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Annotated bibliography 1

Elnaz Bagheri

ENGL 363-01

Dr. Leslie Bruce

Review the Role of Nanoparticles at Antimicrobial Effects

Purpose of review:

Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a threat for human health and the purpose of this article is

to introduce nanoparticle methods to attempt to solve this problem.

Introduction:

There are two significant questions: first, how do bacteria become resistant to

antibiotics and how researchers try to cope with this problem using nanoparticles. Nowadays,

antibiotic misuse increases the rate of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Bacteria raise their

resistance through adaptation and transfer their antibiotic resistance to other strains through DNA

plasmids. Therefore, nanoparticles such as silver NPs and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid NPs were

used to optimize the effects of antibiotics. These nanoparticles are used in drug delivery systems

and increase the effect of antibiotics and are known as the best bactericidal treatment.
Annotated bibliography 2

Annotations:

1. Wagh, Priyanka, & Bellare, Jayesh. (2013). Synthesis, optimization, and


characterization of silver nanoparticles from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and
their enhanced antibacterial activity when combined with antibiotics.
International journal of nanomedicine, 8, 4277-4290.

The fungus Trichoderma Viride is used for extracellular biosynthesis of extremely stable

Ag Nps and Ag Nps combine with antibiotics and increases the antimicrobial effects. (Wgh et

al., 2013)

Results of this article demonstrates that Ag Nano particles increase antimicrobial

activities of ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol against test strains. As a

matter of fact, fungus T.viride is used to make stable Ag Nps by extracellular biosynthesis and

then high rate of antimicrobial effects was illustrated by combination of Ag Nps with antibiotics.

Moreover, our review article is about antibiotic resistant bacteria and some useful information

about role of Nanoparticles such as Ag as a solution for this problem were presented at this

article which will be helpful for our review article.

2. Ungaro, Francesca, d'Angelo, Ivana, Coletta, Ciro, di Villa Bianca, Roberta


d'Emmanuele, Sorrentino, Raffaella, Perfetto, Brunella, . . . Quaglia, Fabiana.
(2012). Dry powders based on PLGA nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery of
antibiotics: modulation of encapsulation efficiency, release rate and lung deposition
pattern by hydrophilic polymers. Journal of controlled release, 157(1), 149-159.

Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles are embedded in an inert micro carrier and

were used in a pulmonary delivery system which were designed for antibiotics (Ungaro et al.,

2012).
Annotated bibliography 3

A pulmonary delivery system for antibiotics were designed at this article to rise effect of

antibiotics. In fact, this article describes about poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Nano particles (PLGA

NPs) which are Nano-embedded micro-particles, poly vinyl alcohol(PVA), and chitosan (CS) in

which results demonstrated that both PVA and CS are significant to improve the size and

modulate surface features of Tb-loaded PLGA NPs which is beneficial in pulmonary delivery

system. In addition, PLGA NPs are useful to optimize effect of antibiotics against bacteria.

Therefore, this article presented broad information about role of Nano particles in antimicrobial

effects which is very important for our review article.

3. Lubart, R, Lipovski, A, Gedanken, A, & Longo, Leonardo. (2012). The use of visible light
and metal oxide nano particles for pathogen inactivation. Paper presented at the
AIP Conference Proceedings.

Recent studies illustrate that pathogens are eradicated by combination of nanoparticles

(ZnO or TiO2) with visible light irradiation (Lubart et al., 2012).

This article talk about combination of Metal oxide Nano particles with visible light which is

a very effective method in bacteria destruction. In addition, surface of metal oxides NPs is coated

by different substrates such as ceramic and polymers which is a protective method and keep

away tissues from toxicity of metal oxides NPs. Finally, reduction of bacteria viability in this

article demonstrates combination of Nano particles with visible light is effective then this article

could be a valuable source for our review article.


Annotated bibliography 4

4. Moreno-Sastre, M, Pastor, M, Salomon, CJ, Esquisabel, A, & Pedraz, JL. (2015).


Pulmonary drug delivery: a review on nanocarriers for antibacterial
chemotherapy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70(11), 2945-2955.

Nowadays, Nano systems such as drug delivery systems are known the best anti-

infectious therapy whereas antibiotic therapies in lung infections are enhanced by DDSs

(Moreno-Sastre et al., 2015).

Recently, antibiotic resistant of bacteria is increased around the world and is known as

the worst global health threat. Therefore, scientists try to find beneficial solution for this

problem and new methods against pathogens which increase antimicrobial effects will be

discussed in this review article. Moreover, above article investigated using of Nano carriers

as a drug delivery systems for antibacterial chemotherapy which is a functional method in

anti-infectious therapy. Also, it was shown that resistance mechanisms of bacteria were

suppressed by tolerability and activity of Nano particles. Therefore, these articles are useful

for our review article.