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# Materi Praktikum

K-Means (Clustering)

1. Clustering Analysis

## Clustering is the process of grouping objects/individuals together in such a way that

objects/individuals in one group are more similar than objects/individuals in other groups.
For example, from a ticket booking engine database identifying clients with similar booking
activities and group them together (called Clusters). Later these identified clusters can be
targeted for business improvement by issuing special offers, etc. Cluster Analysis falls into
Unsupervised Learning algorithms, where in Data to be analyzed will be provided to a Cluster
analysis algorithm to identify hidden patterns within as shown in the figure below.

In the image above, the cluster algorithm has grouped the input data into two groups. There are 3
Popular Clustering algorithms, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, K-Means Cluster Analysis, Two-
step Cluster Analysis, of which today I will be dealing with K-Means Clustering.

## 2. What is K Means Clustering?

K Means Clustering is an unsupervised learning algorithm that tries to cluster data based on their
similarity. Unsupervised learning means that there is no outcome to be predicted, and the
algorithm just tries to find patterns in the data. In k means clustering, we have the specify the
number of clusters we want the data to be grouped into. The algorithm randomly assigns each
observation to a cluster, and finds the centroid of each cluster. Then, the algorithm iterates
through two steps:

## Calculate new centroid of each cluster.

These two steps are repeated till the within cluster variation cannot be reduced any further. The
within cluster variation is calculated as the sum of the euclidean distance between the data points
and their respective cluster centroids.

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Explaining k-Means Cluster Algorithm

In K-means algorithm, k stands for the number of clusters (groups) to be formed, hence this
algorithm can be used to group known number of groups within the Analyzed data.
K Means is an iterative algorithm and it has two steps. First is a Cluster Assignment Step, and
second is a Move Centroid Step.

CLUSTER ASSIGNMENT STEP: In this step, we randomly chose two cluster points (red dot &
green dot) and we assign each data point to one of the two cluster points whichever is closer to it.
(Top part of the below image)

MOVE CENTROID STEP: In this step, we take the average of the points of all the examples in
each group and move the Centroid to the new position i.e. mean position calculated. (Bottom part
of the below image)

The above steps are repeated until all the data points are grouped into 2 groups and the mean of
the data points at the end of Move Centroid Step doesnt change.

By repeating the above steps the final output grouping of the input data will be obtained.

## 3. Exploring the data using R

Example 1 Cluster Analysis on Accidental Deaths by Natural Causes in India using R

CLUSTER.
Using the package we shall do cluster analysis of Accidents deaths in India by Natural Causes.
Steps implemented will be discussed as below:

Between 2001 & 2012. Input data is displayed as below:

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For any cluster analysis, all the features have to be converted into numerical & the larger values
in the Year Columns are converted to z-score for better results.
Run Elbow method (code available below) is run to find the optimal number of clusters present
within the data points.
Run the K-means cluster method of the R package & visualize the results as below:

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Code:
#Fetch data
APStats = data[which(data\$STATE == ANDHRA PRADESH),]
APMale = rowSums(APStats[,4:8])
APFemale = rowSums(APStats[,9:13])
APStats[,APMale] = APMale
APStats[,APFemale] = APFemale
data = APStats[c(2,3,14,15)]
library(cluster)
library(graphics)
library(ggplot2)
#factor the categorical fields
cause = as.numeric(factor(data\$CAUSE))
data\$CAUSE = cause
#Z-score for Year column
z = {}
m = mean(data\$Year)
sd = sd(data\$Year)
year = data\$Year
for(i in 1:length(data\$Year)){
z[i] = (year[i] m)/sd
}
data\$Year = as.numeric(z)
#Calculating K-means Cluster assignment & cluster group steps
cost_df <- data.frame()
for(i in 1:100){
kmeans<- kmeans(x=data, centers=i, iter.max=100)
cost_df<- rbind(cost_df, cbind(i, kmeans\$tot.withinss))
}
names(cost_df) <- c(cluster, cost)
#Elbow method to identify the idle number of Cluster
#Cost plot
ggplot(data=cost_df, aes(x=cluster, y=cost, group=1)) +
theme_bw(base_family=Garamond) +
geom_line(colour = darkgreen) +
theme(text = element_text(size=20)) +
ggtitle(Reduction In Cost For Values of kn) +
xlab(nClusters) +
ylab(Within-Cluster Sum of Squaresn)
clust = kmeans(data,5)

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data[,cluster] = clust\$cluster

## Example 2 Iris Dataset

The iris dataset contains data about sepal length, sepal width, petal length, and petal width of
flowers of different species. Let us see what it looks like:

library(datasets)
Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
1 5.1 3.5 1.4 0.2 setosa
2 4.9 3.0 1.4 0.2 setosa
3 4.7 3.2 1.3 0.2 setosa
4 4.6 3.1 1.5 0.2 setosa
5 5.0 3.6 1.4 0.2 setosa
6 5.4 3.9 1.7 0.4 setosa

After a little bit of exploration, I found that Petal.Length and Petal.Width were similar
among the same species but varied considerably between different species, as demonstrated
below:

library(ggplot2)
ggplot(iris, aes(Petal.Length, Petal.Width, color = Species)) + geom_point()

## Here is the plot:

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Clustering
Now that we have seen the data, let us try to cluster it. Since the initial cluster assignments are
random, let us set the seed to ensure reproducibility.

set.seed(20)
irisCluster <- kmeans(iris[, 3:4], 3, nstart = 20)
irisCluster
K-means clustering with 3 clusters of sizes 46, 54, 50

Cluster means:
Petal.Length Petal.Width
1 5.626087 2.047826
2 4.292593 1.359259
3 1.462000 0.246000

Clustering vector:
[1] 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
[35] 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
[69] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
[103] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
[137] 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

## Within cluster sum of squares by cluster:

[1] 15.16348 14.22741 2.02200
(between_SS / total_SS = 94.3 %)

Available components:

## [1] "cluster" "centers" "totss" "withinss"

[5] "tot.withinss" "betweenss" "size" "iter"
[9] "ifault"

Since we know that there are 3 species involved, we ask the algorithm to group the data into 3
clusters, and since the starting assignments are random, we specify nstart = 20. This means
that R will try 20 different random starting assignments and then select the one with the lowest
within cluster variation.
We can see the cluster centroids, the clusters that each data point was assigned to, and the within
cluster variation.

## Let us compare the clusters with the species.

table(irisCluster\$cluster, iris\$Species)
setosa versicolor virginica
1 0 2 44
2 0 48 6
3 50 0 0

As we can see, the data belonging to the setosa species got grouped into cluster 3, versicolor
into cluster 2, and virginica into cluster 1. The algorithm wrongly classified two data points
belonging to versicolor and six data points belonging to virginica.

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We can also plot the data to see the clusters:

## irisCluster\$cluster <- as.factor(irisCluster\$cluster)

ggplot(iris, aes(Petal.Length, Petal.Width, color = iris\$cluster)) +
geom_point()