAP 2000
Finite Element Model
-Part 1: Import CAD drawing to SAP 2000
Save as DXF File
-Part 1: Import dxf file to SAP 2000
Import DXF file to SAP 2000
-Part 1: Import dxf file to SAP 2000
Convert to SAP structure model
-Part 2: Export SAP 2000 model to CAD file
SAP 2000 3D Model
-Part 2: Export SAP 2000 model to CAD file
Export to AutoCAD DXF file
-Part 2: Export SAP 2000 model to CAD file
AutoCAD Model
References:

SAP2000, C.S.I., 2013. Computers and Structures Inc. Berkeley, CA, USA.

CSI, S., 1996. Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures.
Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, California.

Wilson, E.L. and Habibullah, A., 1998. SAP2000structural analysis users


manual. Computers and Structures, Inc.

Computers and Structures, Inc. "Tutorial Videos | SAP2000".


Link: https://www.csiamerica.com/products/sap2000/watch-and-learn

Da Silva, L.S., Simes, R. and Gervsio, H., 2012. Design of Steel


Structures: Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures, Part 1-1: General Rules
and Rules for Buildings. John Wiley & Sons.

Hibbeler, R.C. and Kiang, T., 2015. Structural analysis. Prentice Hall.