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Case 8:16-cv-01302-MSS-AAS Document 117 Filed 05/10/17 Page 1 of 19 PageID 2513





v. Case No: 8:16-cv-1302-T-35AAS


a division of WB Studio Enterprises,



THIS CAUSE comes before the Court for consideration of Defendant Warner Bros.

Pictures Motion to Dismiss (Dkt. 89), to which Plaintiff Incarcerated Entertainment, LLC

has responded in opposition (Dkt. 99). Defendant submits twenty-two exhibits in support

of its motion to dismiss (Dkts. 90, 91), to which Plaintiff has filed a response in partial

opposition (Dkt. 97). Plaintiff submits four exhibits in support of its response in opposition

(Dkt. 98), to which Defendant objects (Dkt. 100). Upon consideration of all relevant filings,

case law, and being otherwise fully advised, the Court DENIES the motion to dismiss.


According to the Amended Complaint, Plaintiff Incarcerated Entertainment, LLC

owns the rights to the life story of Efraim Diveroli. (Dkt. 78 at 3) In this action, Plaintiff

sues Defendant Warner Bros. Pictures (Warner) for false advertising and unfair

competition, based on Warners promotion of the movie War Dogs as the true story of

Diverolis path to becoming an international arms dealer.

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As alleged, at age 18, Diveroli started a small business specializing in arms,

ammunition trading, and bidding on U.S. Government defense contracts. (Id. at 12) By

2007, Diverolis company, AEY, Inc., outbid established defense contractors Northrop

Grumman and Lockheed Martin and was awarded a $298 million contract to supply arms

and ammunition to support the United States war effort in Afghanistan. (Id. at 14-15)

Diveroli relied on select lower-level employees to assist his business, including David

Packouz, a neighborhood acquaintance. (Id. at 15)

In March 2008, the U.S. Government suspended AEY Inc.s contracts based on

allegations that the company had violated pre-existing arms embargos. (Id. at 16) At

age 22, Diveroli was indicted by a federal grand jury in Miami and ultimately accepted a

four-year plea deal. (Id. at 16-17) Diverolis associate, Packouz, was sentenced to

house arrest. (Id. at 22)

During his incarceration, Diveroli was contacted by Guy Lawson, a well-known

journalist and author who wanted to write an article about Diverolis story. (Id. at 19) In

March 2011, Rolling Stone magazine published Lawsons article, The Stoner Arms

Dealers: How Two American Kids Became Big-Time Weapons Traders. (Id. at 22) The

article featured accounts by both Diveroli and Packouz. (Id.) In August 2011, Lawson

optioned the movie rights for the article to Warner. (Id. at 23-24) Lawson later

expanded the article into a book, Arms and the Dudes. (Id. at 42)

By February 2014, Diverolis own manuscript, Once a Gun Runner, was sufficiently

complete for Plaintiff to market the movie rights. (Id. at 29-30) Diverolis business

partner, Ross Reback, contacted a number of producers and studios, including Warner.

(Id. at 31-33) Although Warner considered the proposal, Warner eventually declined

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to pursue a consulting arrangement with Diveroli. (Id. at 34-35) Instead, Warner

retained David Packouz as a consultant and enlisted Guy Lawson as a producer. (Id. at


The gravamen of the Amended Complaint is that Warner grossed more than $85

million by promoting War Dogs as Diverolis true story when it was not the true story.

(Id. at 1-2, 78) As the owner of the rights to Diverolis story, Plaintiff alleges that it has

been effectively shut out of the marketplace because consumers are more likely to

purchase a ticket to War Dogs than to purchase Diverolis memoir, Once a Gun Runner.

(Id. at 3, 72, 75)

The Amended Complaint identifies a number of allegedly false advertisements,

including statements in movie trailers, social media posts, and promotional interviews with

War Dogs director, Todd Phillips, screenwriter Stephen Chin, and stars Jonah Hill, Miles

Teller, and Bradley Cooper. (Id. at 49-70) For instance, Jonah Hill stated that War

Dogs is one of the craziest movies Ive ever been in in a great way. And its all true.

(Id. at 67) Miles Teller told interviewers on multiple occasions, these are real people

and real guys who are still alive. (Id. at 59) Stephen Chin stated that he wanted to

be deeply true to their story. (Id. at 62) Todd Phillips explained that we certainly tried

to follow what happened as closely as possible I think. If you know the story at all, we

pretty much stick to the facts as much as we can. (Id. at 65)

In Counts I and III of the Amended Complaint, Plaintiff asserts violations of the

Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. 1125(a)(1)(B), which creates a civil cause of action against

[a]ny person who . . . uses in commerce any . . . false or misleading representation of

fact, which . . . in commercial advertising or promotion, misrepresents the nature,

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characteristics, qualities, or geographic origin of his or her or another persons goods,

services, or commercial activities. In Counts II and IV, Plaintiff brings state-law claims

for unfair competition pursuant to Floridas Deceptive and Unfair Trade Practices Act

(FDUTPA), Fla. Stat. 501.204(1), which prohibits unfair methods of competition,

unconscionable acts or practices, and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in the conduct

of any trade or commerce.

In the instant motion to dismiss, Warner argues that the challenged statements are

not actionable because they include protected artistic or political speech under the First

Amendment. In the alternative, Warner argues that the Amended Complaint fails to allege

the necessary facts in support of Plaintiffs claims. With the limited exceptions outlined

below, the Court holds that Plaintiff states plausible claims for relief.


The threshold for surviving a motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim under

Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6) is a low one. Quality Foods de Centro Am., S.A. v. Latin Am.

Agribusiness Dev. Corp., S.A., et al., 711 F.2d 989, 995 (11th Cir. 1983). A plaintiff must

plead only sufficient facts to state a claim for relief that is plausible on its face. Bell Atl.

Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 561-62 (2007). Although a complaint challenged by a

Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss does not need detailed factual allegations, a plaintiff is

still obligated to provide the Agrounds@ for his entitlement to relief. Berry v. Budget Rent

A Car Sys., Inc., 497 F. Supp. 2d 1361, 1364 (S.D. Fla. 2007) (quoting Twombly, 550

U.S. at 555). In evaluating the sufficiency of a complaint in light of a motion to dismiss,

the well-pleaded facts must be accepted as true and construed in the light most favorable

to the plaintiff. Quality Foods, 711 F.2d at 994-95.

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Warner briefly asserts that Plaintiffs claims must be pleaded with specificity under

Fed. R. Civ. P. 9(b) because the claims are grounded in fraud. (Dkt. 89 at 9). In the

Eleventh Circuit, the weight of authority holds that a Lanham Act claim for false advertising

and a state-law claim for unfair competition need not be pleaded with specificity. USA

Nutraceuticals Grp., Inc. v. BPI Sports, LLC, No. 15-CIV-80352-BLOOM/Valle, 2016 WL

4254257, at *2 (S.D. Fla. Feb. 16, 2016); Wika Instrument I, LP v. Ashcroft, Inc., No. 1:13-

CV-43-CAP, 2013 WL 12061904, at *2 (N.D. Ga. July 3, 2013); Third Party Verification,

Inc. v. Signaturelink, Inc., 492 F. Supp. 2d 1314, 1327 (M.D. Fla. 2007). Consistent with

this authority, the Court declines to impose a heightened pleading requirement.

Courts are split on the question of whether a FDUTPA claim must meet Rule 9(b)

pleading requirements. See Finerman v. Marriott Vacations Worldwide Corp., No. 3:14-

CV-1154J32MCR, 2015 WL 5440611, at *2 (M.D. Fla. Sept. 15, 2015). Even assuming

that Rule 9(b) applies, the Amended Complaint adequately alerts Warner to the precise

misconduct with which [it is] charged. Ziemba v. Cascade Intl, Inc., 256 F.3d 1194, 1202

(11th Cir. 2001) (internal quotation marks omitted). Indeed, in connection with the motion

to dismiss, Warner has compiled and submitted to the Court the original sources for the

challenged statements. (Dkts. 90, 91) The Court therefore assesses the Amended

Complaint under a notice-pleading standard.


The parties analyze the Lanham Act claims and state-law claims under the same

rubric, consistent with Eleventh Circuit law. (Dkt. 89 at 11 n.4, 23; Dkt. 99); Sovereign

Military Hospitaller Order v. Fla. Priory of Knights Hospitallers, 702 F.3d 1279, 1296 (11th

Cir. 2012) (noting that the success of state-law unfair competition and FDUTPA claims

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was tied to Lanham Act claim for false advertising); Natl Answers, Inc. v. SmithKline

Beecham Corp., 529 F.3d 1325, 1333 (11th Cir. 2008). Accordingly, for purposes of the

instant motion, the Court applies the framework of the Lanham Act.

A. Commercial Speech

The Lanham Act prohibits false advertising in connection with commercial

advertising or promotion. 15 U.S.C. 1125(a)(1)(B) (emphasis added). The Eleventh

Circuit defines commercial advertising or promotion as encompassing four elements:

(1) commercial speech; (2) by a defendant who is in commercial competition

with plaintiff; (3) for the purpose of influencing consumers to buy
defendants goods or services; and (4) the representations . . . must be
disseminated sufficiently to the relevant purchasing public to constitute
advertising or promotion within that industry.

Edward Lewis Tobinick, MD v. Novella, 848 F.3d 935, 950 (11th Cir. 2017) (internal

quotation marks and brackets omitted). 1 The parties dispute whether Plaintiff sufficiently

alleges the first element of commercial speech, which is a threshold requirement for

liability under the Lanham Act. See Porous Media Corp. v. Pall Corp., 173 F.3d 1109,

1120 (8th Cir. 1999).

The concept of commercial speech under the Lanham Act mirrors the commercial

speech doctrine under the First Amendment. Proctor & Gamble Co. v. Haugen, 222 F.3d

1262, 1274 (10th Cir. 2000); see also Osmose, Inc. v. Viance, LLC, 612 F.3d 1298, 1323

(11th Cir. 2010). The core notion of commercial speech encompasses speech that

propose[s] a commercial transaction. Edward Lewis Tobinick, MD, 848 F.3d at 950.

In Tobinick, the district court questioned whether the second prong of this test remains good
law, in light of the Supreme Courts decision in Lexmark International, Inc. v. Static Control
Components, Inc., 134 S.Ct. 1377 (2014), which held that a downstream supplier is authorized to
sue under 15 U.S.C. 1125(a)(1)(B). See Tobinick v. Novella, No. 9:14-CV-80781, 2015 WL
1191267, at *5 n.10 (S.D. Fla. Mar. 16, 2015). The application of Lexmark is discussed in Section
B.3 below.

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Even if a communication falls outside core commercial speech, the Supreme Court

clarified in Bolger v. Youngs Drug Products Corp. that the communication may still be

considered commercial if: (1) the communication is an advertisement, (2) the

communication makes reference to a specific product, and (3) the speaker has an

economic motivation for the communication. 463 U.S. 60, 66-67 (1983).

In a recent decision, the Eleventh Circuit applied the Bolger factors to assess

whether challenged communications were commercial speech for the purposes of a

false-advertising claim under the Lanham Act. Edward Lewis Tobinick, MD, 848 F.3d at

950-51 (addressing issue at summary judgment). Consistent with Bolger, the Eleventh

Circuit explained that no single factor is dispositive, but the presence of all factors

provides strong support for the . . . conclusion that the [material is] properly characterized

as commercial speech. Id. at 950 (quoting Bolger, 463 U.S. at 62, 67).

Applying the Bolger factors here, the Amended Complaint plausibly alleges that

the challenged communications are commercial speech. As to the first factor, the

Amended Complaint allegesand Warner concedes in the motion to dismiss (Dkt. 89 at

10-11)that the challenged statements were used for promotional purposes. (See Dkt.

78 at 50) As to the second factor, the Amended Complaint alleges that the challenged

communications refer to a specific product, the movie War Dogs. (Id. at 51, 59, 60,

62, 63, 65-70; Dkts. 91-15, 91-16, 91-17, 91-18, 91-20, 91-21) With respect to the third

factor, the Amended Complaint alleges that Warner possessed an economic motivation

for making the statements: Warner knew that representing the story as true would

induce consumers to see War Dogs. (Id. at 68-71)

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Perhaps recognizing that its challenge fails under the Bolger test, Warner omits

discussion of the relevant factors. (See Dkt. 89 at 9-11) Instead, Warner proposes two

bright-line rules. First, Warner contends that the promotions are intertwined with non-

commercial speech, including political and artistic commentary, and therefore qualify as

non-commercial speech. Second, Warner asserts that because the promotions relate to

a movie, which is a protected expressive work, the communications are themselves


Warners second theory is unavailing. Although movies are works of artistic

expression and must be protected, they are also sold in the commercial marketplace like

other more utilitarian products, making the danger of consumer deception a legitimate

concern that warrants some government regulation. Rogers v. Grimaldi, 875 F.2d 994,

997 (2d Cir. 1989). Thus, the fact that an underlying work is itself entitled to full First

Amendment protection does not cloak all advertisements for the [work] with

noncommercial status. Charles v. City of Los Angeles, 697 F.3d 1146, 1152 (9th Cir.

2012) (holding that a billboard advertising a television program was subject to the Lanham

Act); see also Gordon & Breach Sci. Publishers S.A. v. Am. Inst. of Physics, 859 F. Supp.

1521, 1541 n.8 (S.D.N.Y. 1994) (Of course, the fact that an advertisement promotes a

good or service protected by the First Amendment does not serve by itself to remove the

ad from the realm of commercial speech . . . .). Tellingly, Warner cites no authority in

support of its request for blanket protection for its speech.

Warners primary theory is not amenable to resolution on this motion to dismiss.

Warner asserts that because some of the promotions, such as interviews with the cast

and crew of War Dogs, are intertwined with political or artistic commentary, the entire

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promotion is exempt from regulation. In response, Plaintiff correctly points out that the

case law requires a more nuanced analysis.

In Rogers, the Second Circuit addressed whether a Lanham Act claim could be

based on a movie title, which the court observed may be both an integral element of the

filmmakers expression as well as a significant means of marketing the film to the public,

such that the artistic and commercial elements are inextricably intertwined. 875 F.2d at

998. As a result, consumers have a dual interest: They have an interest in not being

misled and they also have an interest in enjoying the results of the authors freedom of

expression. Id. In order to protect both interests, the Second Circuit adopted the

following balancing test:

We believe that in general the [Lanham] Act should be construed to apply

to artistic works only where the public interest in avoiding consumer
confusion outweighs the public interest in free expression. In the context of
allegedly misleading titles using a celebritys name, that balance will
normally not support application of the Act unless the title has no artistic
relevance to the underlying work whatsoever, or, if it has some artistic
relevance, unless the title explicitly misleads as to the source or the content
of the work.

Id. at 999.

Courts typically apply the Rogers balancing test only to titles or to other expressive

works. See Facenda v. N.F.L. Films, Inc. 542 F.3d 1007, 1015-16 (3d Cir. 2008) (citing

cases); Cliffs Notes, Inc. v. Bantam Doubleday Dell Pub. Grp., Inc., 886 F.2d 490, 495

(2d Cir. 1989) (holding that the Rogers balancing approach is generally applicable to

Lanham Act claims against works of artistic expression). Accordingly, in Facenda, the

Third Circuit declined to apply the Rogers test to a making of documentary about a

videogame. The Third Circuit explained that unlike a movie title or an expressive work,

the documentary was intended to promote another creative work, the video game.

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Facenda, 542 F.3d at 1018. Because the documentary constituted commercial speech

under the Bolger factors, the Third Circuit held that the documentary was actionable under

the Lanham Act. Id.

Warner does not address whether the Rogers balancing test applies to the

challenged movie trailers, social media posts, and interviews. For instance, Warner does

not contend that the challenged communications are themselves artistic works, and the

Amended Complaint at least plausibly alleges that, similar to the documentary in

Facenda, the communications are separate promotions for War Dogs. As explained

above, the Amended Complaint also plausibly alleges that the promotions are

commercial speech under the Bolger factors.

Absent a more focused challenge and at this early stage in the litigation, Warner

fails to call into question the plausibility of Plaintiffs allegations related to the threshold

element of commercial speech. 2 Warner may renew its arguments at a later stage.

B. False Advertising

Warner next argues that the Amended Complaint fails to allege facts necessary to

state a false advertising claim under the Lanham Act. To prevail on a claim for false

advertising, a plaintiff must demonstrate that:

(1) the advertisements of the opposing party were false or misleading; (2)
the advertisements deceived, or had the capacity to deceive, consumers;
(3) the deception had a material effect on purchasing decisions; (4) the
misrepresented product or service affects interstate commerce; and (5) the
movant has beenor is likely to beinjured as a result of the false

Warner requested leave to file a reply to Plaintiffs response in opposition, arguing that it devoted
only two pages of its brief to the First Amendment issues, while Plaintiff devoted ten pages to the
subject. (Dkt. 100 at 2) The omissions in Warners motion to dismiss cannot be cured by a reply.

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Hickson Corp. v. N. Crossarm Co., 357 F.3d 1256, 1260 (11th Cir. 2004). Warner does

not currently dispute the fourth element, interstate commerce. Warners arguments

regarding the remaining elements are addressed below.

1. False or misleading statement

The Lanham Act applies to two types of advertisements: (1) a statement that is

literally false as a factual matter and (2) a misleading statement that may be literally

true or ambiguous, but that implicitly convey[s] a false impression, [is] misleading in

context, or [is] likely to deceive consumers. Id. at 1261 (quoting United Industries Corp.

v. Clorox Co., 140 F.3d 1175, 1180 (8th Cir. 1998)); see also Johnson & Johnson Vision

Care, Inc. v. 1-800 Contacts, Inc., 299 F.3d 1242, 1247 (11th Cir. 2002). To determine

whether an advertisement is false or misleading, a court must analyze the message

conveyed in full context, and must view the face of the statement in its entirety. Osmose,

Inc., 612 F.3d at 1308 (internal quotation marks omitted). The court may not, however,

consider multiple advertisements in an advertising campaign as a whole, as that approach

assumes that consumers will be exposed to each advertisement. Johnson & Johnson

Vision Care, Inc., 299 F.3d at 1248 & n.4

The majority of Warners arguments are not well-suited to a motion to dismiss.

With respect to the movie trailers, Warner contends that the phrase based on a true

story is not actionable because it conveys that the movie is obviously fictionalized in

part. (Dkt. 89 at 12) The cases cited by Warner do not support such a clear-cut rule;3

See Tyne v. Time Warner Entmt Co., L.P., 901 So. 2d 802, 810 (Fla. 2005) (holding that the
term commercial purpose in Floridas commercial-misappropriation statute does not apply to
motion pictures); Masson v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc., 501 U.S. 496, 513 (1991) (in libel case,
holding that factual issue existed as to whether a reasonable reader would understand quotations
were a rhetorical device); Partington v. Bugliosi, 56 F.3d 1147, 1156 (9th Cir. 1995) (in libel case,
explaining that a court must look at the specific content of statements to determine whether a

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but more notably, Warner fails to consider the entire trailer in context, including a realistic

news report by Wolf Blitzer, a well-known CNN anchor. (Dkt. 78 at 51) (citing and

v=KWs5qnZnhfo). The Eleventh Circuit is clear that the court must view the face of the

statement in its entirety, rather than examining the eyes, nose, and mouth separately and

in isolation from each other. Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc., 299 F.3d at 1248

(quoting Castrol Inc. v. Pennzoil Co., 987 F.2d 939, 946 (3rd Cir. 1993)).

With respect to interviews by Jonah Hill, Miles Teller, Todd Phillips, and Stephen

Chin, Warner accurately insists that the challenged statements must be read in their full

context. (Dkt. 89 at 17-18; see Dkt. 78 at 59, 62, 65-70) But apart from advancing

that argument, Warner neglects to address the relevant question: whether the statements,

read in their full context, falsely or misleadingly portray War Dogs as a true story. Warner

implies that they do not, but that conclusion calls for a fact-intensive inquiry and that the

Court draw inferences in Warners favor, neither of which is appropriate on a motion to


With respect to statements by journalist Guy Lawson and Diverolis former

associate, David Packouz, Warner first argues that the Amended Complaint does not

establish that they made statements as agents of Warner. (Dkt. 89 at 14-15); see Procter

& Gamble Co. v. Haugen, 317 F.3d 1121, 1126 (10th Cir. 2003) (recognizing that the

Lanham Act incorporates common-law concepts of agency, apparent authority, and

vicarious liability). In pressing this argument, Warner fails to acknowledge that the

particular statement of opinion may imply a false assertion of objective fact); Greenspan v.
Random House, Inc., 859 F. Supp. 2d 206, 220 (D. Mass. 2012) (holding that books designation
as non-fiction did not support a Lanham Act claim).

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Amended Complaint alleges that Lawson was a producer of the movie, that Packouz was

retained as a consultant and had a cameo in the movie, and that Lawson and Packouz

made their statements as agents of Warner. (Dkt. 78 at 41, 43, 55, 79, 85-86) Given

Packouzs status as a consultant and actor, and Lawsons status as a producer, an

agency relationship with Warner may be plausibly inferred.

Warner further argues that statements by Packouz and Lawson are opinion or

puffery. (Dkt. 89) Although [s]tatements of opinion are generally not actionable under

the Lanham Act, an opinion may be actionable if it fairly implies a factual basis. Duty

Free Americas, Inc. v. Estee Lauder Cos., Inc., 797 F.3d 1248, 1277 (11th Cir. 2015)

(internal quotation marks and brackets omitted). According to the Amended Complaint,

Lawson stated on his Facebook page that War Dogs was amazingly close to the real

truth of the story. (Dkt. 78 at 60) Lawson also previously announced on his Facebook

page that War Dogs was inspired by his own book. (Id. at 55). Based on these

allegations, a reasonable person could infer that Lawson knew the true story and his

characterization of War Dogs fairly implie[d] a factual basis. Duty Free Americas, Inc.,

797 F.3d at 1277. Similarly, because Packouz identified himself as the subject of the

movie, his statement that this is exactly how it happened at least arguably implies a

factual basis. (Dkt. 78 at 63).

Warner more successfully challenges other discrete allegations in the Amended

Complaint. Warner observes that allegations regarding the War Dogs website and the

War Dogs Facebook page do not allege any false or misleading statement. (Dkt. 89 at

13, 16; see Dkt. 78 at 52) Warner contends that the publication of Diverolis photograph

in Rolling Stone is not actionable, absent some allegation that Warner controlled Rolling

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Stone. (Dkt. 89 at 13; see Dkt. 78 at 54) Warner argues that a loosely-translated

Argentinian Facebook post is not actionable. (Dkt. 89 at 16; see Dkt. 78 at 64). Warner

maintains that Guy Lawsons statements promoting his own book are not actionable

because they do not promote War Dogs. (Dkt. 89 at 14; see Dkt. 55, 61) And Warner

reports that Plaintiff has conceded to dropping a claim based on the War Dogs movie

poster. (Dkt. 89 at 13-14; see Dkt. 78 at 56)

Plaintiff disputes none of these points. (See generally Dkt. 99 at 13-15)

Accordingly, the Court finds that the allegations in Paragraphs 52, 54, 55, 56, 61, and 64

of the Amended Complaint are not, in and of themselves, actionable. This finding,

however, does not warrant the granting of a motion to dismiss. With respect to the

remaining statements, Warner may renew its arguments in a proper dispositive motion.

2. Consumer deception and materiality

In order to establish consumer deception and materiality, in addition to alleging a

false or misleading advertisement, Plaintiff must allege that the advertisements deceived,

or had the capacity to deceive, consumers and that the deception had a material effect

on purchasing decisions. Hickson Corp., 357 F.3d at 1260.

With respect to the element of deception, Warner contends that Plaintiff can only

survive the motion to dismiss by identifying specific statements and showing how the

statements actually deceived specific consumers. (Dkt. 89 at 18-19) In support of that

argument, Warner relies on case law addressing Lanham Act claims on the merits, rather

than on a motion to dismiss. (Dkt. 89 at 19-20); see Johnson & Johnson Vision Care,

Inc., 299 F.3d at 1247-51 (addressing likelihood of success for preliminary injunction);

Swatch S.A. v. New City, Inc., 454 F. Supp. 2d 1245, 1252-53 (S.D. Fla. 2006) (summary

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judgment); Pernod Ricard USA, LLC v. Bacardi U.S.A., Inc., 653 F.3d 241, 247 (3d Cir.

2011) (bench trial). Warner cites no authority to suggest that factual evidence of

consumer deception is required at the pleading stage, and the Court declines to impose

such an evidentiary burden. See Ameritox, Ltd. v. Millennium Labs., Inc., 889 F. Supp.

2d 1304, 1316 (M.D. Fla. 2012) ([A]lthough a party must support allegations of

misleading advertisements with evidence of consumer deception at later stages of

litigation, that burden does not exist at the pleading stage.).

A plaintiff may plead the materiality element by alleging that the defendants

misrepresented an inherent quality or characteristic of the product. Johnson & Johnson

Vision Care, Inc., 299 F.3d at 1250 (quoting Natl Basketball Assn v. Motorola, Inc., 105

F.3d 841, 855 (2d Cir. 1997)). Plaintiff pleads sufficient facts to support an inference that

the truthfulness of War Dogs is an inherent quality or characteristic. The Amended

Complaint alleges that consumers are drawn to true stories and that a test screening for

War Dogs revealed that one of the main things people liked was that it was based on a

real story. (Dkt. 78 at 68, 70) Consistent with these allegations, Miles Teller stated, I

love the words based on a true story at the beginning of a film . . . it buys you so much

with an audience, and Todd Phillips stated the idea that this was a true story was for me

the most interesting part about it. (Id. at 68-69)

Warner also argues that Plaintiff fails to allege materiality because the movie

accurately represents Diveroli as unethical and dangerous. (Dkt. 89 at 20-22) As an

initial matter, Warners argument that War Dogs is a truthful portrayal is at least somewhat

at odds with Warners earlier insistence that the movie is a fictionalized account. (Dkt. 89

at 3, 7, 12) In any event, because Plaintiff is not alleging that scenes from the movie itself

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were false or misleading, the accuracy of the movie is not relevant to the issue of


3. Zone of interests and proximate causation

Warner next argues that the Amended Complaint omits the necessary allegations

of injury and causation. (Dkt. 89 at 22-23) In Lexmark International, Inc. v. Static Control

Components, Inc., the Supreme Court held that, in order to state a false-advertising claim

under the Lanham Act, a plaintiff ordinarily must show economic or reputational injury

flowing directly from the deception wrought by the defendants advertising . . . . 134 S.

Ct. 1377, 1391 (2014). With respect to injury, the Amended Complaint alleges that

Warners advertising has caused loss of goodwill and loss of sales. (Dkt. 78 at 113)

Those allegations are similar to the allegations in Lexmark, and Warner cites no authority

to support its contention that Plaintiff must allege in detail how its goodwill was damaged

or how its sales declined. (Dkt. 89 at 22); Lexmark, 134 S. Ct. at 1393 (explaining that

the counterclaimants alleged injuries lost sales and damage to its business reputation

are injuries to precisely the sorts of commercial interests the [Lanham] Act protects).

Warner may instead seek discovery on the nature and extent of Plaintiffs damages.

With respect to causation, Lexmark instructs that the necessary showing is present

when deception of consumers causes them to withhold trade from the plaintiff. Lexmark,

134 S. Ct. at 1391. In contrast to the facts at issue in Lexmark, which involved a claim

by a downstream supplier, Plaintiff alleges that it is a direct victim of Warners advertising

because War Dogs diverted book sales from Plaintiff. In particular, the Amended

Complaint alleges that consumers who desire to learn the true story are most likely to

purchase a ticket to the movie, after being bombarded with promotional material, rather

Case 8:16-cv-01302-MSS-AAS Document 117 Filed 05/10/17 Page 17 of 19 PageID 2529

than purchasing Diverolis memoir. (Dkt. 78 at 75) Accordingly, Plaintiff plausibly

alleges that its injuries flow[ ] directly from Warners advertising. Lexmark, 134 S. Ct. at

1393. Again, whether Plaintiff will actually be able to prove its theory is a separate

question that is not appropriate for resolution on a motion to dismiss.

C. Floridas Anti-SLAPP Statute

At the conclusion of the motion to dismiss, Warner asserts that Plaintiffs complaint

falls within Floridas anti-SLAPP (Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation) statute,

Fla. Stat. 768.295. (Dkt. 89 at 24-25) As a result, Warner contends that if and when

the Court grants its motion to dismiss, Warner will file a motion for an award of fees and

costs. (Id. at 25); see Fla. Stat. 768.295(4) (The court shall award the prevailing party

reasonable attorney fees and costs incurred in connection with a claim that an action was

filed in violation of this section.).

Currently, Warner does not appear to ask for any relief under the anti-SLAPP

statute. For instance, Warner does not contend that resolution of this motion is evaluated

under a summary-judgment standard and it does not request an expedited hearing. See

Fla. Stat. 768.295(4) (providing that a defendant may file a motion for summary

judgment seeking a determination that the anti-SLAPP statute has been violated). The

Court therefore declines to address the application of Fla. Stat. 768.295 at this juncture.

Compare Royalty Network, Inc. v. Harris, 756 F.3d 1351, 1357-62 (11th Cir. 2014)

(holding that verification requirement imposed by Georgias anti-SLAPP statute did not

apply in a diversity case), and Abbas v. Foreign Policy Grp., LLC, 783 F.3d 1328, 1337

n.5 (D.C. Cir. 2015) (holding that attorneys fees were not available under Washington

D.C.s anti-SLAPP statute), with Edward Lewis Tobinick, MD, 848 F.3d at 944-45 & n.8

Case 8:16-cv-01302-MSS-AAS Document 117 Filed 05/10/17 Page 18 of 19 PageID 2530

(applying Californias anti-SLAPP statute, which allowed a special motion to strike, where

the appellants waived their challenge to its application in the district court), and Adelson

v. Harris, 774 F.3d 803, 809 (2d Cir. 2014) (holding that mandatory fee shifting provision

in Nevadas anti-SLAPP scheme applied in federal court).

D. Consideration of Exhibits

Warner filed a separate request for the Court to consider twenty-two exhibits in

support of its motion to dismiss, which are designated as Exhibits A through V. (Dkts. 90,

91) After the parties conferred, Warner withdrew its request as to Exhibits F through H,

and Plaintiff stipulated to the Courts consideration of Exhibits A and N through V (Dkt.

96), which are referred to, excerpted in, or attached to the Amended Complaint or original

complaint, and which are central to Plaintiffs claims. (Dkt. 91 at 4, 17-25; Dkt. 78 at

29-30, 55, 60, 62-67, 70); see Day v. Taylor, 400 F.3d 1272, 1276 (11th Cir. 2005)

(holding that documents may be considered on a Rule 12(b)(6) motion if they are

undisputed and central to the plaintiffs claims).

The remaining exhibitsExhibits B through E and I through Minclude

documents from Diverolis criminal and civil cases, a U.S. Congressional committee

report about Diverolis company, and a related news article. (See Dkt. 91 at 5-8, 12-

16) Although Warner asserts that these exhibits are relevant to Diverolis misconduct

and notoriety (Dkt. 90 at 5), the Court declines to consider the documents because

Diverolis misconduct and notoriety are not relevant to the motion to dismiss.

For its part, Plaintiff submits screenshots from four websites that offer movies on-

demand and in which War Dogs is described as a true story. (Dkt. 98) Plaintiff contends

that these descriptions were located after filing the Amended Complaint, and that they

Case 8:16-cv-01302-MSS-AAS Document 117 Filed 05/10/17 Page 19 of 19 PageID 2531

underscore why its claims should not be dismissed. (Dkt. 99 at 3-4) Warner objects to

the submission of the screenshots because, among other things, the statements on the

websites are not challenged in the Amended Complaint. (Dkt. 100 at 1) The Court

determines that the screenshot exhibits should not be considered in the resolution of the

motion to dismiss.


Based on the foregoing, it is ORDERED that Defendants Motion to Dismiss (Dkt.

89) is DENIED.

DONE and ORDERED in Tampa, Florida, this 10th day of May, 2017.

Copies furnished to:

Counsel of Record
Any Unrepresented Person