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-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, M.Sc. AIFC B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001 0671-2304172/2304433, (M) 09437034172 <firstname.lastname@example.org>
1.Stages 1.Stages of creation-Universe has 3 stages-(1) Its original source is Rasa, which means
uniform homogenous material. य ै त सुकृतं रसो वै सः । रसं ेवायं ल वाऽऽन दी भवित। (तैि रीय उपिनषद् २/७) (2) Initial form is Āditya (ādi = beginning). Intermediate form is Varāha (boar or cloud) which is called Pitara (prototype, parents) also. (3) Final form is collection of galaxies, galaxy and stars-called 3 Dhāmas. Creation by Brahma (God) has been called su-kŗta (=good work). In, Bible, Old Testament Genesis-1, it had been translated that after each stage of creation, God was telling that it was very good, giving certificate to Himself.
Rasa is further divided into 3 stages(a) Rasa of Universe is sarir or salila-i.e. water with waves. Here, water is inter-galactic matter and galaxies are waves. समु ाय वा वाताय वाहा, सिरराय वा वाताय वाहा । (वा॰ यजुवद ३८/७) अयं वै सिररो योऽयं वायुः पवत एत मा ै सिररात् सव देवाः सवािण भूतािन सहेरते (शतपथ ा ण १४/२/२/३) वात य जूित व ण य नािभम ं ज ानं सिरर य म ये। (वा॰ यजुवद १३/४२) इमं साह ं शतधारमु सं यमानं सिरर य म ये। (वा॰ यजुवद १३/४९) सिररे वा सदने सादयािम (वा॰ यजुवद १३/५३) सिररं छ दः। (वा॰ यजुवद १५/४) िव ाजमानः सिरर य म य उप यािह िद ािन धाम ।(वा॰ यजुवद १५/५२) आपो वै सिररम्। (शतपथ ा ण ७/५/२/१८) इमे वै लोकाः सिररम् । (शतपथ ा ण ७/५/२/३४, ८/६/३/२१) वा वै सिररम् । (शतपथ ा ण ७/५/२/५३) वा वै सिररं छ दः । (शतपथ ा ण ८/५/२/४) आपो ह वाऽ इदम े सिललमेवास। (शतपथ ा ण ११/१/६/१) आपो ह वाऽ इदम े सिललमेवासीत् (तैि रीय ा ण १/१/३/५) आपो ह वाऽ इदम े मह सिललमेवासीत् (जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ा ण १/५६/१) वेिदव सिललम् (शतपथ ा ण ३/६/२/५) (b) Rasa of galaxy is Ap or ambha (i.e. water with sound). ौवाऽअपां सदनं िदिव ापः स ाः । (शतपथ ा ण ७/५/२/५६) अपां पः आपो ह वाऽ इदम े सिललमेवास। ता अकामय त कथं तु जायेमहीित । (शतपथ ा ण ११/१/६/१) त द वीत् ( ) आिभ अहिमदं सवमा यािम यिददं िकचेित त मादापो आिभवा दापोऽभवं तदपाम वमा ोित वै स सवान् दापो कामान् यान् कामयते । (गोपथ ा ण पूव १/२) आापो वा अ बयः । (कौषीतिक ा ण उपिनषद् १२/२) अयं वै लोकोऽ भांिस (तैि रीय ा ण ३/८/१८/१)
Radiation within exclusive zone of a star is Rudana (crying) and so, the solar system is called Rodasī. Radiation of inter-stellar space is Krandana (silent weeping). Zone of galaxy is, thus, Krandasī . Sanyatī (stable) is space of universe. यदरोदीत् ( जापितः) तदनयोः ( ावा-पृिथ ोः) रोद वम् । (तैि रीय ा ण २/२/९/४) (वाजसनेयी यजुवद ११/४३,१२/१०७) इमे वै ावापृिथवी रोदसी । (शतपथ ा ण ६/४/४/२, ६/७/३/२, ७/३/१/३०) इमे ( ावापृिथ ौ) ह वाव रोदसी । (जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ा ण १/३२/४) ावापृिथवी वै रोदसी । (ऐतरे य ा ण २/४१) यं यं दसी अवसा त तभाने (ऋ वेद१०/१२१/६, वाजसनेयी यजुवद ३२/७, तैि रीय संिहता ४/१/८/५) दसी संयती िव वयेते (ऋ वेद २/१२/८)
(c) Water of solar system is called Mara (dying or decaying) as creation within it is relatively short lived. Its source is called Marīchi (Sun). एता वाऽ आपः वराजो य मरीचयः । (शतपथ ा ण ५/३/४/२१) यः कपाले रसो िल आसी ा मरीचयो ऽभवन् । (शतपथ ा ण ६/१/२/२) स इमाँ लोकनसृजत । अ भो मरीचीमर मरमापोऽदोऽ भः परे ण िदवं ौः ित ा तिर ं मरीचयः पृिथवी मरो या मर अध ता ा आपः । (ऐतरे य उपिनषद् १/१/२)
Dhā 2.Dhāmas-Thus, Universe has 4 Dhāmas (Places) and its waters (spread materials) areDhāma
1. Parama (Highest) 2. Uttama (Upper) 3. Madhyama (middle) 4. Avama (Lower) Meaning Whole Universe 1011 galaxies 1011 stars of galaxy Solar system Water
Rasa Sarir or Salila Ap or Ambha Mara
या ते धामािन परमािण यावमा या म यमा िव कम तेमा । (ऋ वेद १०/८१/४) ु
These dhāma have a compact base called earth or mother and sky around them called
father. Thus, there are 3 mothers and 3 fathers, or 3 earths (bhūmi) and 3 skies (dyu). ित ो मातॄ ीन् िपतॄन् िब देक ऊ वत थौ नेमव लापयि त । म य ते िदवो अमु य पृ े िव िमदं वाचमिव िम वाम् ॥ (ऋ वेद १/१६४/१०) ित ो भूमीधारयन् ी त ू ीिण ता िवदथे अ तरे षाम् । ऋतेनािद या मिह वो मिह वं तदयमन् व ण िम चा ॥ (ऋ वेद २/२७/८) The 3 earths have been defined as the zone lighted by rays of sun and moon(1) Earth planet is lighted by both sun and moon. It has oceans, rivers, mountains all. (2) Earth of solar system is exclusive zone lighted by sun. Its planetary system has been called wheel shaped earth of 100 crore yojanas (1 yojana = 1000 parts of earth’s equatorial diameter)-up to orbit of Neptune. Its half part up to Uranus is Loka (bright) and outer part is
Aloka (darker) part (Bhāgavata purāņa, skandha 5). The regions formed by apparent rotation
of planets of Loka part has been called Dvīpa (continents) and intervening zones as oceans with same names as on earth planet. (3) The last limit of sun’s rays where it is seen as a point is the third and biggest earth called
Parameşţhī maņɖala (largest sphere). As an egg of the Brahma, it is Brahmāņɖa. As last
reach of sun rays (Sūrya siddhānta 12/82), it is called Parama-pada (extreme step) of Vişņu (Sun). The central rotating disc is called a river (Ākāśa-gangā). Next verse of Vişņu purāņa tells that starting from each earth, its sky has same diameter or circumference, which is of earth planet (starting from man). Thus, man, earth planet, planet of solar system (in gravitational field of sun) and galaxy-all are successively 107 times bigger. रिव च मसोयाव मयूखैरवभा यते । स समु सिर छै ला पृिथवी तावती मृता ॥ याव माणा पृिथवी िव तार पिरम डलात् । नभ ताव माणं वै ास म डलतो ि ज ॥ (िव णु पुराण २/७/३-४) Original stage of each of 3 dhāma (except parama) is Āditya-i.e. it was the beginning (ādi) stage. Āditya of Universe, galaxy and solar system are Aryamā, Varuņa and Mitra. These stages are approximately seen now in intermediate spaces (antarikśa)-Ref. Ŗgveda 2/27/8.
3. Meaning of Āditya- Āditya has been defined in Nirukta (2/13) of Yāska in 4 ways(1) Which extracts or takes rasa (juice)-आद े रसान्। (2) Which takes light or energy of bright stars- आद े भासं योितषानाम् । (3) Which receives light from bright nakśatra (constellations)-आदी ो भासेित वा । (4) Sons of Aditi-Sun and other gods have been called Āditya - सूय आिदतेयम् (ऋक् १०/८८/११) With this meaning-Mitra, Varuņa, Aryamā, Dakśa, Bhaga, Amśa- also are Āditya. Next paragraph (2/14) of Nirukta gives 7 meanings or synonyms of Āditya(1) Svah ( वः)-Svah has 3 derivations (a) Su+araņa (सु+अरण)=Which moves ahead easily. (b) Su + Īraņah (सु + ईरणः)-Which thoroughly destroys darkness. (c) Su + Ŗtah (सु + ऋतः) = Ŗta (field of influence) where light, gravitational pull etc. are felt. (2) Pŗśni (पृि ) -Pra + aśnate ( + अ ते वणः) -Which spreads colours or touches thoroughly (सं ा) (3) Nāka (नाक)-(a) Which takes rasa (नेता रसानाम् ) (b) Which receives light or collection of stars (नेता भासानाम् ). (c) Dyau ( ौः = bright sky) is also nāka as it removes lack of sorrow. Ka (क = सुख) = happiness, Aka (अक = दुःख) = lack of happiness or sorrow. Nāka-removes (na) aka. स नाको नाम िदिव र ोहाि ः (मै ायणी संिहता ४/१/९)
Agni is named nāka which protects.
न वा अमुं लोकं ज मुषे िक च नाकम् । (काठक संिहता २१/२) = We desire to go nāka, not this world. (4) Gau (गौ)-Which moves in space and takes rasa there. It reaches far away from earth, so it is dyau also. Planets and stars move in it, so it is called gau (= go, in English). (5) Vişţap (िव प्)-Which injects juices (रस). It is normally used for tree, which takes juice from earth through its roots and takes them to its leaves. Current of river also is vişţapa as
Trivişţap (Tibet) has three vişţapa (Viţapa)-Brahma-viţapa is eastern part from where the
water is drained through Brahmaputra (meaning son of Brahmā) river to sea. The land beyond Brahmaputra river is Brahmā (Burmā), now called Myāmmāra (= mahā + amara = -3-
great among gods i.e. Brahmā). Central part around Kailāsa mountain (abode of Śiva) is
Śiva-viţapa whose water is drained through Gangā river famed to have arisen from hair locks
of Śiva. West part is Vişņu-viţapa drained through Sindhu river whose daughter is Lakśmī (Vaişņo-devī shrine). The chain of creation from Svayambhū (whole world) via Parameşţhī (galaxy), Saura (solar system), Chāndra (sphere containing moon orbit), Bhū (earth) is called eternal tree (e.g. Gītā 15/1), which has been called skambha in Atharva-veda (10/7). Formless Brahma sees this tree remaining stand-stillऊ व मूलोऽवाक् शाख एषोऽ थः सनातनः । (कठ उपिनषद् २/३/१) गीता (१५/१) वृ इव त धो िदिव ित येक तेनेदं पूण पु षेण सवम्। ( ेता तर उपिनषद् ३/९) (6) Dyau ( ौ)-Gau (गौ) and vişţapa (िव प्)-both have been called dyau also which contain light (divah = lighted) and pious souls. ((7) Nabha (नभ)-Which carries away juice or light, or which is collection of constellations (नेता भासानाम्, भासानाम्, योितषां णयः) Or, it is opposite of Bhana (= which is not lighted).
Varā 4.Varāha- Original matter is water of different levels-i.e. it is spread almost uniformly like
ocean. Compact block of matter is like earth. Intermediate formative stage is called Varāha (boar) which is an animal of land and water both. It is called cloud also, which is intermediate between air (gas) and water (rains). Intermediate stages are called Pitara (parents). वराह = वाः (=वर् ) + आ = which collects water. Varāha or Varāhārah is cloud (megha)-वराहो मेघो भवित, वराहारः (या क िन १/१०)
Varā Five Varāhas- In space, there are 5 Varāha corresponding to 5 levels (parva) of world formsSvayambhū (1) Svayambhū-This is whole universe. Condensation of gaseous nebula which formed
galaxies is called Ādi-Varāha, i.e. Initial cloud or boar. Svayambhū is called Brahmā which is creator form of Brahma. Even the matter is Brahma, so he used himself for creation of world. That process is called tapa (heat, hard work). ा देवानां पदवीः कवीनामृिषिव ाणां मिहषो मृगाणाम् । येनो गृधानां विधितवनानां सोमः पिव म येित रे भन् । (ऋ वेद ९/९६/६) ा वै वय भूः -तपोऽत यत । तदै त -न वै तप यान यमि त । ह त ? भूते वा मानं जु वािन, भूतािन चा मिनइित । त सवषु भूतेषु आ मानं (शतपथ ा ण १३/७/१/१) (2) Parameşţhī –First unit of creation was galaxy. As the largest block, it is called Parameşţh şţ वा भूतािन चा मिन ( वा)- सवषां भूतानां ै ं वारा यं आिधप यं प यत् ।
Parameşţhī. Its creative field is 10 times bigger and is called Kūrma (kurmah = we create)-It
is 1018 yojanas, while galaxy is of Parārdha (1017 ) yojana, called Parama-guhā of parārdha size in Kaţhopanişad (1/3/1) and asya-vāmīya sūkta (Ŗgveda 1/164/12). Varāha of this zone is called Yajña-varāha as this is start of creation (yajña). Brahma is the whole. It has micro fluctuations at each point. Visible motion is called Karma. Action is defined in modern physics as (force x displacement). That action is which produces desired objects in cycles. -4-
The sequence of Brahma-karma-yajjña is indicated at start of Gītā, chapter 8 and is defined in Gītā (3/10,16) स यः कू मः असौ स आिद यः । (शतपथ ा ण ६/५/१/६) तां पृिथव (परमे ी) संि ल या सु ािव यत् त यै यः पराङ् रसोऽ य रत्-स कू म ऽभवत् । (शतपथ ा ण ६/१/१/१२) स यत् कू म नाम-एत ै पं कृ वा जापितः जा असृजत । यदसृजत-अकरोत्-तत् । यदकरोत्-त मात् कू मः । क यपो वै कू मः । त मादा ः-सवाः जाः का य यः-इित । (शतपथ ा ण ७/५/१/५) मानेन त य कू म य कथयािम य तः । श कोः शत सह ािण योजनािन वपुः ि थतम् ॥ (नरपित जयचया, वरोदय, कू मच ) ऋतं िपब तौ सुकृत य लोके गुहां िव ौ परमे पराध । छायातपौ िवदो वदि त प ा यो ये च ि णािचके ताः ॥ (कठोपिनषद् १/३/१) सहय ाः जाः सृ वा पुरो वाच जापितः । अनेन सिव य मेषवोऽि व कामधुक् ॥१०॥ एवं विततं च ं नानुवतयतीह यः ॥१६॥ (गीता, ३) (3) Saura-It is Solar system defined as the zone in which sun light is more (than background of galaxy) and is taken as 30 dhāma , where each is double the size of previous, starting with earth (Bŗhadāraņyaka upanişad 3/3/2). Earth has 3 zones within it, thus there are 3 + 30 = 33 in solar system. Prāņa of each is a devatā. The 33 devatā are-8 Vasu, 11 Rudra and 12
Āditya . Between 3 zones there are 2 Aśvinas at junction points, which are called nāsikā
(nose) also. Prajāpati is at 34th dhāma. Since sun is source of light, its varāha is called
का मुशनेव ुवाणो देवो देवानां जिनमा िववि । मिह तः शुिचब धुः पावकः पदा वराहो अ येित रे भन् (ऋक् ९/९७/७) स जापित-वै वराहो पं कृ वा उप यम त् । (तैि रीय ा ण १/१/३/६) अ ो ह वै देवा घृतकु भं वेशयांच ु ततो वराहः स बभूव । त माद् वराहो मेदरो घृताि स भूतः । त माद् वराहे ु गावः संजानते । (शतपथ ा ण ५/४/३/१९) ि ॒श ाम॒ िव रा॑जित॒ वाक् प॑त॒ गाय॑ धीयते । ित॒ व तो॒रह॒ ुिभः॑ ॥ (ऋक् १०/१८९/३, साम ६३२, १३७८, अथव ६/३१/३, २०/४८/६, वा. यजु ३/८, तैि रीय सं १/५/३/१) यि श ै देवाः जापित तुि शः । (शतपथ ा ण १२/६/१/३७, ४/५/७/२, ता
... ाि ংशतं वै देवरथा य ययं लोक तং सम तं पृिथवी ि ताव पयित ताং सम तं पृिथव ि ताव समु ः पयित..... (बृहदार यक उपिनषद् ३/३/२) अयं वै (पृिथवी-) लोको मायं िह लोको िमत इव । (शतपथ ा ण ८/३/३/५, वा.यजु १४/१८) मा छ दः तत् पृिथवी, अि दवता.. (मै ायणी संिहता २/१४/९३, काठक संिहता ३९/३९) नािसके अि नौ । (शतपथ ा ण १२/९/१/१३) इमे ह वै ावापृिथवी य मि नािवमे हीदं सवमा ुवातां पु कर जािव यि रे वा यै (पृिथ ै) पु करमािद योऽ मु यै (िदवे)- (शतपथ ा ण ४/१/५/१६) (4) Bhū-Varāha-This is the zone whose matter was condensed into earth and moon. Vāyu Bhū Varā
purāņa (6/12) calls this varāha as 100 yojana high and 10 yojana wide. In terms of sundiameter, earth is 108-109 units away from sun. Thus, it is in body of extending from 100110 yojana from sun, where diameter of sun is called a yojana. Earth size is 109 parts of sun diameter, thus its varāha is 1100 times bigger. -5-
(5) Emūşa-varāha-This is adjacent (emūşa) to earth and is taken as atmosphere. Bigger Emū varā version is earth of 10 angula (10 diameters of sun) as indicated about Bhū-varāha. तां ादेशमा (१० अंगल) पृिथव -एमूष इित वराह उ घान । सोऽ याः पृिथ ाः पितः ु ा ण १४/१/२/११) जापितः । (शतपथ
5. Physical meaning-Mitra and Varuņa are near and far. Aryamā is neutral reference. In
hemisphere visible above horizon, east half is Mitra, west half is Varuņa. Central line (meridian) in north-south direction is Aryamā. For main part of Bhārata (Kumārikā-Undivided India up to Afghanistan), immediate neighbor is Persia, called Mitra and further west is
Varuņa, i.e. Arab. Varuņa was Pāśī i.e. head of Pāśās-still title of rulers in west Asia. Vasişţha was Maitrā- Varuņa, i.e. son of both as he united both parts. In meridian line itself,
north end is Vasişţha and south end Agastya-famous astronomers of north and south parts. Among contacts, Mitra is friend, Varuņa is distant or enemy, Aryamā is judge or neutral. In a
yajña, Mitra is sun or its light, Varuņa is water and Aryamā is central pole (yūpa).
Solar system has 3 zones for Mitra, Varuņa Aryamā-called 3 steps of Vişņu-Heat zone up to 100 sun-diameters, bright zone up to 1000 units (called Sahasrākśa =Indra, Akśa = eyes or sun) and 105 units called Maitrya-maņɖala (Vişņu purāņa 2/7/5). शत योजने ह वा एष (आिद यः) इत तपित । (कौषीतिक ा ण ८/३) सह ं हैत आिद य य र मयः। (जैिमनीय ा ण उपिनषद् १/४४/५) भूमेय जन ल े तु सौरं मै ेय म डलम् । (िव णु पुराण २/७/५) इदं िव णुिवच मे ेधा िनदधे पदम् । (ऋक् १/२२/१७) ति णोः परमं पदं सदा प यि त सूरयः। (ऋक् १/२२/२०) There are 2 zones also within solar system-Center of planetary system is Jupiter (Bŗhaspati) and almost vacant zone with radiation (Indra). These are prayed in śānti-pāţhaशं नो िम ः शं व णः शं नो भव वयमा । शं नो इ ो बृह पितः शं नो िव णु There are 3 zones within earth alsoपृिथ ािममे लोकाः (पृ वी, अ तिर , ौ) िति ताः। (जैिमनीय ा ण उपिनषद् १/१०/२) मः ॥ (ऋक् १/९०/९)
time6. Clouds and time-scales-Sūrya siddhānta (14/1) has indicated 9 time-scales.
ा ं िप यं तथा िद ं ाजाप यं च गौरवम् । सौरं सावनं चा मा मानािन वै नव ॥ (सूय िस ा त १४/१) Measurable time is called Janya as it is measure of time period of yajña which produces in cycleलोकानाम तकृ कालः कालोऽ यः कलना मकः॥ (सूय िस ा त १/१०) Correspondingly, there are 9 sargas (forms and stages) of creation is Vişņu purāņa (1/5/1925). Bhāgavata purāņa (3/10) counts 10 sargas including abstract source (Avyakta). Time period of creation of 9 levels of visible creation from abstract is called Kalpa or day (Ahar) of
Brahmā and merging back of all in abstract is his nightअ ाद् यः सव भव यहरागमे । रा यागमे लीय ते त वा ै सं के ॥ (गीता ८/११)
9 visible stages of creation are from creative surroundings called Parjanya (pari – surrounding, janya =creative). Main yajña is farming which produces anna (food) necessary for survival of man. In that context parjanya means cloud. य ाद् भवित पज यः पज याद स भवः (गीता ३/१४) In general, all creative forms are cloud or varāha. In space, there are 5, but there are a total of 9 clouds for 9 time scales-indicated in Old Testament, Genesis, 1. This indicates 4 clouds on earth. Vedic texts count 4 types of clouds also, but that is for rains-Nāga, Parvata,
Vŗşabha, Arbuda as per shape. According to quantity of water, 4 types are-Puşkara, Āvartta, Samvartta, Droņa . Here, clouds are creative forms. 9 time scales are(1) Brāhma-1 day-night = 2 kalpa =8640 million years = 264 earth diameter (in light years). (2) Prājāpatya-Creation starts from galaxy whose axial rotation period is manvantara.
Mana (mind) is function of brain, which is image of galaxy-cells in brain are equal to
number of stars in galaxy. So, rotation of galaxy is manvantara of 306.8 million years. (3) Divya-For astronomy, it is 360 solar years indicated in 2 ways-it is rotation period of an imaginary planet at 60 AU, called nakśatra-kakśā, where 60,000 Bālakhilyas of anguşţha (1 angula =96th part of earth as man = 135 km) size are rotating. Northsouth motion of sun on earth surface is divya dina, its year is divya. In context of
saptarşi, year divya year is solar year (Vāyu purāņa, 3030 mānuşa year or 2700
divya year). (4) Guru year-Period of Jupiter in 1 sign by mean motion (361.0486 days) is Guru year in
Vivasvān system followed in north India. Pitāmaha system of south takes solar year
as Guru year. (5) Solar-10 motion of sun is day, 300 motion is month and complete revolution is 1 solar year. (6) Chāndra-Moon rotates around earth in 27.3 days. 12 such revolutions in 324 days are mānuşa year in context of saptarşi era. Synodic revolution of moon relative to sun is in 29.5 days-called lunar month with 2 pakśas of about 15 days each. 30 part of lunar month is a tithi. 12 such months are lunar year of 354 days. (7) Pitara-Pitaras (manes) live on moon surface away from earth. Thus, dark half of lunar month is day and bright half is night for them. 30 such day-nights are pitara month and 12 such months are their year. (8) Sāvana-It is civil day from sunrise to next sunrise at a place. 30 such days = 1 month, 12 months = 1 year. (9) Nākśatra-Sidereal rotation of earth is Nākśatra day, 4 minutes shorter than Sāvana day. It has similar month and year of 30 and 360 days. -7-
Time scales (5) to (9) above relate to various stages of creation on earth-that can be plants and animals of water, air and land. Present great cycle is called Śveta-Varāha Kalpaय ायं वतते क पो वराहः सा तः शुभः ।६। अ मा क पा ु यः पूवः क पोऽतीतः सनातनः । त य चा य क प य म याव थां िनबोधत ।७। ( ा ड पुराण १/२/६/६-७)
7. Physical forms-Varāha incarnation of Vişņu was in human form who had killed
Hiraņyākśa in about 16000 BC. He had put on mask of boar which was worshipped by Asuras and entered his capital through Amazon river (Zend Avesta). As a friend, he was
welcome, but afterwards he killed Hiraņyākśa. Since then boar has become a taboo among religion of asura region of west Asia. Within human body, sun is ātmā, in particular Vijñāna-ātmā controlling buddhi (intellect) is linked with sun at speed of light. Moon is linked with Prajñāna-ātmā, controlling mind.
Varāha is meda (fat) or gross body. Rudra is 11 organs of action and perception and mind.
Including ātmā, they are 12 ādityas. In space, there are 8 ādityas for 8 divya (cosmic) creations of sānkhya-average prāņa of 7
lokas and 1 universal. Or, 8 prakŗti are combination of 3 guņas = 23.
For, energy of sun felt in 12 months, there are 12 ādityas and 12 jyotir-lingas. These are also names of 12 outer dhāmas of solar system. In Deva yuga, ādityas were 12 main tribes of
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