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1

2
= sin = . = 0


= sin =0
2

sin = cos =
= 0

=0
2

= =
z

p p dz dx dy p dy
p dx dz
z 2 y 2

p p dx p p dx
dy dz dy dz
x 2 dz x 2
dy G
p dy dx
p dx dz p dx dy
y 2
dz
p z
2
y x

= + + + = . = 0
2 2

= + + + = . = 0
2 2

= + + + = . = 0
2 2


= 0; = 0; = . . (2.3)


= . . (2.4)

= + (2.5)

=
= (2.6)
=

=
= + 2.8

= + 2.8
h p/ g
+A +A

h1 h1
1 1

h2 h2
z z z z

2 2
(a) Tekanan positip (b) Tekanan negatip

+ 1 1 = + 2 2

= + 2 2 1 1 (2.9)
+B

3
h3
+A
1
h1
z z h2

2
+ 1 1 = 2 2 + 3 3 +

= 2 2 + 3 3 1 1 (2.10)