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CHAP rER 5 - Steel and Metals

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BATTEN PLATE. Plate rigrdly connected to two

parallel components of a built-up column or be;t!n
DEFOOT-IONS' "- -, , ... . i
designed to transmit ~h..:a1 between the component~.
Terms that appear in this Glossary arc italicizt'll
BEAM. Structural member that has the primary J"uncti on
throughout the Specification, where they first appear
of resisting bending mom ent ~ -
within a sub-section.
BEAM-COLUMN. Structural member that resists both
axial force and bending moment.
J. Temr designated wirhf are co111111on AJSl-AISC
ter111.1 that are coordinmed between tlu two BEARING. In a bolted connection, limit state 01 shear
standard.f developers. forces transmitted by the bolt to the connection clements.
2. Terms designated with * are usually qualified by thr
type of load effect, for example, nominal tensile
Limit state of local compressive yielding due 10 the actie!:
strength, aiai/able compressive strength, d rsign
of a member bearing against another member or surface.
flexural .Hrength.
3. Terms de.vignated ivirh *"- are usually qualified by the BEARING-TYPE CONNECTION. 13ohcd connection
type of co111po11r11t, for example, web local b11ck/i11g, where shear forces arc transmitted by the bolt beariP'.!
jfa11ge local bending. against the connection clements.

ALLOWABLE STRENGTH. Nominal strengt h divided BLOCK SHEAR RUPTlJRE. In a connection, limit
by the safety factor, Rn/ 2. state of tension fracture along one path and shear yielding
or shear fracture along a.r10thcr path .
ALLOWABLE STRESS. Allowable strength divided by
the appropriate section property, such as secti on mod ulus BRACED FRAME. An essentially vertical tn: ' :
or cross-section area. system that provides resistance to lateral forces ;;"':
provides stability for the structural system.
results of first-order analysis to reflect second- order BRANCH FACE. Wall of HSS branch member.
BRANCH MEMBER. For HSS connections, mem! ,, -
ASU (ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DESIGN). Method that terminates at a chord member or main mer11bcr.
of propor1ioning structural components such that the
allowable strength equals or exceeds the required strength BUCKLING. Limil state of sudden change in t' ~~
of chc component under the action of the ASD load geometry of a structure or any of its clements undc: ..
combinations. critical loading condition.

ASD LOAD COMBINATION. Load combination in BUCKLING STRENGTH. Nominal strength for
this code intended for allowable strength design buckling or instability limit states.
(allowable stress design).
AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION. SECTION, SH.APE. Member, cross-s<'1:1ion, ~:'< : .:
Organization. political subdivision, office or indi vidunl shape fabricated from structurnl steel '.111< 1;t. : -- -
charged with the responsibility of administering and welded or bolted together.
enforcing the provisions of this code.
CAMBER. Curvature fabricated into a l>c;"r { ru ~s
AVAILABLE STRENGTH. Design strength or so as to compensate for deflection irnh~nl by)., .. ;:;_
allowable strength, as appropriate.
A VAILAHLE STRESS. Design stress or allowable dynamic test measu ring notch 1,;:, L: .. :-.
stress, as appropriate. specimen.

AVERAGE RIB WIDTH. Average width of the ri b of a CHORD MEMBER. For HSS, pn .: ... ::.-
com.rgation in a formed steel deck. extends through a truss connection.

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CHAPH:li 5 - Steel and Mc~ta ls 5 19

CLADDING. Ex1crior covering of s1ruc1urc. CROSS CONNECTION. HSS connection in which

forces in branch members or connecting clemen ts
COLD-FORMED STEEL STHUCTURAIL transverse to !he main member arc primarily eq uilibrated
MEMBER. Shape manufactured by press-braking by forces in other branch members or connecting
blanks sheared from sheets, cut lengths of coils or clements on the opposite side of the main member.
plates. or by roll forming cold- or hot- rolled coils or
sheets; both forming operations being performed at DESIGN LOAD. Applied load determi111:d in
ambi..:nt room temperature. that is, without manifest accordance with either LRFD load combinations or
addi tion of heat such as would be required for hot ASD load combinations, whichever is applicable.
DESIGN STRENGTH. Resistance faclOr multiplied by
COLUMN. Structural member tha! has the primary the nominal strength. >R11.
function of resisting axi al force.
DESIGN STRESS RANGE. Magnitude of change in
COMBINED SYSTEM. Strncwre comprised of two or stress due to the repeated application and removal of
more lateral load-resisting systems of different type. service live loads. For locations subject to stress reversal
it is the algebraic difference of the peak stressc.<;.
COMPACT SECTION. Section capable of developing .a
fully plas!ic stress dislribution and possessing a rotation DESIGN STRESS. Design strength divided by the
capacity of approximately three before the onset of local appropriate section property, such as section modulus
buck.Jing. or cross section area.


WELD (CJP). Groo ve weld in which weld metal assumed in the delcrminalion of section properties.
extends through the j oint !hickness, except as permillcc.l
for HSS connections. DIAGONAL BRACING. Inclined structural member
carrying primarily axial force in a braced frame.
COMPOSITE. Condition in which steel and concrete
elements and members work as a unit in the! DIAGONAL STIFFENER. Web stiffener at column
distribution of internal forces. panel oriented diagonally to the ~anges, on one
or both sides of the web.
compressive failure in concrete having reached the DIAPHRAGM PLATE. Pla1e possessing in-plane shear
ullima!e strain. stiffness and streng!h, used to transfer fo rces lo the
suppo11ing elements.
CONCRETE HAUNCH. Section of solid concrete
that results from slopping the deck on each side of the DIAPHRAGM. Roof, floor or other membrane or
girder in a composite floor system constructed using a bracing system that transfers in-plane forces to the
formed steel deck. lateral force resisting system.

CONCRETE-ENCASED BEAM. Beam totally encased DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD. Design method for
in concrete cast integrally with the slab. stability that captures the effects of residual stresses and
inilial out-of-pl umbness of frames by reducing
CONNECTION. Combination of structural elements stiffness and appl ying notional loads in a second-order
and join!s used to transmit forces between two or more: analysis.
COPE. Cutolll made in a structural me mber 10 remove a which force is transferred between steel and concrc!e
flange and conform lo the shape of an intersect ing in a composilc section by bond slress.
COVER PLATE. Plate welded or bolted 10 the Range olf truss connection based on distortion of a rectangular
a member to increase cross-sectional area, section HSS chord member into a rhomboidal shape.
modulus or moment of inc11ia.
DISTORTIONAL STIFFNESS. Out-of-plane flexural
stiffness of web.

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'S ~!O CHAPTUi [i Slee/ nnd Metals

DOUBLE CUR VATUHE. Deformed shape or a beam EYEBAR. Pin-connected tension member or uniform
with one or more inflection points within the span. thickness , with forged or thermall y cut head of greater
width than the bod y, proponioned to provide
DOlJBLE-CONCENTl{ATED FOHCES. Two equal pproxinrntcly equal strenglh in the head and body.
and opposite forces that form a couple on the same
side of the loaded member. FACTORED LOAD. Product of a load !'actor and the
nominal load.
DOUBLER. Plate added to, and parallel with, a beam or
column web to increase resistnnce to concentrated forces. FASTENER. Generic term !'or bolls. rivets. or other
connecting devi ces.
DRIFT. Lateral deflection or structure.
FATIGlJE. Limit state of crack initiation and growth
EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR, K. Ratio between resulting from repeated application of Ii vc loads.
the effective length and the unbraced length of the
member. FA YING SURFACE. Contact surface or conncctio; 1
clements transmitt ing a shear force .
EFFECTIVE LENGTH. Length or an otherwise
identical column with the same strength when analyzed FILLED COMPOSITE COLUMN. Cornposilc column
with pinned end conditions. consisting of a shell of HSS or steel pipe li lied witi;
stnictural co11cre1e.
EFFECTIVE NET AREA. Ne1 area modified to account
for the effect of shear lag. FILLER METAL. Metal or alloy 10 be added in making
a welded joint.
reduced to account for buckling of slender compression FILLER. Pla1c used to build up the 1hickness of 011'::

elements. component.

EFFECTIVE WIDTH. Reduced width of a plate or FILLET WELD REINFORCEMENT. Fillet wel d~;
slab with an assumed uniform stress distribution which added to groove welds.
produces the same effect on the behavior of a structural
member as the actual plate or slab width with its FILLET \'\'ELD. We ld of generally triangu lar cro:;,..
nonuniform stress distribution. section made between intersecting surfaces of elements.

ELASTIC ANALYSIS. S1ructural analysis based on the FIRST-ORDEH ANALYSIS. Struct ural analysis in
assumption tha1 the structure returns to its original which equilibrium conditions arc fonnulat cd on the
geometry on removal of the load. undeformed structure; second-order effects arc neglected.

column consisting of a structural concrete column and support or concentrated load that fi ts tightly against o; ,,,
one or more embedded steel shapes. or both flanges of a beam so as to transmit load throu t.! '
END PANEL. Web panel with an adjacent panel on one
side only. FLARE BEVEL GROOVE WELD. Weld in a groove
formed by a member with a curved surface in conlacl \-.: ,
END RETURN. Length of fillet weld that continues a planar member.
around a corner in the same plane.
FLARE V-GROOVE WELD. Weld in a groove formed
ENGINEER-OF-RECORD. Licensed professional by two members with curved su rfaces.
responsible for scaling the contract documents.
FLAT WIDTH. Nominal width of rectangular ll ':':
EXPANSION ROCKER. Suppo1t with curved minus twice the outside comer radius. In a b~c- 1
surface on which a member bears that can tilt to knowledge of the corner radius, the flat width 11 1:y b<o
accommodate expansion. taken as the total section width minus three times the
EXPANSION ROLLER. Ro und steel bar on which a
member bears that can roll to accommodate expansion.

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CHAt>TEH ~ Steel and Metals :, ?.1

FLEXURAL BUCKLING. Buckling mode in which GRAVITY LOAD. Load. such as that produced by ckaJ
a compression member deflects laterall y without twist and live loads. acti ng in the downward direction.
or change in cross-sectional shape.
GHIP (OF llOLT). Thickness of materi al through which
FLEXURAL-TOHSIONAL HlJCKLING. Buckling a bolt passes.
mode in which a rnmpression member bends and
twists simultaneously wi tho1J1 change in cross-sectional ROOVE WELD. Weld in a groove between connection
shape. elements. Sec also AW S DI . I.

FORCE. Resultant of distribution of stress over a GUSSET PLATE. Plate element connecting tru s~
prescribed area. members or a st rut or brace to a beam or col umn.

FORMED SECTION. See cold-formed steel structural HORIZONTAL SHEAR. Force at the interfoc<'
member. between steel and concrete surfaces in a composite
FORMED STEEL DECK. In composite construction.
steel cold formed into a decking profile used as a HSS. Square, rect angular or round hollow stnictural steel
permanent concrete form. section produced in accordance with a pipe or tubing
product specification.
Connection capable of transfening mome111 with User Note: A pipe can be designed using the same
negIi gi blc rota I ion bet ween connected members. design rules for round HSS sections as long as it
conforms to ASTM A53 Class B and the appropriate
GAGE. Transverse cemcr-to-center spaci ng of fasteners. parameters are used in the design.

GAP CONNECTION. HSS truss connection wit h a gap INELASTIC ANA LYSIS. Structural analysis that takes
or space on the chord face between intersecting branch into account inelasti c material behavior, including plastic
members. analys is.

GENERAL COLLAPSE. Limit state of chord IN-PLANE INSTABILITY. Limit state of a beam-
plastification of opposi ng sides of a round HSS chord column benl about ils major axis while la1eral buckling or
member al a cross-connection. lateral-torsional buckling is prevented by lateral bracing.

GEOMETRIC AXIS. Axis parallel to web. flange or INSTABILITY. Limil state reached in the loading of
angle leg. a strnctural component, frame or structure in which a
slight disturbance in the loads or geome1ry produces
GI RDER FILLER. Nanow piece of sheet steel used as a large displacements.
fill between the edge of a deck sheet and the flange of a
girder in a composite floor system constructed using a JOINT ECCENTRICITY. For HSS truss connection.
formed steel deck. perpendicular distance from chord member center of
gravity lo intersection of branch member work points.
GIRDER. See Beam.
Joint t. Arca where two or more ends, surfaces, or
G IRT. Horizontal structural member that supports wall edges are attached. Categorized by type of fastener or
panels and is primaril y subjected lo bendi ng under we ld used and method of force transfer.
horizontal loads, such as wind load.
K-CON 1ECTION. HSS connection in which forcr,~
GOUGE. Relatively smooth surface groove or cavity in branch members or connec1ing elements transverse
re.suiting from plastic deformation or removal of material. to the main member are primarily equilibriated by force~.
in other branch members or connecting elements on till~
GRAVITY AX IS. Axis through the center of gravity of a same side of the main member.
member along its length.
LACING. Plate, angle or other sieel shape; in ;i
GRAVITY FRAME. Portion of the framing system nol laltice configuration, that connects two steel shape:;
included in the lateral load resisting system. together.

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~> '?.?. CHf.1PTEll S Steel and Metal~

LAP JOINT. Joi11t between two overlapping co1111ertion LOCAL CRIPPLI NG. Limit s1a 1 ~ of lm:al failure of web
elements in parallel planes. plate in the i111mcd1:t1c vicinity or a conn:ntraled load or
LATERAL BRACING. Diagonal bracing. she<tr
walls or e4uivalclll means for providing in-plane LOCAL YIELDING. Yidding that ocrnrs in a loc;ll area
lateral stability. of an elcmcnl.

Structural system designed to resis1 lateral lo:uds and DESIGN). Method of propo11iu1ing structural
provide stability fo r the structure as a whole. COlllf:>Onents such 1ha1 the design sll : ;.;;th 1~-quals or
cxceeJs the required strength of the component under the
LATERAL LOAD. Load. such as that produced by action of 1he LR FD load combinations.
wind or ea11hquake effects, acting in a lateral
direction. LJffD LOAD COMBINATION. Load rnmbination in
this code i111ended for strength design (load and resistance
LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING. Buckling factor design).
mode or a llcxural member involving dellcction
normal lO the plane of bending occurring si111ulla11eously MAIN MEMBER. For HSS connections, chord
with twist about the shear center of the cross-secti on. member, column or other HSS member to which b!imch
members or other con necting cle ments arc auachcd.
LEANING COLUMN. Column designed 10 ca1Ty
grnvi'ty loads only, with connections that a rc not MECHANISM. Structural system 1ha1 incl11dcs a
intended 10 provide resistance to lateral loads. sufficient number ol' real hinges, plastic Li ngcs or
both, so as lo be able to ar1 ic ula1c in one or 1nore
LENGTH EFFECTS. Consideration of the reduction rigid body modes.
in strength of a member based on its unbraced lengt h.
MILL SCALE. Oxide su rface coating on steel i'unnc .i by
LIMIT STATE. Condition in which a structure or the hot rolling process.
component becomes unfit for service and is judged ei ther
10 be no longe; useful for its intended function MILLED SURFACE. Surface that has bc,11 m;d1i11cd
(serviceability limi t state) or lo have ~cached its ultimate flat by a mechanically gu ided tool lo a 1;,,1, :;moolh
load-carrying capacity (strength limit state). condition.

LOAD. Force or other action that results from the weight MOMENT CONNECTION. Conncclion that
of build ing materials, occupants and their possessions. transmits bendi ng mome nt bet ween ..i111ectcd
environmental effects. diffcrcmial movemenl, or members.
restrained dimensional changes.
MOMENT FRAME. Framing system ti!! irm;J, ;
LOAD EFFECT. forces, stresses and defom1a1ions resistance to lateral loads and provides stabiiit i 10 the
produced in a structural component by structural system, primarily by shear ;!11.I ., :,,: :: c;f
the framing members and their connection~
the applied loads.
NET AREA. Gross area reduced IO accou:i; 'o, .:: .vc,:
LOAD FACTOR. Factor that accoun ts for deviations material.
o f lhe nominal load from the ac1ual load, for
uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a NODAL BRACE. Brace that pi-\,,::; ,,_,... .
load effect and for the probability that more than one movement or twist indcpcndcnll y of ti:L , i,; _,.. .-.: .i
extreme load will occur si multaneously. adjacent brace points (sec relat ive brace).

LOCAL BENDING. Li111it stale of la rge deformat ion NOMINAL DIMENSION. Designated or 1hcorcfic;.;
of a Oangc under a concentrated tensile force. dimension, as in the tables of section pi ..:-:-. -' .

LOCAL BUCKLING. Limit slate of buckling of a NOMINAL LOAD. Magnitude of lhe lon:l !:;--~,:i f:. ' : "
compression element within a cross section. this code.

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NOMINAL RIB HEI GHT. Heigh t of formed steel PIPE. Sec HSS
deck measured from the underside of the lowest point
to !he top or the hi ghest point. PITCH. Longi tudinal ccnlcr-to-ccntcr spacing ol'
fosleners. Center-to-center spacing or bol! threads along
NOMINA L STR ENGTH. Strength of a structure or axis or bolt.
componem (without the 1'esist:lnce fat tor or safety factor
applied) to rcsisl load effects, as determined in PLASTIC ANALYSIS. Structural a nalys is based on the
accordance with this Specification. assumplion of rigid-plast ic behavior, in other words, lhal
equilibrium is sa tisfi ed throughout the structure and !he
NONCOMPACT SECTION. Section that can develop stress is at or below the yield stress.
the yield stress in its compression clements before local
buckling occurs, but cannot develop a rotati on capacity of PLASTIC HINGE. Yielded wnc that forms in a
three. structural member when the plastic moment is altained.
The me mber is assumed to rotate fu rther as if
NO NDESTR UCTIV E TESTI NG. Inspection hinged, cxcepl thal such rotat ion is restrained by !he
procedure wherein no material is destroyed and plastic moment.
integrity of' the material or component is not affected.
PLASTtC MOMENT. Theoretical resisting momenl
NOTCH TOUGHNESS. Energy absorbed at a specified developed within a fully yielded cross section.
temperature as measured in the Charpy Y-Notch LC~!.
NOTIONAL LOAD. Virtual load applied in a structural Method for determining !he stresses in a composite
analysis to account for destabilizi ng effects that are not me mber assumi ng that the steel sect ion and t.he concrete
otherwise accoumed for in the design provisions. in the cross section arc full y plastic.

OlJT-OF-PLANE BlJCKLING. Limit state of a PLASTIFICATION. In an HSS connecti on, limit state
benm-column bent abou l its major axis while based on an out -of-plane flexural yield line mechanism in
lateral buckling or lateral-torsional buckling is not the chord at a branch member connection.
preve111ed by lnteral bracing.
P LATE GIRDER. Built-up beam.
OVERLAP CONNECTION. HSS truss con nection
in which intersecting branch members overlap. PLUG WELD. Weld made in a circular hole in one
element of a joint fusing that element to another elemen!.
PANEL ZONE. Web area or bcanHo-column
connection delineated by the extension or beam and PONDING. Retenrion or waler due solely to the
colum n flanges lhrough lhe conncclion, lransmitting deOection of ilal roof framing.
moment through a shear panel.
POST-BUCKLING STRENGTH. Load or force that
PA RTIAL-JOINT-PENETRATION GROOVE can be carried by an element, member, or frame after
WELD (PJP). Groove weld in which the penetrati on initial buckling has occurred.
is intentionally less than the complete thickness of the
connected element. PRET ENSIONED JOINT. Joint wi1h high-strength
bolts tightened 10 the specified minimum pretension.
CONNECTION. Con nection capnblc of transferring PROPERLY DEVELOPED. Reinforcing bars
moment with rolalion between connected members that is detailed Lo yield in a ducti le manner before crushi ng
not negligible. of the concrete occurs. Bars meeting the provisions
of ACI 318 insofar as development length, spacing and
PERCENT ELONGATION. Measure of ductility, cover shall be deemed to be properly developed.
determined in a tensile lest as the maximum elongati on of
the gage length divided by the original gage !englh. PRYfNG ACTION. Amplification or the tension force in
a bolt caused by leverage between the point of applied
PERMANENT LOAD. Load in which variations load, the bolt and the reaction of the connected clcmems.
over time are rare or of small magnitude. All other
loads are variable loads. PUNCHING LOAD. Component of branch member
force perpendicular Lo a chord.

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PlJRLIN. Horizontal structural member that supports roof
deck and is primarily subjected Lo bending under vertical ROTATION CAPACITY. lncrcmental angular
loads such as snow, wind or dead loads. rotation that a given shape can accept prior to
excessive load shedding, defined as the ratio of the
P (5 EFFECT. Effect of loads acting on the deflected inelastic rotation attained to the idealized elastic rotation
shape of a member between joints or nodes. at first yield.

P -A EFFECT. Effect of loads acting on the RUPTURE STRENGTH. In a connection, strength

displaced location of joints or nodes in a structure. In Ii mited by tension or shear rupture.
tiered building structures, this is the effect of loads acting
on the laterally displaced location of floors and roofs. SAFETY FACTOR. Factor that accounts for
deviations of the actual strength from the nominal
QUALITY ASSURANCE. System of shop and field strength, deviations of the actual load from the nominal
activities and controls implemented by the owner or load, uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the
his/her designated representative to provide confidence load into a load effect, and for the manner and
to the owner and the building authority that quality consequences of failure.
requirements are implemented.
SECOND-ORDER ANALYSIS. Structural analysis in
QUALITY CONTROL. System of shop and field which equilibrium conditions arc formulated on the
controls implemented by the fabricator and erector to deformed structure; second-order effects (both P-i
ensure that contract and company fabrication and erect.ion and P-11, unless specified otherwise) are included.
requirements are met.
SECOND-ORDER EFFECT. Effect of loads acting on
RATIONAL ENGINEERING ANALYSIS. Analysis the deformed configuration of a structure; includes P-o
based on theory that is appropriate for the si1ua1ion, effect and P-/1 effect.
relevant Lest data if available, and sound engineering
COEFFICIENT. Factor that reduces seismic load
REENTRANT. In a cope or weld access hole, a cut at an effects to strength level.
abrupt change in direction in which the exposed surface is
concave. SERVICE LOAD COMBINATION. Load combination
under which serviceability limit slates arc evaluated.
RELATIVE BRACE. Brace that controls the relative
movement of two adjacent brace points along the length SERVICE LOAD. Load under which serviceability limit
of a beam or column or the relative lateral states are evaluated.
displacement of two stories in a frame (see nodal brace).
REQUIRED STRENGTH. Forces. stresses and condition affecting the ability of a structure lo
deformations acting on the structural component, preserve its appearance, maintainability, durability or the
determined by either structural analysis, for the comfort of its occupants or function of machinery, under
LRFD or ASD load combinations, as appropriate, or as normal usage.
specified by this Specification or Standard.
SHEAR UlJCKLING. Buckling mode in which a
RESISTANCE FACTOR. Factor that accounts for plate element, such as the web of a beam, deforms
unavoidable deviations of the nominal strength from under pure shear applied in the plane of the plate.
!he actual strength and for the manner and consequences
of failure. SH.EAi~ CONNECTOR. Headed stud, channel, plate or
other shape welded to a steel member and embedded in
REVERSE CURV ATURK See double curvature concrete of a composite member to transmit shear
forces at the interface between the two materials.
ROOT OF JOINT. Portion of a join! to be welded where
the members are closest to each other. SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH. Limit state of
reaching the strength of a shear connector, as governed by
the connector bearing against the concrete in the slab or
by the tensile strength of the connector.

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CHAPTER 5 Sieol and fJelals 5-25

SHEAJl RUPTURE. Limit stale of rupture (fracture) due

10 shear. SLIP-CRITICAL CO NNECTION. Bolled connection
designed to resist movement by friction on the faying
SHEAR WALL. \Vall that provides resistance to lateral surface of the. connection under the clamping forces of the
loads in the plane of the wal.I and provides stability ror the bolts.
structural system. . ,
SLOT WELD. Weld made in an elongated hole fusing an
SHEAR YIELDING. Yielding that occurs due lo shear. elcmcnl lo another clement.

connection. limit state based on out-of-plane shear connected plies in firm c:ontacl as specified in Section
strength of the chord wall to which branch members are 5 10.
SHEET STEEL. In a composite floor system, steel used Lower limit of tensile strength specifi ed for a
for closure plates or miscellaneous trim ming in a formed material as defined by ASTM.
steel deck.
SHIM. Thin layer or nrntcri al used to fill a space between or yield sii"ess specified for a material as defi ned by
faying or bearing surfaces. ASTM.

SIDESWAY BUCKLING. Limit state of lateral SPLICE. Connection between two structural elements
buckling of the tension flange opposite the location of joined at rheir ends lo form a single, longer element.
a concentrated compression force.
STABILITY. Condition reached in the loading of a
SIDEWALL CIUPPLING. Limit state of web crippling structural component, frame or structure in which a
of the sidewalls of a chord member al a HSS truss slight disturbance in the loads or geometry does not
connecti on. produce large displacements.

SIDEWALL CR USH ING. Limit state based on STIFFI~NED ELEMENT. Flat compression element
bearing strength or chord member sidewall in HSS with adjoining out-of-plane elements along both edges
truss connection. parallel lo the direction of loading.

SIMPLE CONNECTION. Connection that trnnsmits STIFFENER. Structural element, usually an angle or
negligible bending mom enI between connected plate. anached to a member to distribute load, transfer
members. shear or prevent buckling.

SINGLE-CONCENTRATED FORCE. Tensile or STIFFNESS. Resi"stancc lo deformation of a member or

compressive force applied normal lo the flange or a struc1ure. measured by the ratio of lhe applied force (or
member. moment) lo the corresponding displacement (or rotation).


with no inflection poinl within the span. for determining the stresses in a composite member
considering ihe stress-strain relationships of each
SLENDER-ELEMENT SECTION. Cross section material and its location with respect lo the neutral axis
possessing plale components of sufficient of the cross section.
slenderness such that local buckling in the elastic range
will occur. STRENGTH LIMIT STATE. Limiting condition
affecting the safety of the structure, in which the
SLIP. In a bolled connection, limit slate of relati ve ult imate load-carrying capacity is reached.
motion of connected parts prior to the attainment of the
avai lable strength of the connection. STRESS. Force per unit area caused by ax ial force.,
moment, shear or torsi on.

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TIE PLATE. Plate clement used to join two parallel
STltESS CONCENTRATION. Localized s1n.:ss components of a built-up t:olumn. girder or strut ri gidly
considerably higher 1han average (even in c:onncctcd to the parallel c.:ompunents and de~igncd to
uniformly loaded cross scc1ions or uniform 1hit:kness) transmi1 shear bc1wcc11 them.
due lO ahrupl changes in geometry or loc;dizcd loading.
TOE OF FILLET. Junl'tion of a fillet weld face
STHONG AXIS. Major principal ccntroidal axis of a and base mc1al. Tangent point of a rolled section
cross section. fillet.

STIWCTUltAL ANALYSIS. Determination of load TORSIONAL BRACING. Bracing resisting twis1 of 1

effects on members and connec1ions based on principles beam or column.
of St111Clllral mechanics.
TORSIONAL BUCKLI NG. Buckling mode in v.h ich
STRUCTUHAL COMPONENT. Member. connector, a compression member twists about its ~.he.:~ 1:..:ntcr
connecting clement or assemblage. <!XIS.

STRUCTUHAL STEEL. Steel clcmems as defined in TORSIONAL YIELDING. Yielding that occurs due to
Section 2.1 of the AISC Code of Standard Practice for torsion.
Steel Buildings and Bridges.
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM. An assemblage o f load- rcinforccmcnl in the fo rm or closed lies or welded
can-ying components that are joined together to provide wire fabric providing confi nement for the concrete.
interaction or interdependence. surrou nding 1hc steel shape core in an encased concrete
composite colum n.
T-CONNECTION. HSS connection in wh ich the
branch member or connecting element is perpendicular TRANSVERSE STIFFENER. Web stiffener ciricnted
to the main member and in which forces transverse to 1he perpendicular to the flanges, al!ached to the web.
main member arc primarily cquilibriated by shear in the
main member. TUBING. Sec HSS.

TENSI.L E RUPTURE. Limit state of rupture (fracture) TURN-OF-NUT METHOD. Procedure whrrehy !he
due to tension. spccilicd pretension in high -strength bolts is rnntrolled
by rotating the fastener component a predetermined
TENSILE STRENtTH (OF MATERIAL). amount after the boh has been snug tightened.
Maximum tensile stress that a material is capable of
sustaining as defined by ASTM. UNBRACED LENGTH. Distance betwce.n br:1n:d points
of a member, measured bet ween the cemers o'. '.'1 .:. i _; ,,r
TENSILE STRENGTH (OF MEMBER). Maximum the bracing members.
tension force that a member is capable of sust21ining.
TENSILE YIELDING. Yielding that occurs due 10 connection, condition in which the h.d !~ '
tension . distributed through the cross section of ronn1-c1ed
clements in a manner that can be readily dcl<' 11.:1,, ,:.
stale of rupture (fracture) due 10 simultaneous te ns ion and UNFRA!\-lED END. The end of a ... " -' ,:
shear force. restrained against rotation by stiffeners or connc:c!ion
TENSION FIELD ACTION. Behavior of a panel
under shear in which diagonal tensile forces develop UNSTIFFENED ELEMENT . Flat comp;,~~:wn i:kmr.nt
in the web and compressive forces develop in the \Vi th an adjoining out-of-plane elen1cnl :.:.. .o;, ..
11 :

transverse sti ffe ners in a manner simi lar to a Pratt truss. parallel to the di rection of loading.

THERMALL\' CUT. Cut with gas, plasma or laser. VARIABLE LOAD. Load not classi fit'.!

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAP IT. n ~). Stc <:~ I n11d Metals !i27


. wal ls, braced frames or bo1h. cx1ending through one or throughout the cross section o f a member as the
1 more floors of a building. bending moment reaches the plastic moment.

WEAK AXIS. Minor principal ccnlroidal axis or a cross YIELDING (YIELD MOMENT). Yielding at the
section . ex treme fiber on 1hc gross scc1ion o f a member when 1hc
bending moment rcachcs the yield moment.
WEATHERING STEEL. High-slrcngth, low-alloy steel
:hat, with suitable precautions, can be used in normal
atmospheric exposures (not marine) wi1hou1 protective '-
paint coating.

WEU BUCKLING. Limit s1a1e of la1eral instability of a



out-of-plane compression buckling of the web due 10 a
concentrntec.J compression force.

WEB SIDESWA Y DUCKLING. Limi1 state of lateral

buckling of the tension llange opposite the location of a
concentrated compression force.

WELD METAL. Portion of a fusion weld that has been

completely melted during welding. Weld metal has
elements of filler metal and base metal melted in the weld
thennal cycle.

WELD ROOT. See root of j oint.

-CONNECTION. HSS connection in which the

branch member or connecting elemen1 is not
perpendicular to the main member and in which
forces transverse to the main member arc primarily
equilibriated by shear in the main member.

YIELD MOMENT. In a member subjected to

bending, the moment at which the extreme outer fiber
first attains the yield stress.

YIELD POINT. First stress in a material at which an

increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress as
defined by ASTM.

YIELD STRENGTH. Stress a l which a material exhibits

a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of
stress to strain as defined by ASTM.

YIELD STRESS. Generic term to denote either yield

point or yield strcng1h, as appropriate for the material.

YIELDING. Limit state of inelastic deformation that

occurs after the yield stress is reached.

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 " Edition Volume 1